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Cranberry as a diuretic: Cranberry (Azo-Cranberry) – Side Effects, Interactions, Uses, Dosage, Warnings

Is It Effective And How Does It Work? – Ward III

Cranberry juice cocktail has long been used as a home remedy for urinary tract infections (UTIs). But does it actually work? And is it a diuretic? Cranberry juice contains a type of sugar called D-mannose, which can help prevent UTIs by keeping bacteria from sticking to the walls of the urinary tract. Some research has shown that cranberry juice may be effective in preventing UTIs, but other studies have not found a benefit. Cranberry juice is also a diuretic, which means it increases urine output. This can help to flush out bacteria that may be causing a UTI. However, it can also lead to dehydration, so it’s important to drink plenty of fluids when you are taking cranberry juice. If you are thinking about using cranberry juice to treat a UTI, talk to your doctor first. They can help you determine if it is the right option for you and can also give you advice on how to avoid dehydration.

A cranberry juice cocktail is made. In cranberry juice, the word “juice” is usually used. Other fruits are occasionally added to balance the tart cranberry flavor, but the product’s label indicates that it is made with 100% fruit juices. In contrast, cranberry juice cocktail has added sugars or high-fructose corn syrup for extra sweetness…

Dr. Kavaler suggests that fruits, particularly watery ones like watermelon, grapes, and blueberries, are ideal for people who are suffering from chronic kidney disease or any other type of chronic illness. In addition to being diuretic, pineapple and lemons can be beneficial in terms of their health benefits.

The kidneys function as a filtering system for blood, so elevated levels of cholesterol and blood pressure are directly related to kidney health. Cranberries, in addition to preventing pathogenic bacteria from accumulating at the walls of the kidneys, have been shown to protect against infections and diseases.

Is Cranberry Cocktail A Diuretic?

Cranberry cocktail is a diuretic, meaning it helps to expel water from the body. This can be helpful in situations where you need to reduce water retention, such as before a competition. Cranberry cocktail is also a good source of antioxidants and can help to protect the kidneys from damage.

It’s simple to get a daily dose of antioxidants and vitamins by drinking cranberry juice. It not only prevents dehydration, but it also aids in weight loss. Because cranberry juice cocktail is a mild diuretic, it aids in the removal of water from the body. Antioxidants and vitamins in it can help you stay healthy. If you want a refreshing drink that will keep you hydrated and healthy, cranberry juice cocktails are the way to go.

Does Cranberry Juice Make You Pee?

This is a cranberry juice drink. The acidity of berries can irritate your bladder, but its diuretic action aids in the removal of the bladder and urethra, making it more likely that you will return to it on occasion.

What Drinks Act As Diuretics?

People who drink coffee and tea benefit from the caffeine that is naturally diuretic. Black and green teas are ideal if you want to get a diuretic drink without having to drink anything, and they can be consumed knowing how much you drink.

What Are The Benefits Of Drinking Cranberry Juice Cocktail?

Because cranberry juice is high in vitamin C, it aids in the health of your immune system. Anti-inflammatory properties combat oxidative stress caused by free radicals and kill harmful bacteria. Low vitamin C levels have also been linked to poor immune function in some studies. It is necessary to keep an infection at bay.

Is Blueberry Juice A Diuretic

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Yes, blueberry juice is a diuretic. This means that it helps to promote urination, which can help to flush out the kidneys and reduce bloating.

The Benefits Of Blueberry Juice

Drinking blueberry juice on a daily basis may help to reduce oxidative damage to DNA and improve kidney health. Eating blueberries, which contain a lot of antioxidants, is frequently thought to be a constipation-relieving solution.

Are Dried Cranberries A Diuretic

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Although the jury is still out on the effects of cranberry proanthocyanidins in cranberry and their antibacterial properties, cranberry extracts appear to be especially beneficial for diuretics, lowering fluid levels without affecting potassium levels.

The Many Health Benefits Of Dried Cranberries

Dried cranberries, in addition to their antioxidant properties, are high in vitamins C and E, which are important for the urinary tract and kidneys. It contains phytonutrients known as A-type proanthocyanidins, which prevent bacteria from sticking to the lining of the urinary tract and bladder, which aids in the prevention of urinary tract infections.

