Cozaar tablets 100mg: Cozaar: Uses, Dosage & Side Effects
Cozaar – Uses, Side Effects, Interactions
How does this medication work? What will it do for me?
Losartan belongs to a family of medications known as angiotensin II receptor blockers. These medications are used in adults and children over the age of six to lower mild-to-moderate hypertension (high blood pressure).
Angiotensin II is a chemical that the body releases to cause the constriction of blood vessels. Losartan blocks the action of angiotensin II, resulting in the relaxation of the blood vessels. This relaxation causes the blood pressure to drop. The full effects of losartan are usually seen within 3 to 6 weeks after treatment has started. Losartan may be used alone or in combination with a diuretic (water pill).
Losartan may also be taken by adults who have type 2 diabetes along with hypertension and protein in the urine (proteinuria). In these cases, losartan is used to protect the kidneys from further damage due to diabetes.
This medication may be available under multiple brand names and/or in several different forms. Any specific brand name of this medication may not be available in all of the forms or approved for all of the conditions discussed here. As well, some forms of this medication may not be used for all of the conditions discussed here.
Your doctor may have suggested this medication for conditions other than those listed in these drug information articles. If you have not discussed this with your doctor or are not sure why you are taking this medication, speak to your doctor. Do not stop taking this medication without consulting your doctor.
Do not give this medication to anyone else, even if they have the same symptoms as you do. It can be harmful for people to take this medication if their doctor has not prescribed it.
What form(s) does this medication come in?
Each white, oval-shaped, unscored, film-coated tablet, with code “951” on one side and plain on the other, contains losartan potassium 25 mg. Nonmedicinal ingredients: carnauba wax, corn starch, hydroxypropyl cellulose, hydroxypropyl methylcellulose, lactose, magnesium stearate, microcrystalline cellulose, and titanium dioxide.
Each white, oval-shaped, film-coated tablet, with code “952” on one side and scored on the other, contains losartan potassium 50 mg. Do not split COZAAR 50 mg tablets. Nonmedicinal ingredients: carnauba wax, corn starch, hydroxypropyl cellulose, hydroxypropyl methylcellulose, lactose, magnesium stearate, microcrystalline cellulose, and titanium dioxide.
Each white, teardrop-shaped, unscored, film-coated tablet, with code “960” on one side and plain on the other, contains losartan potassium 100 mg. Nonmedicinal ingredients: carnauba wax, corn starch, hydroxypropyl cellulose, hydroxypropyl methylcellulose, lactose, magnesium stearate, microcrystalline cellulose, and titanium dioxide.
How should I use this medication?
The usual recommended dose of losartan for adults is 50 mg or 100 mg once daily. The usual starting dose is 50 mg once daily. In some cases, a lower starting dose of 25 mg once daily may be advisable. Do not take more than 100 mg once daily. Your doctor will adjust the dosage according to individual needs.
The usual recommended dose of losartan for children, aged 6 – 16 years, is based on body weight. The dose is 25 mg once daily for children weighing between 20 kg and 49 kg. This dose may be increased to 50 mg once daily. In children weighing more than 50 kg, the starting dose is 50 mg taken once daily. This dose may be increased to 100 mg once daily.
Losartan may be taken with or without food, but should be taken the same way each day.
Many things can affect the dose of a medication that a person needs, such as body weight, other medical conditions, and other medications. If your doctor has recommended a dose different from the ones listed here, do not change the way that you are taking the medication without consulting your doctor.
It is important that this medication be taken exactly as prescribed by your doctor. If you miss a dose, skip the missed dose and continue with your regular dosing schedule. Do not take a double dose to make up for a missed one. If you are not sure what to do after missing a dose, contact your doctor or pharmacist for advice.
Do not dispose of medications in wastewater (e.g. down the sink or in the toilet) or in household garbage. Ask your pharmacist how to dispose of medications that are no longer needed or have expired.
Who should NOT take this medication?
Do not use this medication if you:
- are allergic to losartan or any ingredients of the medication
- have diabetes or moderate-to-severe kidney disease and are taking the medication aliskiren
What side effects are possible with this medication?
