About all

Corn on top of little toe: The request could not be satisfied


Corns and Calluses | Prevention & Treatment

What are corns and calluses?


A corn is a small area of skin which has become thickened due to pressure on it. A corn is roughly round in shape. Corns press into the deeper layers of skin and can be painful.

  • Hard corns commonly occur on the top of the smaller toes or on the outer side of the little toe. These are the areas where poorly fitted shoes tend to rub most.
  • Soft corns sometimes form in between the toes, most commonly between the fourth and fifth toes. These are softer because the sweat between the toes keeps them moist. Soft corns can sometimes become infected.

Toe corns


A callus is usually larger and broader than a corn and has a less well-defined edge. These tend to form on the underside of your foot (the sole). They commonly form over the bony area just underneath your toes. This weight bearing area takes much of your weight when you walk. They are usually painless but can become painful.

Calluses on the underside of the foot

What causes corns and calluses?

The small bones of the toes and feet are broader and more lumpy near to the small joints of the toes. If there is repeated friction or pressure on the skin overlying a small rough area of bone, this will cause the skin to thicken. This may lead to corns or calluses forming.

The common causes of rubbing and pressure are tight or ill fitting shoes which tend to cause corns on the top of the toes and side of the little toe. Also, too much walking or running which tends to cause calluses on the bottom of the feet (the soles). So if you do sports or activities that involve repeated pressure on your feet then this will increase your risk of developing a callus.

Corns and calluses are more likely to develop if you have very prominent bony toes, thin skin, or any deformities of the toes or feet which cause the skin to rub more easily inside shoes. People with bunions are more likely to develop corns and calluses.

What are the treatments for corns and calluses?

If you develop a painful corn or callus it is best to obtain expert advice from a person qualified to diagnose and treat foot disorders (a podiatrist – previously called a chiropodist). You should not cut corns yourself, especially if you are elderly or have diabetes.

Treatments such as corn plasters will reduce the pressure on your corn but will not actually treat the corn.

Advice and options to treat corns and calluses include the following:

Trimming (paring down)

The thickened skin of a corn or callus can be pared down by a podiatrist by using a scalpel blade. The pain is usually much reduced as the corn or callus is pared down and the pressure on the underlying tissues eased. Sometimes, repeated or regular trimming sessions are needed. Once a corn or callus has been pared down, it may not return if you use good footwear.

If the skin seems to be thickening up again, a recurrence may be prevented by rubbing down the thickening skin with a pumice stone or emery paper once a week. Many people can do this themselves. It is best to soak your foot in warm water for 20 minutes to soften the thick skin before using a pumice stone or emery paper. A moisturising cream used regularly on a trimmed corn or callus will keep the skin softened and easier to rub down.

Chemical treatment

There are different types of medicated products which work by chemically paring down the thickened, dead skin on corns and calluses. These usually contain salicylic acid, which is also present in many wart-removal products.

Salicylic acid is a keratolytic, which means it dissolves the protein (keratin) that makes up most of both the corn and the thick layer of dead skin which usually tops it. It is important to use these products as directed in the package directions; these products are gentle and safe for most people. Salicylic acid treatments are available in different forms including drops, pads and plasters.

All these treatments will turn the top of your skin white and then you will be able trim or peel away the dead tissue. This results in the corn sticking out less, which will make it less painful.

Although these products can work well, they should not be used if you have diabetes or poor circulation. This is because your skin is less likely to heal well after using salicylic acid and there is a risk that an ulcer may develop.

Shoes and footwear

Tight or ill fitting shoes are thought to be the main cause of most corns and calluses. Sometimes a rough seam or stitching in a shoe may rub enough to cause a corn. The aim is to wear shoes that reduce pressure and rubbing on the toes and forefeet. Shoes should have plenty of room for the toes and have soft uppers and low heels. High heels, especially if they are tight fitting, can lead to repeated friction and make corns and calluses worse. In addition, extra width is needed if corns develop on the outer side of the little toe. Extra height is needed if corns develop on the top of abnormal toes such as ‘hammer’ or ‘claw’ toes.

Correcting poor footwear will reduce any rubbing or repeated friction on your skin. In many cases, a corn or callus will go away if rubbing or pressure is stopped with improved footwear. If you have had a corn or callus pared away, a recurrence will usually be prevented by wearing good footwear. If you are able, going barefoot when not outdoors will also help.

Some people with abnormalities of their feet or toes will need special shoes to prevent rubbing. A podiatrist can advise you about this.

Footpads and toe protection

Depending on the site of a corn or callus, a cushioning pad or shoe insole may be of benefit. For example, for a callus under the foot, a soft shoe insert may cushion the skin and help the callus to heal. If there is a corn between your toes, a special sleeve worn around your toe may ease the pressure. A special toe splint may also help to keep your toes apart to allow a corn between toes to heal. A podiatrist will be able to advise you on any appropriate padding, insoles or appliances you may need.


If you have a foot or toe abnormality causing recurring problems, an operation may be advised if all else fails. For example, an operation may be needed to straighten a deformed toe, or to cut out a part of a bone that is sticking out from a toe and causing problems. If you need an operation then you will be referred to a surgeon who will be able to discuss this with you in more detail. 

What happens if a corn becomes infected?

Occasionally corns or calluses can become infected. If this happens then your corn would become more painful and the skin around the corn (or callus) will become red and sore. Pus may come out of the corn. You should see your GP, who will be able to prescribe antibiotics if necessary.

Calluses vs. Corns – Treatment, Home Remedies, Removal

What Is A Corn? What Is a Callus?

Corns and calluses can be annoying, but your body actually forms them to protect sensitive skin. Corns and calluses are often confused with one another.

Corns generally occur at pressure points, typically the bottom of the feet and the sides of toes. They can be painful.

 A hard corn is a small patch of thickened, dead skin with a central core. A soft corn has a much thinner surface and usually occurs between the 4th and 5th toes. A seed corn is a tiny, discrete callous that can be very tender if it’s on a weight-bearing part of the foot. Seed corns tend to occur on the bottom of the feet, and some doctors believe this condition is caused by plugged sweat ducts.

Calluses are thickenings of the outermost layer of the skin  and are painless. They can develop on hands, feet, or anywhere there is repeated friction — even on a violinist’s chin. Like corns, calluses have several variants. The common callus usually occurs when there’s been a lot of rubbing against the hands or feet. A plantar callus is found on the bottom of the foot.

What Causes Corns and Calluses?

Some corns and calluses on the feet develop from an improper walking motion, but most are caused by ill-fitting shoes. High-heeled shoes are the worst offenders. They put pressure on the toes and make women four times as likely as men to have foot problems. Other risk factors for developing a corn or callus include foot deformities and wearing shoes or sandals without socks, which leads to friction on the feet.

Rubbing or pressure can cause either soft corns or plantar calluses. If you or your child develops a callus that has no clear source of pressure, have it looked at by a doctor since it could be a wart or caused by a foreign body, like a splinter, trapped under the skin. Feet spend most of their time in a closed, moist environment — ideal for breeding bacteria. Staph infections can start when bacteria enter corns through breaks in the skin and cause the infected corn to release fluid or pus.

Calluses Causes and Treatments | Canyon Oaks

What starts out as a blister from new shoes rubbing your foot the wrong way can easily develop into a hardened callus, or even a corn on the pinky toe, over time. 

What else causes calluses and corns, and what can be done about them?

Calluses: What Are They?

Calluses are thickened layers of skin that usually appear on the soles of your feet. They develop when your skin tries to protect itself against friction, such as repeated rubbing against the inside of a shoe. Typically, calluses are not painful. 

What are Corns?

While corns are similar to calluses, they are smaller and can be sensitive when placed under pressure. They are characterized by having a raised center with inflamed skin. Corns will develop in areas of your foot that don’t bear weight, such as a corn on the pinky toe or the sides of your other toes. 

Causes of Calluses and Corns

A number of things can lead to the development of calluses and corns on the feet, including your shoes, your routine, and even how you walk. 

