Collar bone healing process: How Long Does It Take a Broken Collar Bone To Heal?
How Long Does It Take a Broken Collar Bone To Heal?
June 29, 2012
Dear Mayo Clinic:
I broke my collarbone in a car accident four months ago. It is healing very slowly and hurts somewhat on the break, but even more when I move my shoulder. Is this normal for a collarbone break? Is there a chance I’ll need surgery if the pain doesn’t go away?
A broken collarbone can take several months to heal completely. Until then, moving your shoulder will tend to move the area where the bone was broken, and that can be painful. Most broken collarbones heal quite well and do not require surgery. But when healing seems to be slow and pain continues, as in your case, it is a good idea to follow up with an orthopedic surgeon to make sure the collarbone is healing properly.
The collarbone, or clavicle, connects the upper part of the breastbone, called the sternum, to the shoulder blade. A broken collarbone is a very common injury, particularly in children and young adults. One reason is that young people are more likely to participate in sports that increase the risk of a broken collarbone, such as football, basketball, wrestling, rugby, hockey, skiing and snowboarding. Sports injuries are among the most common causes of a broken collarbone. Other frequent causes are falls and car, motorcycle or bike accidents.
The time for a broken collarbone to fully heal depends on the severity of the injury. In children, complete healing may take as little as three to six weeks. In adults, six to 16 weeks or more are often necessary for a collarbone to heal solidly.
Unfortunately, during that time there is no way to completely immobilize a collarbone fracture to keep it from moving and, thus, speed healing, as can be done using a cast on other broken bones, such as a wrist, arm or leg. Because of the broken collarbone’s location in your body, a cast is not an option. However, a shoulder sling can help keep a collarbone fracture in place, reduce pain and allow for healing. The broken bone will move a bit whenever you move your shoulder, and that can often be painful during the healing process. A significant amount of shoulder movement may slow healing.
If you have not had X-rays since you broke your collarbone, then new X-rays to check the progress in healing would be a good idea at this point in your recovery. Some collarbone fractures heal very slowly. Others may not heal at all and require additional treatment, although that is uncommon. Severe fractures that cause the bones to be significantly out of position or result in an overlap of the broken bone fragments may require surgery to properly reposition them. But, in most cases, surgery is not needed for a broken collarbone, even one that is healing slowly.
See an orthopedic surgeon to discuss your case. Perhaps the surgeon can suggest ways to better manage the pain. A surgeon can also help you decide if you should consider further treatment to aid in the healing process or if your collarbone simply needs more time to heal.
— Scott Steinmann, M.D., Orthopedic Surgery/Shoulder, Elbow, and Hand Surgery, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, Minn.
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Broken collarbone | Sparrow
A broken collarbone is a common injury. The collarbone, also known as the clavicle, connects the shoulder blade to the breastbone. Common causes of a broken collarbone include falls, sports and traffic accidents. Infants sometimes break their collarbones while being born.
Seek medical help quickly for a broken collarbone. Most heal well with ice, pain relievers, a sling, physical therapy and time. Some breaks might require surgery to put plates, screws or rods into the bone to hold the pieces in place during healing.
Symptoms of a broken collarbone include:
- Pain that increases when moving the shoulder.
- Swelling, tenderness or bruising.
- Skin over the break might look like a tent when gently pinched.
- A bump on or near the shoulder.
- A grinding or crackling sound when moving the shoulder.
- Stiffness or not being able to move the shoulder.
Newborns often will not move their arm for days after breaking the collarbone during birth and will cry if someone moves the arm.
When to see a doctor
If you notice symptoms of a broken collarbone or enough pain to prevent using the arm as usual, see a health care provider right away. Waiting to be treated can lead to poor healing.
Common causes of a broken collarbone include:
- Falls, such as falling onto the shoulder or onto an outstretched arm.
- Sports injuries, such as a direct blow to the shoulder on the field, rink or court.
- Traffic accidents, from a car, motorcycle or bike crash.
- Birth injury, usually from a difficult vaginal birth.
Teenagers and children are at higher risk of a broken collarbone than are adults. The risk goes down after age 20. Then it rises again in older people as they lose bone strength with age.
Most broken collarbones heal without difficulty. Complications, when they occur, might include:
- Nerve or blood vessel injury. Rarely, the jagged ends of a broken collarbone may injure nearby nerves and blood vessels. Seek immediate medical attention for numbness or coldness in an arm or hand.