Many medications can cause side effects. A side effect is an unwanted response to a medication when it is taken in normal doses. Side effects can be mild or severe, temporary or permanent. The side effects listed below are not experienced by everyone who takes this medication. If you are concerned about side effects, discuss the risks and benefits of this medication with your doctor.
The following side effects have been reported by at least 1% of people taking this medication. Many of these side effects can be managed, and some may go away on their own over time.
Contact your doctor if you experience these side effects and they are severe or bothersome. Your pharmacist may be able to advise you on managing side effects.
- back or leg pain
- changed sense of taste
- muscle cramps
Although most of these side effects listed below don’t happen very often, they could lead to serious problems if you do not check with your doctor or seek medical attention.
Check with your doctor as soon as possible if any of the following side effects occur:
- fainting or dizziness when rising from a sitting or lying position
- signs of clotting problems (e.g., unusual nosebleeds, bruising, blood in urine, coughing blood, bleeding gums, cuts that don’t stop bleeding)
- signs of kidney problems (e.g., change in the amount or colour of urine, increased urination at night, blood in the urine, swelling in the feet or legs)
- signs of liver problems (e.g., nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, loss of appetite, weight loss, yellowing of the skin or whites of the eyes, dark urine, pale stools)
- signs of too much potassium in the body (e.g., irregular heartbeat, muscle weakness, generally feeling unwell)
- unexplained muscle pain, weakness, or dark brown urine
Stop taking the medication and seek immediate medical attention if any of the following occur:
- signs of a serious allergic reaction (e. g., swelling of face or throat, hives, or difficulty breathing)
Some people may experience side effects other than those listed. Check with your doctor if you notice any symptom that worries you while you are taking this medication.
Are there any other precautions or warnings for this medication?
Before you begin using a medication, be sure to inform your doctor of any medical conditions or allergies you may have, any medications you are taking, whether you are pregnant or breast-feeding, and any other significant facts about your health. These factors may affect how you should use this medication.
Blood pressure: Occasionally, a larger-than-expected drop in blood pressure occurs after taking losartan, in some cases after the first dose. It is more likely to occur if you take diuretics (water pills) or the medication aliskiren, have reduced salt intake, are on dialysis, or are experiencing diarrhea or vomiting. Blood pressure should be checked more often in these situations. If you have low blood pressure or are just starting to take this medication, you should move slowly when you are rising from a reclining to an upright position to reduce the risk of dizziness.
Dizziness: Losartan may cause dizziness, affecting your ability to drive or operate machinery. Avoid these and other hazardous tasks until you have determined how this medication affects you.
Kidney problems: The use of losartan may affect the function of the kidneys, especially for those who already have kidney problems. Certain people have experienced changes in kidney function (e.g., people with narrowed blood vessels in their kidneys, or those with severe congestive heart failure). The use of diuretics (water pills), nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) or aliskiren may further increase risk of kidney problems for people already at risk for this problem. If you have kidney function problems, your doctor will likely closely monitor your condition while you are taking this medication.
Liver function: Losartan is removed from the body by the liver. Liver disease or reduced liver function may cause this medication to build up in the body, causing side effects. If you have liver problems, discuss with your doctor how this medication may affect your medical condition, how your medical condition may affect the dosing and effectiveness of this medication, and whether any special monitoring is needed. Your doctor may want to test your liver function regularly with blood tests while you are taking this medication.
Potassium: Increases in blood levels of potassium can occur with use of this medication. This rarely causes problems, but your doctor may want to monitor your potassium levels through blood tests.
Pregnancy: Losartan should not be taken by pregnant women as it can cause severe harm or death to an unborn child. If you are planning to become pregnant, discuss alternative medications for blood pressure control with your doctor.
If you become pregnant while taking this medication, stop taking it and tell your doctor at once.
Breast-feeding: It is not known if losartan passes into breast milk. If you are a breast-feeding mother and are taking this medication, it may affect your baby. Talk to your doctor about whether you should continue breast-feeding.
Children: The safety and effectiveness of using this medication have not been established for children less than 6 years of age.
What other drugs could interact with this medication?