Here are some common factors that can cause calluses and corns:

  • How you wear your shoes. Whether your shoes are too loose or too tight, ill-fitting footwear can rub and create a high amount of friction on areas of your foot while you walk. Over time, your foot will develop calluses and corns to protect itself from the pressure. 
  • The way you wear your socks. Wearing the wrong socks, or even failing to wear socks at all can also contribute to the growth of calluses and corns. Always wear socks with footwear made to pair with socks, and do not wear oversized socks. 
  • Your running form. Whether the way you walk is inherited or unique to you, it may put you at risk of developing calluses and corns. “If you have gait issues (abnormal movements or lack of coordination in movements) when walking or running, you may be especially prone to calluses and should see your doctor,” says the Institute for Preventive Foot Health. 
  • The amount of time spent on your feet. If your routine features long-standing hours or frequent exercise, you may be more prone to calluses and bunions.  
  • Your foot shape. Due to genetics, you may have inherited feet that don’t seem to fit well in a typical pair of shoes. This abnormality may cause rubbing in shoes that can lead to calluses and bunions. 
  • How healthy your feet are. If you have other health conditions affecting your feet, such as hammertoes, bunions, arthritis, a bone spur, or another health problem affecting the shape of your feet, you may be at increased risk of developing bunions and corns. 

Treatments for Calluses and Corns

To prevent calluses and corns from growing, pay attention to your feet. If you notice that your footwear is rubbing in a certain area or you have developed a blister, use padding to cover the affected area and consider swapping out your shoes for a better-fitting pair. Avoid frequent use of footwear choices known to cramp the foot or cause blisters and discomfort, such as high-heels. 

If you already have calluses and corns, here are some treatment tips:

  • Use insoles. To help control how your foot fits in your shoe and prevent rubbing while walking or running, insoles are a worthy investment.
  • Soak your feet. A footbath of warm water and a quality moisturizer can help to soften tough skin. 
  • Use a pumice stone. This can help you gently knock down calluses. Do not attempt to cut the callus or corn, and refrain from attempting to remove your calluses or corns if you have diabetes.
  • Visit a podiatrist. Your foot care specialist can help you get to the root of the cause of your bunions and corns and see if it may be associated with other foot conditions. Podiatrists may recommend procedures and foot support devices, working with you to establish a healthy balance and weight distribution on your feet.

Contact Canyon Oaks for Callus and Corn Treatment 

Contact our Canyon Oaks office to seek treatment for your calluses and corns. Fill out the online contact form below, and we will be in touch with you within one business day.

Calluses and Corns | Cedars-Sinai

Not what you’re looking for?

What are calluses and corns?

Calluses and corns are thickened areas of skin caused by rubbing
(friction) or pressure. The outer layer of skin thickens to protect the bone under
the skin with extra padding. Calluses most often occur on feet and hands. Corns are
a type of small callus that occur on or between toes.

What causes calluses and corns?

Calluses and corns on the feet can be caused by friction or
pressure from:

  • Shoes that don’t fit well
  • Foot bones that are not in a normal position
  • A lot of physical activity, such as daily running

Calluses on hands can be caused by friction from:

  • Weightlifting
  • Playing a musical instrument
  • Using tools
  • Playing tennis
  • Gardening
  • Farm work, carpentry, and other work with your hands

Who is at risk for calluses and corns?

You are more at risk for calluses and corns if you:

  • Are very physically active
  • Wear shoes that don’t fit well
  • Don’t wear socks with shoes
  • Have other foot problems
  • Play a musical instrument
  • Work with your hands

What are the symptoms of calluses and corns?

Symptoms can occur a bit differently in each person.


Calluses are often painless, thick areas of skin that form on
the hands and feet. 

  • Calluses on the hand.
    These often form on the palm just under the fingers and on the soft
    undersides of the fingers.
  • Calluses on the foot.
    These grow on the bottom of the foot or on the outer edge of a toe or heel.
    A callus may spread across the ball of your foot. This type of callus is
    often because of a problem with a metatarsal. This is the long bone at the
    base of a toe, near the ball of the foot. A pinch callus may grow along the
    outer edge of the heel or the big toe. Some calluses press up into the foot
    instead of spreading on the outside. A callus may form a central core or
    plug of tissue where pressure is greatest.


Corns can be painful. Corns often grow on top of the foot,
often at the toe joint. Corns can range from a slight thickening of skin to a
painful, soft or hard bump. They often form on top of buckled toe joints (hammer
toes). If your toes curl under, corns may grow on the tips of your toes. You may
also get a corn on the end of a toe if it rubs against your shoe. Corns can also
grow between toes, often between the first and second toes. Sometimes corns are
confused with warts.

The symptoms of calluses and corns can look like other health
conditions. See your healthcare provider for a diagnosis.

How are calluses and corns diagnosed?

Your healthcare provider will ask about your symptoms and health
history. He or she will give you a physical exam. The physical exam will include
closely examining your skin where the callus or corn has formed. The provider may
also ask about your shoes and physical activity. In most cases, no lab tests are

How are calluses and corns treated?

Treatment will depend on your symptoms, your age, and your general
health. It will also depend on how severe the condition is.

Treatment for corns and calluses can include:

  • Trimming the skin. Your
    healthcare provider may advise using a nail file or pumice stone to reduce the
    skin on a corn or callus. You may be told to do this after the skin is softened
    in a bath or shower. In some cases, your healthcare provider may use a sharp
    tool to trim away the outer layers of skin that make up the corn or callus.
  • Salicylic acid. You may put
    salicylic acid on the corn or callus to soften and remove some layers of
  • Urea cream. You may use this to
    thin out the skin.
  • Padding. Moleskin patches or
    soft pads can help protect the skin where corns and calluses form, and reduce
    pain and rubbing.
  • Cortisone injection. Cortisone
    medicine can be injected into a painful corn or callus to reduce pain.
  • Changing shoes. If you have
    corns, your healthcare provider may advise wearing shoes that have more toe
    room. This will help prevent your toes from rubbing against the top of the
  • Wearing shoe inserts. If you
    have calluses, wearing a cushioned insole, arch support, or heel counter can
    help reduce friction. Orthotics are special inserts for shoes that come in
    different shapes and sizes to help with foot problems. They can help cushion
    calluses or move pressure away from problem areas where calluses form. Orthotics
    can help limit existing problems and prevent new ones from starting.
  • Surgery. If a bone or joint is
    out of place, certain parts of your foot may be under too much pressure. This
    can cause severe corns and calluses. In such cases, surgery may be the best way
    to correct the problem. In most cases, surgery to improve foot bone position is
    an outpatient procedure. This means you go home the same day. Your doctor may
    cut away extra bone, reposition larger bones, or even attach (fuse) joints
    together. In some cases, tendons or ligaments are cut to reduce tension on a
    bone or joint. Your healthcare provider will talk with you about the surgery
    that will work best for you.

Talk with your healthcare providers about the risks, benefits, and
possible side effects of all treatments.

What are possible complications of calluses and

Severe calluses or corns may hurt, become infected, harm healthy
tissue, or affect your ability to walk. If you have diabetes, calluses and corns may
lead to more problems with your feet. Examine your feet daily to look for sores or
other signs of infection.

Can calluses and corns be prevented?

You can prevent calluses and corns by removing the cause of the
friction or pressure. To prevent corns and calluses on the feet, wear good-fitting

When should I call my healthcare provider?

Call the healthcare provider if you have:

  • Symptoms that don’t get better, or get worse
  • New symptoms
  • Sores or signs of infection on your feet, such as redness,
    warmth, or fluid leaking
  • Pain

Key points about calluses and corns

  • Calluses and corns are thickened areas of skin caused by
    rubbing (friction) or pressure. The outer layer of skin thickens to protect the
    bone under the skin with extra padding.
  • Calluses most often occur on feet and hands. Corns are a
    type of small callus that occur on or between toes.
  • Calluses are often painless. Corns can be painful.
  • Severe calluses or corns may hurt, become infected, harm
    healthy tissue, or affect your ability to walk.
  • Treatment for corns and calluses can include trimming the
    skin, using padding, using medicines for the skin, or changing shoes. In some
    cases, surgery may help.

Next steps

Tips to help you get the most from a visit to your healthcare

  • Know the reason for your visit and what you want to
  • Before your visit, write down questions you want
  • Bring someone with you to help you ask questions and
    remember what your provider tells you.
  • At the visit, write down the name of a new diagnosis and any
    new medicines, treatments, or tests. Also write down any new instructions your
    provider gives you.
  • Know why a new medicine or treatment is prescribed and how
    it will help you. Also know what the side effects are.
  • Ask if your condition can be treated in other ways.
  • Know why a test or procedure is recommended and what the
    results could mean.
  • Know what to expect if you do not take the medicine or have
    the test or procedure.
  • If you have a follow-up appointment, write down the date,
    time, and purpose for that visit.
  • Know how you can contact your provider if you have

Not what you’re looking for?