- Poor or slow healing. A badly broken collarbone might heal slowly or not all the way. Poor joining of the bones during healing can shorten the bone.
- A lump in the bone. As part of the healing process, the place where the bone knits together forms a bony lump. The lump is easy to see because it’s close to the skin. Most lumps disappear over time, but not all.
- Osteoarthritis. A fracture that involves the joints that connect the collarbone to the shoulder blade or the breastbone might increase the risk of later developing arthritis in that joint.
During the physical exam, a health care provider inspects the area for tenderness, swelling or an open wound. X-rays show where the break is, how bad it is and whether the joints are injured. A CT scan might give more-detailed images.
For healing, any broken bone must be kept still. People who have a broken collarbone usually need to wear a sling. Bone healing usually takes 3 to 6 weeks for children and 6 to 12 weeks for adults.
A newborn’s collarbone that breaks during delivery typically heals in about two weeks with only pain control and careful handling of the baby.
A pain medicine that you can buy without a prescription might be all that’s needed to ease pain. Some people might need a prescription medicine with a narcotic for a few days. Because narcotics can be habit-forming, it’s important to use them for only a short time and only as directed by a health care provider.
Exercises to restore movement begin soon after treatment starts. It’s usually important to begin moving to lessen stiffness. Later, other exercises or physical therapy can help the joint move better and build muscle strength.
Surgery might be needed if the collarbone has broken through the skin, is out of place or is in several pieces. Broken collarbone surgery usually includes using plates, screws or rods to hold the bone in place while it heals. Surgical complications are rare but can include infection.
Children and teenagers younger than 16 rarely need surgery because they heal more quickly than adults do.
Lifestyle and home remedies
Applying ice to the area for 20 to 30 minutes every few hours during the first 2 to 3 days after a collarbone break can help control pain and swelling.
Preparing for an appointment
Depending on how bad the break is, your health care provider or a provider in the emergency room might recommend a surgeon who treats bone injuries, also called an orthopedic surgeon.
What you can do
It might be helpful to write a list that includes:
- Details about symptoms, what caused the injury and when it happened.
- Information about past medical problems.
- All medicines, vitamins and dietary supplements you take, including doses.
- Questions to ask the health care provider.
What to expect from your doctor
Your provider might ask:
- Have you broken a bone before?
- Have you been told you have weakened bones?
Content From Mayo Clinic Updated:
Clavicle fracture symptoms and treatment
Clavicle fracture, or S-shaped long bone, is a common injury caused by excessive mechanical stress. The nature and severity of bone damage can vary. The method of treatment depends on them.
Violation of the integrity of the clavicle can be caused by primary and secondary provoking factors. Primary (having a direct effect on bone tissue) include:
- A strong blow to the forearm or directly to the collarbone – fights, sports, non-compliance with safety measures in production.
- Fall on a limb that has been straightened – with such a movement, the bone of the collarbone, shoulder may break. Less commonly, an injury to the S-shaped bone can result from a fall on the elbow.
Secondary factors are diseases and pathological processes in the body that lead to weakness of the bone tissue: with little pressure.
Factors that increase the likelihood of injury:
- diseases and pathologies of the musculoskeletal system;
- bad habits: smoking and alcohol abuse;
- excessive physical activity 1 active sports, features of professional activity;
- chronic infections and inflammation.
The risk of fracture increases in the elderly when there is a lack of calcium, vitamins and minerals in the body.
Fracture of the clavicle can occur in a newborn due to the following reasons:
- rapid delivery;
- large size of the child in combination with a narrow pelvis in a woman in labor;
- obstetrician errors.
Clavicle injury in a newborn is diagnosed in 3% of cases.
The symptomatic picture of the fracture is specific, so the diagnosis in most cases is not difficult. Common symptoms of violation of the integrity of the S-shaped bone:
- Pain – severe and intense, occurs immediately after injury. The pain syndrome is localized in the area of injury, unpleasant sensations are given to the shoulder, arm, cervical region, sometimes they can radiate to the side.
- Limited movement of the limb – on the side of the body where the injury occurred, the arm is in a bent position. A patient with a fractured collarbone presses the arm against the body with the healthy limb in an attempt to minimize movement. This brings some relief. Shoulder activity may be partially preserved, but is accompanied by severe pain.
- Asymmetric shoulder position – the injured side is lower.
- Unnatural position of the scapula.
- Violation of the integrity of the skin and bleeding in an open fracture.