There may be an interaction between losartan and any of the following:
- aldosterone antagonists (e.g., eplerenone, finerenone, spironolactone)
- alpha-agonists (e.g., clonidine, methyldopa)
- alpha-blockers (e.g., alfuzosin, tamsulosin)
- amphetamines (e.g., dextroamphetamine)
- angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors (ACEIs; e. g., captopril, lisinopril, ramipril)
- other angiotensin receptor blockers (ARBs; e.g., candesartan, irbesartan)
- antipsychotics (e.g., cariprazine, chlorpromazine, clozapine, haloperidol, olanzapine, quetiapine, risperidone)
- barbiturates (e.g., butalbital, phenobarbital)
- calcium channel blockers (e.g., amlodipine, diltiazem, nifedipine, verapamil)
- CF transmembrane regulators (e.g., ivacaftor, lumacaftor)
- diuretics (water pills; e.g., bumetanide, furosemide)
- general anesthetics (medications used to put people to sleep before surgery)
- heparin and low-molecular weight heparins (e.g., dalteparin, tinzaparin)
- iron sucrose
- monoamine oxidase inhibitors (MAOIs; e. g., phenelzine, rasagiline, selegiline, tranylcypromine)
- medications that increase the level of potassium in the blood (e.g., spironolactone, amiloride, triamterene, or salt substitutes that contain potassium)
- nitrates (e.g., nitroglycerin, isosorbide dinitrate, isosorbide mononitrate)
- non-steroidal anti-inflammatory medications (NSAIDs; e.g., diclofenac, ibuprofen, ketorolac, naproxen)
- phosphodiesterase 5 inhibitors (e.g., sildenafil, tadalafil, vardenafil)
- certain protein kinase inhibitors (e.g., asciminib, brigatinib)
- sodium phosphates
- tricyclic antidepressants (e. g., clomipramine, imipramine)
If you are taking any of these medications, speak with your doctor or pharmacist. Depending on your specific circumstances, your doctor may want you to:
- stop taking one of the medications,
- change one of the medications to another,
- change how you are taking one or both of the medications, or
- leave everything as is.
An interaction between two medications does not always mean that you must stop taking one of them. Speak to your doctor about how any drug interactions are being managed or should be managed.
Medications other than those listed above may interact with this medication. Tell your doctor or prescriber about all prescription, over-the-counter (non-prescription), and herbal medications you are taking. Also tell them about any supplements you take. Since caffeine, alcohol, the nicotine from cigarettes, or street drugs can affect the action of many medications, you should let your prescriber know if you use them.
All material copyright MediResource Inc. 1996 – 2023. Terms and conditions of use. The contents herein are for informational purposes only. Always seek the advice of your physician or other qualified health provider with any questions you may have regarding a medical condition. Source: www.medbroadcast.com/drug/getdrug/Cozaar
Side effects of losartan – NHS
Like all medicines, losartan can cause side effects, although not everyone gets them. Side effects often improve as your body gets used to the medicine.
Common side effects
These common side effects of losartan happen in more than 1 in 100 people. There are things you can do to help cope with them:
If losartan makes you feel dizzy when you stand up, try getting up very slowly or stay sitting down until you feel better. If you begin to feel dizzy, lie down so that you do not faint, then sit until you feel better. Do not drive, ride a bike or use tools or machinery if you feel dizzy.
Make sure you rest, and drink plenty of fluids. It’s best not to drink too much alcohol. Ask your pharmacist to recommend a painkiller.
Headaches should usually go away after the first week of taking losartan. Talk to your doctor if they last longer than a week or are severe.
Feeling sick (nausea)
Try taking your tablets with or after a meal or snack. It may also help if you do not eat rich or spicy food.
Being sick (vomiting)
Stick to simple meals and do not eat rich or spicy food. It might help to take your losartan after you have eaten.
Try drinking small, frequent sips of water to avoid dehydration. Signs of dehydration include peeing less than usual or having dark, strong-smelling pee.
Do not take any other medicines to treat vomiting without speaking to a pharmacist or doctor.
If you take contraceptive pills and you’re being sick, your contraception may not protect you from pregnancy. Check the pill packet for advice.
Drink plenty of fluids, such as water or squash, to prevent dehydration. Signs of dehydration include peeing less than usual or having dark, strong-smelling pee.