Corn in Adults: Condition, Treatments, and Pictures – Overview


Information for

caption goes here…

Images of Corn (Clavus)


Corns are thickenings of the skin composed of keratin that are typically found on the toes caused by repeated friction or pressure to the area. The base of the corn is seen on the surface of the skin while the top points inward, causing discomfort.

Corns are classified as either hard or soft, depending upon their location and appearance. Hard corns typically affect the tops of the toes and are composed of a dense core that presses on sensory nerves, causing extreme pain. Soft corns occur between the toes and are whiter and softer in appearance due to the continuous softening by sweat.

Who’s at risk?

With the exception of non-weight-bearing infants, people of all ages may develop corns.

Signs and Symptoms

Corns are primarily located on the feet, particularly the toes. However, corns can appear anywhere that foot friction occurs, whether it is on top of the foot and even on the sole.

In the case of soft corns, well-circumscribed thickenings may be seen on the toes, and soft papules may be noted between the toes. Hard corns typically affect the tops of the toes or the side of the fifth toe, and appear like calluses.

Self-Care Guidelines

To best prevent corns, make sure that shoes fit properly.

When to Seek Medical Care

Corns are a benign condition and may not require medical evaluation. However, if corns become very painful, evaluation should be sought.

Patients with certain medical conditions, such as diabetes or connective tissue disease, have an increased risk of complications associated with corns, and they should seek medical evaluation.

Treatments Your Physician May Prescribe

Your physician may advise you to soak corns in warm water and file them down with an emery board or pumice stone. Over-the-counter salicylic acid plasters may be recommended for treatment as well as keratolytic agents (such as urea cream) to help soften the thickened skin.

Trusted Links

MedlinePlus: Corn and Calluses
Clinical Information and Differential Diagnosis of Corn (Clavus)


Bolognia, Jean L., ed. Dermatology, pp.1399. New York: Mosby, 2003.

Freedberg, Irwin M., ed. Fitzpatrick’s Dermatology in General Medicine. 6th ed, pp.1247-1249. New York: McGraw-Hill, 2003.

Difference between Corns and Calluses

Corns and calluses can be annoying, but your body actually forms them to protect sensitive skin. Corns and calluses are often confused with one another.

Corns generally occur at pressure points, typically the bottom of the feet and the sides of toes. They can be painful.

A hard corn is a small patch of thickened, dead skin with a central core. A soft corn has a much thinner surface and usually occurs between the 4th and 5th toes. A seed corn is a tiny, discrete callous that can be very tender if it’s on a weight-bearing part of the foot. Seed corns tend to occur on the bottom of the feet, and some doctors believe this condition is caused by plugged sweat ducts.

Calluses are thickenings of the outermost layer of the skin and are painless. They can develop on hands, feet, or anywhere there is repeated friction — even on a violinist’s chin. Like corns, calluses have several variants. The common callus usually occurs when there’s been a lot of rubbing against the hands or feet. A plantar callus is found on the bottom of the foot.

What Causes Corns and Calluses?

Some corns and calluses on the feet develop from an improper walking motion, but most are caused by ill-fitting shoes. High-heeled shoes are the worst offenders. They put pressure on the toes and make women four times as likely as men to have foot problems. Other risk factors for developing a corn or callus include foot deformities and wearing shoes or sandals without socks, which leads to friction on the feet.

Rubbing or pressure can cause either soft corns or plantar calluses. If you or your child develops a callus that has no clear source of pressure, have it looked at by a doctor since it could be a wart or caused by a foreign body, like a splinter, trapped under the skin. Feet spend most of their time in a closed, moist environment — ideal for breeding bacteria. Staph infections can start when bacteria enter corns through breaks in the skin and cause the infected corn to release fluid or pus.

What Are the Symptoms of Corns and Calluses?

Here are some ways to identify different types of corns and calluses:

  • A callus is a patch of compact, dead skin anywhere on the body which is subject to friction. There are different common names given to various types of calluses.
  • A hard corn is a compact patch of hard skin with a dense core, located on top of a toe or the outside of the little toe.
  • A soft corn is a reddened, tender area of skin, has a thin, smooth center, and is found between toes.
  • A seed corn is a plug-like circle of dead skin, often painful, on the heel or ball of the foot.
  • A plantar callus is a callus on the bottom or plantar surface of the foot.

Call Your Doctor about a Corn or Callus if:

  • You cut a corn or callus and cause it to bleed. The break in the skin invites infection.
  • A corn discharges pus or clear fluid, which means it’s infected or ulcerated. Both conditions require urgent medical attention.
  • You develop a corn and also have diabetes, heart disease, or other circulatory problems. You run a high risk of developing an infection.

How Do I Know If I Have a Corn or Callus?

To find out whether a hard patch of skin is a callus or a wart, your doctor will scrape some skin off the affected area. When the superficial skin is scraped off, warts bleed in a characteristic pattern. Calluses do not; they just reveal more dead skin. Warts are viral and require specific treatment. Most corns and calluses are corrected by a variety of measures, including a change in shoes, trimming of the calluses, and sometimes surgery.

What Are the Treatments for Corns and Calluses?

Most corns and calluses gradually disappear when the friction or pressure stops, although your doctor may shave the top of a callus to reduce the thickness. Properly positioned moleskin pads can help relieve pressure on a corn. Most foot doctors discourage the use of over-the-counter salicylic-acid corn remedies. When applied improperly, these corn “plasters” can create a chemical skin burn in healthy tissue around the corn and cause infections and ulcers (which is a hole through the skin) in patients with diabetes, poor circulation, or numbness in their feet.

Oral antibiotics generally clear up infected corns, but pus may have to be drained through a small incision.

Moisturizing creams may help soften the skin and remove cracked calluses. Apply the moisturizing cream to the callus and cover the area overnight with a plastic bag or a sock — but only if instructed to do so by your doctor. Then gently rub off as much of the callus as you can with a coarse towel or soft brush. Using a pumice stone first to rub off the dead skin from a callus after a bath or shower and then applying moisturizing cream can also be effective.

There are also stronger creams containing urea that might be more effective, but don’t use these unless recommended by your doctor. Don’t bother with hydrocortisone creams, which only help with rashes and itching and may not be needed for calluses.

You can consider surgery to remove a plantar callus, but there are no guarantees that the callus won’t come back. A conservative approach is best initially. Keep the feet dry and friction-free. Wear properly fitted shoes and cotton socks, not wool or synthetic fibers that might irritate the skin.

If a podiatrist or orthopedist thinks your corn or callus is caused by abnormal foot structure, walking motion, or hip rotation, orthopedic shoe inserts or surgery to correct foot deformities may help correct the problem.

How Can I Prevent Corns and Calluses?

Here are some suggestions for preventing corns and calluses:

  • To avoid corns and calluses on the feet, have both feet professionally measured at the shoe store and buy only properly fitting shoes.
  • Be sure both shoe width and length are correct — for each foot since feet may be slightly different sizes. Allow up to a half-inch between your longest toe and the front of the shoe. If you can’t wiggle your toes in your shoes, they’re too tight.
  • Shop for shoes at the end of the day when feet are typically most swollen.
  • Avoid shoes with sharply pointed toes and high heels. Women who must wear stylish shoes at work can take some of the pressure off their feet by walking to the office in well-fitting athletic shoes. Try to decrease heel height as much as possible.
  • Have shoes repaired regularly — or replace them. Worn soles give little protection from the shock of walking on hard surfaces and worn linings can chafe your skin and harbor bacteria.
  • Worn heels increase any uneven pressure on the heel bone. If the soles or heels of your shoes tend to wear unevenly, see an orthopedist or podiatrist about corrective shoes or insoles.
  • If you have hammertoes — toes that are buckled under — be sure that the shape of your shoes offers plenty of room to accommodate them.
  • Calluses can happen on hands, so wear protective gloves if you use tools.


Dr. Dang H. Vu, DPM is a Baltimore Podiatrist with more than 15 years of experience. He completed his residency at Sinai of Baltimore. He furthered his surgical expertise and now holds privileges at Northwest Hospital. He offers services from three Baltimore Locations in Reisterstown, Towson and in the Rotunda Building in Hampden. You can find directions and request an appointment on his website FamilyPodiatryofMD.com

Symptoms and Treatment for Corns and Calluses

Corns and calluses are areas of thick, hardened, accumulated dead skin cells that are caused by repeated rubbing, friction, or pressure. They can form anywhere on the body but are most commonly found on the hands, toes, heels, or soles of the feet.

Both are the result of hyperkeratinization—the thickening of the top layer of skin, known as the stratum corneum. If your shoe repeatedly rubs against a spot on your foot, for example, the inflammation and gradual build-up of scar tissue lead to the development of a corn or callus.