- Feeling of numbness in the arm.
Respiratory failure occurs in severe injuries. At the site of the fracture, the skin turns blue and swells. The injury also affects the degree of mobility of the fingers, a person cannot control them normally.
Clinical picture of a fracture with diagnostic value, so-called. absolute signs:
- palpation of the damaged area is accompanied by a characteristic crunch;
- different lengths of arms in the diaphysis;
- unnatural position of the upper limb;
- pathologically increased mobility of the clavicle at the site of injury.
Based on the presence of these symptoms, the doctor immediately makes a primary diagnosis, which is confirmed on an x-ray.
Types of fractures
Violation of the integrity of the clavicle is divided into the following types:
- closed, open fracture;
- trauma without displacement, with displacement of bone fragments.
Traumatic injury with displacement can be:
- complete – the periosteum does not hold bone fragments;
- partial, or incomplete, – finding fragments of bone tissue within the periosteum.
Closed fracture 1 bones do not penetrate soft tissues and skin. With an open fracture, the bones tear the tissues and skin, a wound is formed with the presence of external bleeding. Bones protruding from the wound.
Types of fracture according to the nature of the fracture line – oblique, oblique, helical, comminuted, transverse.
Injury First Aid
An injured person should be taken to a medical facility as soon as possible. Primary Care Algorithm:
- Pain management. The analgesic is given in the form of tablets or administered as a solution for intramuscular injection. It is strictly forbidden to inject any drugs into a vein or apply local spectrum agents – gels and ointments to the affected area. Drugs that will help relieve pain – Ketorol, Analgin, Nise, Baralgin. To alleviate the condition, it is enough to take a few tablets. They will help to slightly reduce the severity of an unpleasant symptom, but you should not expect that the pain will go away immediately and completely.
- Immobilization of the injured limb is mandatory. Even if the fracture is closed, without displacement of bone fragments, any careless movement of the hand can lead to the separation of bone fragments from the periosteum.
- Apply a cold compress to control swelling. The ice will help relieve the pain symptom. For a compress, ice or any frozen product, a cold object that needs to be wrapped in a cloth or towel, is suitable. It is impossible to apply open cold to the skin, this will lead to frostbite of soft tissues. If there is nothing cold at hand, it is enough to moisten the cloth with cold water and apply it to the skin.
To dress a fracture, a medical splint is needed, which can be replaced with a stick, board, piece of plywood or pipe. The object is placed under the shoulder and fastened to the arm, a bandage or any piece of tissue is held under the armpit. Bandage should be in the form of 8.
In case of an open fracture, when there is a wound with bone fragments coming out of it and there is bleeding, the first aid is to cover the wound with a cloth or bandage to stop the blood.
It is strictly forbidden to make any manipulations with the damaged part of the shoulder girdle.
Methods of treatment
The therapy of a clavicle fracture is selected individually by a traumatologist. With a closed type of injury without displacement, conservative treatment is performed, including taking medications and temporary immobilization of the limb. Surgical intervention is required for open injuries and in the event that a displacement was detected that could not be eliminated by closed reduction.
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This is a method of restoring the primary position of bone fragments by mechanical action of the doctor’s hands on the limb. If the displacement is more than 2 cm or there are many fragments, an open type reposition is performed – surgical intervention.
Treatment consists of immobilization of the limb for a period of 1 to 1.5 months. The following medicines are prescribed:
- non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs — they treat the inflammatory process, eliminate pain;
- painkillers and analgesics containing metamizole sodium;
- vitamin and mineral complexes – contribute to the active regeneration of injured tissue and its healing;
- immunomodulators – have a strengthening effect on the immune system;
- chondroprotectors – strengthen bones, have a positive effect on joints and cartilage, accelerate recovery.
Medical therapy is carried out only with a closed fracture without displacement. To enhance the therapeutic effect of the drugs taken, the passage of physiotherapeutic procedures is prescribed.
Physiotherapy for fractures of the clavicle:
- ultrasound treatment;
- UHF therapy;
- laser therapy.
Physiotherapy helps eliminate secondary inflammation, accelerates the healing process due to the fact that all these methods start an active regeneration process at the cellular level.
The operation to fracture the clavicle bone is called osteosynthesis. The task of surgical intervention is to fix displaced bone fragments using special fixing devices – medical screws, screws and plates. Fracture of the acromial end of the clavicle requires placement of hooks. Types of intervention:
- Osteosynthesis using plates.