Is Orange Juice A Diuretic

Oranges have a low sugar content, making them an excellent source of diuretics, which can help regulate the disease in people.

Do Oranges Act As A Diuretic?

Oranges are high in both vitamin K and folate, according to the USDA. Potassium, in addition to supporting heart function and muscle contractions, also aids in muscle growth and maintenance. This mineral, in addition to being a natural diuretic, also aids in blood pressure reduction and fluid retention.

Water With Lemon: The Perfect Diuretic Drink

Zumpano recommends drinking lemon water with a diuretic drink that won’t make you feel dizzy. It’s not only refreshing, but it’s also high in water, making it an excellent choice if you get dehydrated.

What Does Orange Juice Do To Urine?

Orange juice has been shown to raise urine pH and citrate, as well as reduce the supersaturation of calcium oxalate. The use of orange juice for the prevention of kidney stones is still being investigated.

The Best Fruits To Eat If You’re Prone To Utis

Citrus is not always the same as others. Apples, blueberries, and pears, for example, are acidic and less likely to cause bladder irritation and UTI symptoms. In other words, if you want a snack or drink that also provides you with vitamins and minerals, choose a fruit other than citrus.

Is Pomegranate Juice A Diuretic

Pomegranate juice is a diuretic, which means it helps to increase urine output and can be helpful in treating conditions like edema and urinary tract infections. Drinking pomegranate juice can also help to flush out toxins and excess fluids from the body, making it a great way to stay hydrated and healthy.

Pomegranate Juice: The Diuretic Of Choice For Water Retention

Is pomegranate juice a good alternative for water retention? If yes, what are the benefits of drinking it?
Pomegranate juice is high in potassium and sodium, which means it has a high draining capacity and aids in the elimination of excess liquids, lowering water retention.
What will happen if I drink pomegranate juice everyday?
According to one review, consuming pomegranate juice had a significant effect on blood pressure. According to the authors, drinking this juice on a regular basis may help to lower your risk of heart disease.
Do you need to avoid drinking pomegranate juice?
Make sure your juice is free of sugar. If you have diabetes, you should consult with your doctor before consuming fruit juices such as pomegranate. If you have diarrhea, you should avoid drinking pomegranate juice or taking pomegranate extract. Pomegranate extract may contain fruit rind, so pregnant women should avoid using it.

What Medications Does Cranberry Juice Interfere With

Cranberry juice can interfere with a number of medications, including blood thinners, certain antibiotics, and medications used to treat urinary tract infections. If you are taking any of these medications, it is important to speak to your healthcare provider before drinking cranberry juice.

Cranberry Juice: Drink With Caution

According to some research, cranberry may slow the rate at which the liver breaks down some medications. Some medications may be more effective and have more side effects if taken with cranberry supplements that have been broken down by the liver. If you have diabetes, high blood pressure, or any of the following conditions, use cranberry juice with caution. Sugary cranberry juice can cause blood sugar spikes. Kidney stones are possible because cranberry juice contains a lot of oxalates. If you are allergic to cranberry, you should not take this medicine. Can cranberry supplements be taken with other medications if you have kidney stones, cirrhosis, or other liver disease (some cranberry products may contain alcohol), or a history of other liver diseases (check with your doctor or pharmacist first)? When taking antibiotics, cranberry juice should not be consumed. If you are taking multiple antibiotics at the same time, it is always best to consult a doctor before starting any new medication.

Cranberry Juice

Cranberry juice is a type of fruit juice made from the juice of cranberries. Cranberry juice is usually tart and acidic, and is often used as a mixer for alcoholic beverages. Cranberry juice can also be sweetened, and is sometimes used as a dessert topping or in baking recipes.

Simply cranberry Juice Cocktail is a great choice if you want to incorporate cranberry juice into your diet. Because it contains real cranberry juice, it also does not contain any added sugars or water, which makes it a more convenient way to consume cranberries. Furthermore, Simply Cranberry Juice Cocktail is made with all-natural ingredients, which makes it a less harmful alternative to cranberry juice.

Overview, Uses, Side Effects, Precautions, Interactions, Dosing and Reviews


Cranberry (Vaccinium macrocarpon) is an evergreen shrub that grows in bogs in North America. It produces dark red fruits that contain salicylic acid.