Andrew Bossi / Wikimedia Commons / CC BY-SA 2.5 

While we tend to think of corns and calluses as interchangeable, they are distinctive in their appearance, causes, and sensitivity.


Corns are small, defined areas of thickened skin that usually form on bony areas of the foot, such as the joints of toes. They most commonly develop where the skin is thin and glabrous (hairless and smooth).

Corns differ from calluses in that they have a hard core surrounded by inflamed skin. Because their shape is typically well defined, they can often be mistaken for warts.

As with a wart, a corn is typically hardened and raised with a flaky, dry, or waxy surface. However, corns can be differentiated by their location on the top of the foot and between toes rather than the bottom (plantar) side of the foot. Warts can also appear in clusters, which corns generally don’t, and develop on any part of the body.

There are both soft corns and hard corns. Soft corns develop on the moist skin between toes in response to abnormal friction (such as walking in tight, pointed-toe shoes). They tend to be whitish in color with a rubbery, pliable texture.

Hard corns, by contrast, develop on dry, flat areas of skin, especially bony parts of the foot that are tightly compressed in shoes. Hard corns form where a bone comes into direct contact with the inside of a shoe (especially shoes in which the toes are abnormally curled). They tend to be small and circular and co-exist with calluses.

Within both soft and hard corns is a barley-shape core that runs perpendicular to the foot from the top of the corn to the tissues below. Because of its shape and position, the hardened core can sometimes press on nerve endings, causing sharp, stabbing pain.

There are also tiny “seed corns” that commonly develop on the ball of the foot and, despite their diminutive size, are no less painful.


Calluses are less-defined patches of thickened skin. Typically larger than corns and rarely painful, they are caused by friction or pressure delivered over a long period of time. Even writing with a pencil over the course of years, for example, can lead to the development of a callus on the middle finger of the writing hand.

Calluses are usually not painful and tend to involve larger areas of skin, especially under the heels or on the palm, knees, or balls of the feet. The skin can sometimes be smooth and hard or rough, dry, and patchy.

Among some of the situations that cause calluses:

  • Chopping wood
  • Construction work
  • Playing on monkey bars
  • Playing sports with equipment that has handles (such as tennis or golf)
  • Rock climbing
  • Rowing
  • Strumming or plucking guitar strings
  • Walking barefoot
  • Wearing high heels
  • Weightlifting

A callus may be considered a form of protection in that the layers of dead skin cells are resistant to blisters and friction.

The only time a callus causes pain is when it cracks and exposes the underlying tissue. This is not uncommon with heel calluses in which the thick layers of skin are less able to flex. Once a crevasse forms, it can make walking difficult; any additional pressure placed on the heel can increase the size and depth of the crack.

At-Home Treatments

Most corns and calluses do not require medical treatment and can be treated at home with proper foot care and simple, over-the-counter products.

To treat a callus or corn safely:

Remove the source of the irritation. This may require you to wear different shoes or to replace those that are too tight or loose, for example. This is especially true as your feet age and begin to experience changes in the arches or thickness of the skin.

In some cases, orthopedic shoes or orthotic insoles may be needed to compensate for any abnormalities in the structure of your foot and/or gait. A foot analysis also can help.

Soak your foot or hand in warm water. Doing so for 10 to 20 minutes can soften the skin and may help relieve some of the pain. Once finished, dry thoroughly.

Abrade the skin with a pumice stone. This is something you need to do gently, generally on larger patches of thick skin. Soaking your skin beforehand makes the exfoliation much easier. Once completed, use an extra-thick, emollient-rich lotion or cream to lock in the moisture and keep the skin soft.

Pad the callus or corn. The best way to deal with pain and promote healing is to pad the affected area of skin. Adhesive corn patches and elastic toe sleeves can be readily found at most drugstores.

To protect larger areas of skin, ask your pharmacist about gel insoles or heel cups. If the callus or corn is on your hand, cover it with a bandage strip and wear protective gloves while working.

There is also a wide variety of over-the-counter corn removers that typically contain salicylic acid. While they can be effective in removing a corn, discontinue use if you experience any pain or skin irritation.

You should avoid these products if you have diabetic neuropathy or any condition that affects the blood flow to the foot (such as peripheral arterial disease). Conditions like these can impede normal healing and lead to the development of sores and ulcers that are hard to treat.

If you have diabetes, peripheral neuropathy (foot nerve pain), leg edema (fluid overload of the feet and ankles), or any chronic circulation problem, do not attempt to self-treat your corns or calluses. Always see a doctor.

When to See a Doctor

If a corn or callus is painful or bleeding, you should have it looked at by a podiatrist. Pain or bleeding is an indication that the deeper layers of skin are being affected. Ignoring these symptoms may result in otherwise avoidable complications, such as infection or ulcerations.

Treatment may involve debridement (the removal of damaged tissue) or the paring (cutting out) of a corn with a scalpel.

It is important to note that corns and calluses will often return even after effective treatment. If they become problematic, surgery may be explored (especially for corns). This should only be considered if all other conservative forms of treatment have failed to provide relief.

In such a case, surgical enucleation (the removal of the hardened core), bunionectomy (removal of a bunion), or even foot alignment surgery may be considered.

90,000 Mini vegetables in the garden and windowsill – is it worth growing them ?. Photo – Botanichka.ru

Today mini-vegetables are very popular not only as finished products of vegetable departments of hypermarkets. Many gardeners have also paid attention to the original babies and are trying to grow new items on their backyards. Carrots and corn are no bigger than a pinky finger, eggplants are about the size of a tennis ball, tomatoes are the size of currants … What “baby vegetables” should you plant in your garden or windowsill, and are there any advantages in the tiny size of vegetables? Let’s try to figure it out in the article.

Mini vegetables in the garden and windowsill – is it worth growing them? Contents:

Benefits of mini vegetables

Vegetable baby boom is a relatively young phenomenon. It all started a few years ago in Japan and, as often happens, quite by accident. Once marketers noticed that packaged vegetables, cut into slices, are bought much more actively than similar products of the traditional type. But, as you know, cut vegetables and fruits are not able to maintain their presentation for a long time, they also quickly lose some of the nutrients.Then it was decided to place an order for breeders to breed vegetables in portion sizes, and the entrepreneurs’ calculations were justified.

Often, mini-vegetables have not only reduced fruit sizes, but also small dwarf bushes, which makes them convenient for growing in containers on balconies or even outside the windows of city apartments. In addition, certain varieties of “baby vegetables” turn out to be much tastier than their full-size relatives.

Dwarf vegetables are a great way to diversify the children’s menu and create funny and healthy dishes as if they were for the little people from The Adventures of Dunno.With whole-fruit canning, mixes of multi-colored “crumbs” will look much more original than traditional pickles.

Mini vegetables are indispensable when setting a festive table when decorating vegetable and meat dishes, preparing canapes, they are convenient for grilling. But the most important advantage of baby vegetables is the preservation of more vitamins and valuable elements during cooking, since they do not need to be cut into pieces due to the miniature size of the fruit.By the way, the cooking time is also reduced as a result.

Moreover, according to some sources, mini-vegetables initially contain one and a half to two times more nutrients than in fruits of standard sizes.

Next, let’s take a closer look at the most popular mini-vegetables that are easy to grow in beds or in containers.

Mini tomatoes

Cherry tomatoes are mini tomatoes, but this variety of tomatoes has become so firmly established in our reality that it has not seemed like something exotic for a long time.So a mini tomato usually means something really tiny, and there are nano varieties.

The miniature form of the tomato is a return to forgotten roots. © Fafard

While most vegetables have a miniature form – the result of complex hybridization, in tomato it is, on the contrary, a return to forgotten roots. In particular, it has now become possible to purchase the seeds of the progenitor of modern cultivated tomatoes – currant tomato . The size of the fruits of the relict tomato does not exceed the size of the berries of an average black currant, but a lot of brushes on the bush are usually tied even in the most “not tomato year”.

Of course, harvesting such a crop is much more difficult than picking large tomatoes, but still such toy tomatoes have their own special charm. Mini tomatoes serve as an original decoration of the festive table, surprise guests and are very popular with children.

In addition, the wild crop has many advantages over the pampered varietal tomatoes. Currant-leaved tomato requires minimal maintenance and grows well on almost any soil, steadfastly enduring negative environmental conditions (dampness, drought).It is practically not affected by the scourge of all tomatoes – late blight.