- Intraosseous osteosynthesis using rods, pins, nails made of medical steel.
- Installing an external fixator.
Retainer – plate of bone fragments, can be hook-shaped or S-shaped, with screws, reconstructive type. To install the plates, locking and non-locking type pins are used. A plate with screws is installed as follows – a channel is drilled in the bone for the installation of pins. Each rod inside is equipped with a hole for installing a screw, with which a plate is fixed in the fabric.
After surgery, the injured limb is immobilized with a fixing bandage, medications and physiotherapy are prescribed to speed up the healing process.
Types of dressings and their use
Conservative treatment and postoperative period involves the application of a fixing dressing. Their types:
- Delbe bandage – otherwise called Delbe rings. Used after repositioning. Rings during a fracture hold the attached fragments in place, preventing their re-displacement. Rings are made of cotton, which is tightly packed and wrapped in gauze. The diameter of the rings is slightly larger than the circumference of the patient’s shoulder. The device is put on through the hands, both rings are fastened together on the back.
- Eight bandage – the limb is fixed through the application of bandages between the two shoulder blades by wrapping the bandage in the form of 8. This bandaging technique is used after closed reduction to fix the fragments of the clavicle in place and prevent their re-displacement.
- Seim’s bandage – used for a closed fracture without displacement. 3 strips of a wide patch (up to 8 cm) up to 1 m long are applied to the affected area. The arm remains in a bent position. The task of applying this bandage is to direct the center of the clavicle downward under the influence of the own weight of the arm.
- Titov’s Oval – an oval device made of cotton wool and a bandage is placed in the armpit, which is fixed to the arm with plaster bandages. The hand, which is in a suspended position, is supported by a kerchief bandage. It is used after surgery and if external devices were used to fix the dressing.
- Gusset is the easiest way to fix an injured limb. This method of hand swaddling is used during the rehabilitation period, when there is no longer any risk of displacement of bone fragments. The bandage has a supportive effect, but does not provide a strong fixation. The material for the scarf can be anything. A square flap is taken, one side must be at least 1 m. The square is folded diagonally to form a triangle. A hand is placed on the large side of the fabric, the ends are tied behind the neck.
- Crutch bandage – through the chest on an oblique line, bandages are applied to a healthy arm, and the damaged joint is lifted with a crutch. This type of dressing is used after complex fractures. Wear time – up to 3 weeks.
Which type of bandage to choose, the doctor decides based on the severity of the clinical case. Gypsum is used extremely rarely, because. it is excessively heavy and can cause problems with the spinal column if worn for a long time.
The period of healing and recovery after a fracture of the collarbone includes a set of physical exercises that are aimed at developing and restoring the muscular corset of the shoulder girdle. For a long time of immobilization, the muscles begin to atrophy, any careless movement can cause injury and damage only the fused bone of the clavicle.
The recovery period takes from several months to a year. It all depends on the severity of the injury and the age of the patient. In children, recovery is faster than in adults.
It is recommended to use a corset during the entire rehabilitation period. It is lightweight, easy to use and not bulky. It is necessary to engage in physical exercises with it to restore the motor activity of the injured limb. Wear a corset or bandage should be for several hours a day, putting on mainly during physical activity. It is better to sleep without any fixatives.
During the rehabilitation and recovery period, it is recommended to adhere to the correct diet. In the daily menu should be products of plant origin, protein. Fast carbohydrates should be kept to a minimum. It is important to regularly consume dairy and sour-milk products, which contain a high concentration of calcium. This favorably affects the condition of the bone tissue and contributes to its rapid healing and recovery after injury.
The massage procedure is performed by a specialist. It is strictly forbidden to perform any massage manipulations on your own. The first massage procedure is carried out on the 2nd day after the fracture. During the massage, the patient sits on the couch, the doctor kneads the muscles of the back, neck and chest for 10 minutes.
The massage of the directly injured limb can only be started after the fixing bandage has been removed.
Light gymnastics begins immediately after the fixation bandage is applied, or after surgery. Exercises are aimed at developing fingers and hands. They need to make various movements, not allowing the muscles of the forearm to stagnate for a long time. Performing simple movements should last no more than 1-2 minutes. The number of approaches per day is up to 5.
More active exercises are performed after the fixing bandage is removed. First, physical education is carried out only under the supervision of a doctor, then at home. After surgery, you can start charging no earlier than the stitches are removed.