If you get severe diarrhoea from a stomach bug or illness, tell your doctor. You may need to stop taking losartan for a while until you feel better. Do not take any medicines to treat diarrhoea without talking to a pharmacist or doctor.
If you take contraceptive pills and you have severe diarrhoea, your contraception may not protect you from pregnancy. Check the pill packet for advice.
Pain in your joints or muscles
If you get unusual muscle pain, weakness or tiredness which is not from exercise or physical hard work, talk to your doctor. You may need a blood test to check what might be causing it.
Speak to a doctor or pharmacist if the advice on how to cope does not help and a side effect is still bothering you or lasts more than a few days.
Serious side effects
It happens rarely, but some people have serious side effects after taking losartan.
Call a doctor or call 111 straight away if:
- the whites of your eyes turn yellow, or your skin turns yellow although this may be less obvious on brown or black skin – this can be a sign of liver problems
- you get severe stomach pain – this can be a sign of an inflamed pancreas
- your skin becomes more pale than usual, you feel tired, faint or dizzy, get purple spots (that come from superficial bleeding into the skin), show any sign of bleeding, or have a sore throat and high temperature – these can be signs of a blood or bone marrow disorder
- you feel weak, have an irregular heartbeat, pins and needles and muscle cramps – these can be signs of changes in the potassium levels in your blood
Serious allergic reaction
In rare cases, it’s possible to have a serious allergic reaction (anaphylaxis) to losartan.
Immediate action required: Call 999 now if:
- your lips, mouth, throat or tongue suddenly become swollen
- you’re breathing very fast or struggling to breathe (you may become very wheezy or feel like you’re choking or gasping for air)
- your throat feels tight or you’re struggling to swallow
- your skin, tongue or lips turn blue, grey or pale (if you have black or brown skin, this may be easier to see on the palms of your hands or soles of your feet)
- you suddenly become very confused, drowsy or dizzy
- someone faints and cannot be woken up
- a child is limp, floppy or not responding like they normally do (their head may fall to the side, backwards or forwards, or they may find it difficult to lift their head or focus on your face)
You or the person who’s unwell may also have a rash that’s swollen, raised, itchy, blistered or peeling.
These can be signs of a serious allergic reaction and may need immediate treatment in hospital.
Long-term side effects
Sometimes, taking losartan for a long time can cause your kidneys not to work as well as they should. Your doctor will check how well your kidneys are working with regular blood tests.
Other side effects
These are not all the side effects of losartan. For a full list, see the leaflet inside your medicine packet.
You can report any suspected side effect using the Yellow Card safety scheme.
Visit Yellow Card for further information.
Page last reviewed: 24 February 2022
Next review due: 24 February 2025
💊 Composition of Cozaar
✅ Use of Cozaar
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Description of the active ingredients of the preparation
The scientific information provided is general and cannot be used to make decisions.
Update date: 2020.11.07
Marketing authorization holder:
MERCK SHARP & DOHME, B. V.
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Release form, packaging and composition
|I10||Essential [primary] hypertension|
|I50.0||Congestive heart failure|
|N08.3||Glomerular lesions in diabetes mellitus|
The method of administration and dosing regimen of a particular drug depends on its form of release and other factors. The optimal dosage regimen is determined by the doctor. Compliance of the dosage form of a particular drug with indications for use and dosing regimen should be strictly observed.
The average oral dose is 50 mg 1 time / day. If necessary, the dose can be reduced to 25 mg / day or increased to 100 mg / day, in the latter case it can be used 2 times / day.
From the side of the cardiovascular system: dizziness, orthostatic hypotension.
From the side of metabolism: hyperkalemia.
Allergic reactions: angioedema (including swelling of the face, lips, pharynx and/or tongue), urticaria.
From the digestive system: diarrhea, increased ALT activity.
From the side of the central nervous system: headache.
Dermatological reactions: itching.
Other: kidney dysfunction, myalgia.
Contraindications for use
Pregnancy, lactation, children and adolescents under 18 years of age, hypersensitivity to losartan.
Use in pregnancy and lactation
Contraindicated in pregnancy and lactation.
Use in hepatic impairment
In patients with a history of liver disease, low doses of losartan should be used. With cirrhosis of the liver, the concentration of losartan in the blood plasma increases significantly.