Ornate bushes with small carved foliage, strewn with abundant small fruits, like a garland, will be a wonderful decoration for the garden. The plant need not be pinned and then its height will not exceed one meter. Currant tomato bears fruit before frost. And due to the fact that the berries do not crumble, you can take your time with the harvest.

An even more original variety of wild tomato is “Gold Rush” tomato , which differs from currant tomato only in its yellow fruit color and will look great when paired with red-fruited.

Mini corn

“Toy” cobs of pickled mini-corn are very often found in supermarkets among jars of overseas pickles. Why not try growing the original corncobs yourself?

Miniature corn cobs are very delicate and delicious, so they can be eaten whole even raw. © Mubiz

The most common variety of unusual vegetables is “Minigold”. The miniature variety is suitable even for regions with short summers, as the tiny ears are usually harvested slightly unripe.They are ready for harvesting already 12-17 weeks after sowing seeds in the ground.

The miniature nibs are very delicate and pleasant to the taste, so they can be eaten whole even raw, thus avoiding the lengthy cooking process required for regular corn. But most often, small fruits are used for pickling, freezing and grilling, used in vegetable stews, capapés, or added to soup.

The farming technique of mini-maize is no different from the cultivation of its full-size cousin.Sowing seeds is carried out immediately to a permanent place in mid-late May.

Despite the fact that the cobs of dwarf corn do not exceed 10-12 centimeters in length and 2-3 cm in diameter, the stems of the Minigold variety have a standard height of more than 1.5 meters, so you will need to allocate enough space to grow it. The location should be sunny and the soil fertile enough. The culture does not require special care.

Mini eggplant

Traditional eggplants have a weight of 300-400 grams and a classic dark purple rind color.But the fruits of mini-eggplant are distinguished not only by their smaller size, but also by the rich color of the fruits.

Mini eggplants are distinguished not only by their smaller size, but also by the rich color of the fruits.

For example, eggplant “King’s Mantle”, or “Tiger Cub” . Its original fruits are distinguished by an unusual color – brown stripes on an orange background. An additional attractiveness to the variety is given by the simultaneous presence of flowering inflorescences, unripe ovaries and fully ripe fruits on the bush.

An unusual elegant variety is successfully used in cooking, but for this purpose it is recommended to pluck unripe yellowish eggplants, since the seeds become tough when fully ripe.

Eggplant “Turkish Orange” is also characterized by the presence of unusual stripes, but in shape its rounded fruits are more reminiscent of red-orange tomatoes. The average weight of the fruit is 100 grams. This variety is also best eaten unripe, its flesh is sweeter and more tender and slightly resembles tomato.

Both varieties can be grown in containers, but these are large enough bushes that require a lot of space. But mini-eggplant “Ophelia” can be called a truly balcony variety, since it has not only small fruits, but also compact low bushes 30-40 centimeters high. The fruits of this hybrid are dark purple in color and have a classic shape.

No less original looks and mini-eggplant “Bambi F1” . Rounded pure white fruits of this variety are tied even in low light.The size of the fruit is 5 cm, and the average weight is 50-70 grams. Varieties and hybrids of mini-eggplants are recommended for container gardening, can be grown on balconies, window sills, in winter gardens and greenhouses.

Note: Most miniature eggplants are eaten on a par with their larger counterparts. The only exception can be called the variety “Chinese Lantern” with original ribbed fruits, which, unfortunately, are completely inedible.

Mini peppers

In their homeland, hot peppers are real trees 3-4 meters high, but when breeding cultivated varieties, breeders sought to obtain undersized compact bushes. Currently, there are a huge number of varieties and hybrids of dwarf peppers, which are often referred to as decorative, but nothing prevents the use of small pods in cooking.

Hot Pepper Explosive Ember. © Lyudmila Svetlitskaya

One of the most impressive varieties of dwarf hot peppers is the hybrid Explosive Ember .In a well-lit place, its foliage takes on a very beautiful purple hue, and the cone-shaped fruits constantly change color as they approach biological maturity. So on the plant you can see peppers of four colors at the same time: red, purple, orange and yellowish-purple. This variety has incredible pungency and one tiny pod is enough to add flavor to a large pot of borscht.

Pepper “Medusa” , on the contrary, belongs to the weakest varieties of dwarf hot peppers, its multi-colored pods can be eaten fresh and used to decorate salads.

Read more about the cultivation of decorative hot peppers in the article Indoor hot peppers – varieties and cultivation features.

Dwarf varieties are also found among the sweet “bell peppers”. The most popular variety of dwarf peppers is “Minibell” ( Mini Bell) , combining fruits of red, yellow, orange and chocolate color. Of course, these peppers are not thick enough, however, they also have culinary uses, for example, for stuffing raw cheese filling.

Mini Bell pepper. © Ludmila Svetlitskaya

In addition, these peppers look great in containers and can be grown on windowsills, terraces and balconies. Other interesting varieties of sweet mini-pepper: “Gnome” , “Tema” , “Lipstick” , “Sun” , etc.

Read more about growing sweet peppers in indoor conditions in the article Indoor sweet peppers – we grow paprika on a windowsill !.

Mini pumpkin

Not all varieties of this vegetable grow fruit the size of a potential carriage for Cinderella. Among the representatives of the pumpkin, you can find very little ones. For example, a charming pumpkin “Baby Boo” ( Baby Boo ) has a weight of 150 to 300 grams. The ribbed snow-white fruits of this crumb are mainly used for decorating interiors, since they have an inexpressive taste.

Pumpkin “Baby Boo”

But the mini-pumpkin “Sweet chestnut” , also not exceeding 200-300 grams, can compete with the most popular large-fruited sisters in taste.The word “chestnut” is included in the name of the variety, not only in connection with the tiny size of the fruit. The flesh of this pumpkin is quite unusual (starchy, crumbly and very sweet with a slight nutty flavor) and tastes like roasted chestnuts. The peel has a dark green color with longitudinal brown stripes; during storage, the main tone turns brown.

Pumpkin “Sweet Chestnut” is not much more than a tangerine. © Lyudmila Svetlitskaya

By the way, this baby has a double – the Japanese pumpkin “Naguri” , which has an absolutely identical pulp, appearance and taste in structure, but grows a little larger, although it also belongs to portioned ones (up to 1.3 kg) …

Due to their very sweet taste and starchy consistency, the main area of ​​application of both varieties is the preparation of various desserts. In particular, due to the lack of a specific pumpkin taste and smell, this pumpkin will be an excellent filling for pumpkin pie. Also, mini pumpkins are suitable for cooking candied fruits, baking with various fillings, as well as raw as an ingredient in fruit salads.

Another miniature pumpkin has a slightly larger size – Sweet Dumpling ( Sweet Dumpling ), the fruits of which can reach 300-400 grams.”Sweet dumpling”, as the name of the variety is translated, is distinguished by its light pulp and is prepared mainly according to potato recipes. Other portioned pumpkin varieties weighing no more than a kilogram: “Acorn” , “Ishiki kuri” , “Kamo-Kamo” , etc.

Read more about interesting pumpkin varieties in the article Amazing pumpkin varieties – both delicious and beautiful.

Mini Basil

The most popular variety of the famous spice is basil with large purple leaves, also known as Yerevan basil.Green-leaved varieties of basil are also distinguished by a rather large leaf blade and high growth.

Basil “Dwarf”. © Lyudmila Svetlitskaya

But not every gardener knows about the existence of a miniature variety of this spice with tiny bushes no more than 15-20 centimeters high. On sale, such miniature varieties can often be found under the names: “Dwarf” basil , “Greek” and “Spherical perfume” .

Mini-basil is characterized by dense spherical bushes-bumps with small (up to 1 centimeter) dense foliage, bushes reach a maximum diameter of 30-35 centimeters.The mini-basil bushes branch densely from the very base without additional pinching, and even during flowering retain their spherical shape, because, unlike tall counterparts, its inflorescences do not rise much above the leaves.

The low growth and characteristic habit of the plant makes it an excellent candidate for growing on a kitchen windowsill or balcony. From a distance, dwarf basil vaguely resembles an ornamental shrub – boxwood, therefore, with its participation, you can create an original floral arrangement by planting a spice in the company of bright annuals – petunia, snapdragon, calibrachoa, nemesia and others.

It is best to grow this basil in seedlings, sowing seeds indoors in early to mid April. Seedlings can be dived in small bunches. Seedlings are planted in a permanent place after the threat of recurrent frosts has passed.