Chemicals in cranberries keep bacteria from sticking to the cells in the urinary tract. But they don’t seem to be able to remove bacteria that are already stuck to these cells. This might explain why cranberry helps prevent urinary tract infections (UTIs), but doesn’t help treat them.

People commonly use cranberry to prevent UTIs. Cranberry is also used for kidney stones, enlarged prostate, the common cold, and many other conditions, but there is no good scientific evidence to support these uses.

Don’t confuse cranberry with cramp bark, lingonberry, or uva ursi. These are sometimes also called cranberry but they are not the same.

Uses & Effectiveness ?

Possibly Effective for

  • Infections of the kidney, bladder, or urethra (urinary tract infections or UTIs). Taking certain cranberry products by mouth seems to help prevent UTIs in adult females. But it doesn’t seem to help people with neurogenic bladder, a condition caused by a spinal cord injury. It’s also not clear if it helps in children, elderly adults, or pregnant adults. It’s important to note that while cranberry might help prevent UTIs in some people, it shouldn’t be used to treat UTIs.

There is interest in using cranberry for a number of other purposes, but there isn’t enough reliable information to say whether it might be helpful.

Side Effects

When taken by mouth: Cranberry is commonly consumed in foods. Cranberry juice and cranberry extracts are likely safe for most adults. Drinking too much cranberry juice might cause some side effects such as mild stomach upset and diarrhea in some people.

Special Precautions and Warnings

Pregnancy and breast-feeding: Cranberry is commonly consumed in foods. There isn’t enough reliable information to know if cranberry is safe to use in larger amounts when pregnant or breast-feeding. Stay on the safe side and stick to food amounts.

Children: Cranberry is commonly consumed in foods. There isn’t enough reliable information to know if cranberry is safe to use as medicine or what the side effects might be.

Aspirinallergy: Cranberries contain significant amounts of salicylic acid. Salicylic acid is similar to aspirin. Avoid drinking large quantities of cranberry juice if you are allergic to aspirin.

Diabetes: Some cranberry juice products are sweetened with extra sugar. If you have diabetes, stick with cranberry products that are sweetened with artificial sweeteners.

Kidney stones: Cranberry juice and cranberry extracts contain a large amount of a chemical called oxalate. Since oxalate is found in kidney stones, cranberry might increase the risk of kidney stones. If you have a history of kidney stones, stay on the safe side and avoid taking cranberry extract products or drinking a lot of cranberry juice.

Interactions ?

    Moderate Interaction

    Be cautious with this combination

  • Warfarin is used to slow blood clotting. Cranberry might increase how long warfarin is in the body, and increase the chances of bruising and bleeding. Be sure to have your blood checked regularly. Your warfarin dose might need to be changed.

  • Cranberry might decrease how quickly the body breaks down atorvastatin. This might increase the effects and side effects of atorvastatin. Avoid drinking large amounts of cranberry juice if you are taking atorvastatin.

  • Some medications are changed and broken down by the liver. Cranberry might change how quickly the liver breaks down these medications. This could change the effects and side effects of these medications.

  • Cranberry might decrease how quickly the body breaks down nifedipine. Drinking cranberry juice while taking nifedipine might increase the effects and side effects of nifedipine.

    Minor Interaction

    Be watchful with this combination

  • Some medications are changed and broken down by the liver. Cranberry might change how quickly the liver breaks down these medications. This could change the effects and side effects of these medications.

  • Cranberry might decrease how quickly the body breaks down diclofenac. Drinking cranberry juice while taking diclofenac might increase the effects and side effects of diclofenac.


Cranberry is commonly consumed in the diet in juices, jellies, sauces, and other foods.

As medicine, cranberry dried powder has most often been used by adults in doses of 250-1500 mg by mouth daily for up to 6 months. Cranberry extract has most often been used in doses of 120-1600 mg by mouth daily for 12 weeks. And cranberry juice drinks are often used in doses of 120-750 mL daily for up to 90 days. Speak with a healthcare provider to find out what type of product and dose might be best for a specific condition.

View References

CONDITIONS OF USE AND IMPORTANT INFORMATION: This information is meant to supplement, not replace advice from your doctor or healthcare provider and is not meant to cover all possible uses, precautions, interactions or adverse effects. This information may not fit your specific health circumstances. Never delay or disregard seeking professional medical advice from your doctor or other qualified health care provider because of something you have read on WebMD. You should always speak with your doctor or health care professional before you start, stop, or change any prescribed part of your health care plan or treatment and to determine what course of therapy is right for you.