Use in impaired renal function
Renal impairment may require dose reduction of losartan.
Use in children
The safety and efficacy of losartan in children have not been established.
Use in elderly patients
In elderly patients during the treatment period, the level of potassium in the blood should be regularly monitored.
Use with caution in arterial hypotension, decreased BCC, fluid and electrolyte imbalance, bilateral renal artery stenosis or arterial stenosis of a solitary kidney, in renal / hepatic insufficiency
Patients who are deficient in fluid and/or sodium should have their fluid and electrolyte disturbances corrected before starting treatment or use a lower initial dose.
In patients with dehydration (eg, treated with high dose diuretics), symptomatic hypotension may occur at the start of treatment with losartan.
Renal impairment may require dose reduction of losartan.
In patients with a history of liver disease, losartan should be used at low doses. With cirrhosis of the liver, the concentration of losartan in the blood plasma increases significantly.
During the period of treatment, the level of potassium in the blood should be regularly monitored, especially in elderly patients, with impaired renal function.
Concomitant use of losartan with potassium-sparing diuretics should be avoided.
The safety and efficacy of losartan in children have not been established.
When used simultaneously with diuretics in high doses, arterial hypotension is possible.
When used simultaneously with potassium preparations, potassium-sparing diuretics, the risk of developing hyperkalemia increases.
Co-administration with indomethacin may reduce the effectiveness of losartan.
There is a report of the development of lithium intoxication with simultaneous use with lithium carbonate.
When used simultaneously with orlistat, the antihypertensive effect of losartan decreases, which can lead to a significant increase in blood pressure, the development of a hypertensive crisis.
With simultaneous use with rifampicin, the clearance of losartan increases and its effectiveness decreases.
If you want to place a link to the description of this drug – use this code
Cozaar . Description of the drug in the reference book Vidal.
Kozaar film-coated tablets 50mg №14 at a low price in Omsk, instructions for use, composition, analogues
Kozaar is a specific angiotensin II receptor antagonist (type AT1) for oral administration. Angiotensin II binds selectively to AT1 receptors found in many tissues (vascular smooth muscle, adrenal glands, kidneys, and heart) and performs several important biological functions, including vasoconstriction and aldosterone release. Angiotensin II also stimulates the proliferation of smooth muscle cells.
Losartan and its pharmacologically active metabolite (E 3174), both in vitro and in vivo, block all physiological effects of angiotensin II, regardless of the source or route of synthesis. Unlike some peptide angiotensin II antagonists, losartan does not have agonist effects.
Losartan selectively binds to AT1 receptors and does not bind to or block receptors for other hormones and ion channels that play an important role in the regulation of cardiovascular function. In addition, losartan does not inhibit ACE, which is responsible for the destruction of bradykinin. Therefore, effects not directly related to the blockade of AT1 receptors, in particular, increased effects associated with exposure to bradykinin or the development of edema (losartan – 1.7%, placebo – 1.9%), are not related to the action of losartan.
Long-term (6-week) treatment of patients with arterial hypertension with losartan at a dose of 100 mg/day. there was a 2-3-fold increase in the level of angiotensin II at the time of reaching Cmax of the drug in plasma. in some patients, an even greater increase in the concentration of losartan was observed, especially with a short duration of treatment (2 weeks). During treatment, antihypertensive activity and a decrease in plasma aldosterone concentration appeared after 2 and 6 weeks of therapy, indicating an effective blockade of angiotensin II receptors. However, after the discontinuation of losartan, plasma renin activity and the level of angiotensin II after 3 days decreased to the initial values observed before the start of the drug.
Since losartan is a specific angiotensin II AT1 receptor antagonist, it does not inhibit ACE, kinase II, an enzyme that inactivates bradykinin. A study comparing the effects of losartan 20 mg and 100 mg with the effects of an ACE inhibitor on response to angiotensin I, angiotensin II and bradykinin showed that losartan blocked the effects of angiotensin I and angiotensin II without affecting the effects of bradykinin, due to the specific the mechanism of action of losartan. In contrast, ACE inhibitors block the angiotensin I response and increase the response to bradykinin without affecting the response to angiotensin II, which demonstrates the pharmacodynamic difference between losartan and ACE inhibitors.