With regard to the spicy smell, mini-basil is in no way inferior to its tall counterparts – its leaves exude a strong and rich aroma with mulled wine tones. The spice is widely used in various salads, sandwiches, in the aromatization of drinks, pickles, as well as meat and fish dishes.

Other mini-vegetables

Separately, mention should be made of a group of vegetables that belong to the “mini” category rather conditionally, because their small size is not the result of selection work, but simply fruits collected in the phase of milk ripeness. Varieties and hybrids of these vegetables are often sold under the name “mini”, based on the fact that their unripe ovaries are especially tasty in such an unripe form and tend not to outgrow a little longer than other varieties.

These, in particular, include a mini-head onion ( “Barlet” , “Pompeii” , “Early bunch” ), zucchini-zucchini ( “Mini-zucchini” , “Patio old “, ” Soft Teist “), bunch carrots (” Bunch “, ” Bureau “, ” Laguna “) and mini-gherkin type (” Micron “, ” Filippok ” , “White Pickle Mini” ).

How are “Kukuruza”, Stigmata and the Nizhny Novgorod I.N.F.O. group related?


Nizhny Novgorod group I.N.F.O. performed at the “Kukuruza Fest” and a solo concert of the Stigmata group in Nizhny Novgorod

Nothing unites people like a common cause or hobby, I would even say – fanaticism. On December 12 and 13, we managed to visit “next to the sun in the sky”, watched how “September burned out” and “the killer cried”, to lose our voice, in general, to get a lot of emotions.And all this was donated by metalcore bands Rashamba, 5Diez, I.N.F.O and Stigmata.

Two significant events took place in Nizhny Novgorod: the “Kukuruza Fest” festival in the Sin City club and a solo concert of the Stigmata group at the “Premium”. The musicians gave their best and literally blew up the audience. The vocalist of the Nizhny Novgorod group I.N.F.O Trofim during a performance in Sin City, performing a song, jumped into the hall and mumbled with the crowd. He told the correspondent of “MK in Nizhny” about the preparation for the concerts and about how the musicians live.

– Trofim, how did you prepare for the festival?

– She walked in the “five-year plan in three years” style. The program was worked out to the smallest detail.

– Why was the group named this way?

– I.N.F.O. is an abbreviation that stands for In New From the Old, i.e. “new from old”. Thus, we wanted to say that we really love and honor nu metal, rap-core and mazafaka in general the same as it was before (in the 90s) and we are trying to keep the brand by the already set standards.But we also bring something from ourselves to our music, as well as to this style.

– Where do you get your songwriting inspiration?

– Feelings surrounding the world, life, politics. Yes, in fact, when how. For example, I came up with the theme for the “Maidan”, instrumental, when I was following the news. A guitar was at hand at that moment.

– Does the band have any rituals before going on stage?

– Of course (smiles). Firstly, before each performance there is “white noise”, well, like on the radio, and secondly, I like to appear “out of nowhere”, as, for example, at the concert on December 13, where I came out right from behind the audience …

– Is there a special thing, a talisman, that gives strength before the performance?

– Yes, I wear two rings on my little finger (one on the other), it’s like a reminder … but it’s personal.

– What are your impressions of the past concerts?

– Just a crazy positive. It is a great honor to be performing with such legendary bands. In general, I really love concerts – it’s always a lot of fun. It is especially pleasant when you see the return from the crowd.

90,000 DNA helped uncover 9,000 years of domestication of maize

Maize is made from many foods today that are consumed by a huge number of people. But 9000 years ago, this culture was practically unfit for food. Scientists were able to find missing details that allowed describing the history of domestication of corn

About 9,000 years ago, corn as it is known today did not exist. Ancient peoples in southwestern Mexico used a plant called teosinte for food.Its pinky-sized ears contained a handful of very hard seeds. Over time, humans domesticated this type of plant, and eventually it evolved into corn, a crop that feeds billions of people today.

The authors of the new work, published in the journal Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, found three samples of ancient maize about 2,000 years old. Researchers extracted DNA from them and performed its complete sequencing. As a result, scientists found out that these varieties of Central American corn were of South American origin.Such data helped scientists to reconstruct the path that this plant culture has traveled during its 9,000 years of domestication.

Scientists have shown that people were transporting corn from South America back to the domestication center in Mexico. This has helped to increase the genetic diversity in the plant population and increase their resistance or yield.

For many years, scientists have been of the opinion that corn was first fully domesticated in Mexico and then spread elsewhere.However, after 5,000-year-old cobs found in Mexico were only partially domesticated, scientists began to rethink the idea. Researchers have now shown that although the process of domestication began in Mexico, varieties began migrating to Central and South America even before it was complete. In each of these three regions, the process of domestication and yield increase proceeded in parallel, but at different rates.

Between the penis and the anvil

In our community, there is only talk about men, women, their interactions and the reasons why they do not understand each other.The Village editors can no longer ignore the burning topics, so they decided to launch an anonymous collective blog about sex and relationships. It will be led by the staff and friends of the editorial office – it turned out that many have long wanted to share their sore points. Another episode is about what it is like to discuss sex out loud with your partner.

“Vagina. Vagina, vagina, vagina. Member member member “. I repeat it several times. Words in my mind turn into colored balls. I’m not afraid to pronounce them, it’s just a shell, a convenient mold, an auxiliary tool.This language code is devoid of the content that State Duma deputies are trying to endow it with. In the film “The Forty-Year-Old Virgin”, the main character was constantly told: “Don’t put the furry on a pedestal.” But “furry” is some kind of hedgehog with a washcloth instead of needles. And the “vagina” is like corn. Queen of the fields!

It is not customary in Russia to discuss sex. We are taboos on all sides, like pillows with goose down – no matter how someone breathes obscenity on us, we will immediately want to sink into the ground. We would like to change the world, culture, form of government, perhaps, but we are not able to condescend to changes in the language and in the attitude towards a person who has been standing before us for five minutes without panties.

Was at N.’s last night. He received me naked, lying in bed, wearing a felt hat with a pheasant feather on his head. With a kind of spider-like fury he catches my nipple with his teeth, bites. His jaw moves left and right – apparently, he wants to tune the analog chest knob to the desired frequency. I ask you to turn off the lights, insisting that sex is an intimate story. Light is like undressing under a spotlight on the stage of Sovremennik or in the operating room in the fourth building of Botkinskaya. “I have an Alien between my legs? – unable to bear it, he asks.- Why are you doing this?” Distracted by the switch. The pheasant feather ran his fingers between his legs, rummaging inside – as if he had lost matches in the closet. Who taught him to stick his arm up to the elbow into a woman? Hey up there, I’m not a chicken on a can!

Nails are not clipped. Now he will dissolve all the genitals in loops, like a grandmother’s string bag. Two, three fingers at the most, would be enough, right? Here in English there is the word “shocker” – if you suddenly decide to caress the vagina with your index and middle fingers, and your anus with your little finger.Finally, after practicing sleight of hand and (lucky!) Tongue, he moves on to the main tool – the penis. The jackhammer is working – hammering and hammering, as if driving nails into my basin. It seems like tomorrow will never come. Start a little slower, because you don’t push the gas pedal to full when you leave the parking lot.

Puffs. He tries. For these guys, intercourse is a moment from biting the nipple to their own ejaculation.

A light comes on in consciousness: tell him. But how? “Why talk about sex, you just have to do it!” – moralizing women’s forums.But how, one wonders, if a man on top just masturbates into me, not wondering what I want? On the other hand, again, maybe it’s me who is moving like a paralyzed pterodactyl, and at this time he thinks: Jizas Christ, why did I put a log in bed? Neither side wants to admit their vulnerability, forgetting that the pleasure is not at all in not losing face, but in listening and being ready to compromise.

People rarely talk about their real needs in bed.The word “vagina” makes you blush, “blowjob” makes you faint. “Your jade rod could not reach the depths of my pleasure cave today”? Or “four orgasms are happiness, but the fifth would be the pearl in my crown”? There are children’s pisi, sissy and priests, there are medical ones – anus and a penis, but human ones, so that two close people sit down and discuss intimate issues – no.

You live and rush between the feeling of the “queen of the fields” in dreams of first-class sex with him and the sad reality of a “hairy scratch”.Because any female “but you can still do this” men take for defeat: “She considers me impotent.” Well, any masculine “let’s try” is counted by women for “I don’t want you anymore. I want Klava. And Petya. ” We are all great here.