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During the first sessions, it is recommended to wear an orthosis that will prevent injury even if a person makes a careless movement. Charging includes performing slow exercises on the hands: with swings, bends back and forth, circular movements. Later in the later rehabilitation period, you can engage in physical activities such as swimming, arm exercises with dumbbells and rubber bands.
Complications of clavicle fracture
If the fracture was treated by surgery, the following negative consequences may occur:
- Incomplete union of the bone. Causes – a complex fracture, in which many small fragments arose. Often, this complication can be provoked by an incorrectly selected fixing material or its incorrect installation.
- Osteomyelitis is an infectious disease. To prevent it, immediately after the intervention, a course of taking antibacterial drugs is prescribed.
- Injury to nerve roots or blood vessels – rare. The reason for this complication is associated with medical errors during the operation.
After a fracture, a complication such as the development of arthrosis may occur. The disease often occurs in elderly patients if the arm has been in a fixing bandage for a long time. To prevent the development of the disease, for patients over 50 years of age, lightweight bandages are used to immobilize the arm.
Incorrect union of the clavicle bone is another complication that occurs after a fracture. The patient himself is to blame for the development of such a consequence, who does not seek medical help in a timely manner, self-medicating and stopping pain with medications.
The consequences of a fracture may be associated with a decrease in the motor activity of the arm. The reason is ignoring all the doctor’s prescriptions during the rehabilitation period or improper exercise. If you move your hands very actively, neglecting the advice and recommendations, a repeated fracture may occur, because. bone tissue has not yet had time to fully strengthen.
A clavicular fracture is a painful and unpleasant injury that can knock a person out of his usual way of life for a long time. There is a risk of complications after such an injury. If you consult a doctor in a timely manner and follow all medical recommendations during the recovery period, after a few months you can return to your usual, active life.
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Methods of treatment of a clavicular fracture – conservative, and in severe situations surgical – allow you to completely restore the integrity of the bone tissue. Further restoration of arm mobility depends entirely on the patient himself. Performing physical therapy and limiting physical activity, combined with proper nutrition, will help you quickly recover and forget about your injury.
Postoperative pain: how to reduce, the use of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs
Author, editor and medical expert – Muraeva Yulia Yurievna.
Editor and medical expert – Harutyunyan Mariam Harutyunovna
Views: 239 203
Last update date: 05/29/2023
Average reading time: 9 minutes
- Why postoperative pain occurs
- How to reduce postoperative pain
- How long does postoperative pain last
The number of surgical interventions is growing 1 , surgical techniques and methods of anesthesia are being improved. However, postoperative pain remains an expected phenomenon and still requires the attention of doctors. Intense pain syndrome, which occurs in at least 40% of patients 1 , aggravates the course of the recovery period, contributes to the development of complications 2 , increases the recovery time, can turn into a chronic process
The International Association for the Study of Pain (IASP) adopted a declaration in 2010 that recognized adequate pain management as a fundamental human right 3 .
According to large studies 4 high intensity of postoperative pain is noted by patients after obstetric, gynecological, orthopedic and abdominal (on the abdominal cavity) surgical interventions, which are associated with postoperative pain in the abdomen, chest, joints. The characteristics of pain in the first day are very important, it is she who determines how the pain syndrome will develop in the future and whether it will become chronic 4 .
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Why postoperative pain occurs
Postoperative pain according to ICD-10 (International Classification of Diseases) refers to unspecified types of pain and does not carry any signal information either for the patient or for the doctor, since its causes and mechanisms are clear occurrence. Therefore, the modern principles of managing patients after surgery provide for maximum relief from unpleasant pain. Moreover, pain has a negative impact not only on healing, but also on vital processes in the body: the work of the cardiovascular, respiratory, digestive, central nervous systems, as well as blood coagulation 4 .
The formation of painful sensations is provided by a multilevel reaction that connects the immediate area of damage (wound surface) and the central nervous system. It starts with mechanical stimuli in the incision area and the release of biologically active substances (prostaglandins, bradykinins and others) 4 , and ends with the processing of information in the cerebral cortex and the connection of emotional and psychological components.
Pain syndrome develops as a result of the appearance of areas of increased pain sensitivity (hyperalgesia). Primary hyperalgesia is directly related to injury and forms near the wound. The area of secondary hyperalgesia covers a larger area and occurs later, within the next 12-18 hours 4 , as it is associated with the stimulation of other types of receptors. It is she who is responsible for the preservation and intensification of pain sensations on the second or third day after the operation, and subsequently, for the development of chronic pain syndrome 7 .