Plasma concentrations of losartan and its active metabolite, as well as the antihypertensive effect of losartan, increase with increasing dose of the drug. Because losartan and its active metabolite are angiotensin II receptor antagonists, both of which cause an antihypertensive effect.
In a study with a single dose of 100 mg of losartan in healthy volunteers (males), the use of the drug, both in patients on a diet with a limited content of table salt, and in patients consuming a lot of table salt, did not affect the glomerular filtration rate, effective renal plasma flow and filtration fraction . Losartan has a natriuretic effect, which was more pronounced with a low-salt diet and, apparently, was not associated with the suppression of early sodium reabsorption in the proximal renal tubules. Losartan also caused a transient increase in renal excretion of uric acid.
In patients with arterial hypertension, proteinuria (more than 2 g/24 h), not suffering from diabetes mellitus and taking losartan for 8 weeks at a dose of 50 mg to 100 mg, there was a significant decrease in proteinuria by 42%, fractional excretion of albumin and IgG. In these patients, losartan stabilized the glomerular filtration rate and reduced the filtration fraction.
In postmenopausal women with arterial hypertension treated with losartan potassium at a dose of 50 mg/day. within 4 weeks, there was no effect of therapy on renal and systemic prostaglandin levels.
Losartan does not affect autonomic reflexes and has no long-term effect on plasma norepinephrine levels.
In patients with arterial hypertension losartan at doses up to 150 mg/day. does not cause clinically significant changes in the level of fasting triglycerides, total cholesterol (Xc) and HDL-C. At the same doses, losartan has no effect on fasting blood glucose levels.
In general, losartan caused a decrease in serum uric acid levels (usually less than 0.4 mg/dL), which was maintained during long-term therapy. In controlled clinical trials, which included patients with arterial hypertension, there were no cases of discontinuation of the drug due to an increase in serum creatinine or potassium levels.
P a pharmacokinetics it is absorbed from the gastrointestinal tract and undergoes a first pass effect through the liver, resulting in the formation of an active carboxylated metabolite and inactive metabolites. The systemic bioavailability of losartan is approximately 33%. The average Cmax of losartan and its active metabolite are reached after 1 hour and after 3-4 hours, respectively. When taking losartan during a normal meal, there was no clinically significant effect on the plasma concentration profile of losartan.
Losartan and its active metabolite are more than 99% bound to plasma proteins (mainly albumin). Vd losartan is 34 liters. Studies in rats have shown that losartan practically does not penetrate the BBB.
Approximately 14% of the dose of losartan (when administered orally and intravenously) is converted into its active metabolite. After oral or intravenous administration of 14C-labeled losartan, the radioactivity of circulating blood plasma is primarily associated with the presence of losartan and its active metabolite in it. Biologically inactive metabolites are also formed, incl. two main ones, formed as a result of hydroxylation of the butyl side chain, and one minor – N-2-tetrazole-glucuronide.
Plasma clearance of losartan and its active metabolite is approximately 600 ml/min and 50 ml/min, respectively. The renal clearance of losartan and its active metabolite is approximately 74 ml/min and 26 ml/min, respectively. When losartan is taken orally, about 4% of the dose is excreted unchanged in the urine and about 6% of the dose is excreted in the urine as the active metabolite. Losartan and its active metabolite have linear pharmacokinetics with oral administration of losartan potassium at doses up to 200 mg.
After oral administration, plasma concentrations of losartan and its active metabolite decrease polyexponentially with a final T1 / 2 of approximately 2 and 6-9 hours, respectively. When taking the drug at a dose of 100 mg 1 time / day. there is no significant accumulation in the blood plasma of either losartan or its active metabolite.
Losartan and its metabolites are excreted in bile and urine. After ingestion of losartan labeled with 14C, about 35% of the radioactive label is found in the urine and 58% in the feces. After intravenous administration of losartan labeled with 14C, approximately 43% of the radioactive label is detected in the urine and 50% in the feces.
Pharmacokinetics in special groups of patients
Plasma concentrations of losartan and its active metabolite in elderly patients with arterial hypertension do not significantly differ from those in younger patients with arterial hypertension.