Dictionary of Signs – Power – Kommersant

George W. Bush informs the Americans that everything is ok and sexually insults the proud peoples of Spain, Greece and South America

are considered immodest in all cultures.But if in Europe women quite favorably endure all sorts of whistling, winking, snapping fingers and blowing kisses sent to them, then in Asian countries for such enthusiasm you can get it in the face. It is also useful for young ladies to be able to distinguish between simple flirtation and dirty sexual innuendo. In France, a rough sexual gesture is the snapping of the fingers of both hands at the same time and the slap of the palm of one hand on the clenched fist of the other. In Greece, sexual harassment is expressed by tapping a finger on the chin, winking, whistling, and blowing kisses.In Argentina, a man makes an obscene proposal to a woman by tapping on the inside of the thigh, and in Egypt, tapping each other with the tips of his index fingers.


Fidel Castro demonstrates his masculine power in Pakistani and threatens to use it

In most cultures, offensive gestures are phallic. A raised fist (for example, Pakistan), a thumb (Iran), an index finger, or an elbow with a clenched fist (China) are considered offensive in many cultures.But there are also purely national insults. In England, the V sign (Victory) is considered offensive if it is not made with the palm outward, but with the palm facing the face. Apparently, the British adopted this gesture from the Arabs, who lift the tip of the nose with two fingers, imitating the movements of the phallus. The crudest sexual insult among Americans is a fist with a raised middle finger.
The Greeks, on the contrary, wanting to offend a person, put their thumb down. Usually this gesture is used by drivers who express with its help something like “Where are you going, you moron! Don’t you see, I’m going!”In our country, this gesture is common among young people and means “sucks”, that is, “bad”.
In Greece, there is another gesture that has an offensive meaning. It consists in extending the hand, palm forward, with fingers outstretched – much like we do when we want to ask someone to shut up. This gesture dates back to the times of antiquity, when the faces of defeated enemies were stained with mud. A similar offensive gesture exists in Nigeria. And in Chile, this gesture has a more specific meaning and means “Moron!”In Saudi Arabia, a more sophisticated version of this gesture is used, where the hand with the fingers extended is parallel to the ground, with the index finger pointing down.

Rubbing his nose with his index finger, Anatoly Chubais warns in French that small shareholders should not be trusted

If in Russia the fig refers mainly to childish offensive gestures (like the protruding tongue), then among many peoples (for example, the Turks, Hispanics, the inhabitants of the Mediterranean) this gesture is a fatal insult, since it has a phallic meaning.For the Brazilians, on the contrary, it means a wish for good luck. And in Paraguay, an insult is a gesture that in the United States means a wish for good luck: crossed index and middle fingers. Probably, such an inversion of positive and negative meanings is not accidental: in Russia, the ritual of wishing good luck also consists of phrases, the literal meaning of which is far from benevolent (No fluff, no feather! – Go to hell!).
Westerners may offend Arabs with their habit of sitting cross-legged, especially in the American manner – “the number four” (the shin of one leg rests on the thigh of the other).This is due to the fact that in the Middle East it is considered an insult to show others the soles of your shoes. By the way, the American way of crossing the legs cost the lives of several spies during the Second World War, which, thanks to this gesture, not typical for Europeans, were exposed by German counterintelligence.
In India, it is considered a terrible insult to step on someone’s foot (even by accident). In Thailand, a person may be offended if you put your hand on the back of the chair on which he is sitting, and in Japan – if you give him a business card with one hand, not with two (you should also take the thing extended to you with two hands and with a slight bow).
In addition to simply offensive gestures, there are ways in many cultures to express more specific accusations.

Stretching out his hand palm forward, Mikhail Gorbachev, in Greek, promises to mix everyone with dirt

Drunk. To warn that a person is drunk, the French put their thumb and forefinger in a ring and “put” this ring on their nose. The Dutch in a similar situation tap the nose with their index finger.
Chatterbox. To show that they are tired of someone else’s meaningless chatter, the French make a gesture that imitates playing an imaginary flute. In Latin America and the Middle East, brush movements depicting the opening of the mouth are used to convey the meaning of “chatterbox”, “yap”.
Greedy. To show that a person is greedy, in Colombia, the fingers of one hand are struck on the inside of the elbow of the other.
Liar. A specific gesture for depicting lies exists in Israel.When an Israelite taps the index finger of one hand on the open palm of the other, he says, “More grass will grow in my palm than I will believe your words.” In France, the index finger at the lower eyelid means “a lie” or “I am considered a liar.”
Homosexual. In the Middle East, a person’s non-standard sexual orientation is reported in the following way: they lick their little finger and brush their eyebrow with it. Among Italians, a similar meaning is conveyed by pinching the earlobe.In Spain, there is an offensive gesture with a similar meaning, meaning also “girl” or “sucker”: the head is tilted to one side, the cheek rests on the palm (imitation of the pose of a sleeping child).

Mind and stupidity

Touching her lower eyelid with her finger, Valentina Matvienko admits in French that she is a liar. Alexei Kudrin prepares to perform an Arabic insulting gesture: the reciprocating movements of the nose between the index and middle fingers imitate the movements of the phallus

Gestures depicting intelligence and stupidity often have opposite meanings across cultures.For example, when a French, German or Italian thinks an idea is stupid, he emphatically knocks himself on the head. A German slap on the forehead with an open palm is equivalent to the exclamation: “You’re out of your mind!” And when a Briton or a Spaniard knocks himself on the forehead, on the contrary, he is pleased with himself. Despite the fact that there is some self-irony in this gesture, the person still praises himself for his quick wits: “This is the mind!”
Germans, Americans, French and Italians have a habit of drawing a spiral at the head with their index finger, which means “crazy idea… “
The gesture “finger to the temple” among the Germans and Austrians means “crazy!”, And in a number of African cultures this gesture means that a person is deep in thought. In France, a finger to his temple means that a person is just a fool, and in Holland, on the contrary, that he is smart or said a smart thing.
Especially confusing is the designation of the intellectual level of the interlocutor in modern Israel. In the “official”, generally accepted in the country, sign language to put a finger to the temple means to praise someone for a clever idea.At the same time, many ethnic groups inhabiting Israel perceive this gesture differently. For Moroccan Jews, as well as for the French, it means “stupidity,” for American Jews, “you’re out of your mind”, and for people from Romania, “I think” or “think.”

Affirmation and denial

Bill Clinton inflicts a mortal insult on the Arab world by showing him the soles of his shoes

Those who are accustomed to understanding head downward movement as “yes” and from side to side as “no” will face many difficulties in the Middle East.In Saudi Arabia, “yes” is a rotation of the head from side to side (as we have “no”), and “no” is throwing the head back and clicking the tongue. In Lebanon and Iran, to say “no”, it is enough to sharply raise and throw your head back, and to say “yes”, on the contrary, slightly tilt it forward and downward. In Turkey, denial is expressed like this: you need to tilt your head back slightly and close your eyes. The Turkish statement is that the head is tilted down and slightly to the side.
Evil tongues claim that it was Princess Diana’s flirtatious habit of tilting her head slightly to the side and down that influenced her philanthropic career.Whenever she visited with a humanitarian mission any of the Middle Eastern countries and listened there to numerous requests for help, this gesture of hers was taken for consent to help and was scattered in gratitude. The princess had no choice but to really fulfill the requests of all those in need.
In India and Malaysia, they shake their heads from shoulder to shoulder in agreement (this gesture in Russia means condemnation).
In Germany, “no” is often indicated by waving the hand from side to side (a favorite gesture of Soviet leaders on the podium of the Mausoleum).
As you know, Bulgarians shake their heads from side to side in agreement, and nod in denial. Legend has it that these gestures originate from the deed of one folk hero. The conquering Turks persuaded him to renounce the faith of the fathers and to accept Islam. Under the threat of death, he had to verbally agree with them, but with a parallel gesture he simultaneously expressed denial. Since then, a nod in Bulgaria means “no”.

Attracting attention
To draw attention to what they say, Brazilians snap their fingers while jerking their hand to the side.In Portugal, to be heard, you need to stretch your hand forward, palm down, and wiggle your fingers as if you were stroking someone on the head. A gesture that is often used by Western speakers to attract the attention of the audience (an outstretched palm with outstretched fingers), among the Greeks, means a gross insult.

Danger signal

Alexander Rutskoi performs a universal threatening gesture that makes people akin to apes

When a Spaniard or Latino touches his lower eyelid with his index finger and slightly pulls it down, this is look at both! ” If a Frenchman or a Dutchman rubs his nose with his index finger, he warns: “Something is unclean here”, “Be careful”, “These people cannot be trusted.”This gesture is very close to the Italian tapping of the index finger on the nose, which means “beware, danger.”