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How to reduce postoperative pain
Specialists refer to the tasks of postoperative pain relief 4 :
- quality recovery period,
- acceleration of rehabilitation and discharge from the hospital,
- reduction in the number of complications, including the development of chronic postoperative pain.
The most effective is the so-called multimodal regimen 4 for postoperative pain relief, the concept of which involves the use of an optimal combination of drugs from different groups in minimal doses 4 .
Groups of drugs used as pain relievers after surgery:
- Opioid analgesics. Traditionally considered the basis for surgical anesthesia, however, their isolated use gives the expected result in only 25-30% of cases 4 , and the introduction of the maximum effective dose is associated with a high risk of side effects 4 , including respiratory depression. Also, after their cancellation, even greater pain sensitivity often occurs.
- Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs). The formation of postoperative pain syndrome is directly related to tissue injury and inflammation. Therefore, the appointment of NSAIDs, as drugs with a powerful anti-inflammatory and analgesic effect, is indicated from the first minutes after surgery, and sometimes during surgery.
They act directly on the cause of the development of hypersensitivity, namely the production of prostaglandins and other biologically active substances involved in the inflammatory process. There are methods that suggest using NSAIDs 20-30 minutes before the incision, which reduces the intensity of pain in the area of postoperative sutures. 4
When prescribed with drugs from the previous group, NSAIDs make it possible to reduce the dose and enhance the effect of opioids and prevent their side effects 4 .
- Centrally acting non-opioid analgesics. They do not affect the mechanisms of inflammation, but are able to suppress secondary increased pain sensitivity at the level of transmission of nerve impulses. Their use half an hour before the end of the operation ensures a calm and painless awakening after anesthesia 4 . They have proven themselves in complex anesthesia.
- Drugs that affect the perception of pain. Introduced to prevent hypersensitivity and the development of chronic pain syndrome 4 .
- Regional anesthesia (analgesia). Application of the method is based on the interruption of the flow of pain impulses from the damaged area to the spinal cord and brain 4 .
For each patient, a comprehensive pain relief regimen is selected individually. Factors such as age, gender, volume of surgical intervention, comorbidities, mental characteristics, sensitivity to pain and its presence before surgery are taken into account.
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How long does postoperative pain last
This question cannot be answered unequivocally, but acute pain and discomfort disappear completely when scar tissue is formed and there are no more grounds for pain impulses. How long this period will last depends on the patient himself – the ability of his body’s tissues to regenerate (recovery), the adequacy of pain relief, psychological mood and general condition.
If pain in the area of postoperative sutures lasts more than 3 months, with or without interruptions, and is not associated with the healing process, then these are signs of the development of a chronic pain syndrome. It is based on nerve damage or the formation of pathological impulses 6 . The frequency of its development ranges from 5 to 50% (on average, every fifth patient 6 ) and is one of the indicators of the success of surgical treatment 7 . This difference is explained by the difference in the methods of intervention and their trauma 7 .
For the formation of chronic postoperative pain, including scars, predisposing factors are 6 :
- under 35 years old 6 ;
- stress, preoperative anxiety, preoperative pain;
- type of intervention – if surgical treatment is associated with a high probability of damage to large nerves (amputation of limbs, operations on the chest organs, removal of the mammary glands), then the risk of chronic pain is much higher;
- duration of operation;
- during the postoperative period – intense acute pain, large doses of analgesics, the use of radiation and chemotherapy;
- excessive guardianship and support from loved ones in the recovery period,
- prolonged bed rest.
Prevention of the development of chronic pain syndrome is carried out in several stages:
- Primary – associated with the surgical intervention itself: if possible, the choice of a non-surgical method of treatment, the operation is performed in the least traumatic way, for example, the use of endoscopic techniques.
- Secondary – intensive pain relief after surgery. This is the most promising method that can be supplemented with the preoperative administration of analgesics, which contributes to the weakening of pain impulses after the intervention. Various analgesics, NSAIDs, regional anesthesia, sedatives are used as painkillers after surgery 7 .
Motrin® is one of the drugs in the group that helps to fight acute and chronic postoperative pain. Available in tablets of 250 mg. It has a pronounced anti-inflammatory and analgesic effect, which can last up to 12 hours 9 . In the postoperative period (in traumatology, orthopedics, gynecology, maxillofacial surgery) it can be taken by adults and children over 15 years old 8 .