Doubt, bewilderment
When the Portuguese taps his index finger on his chin, this gesture means: “I don’t know!” And if you tap your chin with your thumb, this gesture will have a completely different meaning: someone has died. In Paraguay, to say “I don’t know,” they grab the chin with two fingers; in Japan, they swing their hand from side to side.Puerto Ricans, wiggling the tip of their nose with their fingers, ask, “What’s going on here?”

If a Hindu touches your shoulder with his fingers and then his forehead, it means that he apologizes to you. And if he grabs the lobes of his ears, then he deeply regrets what he has done and swears of his loyalty. This gesture is the traditional gesture of the servant, which the master scolds.

Good Luck
The Austrians, in order to wish the person good luck, put two fists together and make a downward movement, as if they were hitting a table with them.In the USA the middle and forefingers are crossed for good luck. The same gesture in Russia among children means that the person is going to tell a lie. In China, good luck wishes are fingers locked in a lock and pressed to the chest. Another variant of the Chinese gesture is the little fingers linked together. This means reaching an informal agreement and the hope that it will be long. Our children use the same gesture as a symbol of reconciliation, but in Latin America and the Middle East, the clasped little fingers, on the contrary, should be interpreted as: “Everything.We had a fight. “

Popular seven-language phrasebook

“Come here!” Hello “Cool!” “Fuck you!” “Yes” No
In Russian Palm rotated Handshake Fist, large Raised Fist, Nodding head Shaking his head from
up, toes thumbs up arm bent in up-down side to side
beckon elbow, other
lies on the elbow
American style Palm rotated Handshake OK (ring) Raised fist Nodding head Shaking his head from
up, toes up middle up down side to side
beckon finger
Arabic Arm extended Right hand to NO (EMPTY Toes in Tilt slightly Throw back sharply
palm forward heart, then to CELL) “victoria”, between head sideways and head
down.Fingers forehead, then – them the tip of the nose, down (head
move like palm forward lift it up, hung)
as if they were digging the ground up imitating movement
Chinese Arm extended Straight bow Bring the palm to Raised Fist, Nodding head Shaking his head from
palm forward head lips arm bent in up down (like side to side
down.Fingers elbow, other us) (like ours)
move like lies on the elbow
as if they were digging the ground fold (like ours)
French Palm rotated Handshake Air kiss Patting Nodding head Download
up, toes with one palm up down (like index
beckon hands clenched us) finger out
fist another side to side
(like ours
prohibit children)
German Palm rotated Handshake (as Hands in the lock over Raised fist Nodding head Waving hand
up, toes with us) head up middle up and down (like from side to
beckon finger us) palm side to
to the interlocutor
Greek Arm extended Handshake Hand in a fist, Stretched forward Tilt slightly Head up
palm forward thumb palm to head sideways and
down.Fingers up (like ours) hand to the interlocutor down (head
move like with splayed hung)
as if they were digging the ground fingers

Wonderful diamond – Sasha Cherny – Poems, pictures and love

(Italian fairy tale)

Poor was old man Angelo –
All property is a rooster.
The old man ate corn,
A rooster of worms and flies.
Finally the poor man made up his mind:
“There is no money … I am weak and old.
I will carry on Wednesday morning
I will take Cock to the market.
The corn is running out!
I’ll get some tobacco
And I’ll eat for a week
Pumpkin with granulated sugar.

Two witches at the bazaar
Spotted tail in hand …
“Cockerel?” – and gagged
In the magic language.
But the old man was not a mistake himself,
He understood the witchcraft tale:
In the head of this bird
There was a wonderful hidden diamond!
Whoever puts him in the ring,
He achieved everything at once –
Everything that he does not want,
He will receive at the same moment.

To sell for a penny is such a miracle,
To eat pumpkin porridge?
He hastened to climb over the rampart from the bazaar
He hurried to climb over …
Under the plane tree near the fountain
He turned the bird’s head,
I got a wonderful diamond
And wrapped it in a rag …
He jumped into the city:
“Master! Make me a ring! ”
I returned home at dawn –
On the chipped porch.

“Hey, ring! Give me back my youth,
Build a castle with a wall …
And the pretty princess
So that she was my wife! ”
He turned the ring, and a wonder:
No wrinkles, eyes are burning …
In a scarlet silk jacket
He stands among the chambers.
Young princess,
Lips folded in a bow,
Says: “Oh, my Angelo,
You are as beautiful as an apple …”

Two sorceresses are more angry than a viper:
The treasure has swum out of their hands!
They sewed a doll – and into the castle
A hatch climbed through the fireplace mantel …
The doll is dancing, waving with a ribbon,
Waltz in the tummy is ringing:
This doll for the princess
Lured like a magnet …
“How much does it cost?” – “Agnelo
Has a diamond on his little finger:
When he falls asleep, take off the ring, –
We are just right for the doll!”

The princess as a child:
Poppy flashed her face, –
From under the canopy of colored
To the witches she took out a ring …
And looks … the old women disappeared,
The house is a barn of old slabs …
Behind a canvas curtain
Someone snores a little.
Came up: on dirty boards
Old grandfather, morel morel …
Angrily slammed the gate
And went to her father’s house.

Eats Agnelo corn
With tears in half.
The princess is gone …
Scolopendra in the corners.
Instead of a castle – a pitiful house,
A wrinkled forehead, a bare skull …
Suddenly a mouse from under a barrel
From the bench climbed onto the table.
Hey old man! You were kind to us …
There is a mouse land in the mountains,
Go to our kingdom,
There will be help … Don’t sigh! ”

Near the loophole in the mouse kingdom
The mice had their own cordon.
“Who’s coming? The mouse asked. –
Isn’t that a cat spy?
The tailed people came running …
“Bah, Angelo? Good hour!
Rest with us for now.
Would you like some cheese and sausages?
Don’t grieve, we’ll get a diamond,
We’ll equip two mice:
Witches won’t see the ring,
Like their pig ears! .. “

The mice set off at a trot.
Here is the black house in the woods.
Two witches sleep on the skin
With a spider web on his nose …
One has a diamond on his finger.
The mouse began to gnaw his finger …
The half-asleep sorceress
Grabbing the hand with a hand:
Threw a ring to the floor,
And another mouse in a moment
Picked up the light ring
And sniffed through the window with peas … Angelo go –
Ran home like a wolf.
Turned the ring around his finger:
Again the castle, servants, silk …
The young princess,
Looking down in embarrassment,
Says: “Oh, my Angelo,
You are beautiful like the sun!”
Reconciled … What is there to do?
And the old women for the evil agility
He ordered the ring Anyelo
In two camels to turn.

Is that all? Not all. Wait a little …
Gratitude is the first duty.
In the morning he called the servants of Anyelo
And said: “Take it! –
I send the kingdom to the mouse
With food seven carts:
Two with donkey sausage,
Two with grain – for a whole year,
Two with Dutch old cheese
(Mice love cheese terribly), –
And in the last – corn
And the finest figs. “

Sasha Cherny, 1926

  • Tales in verse
  • Poems

90,000 Top 7 mistakes in cutting cover

Error # 1: saving on cutters

“I’ll serve a couple more clients and I will definitely change the cutters, otherwise they are completely dull” – if this is about you, stop saving! Blunt cutters take longer to process nails, and the client feels discomfort, because from prolonged mechanical action the marigold begins to “bake”.

Error # 2: awkward position

It becomes much more difficult to control the weight of the cutter and the pressure when you hold the manicure apparatus, so choose a comfortable position and position of your hands (both yours and the client’s). Ideally, the hand should rest with the little finger to make it easier to work.

Error # 3: low speed

Due to inexperience and fear of “cuts”, some craftsmen try to cut the coating at low speed, but it is best to set the maximum speed – it is thanks to this that the cutter does not “jump”, and the coating is removed smoothly and quickly.

Error # 4: slow movements

If you move the cutter too slowly, pits will remain on the coating, and it will not work to bring the nail to perfection. Work quickly and efficiently.

Error # 5: Same cutter pressure

In different zones of the marigold and the material, you need to press on the cutter in different ways: in the thickest part it is stronger, in the rollers and cuticle, respectively, weaker.

Error # 6: Incorrect cutter selection

Cutters are different not only in size and shape, but also in the types of notches (hard, medium, soft), so you need to choose them carefully, knowing exactly what kind of work each of them is intended for.

Error # 7: removing material to a live nail

When removing it, it is important to leave a thin layer of the old coating, or rather the base – this will help to avoid injury and damage to the natural nail plate.