This copyrighted material is provided by Natural Medicines Comprehensive Database Consumer Version. Information from this source is evidence-based and objective, and without commercial influence. For professional medical information on natural medicines, see Natural Medicines Comprehensive Database Professional Version. © Therapeutic Research Faculty 2018.

Benefits of mors – expert opinion of Roskachestvo

Roskachestvo experts explain why cranberry mors helps with colds, why it is important to prepare mors correctly and is there a difference between factory-made and home-made drinks.

Morse for colds: what is the use?

“Drink more liquids, especially fruit drinks” – the phrase has already become a formula in the mouth of a doctor who is treated by a patient with a cold. And why does a sick person need a fruit drink? Explains Vadim Krylov , doctor – endocrinologist , nutritionist MEDSI CDC.

– With any inflammatory disease, and flu and colds certainly belong to them, free radicals are formed that need to be removed.

With the help of fruit drinks, the body quickly gets rid of toxins, and the person is recovering more actively. After all, the main ingredient of the drink is berries (fresh or frozen), rich in various trace elements.

Medicinal properties of cranberries

Most often, for the treatment of colds, it is recommended to drink cranberry juice. I wonder why? And cranberries contain vitamins of group B, K1, etc., as well as potassium, iron, etc. Citric, benzoic, quinic, hippuric, malic and other acids give piquant sourness to cranberries. What a useful mix!

“Due to the large amount of biologically active substances (including plant dyes – anthocyanins and flavonoids), cranberries stimulate the active work of the immune system,” notes Vadim Krylov.

What are the benefits of cranberries?

  • Has an antipyretic effect.
  • Has a diuretic effect. The substances contained in the berry stop the process of reproduction of bacteria and prevent their attachment to the walls of the bladder, so cranberry juice is prescribed for the prevention of cystitis.
  • Removes excess fluid, salts and toxins from the body, speeding up metabolic processes and increasing perspiration. In the heat, cranberry juice can save you from swelling.
  • Has an anti-inflammatory and antibacterial effect. Phytoncides – biologically active substances formed by plants – kill or inhibit the growth of microscopic fungi and bacteria. Thus, cranberries effectively fight not only the common cold, but also, for example, periodontal disease and kidney disease.
  • Benzoic acid in cranberries is involved in the regulation of blood clotting.

Other types of fruit drinks

With cranberries, we found out everything, but what about other types of fruit drinks? There are several dozen of them.

– It is impossible to name the most useful among fruit drinks, – says Vadim Krylov , – because there is no berry that would have a magical effect on the body. A set of measures to promote health is always required. Much also depends on the person’s disease. So, blackcurrant juice contains the most vitamin C (200 mg per 100 g of product), cranberries and lingonberries contain antibacterial substances. In blueberries, you can find the maximum amount of anthocyanins (natural dyes) that fight free radicals, so the berry, when consumed regularly in sufficient quantities, helps to strengthen the retina and normalize intraocular pressure.

Aronia berries are rich in potassium, which displaces sodium, that is, salt. Therefore, chokeberry is able to reduce swelling and lower blood pressure. Sea buckthorn is a source of saturated fatty acids and carotene, which contribute to the normalization of metabolism. Thanks to the pectic substances that make up the berry, it also lowers cholesterol levels.

Can everyone drink fruit drinks?

Like any medicine, there are contraindications.

You can not drink fruit drinks with diabetes. The drink contains sugar or honey. They can cause an increase in blood sugar levels.

With caution – with gastritis with high acidity, stomach and duodenal ulcers, liver diseases. Acid in fruit drinks can only worsen the condition.

Remember the diuretic properties of fruit drinks, as well as the ability of some berries (for example, chokeberries) to lower blood pressure. Its sharp jumps can be dangerous. Pregnant women in the first trimester should be excluded from the diet lingonberry juice (it provokes uterine tone).

Extremely useful cranberries can also surprise you. When consumed in large quantities, it leaches calcium. According to the degree of allergenicity, it belongs to the second category of products, which means that an allergy to it occurs – however, quite rarely. Most often, such a reaction manifests itself even in childhood (on average, 7% of children under two years old).

“People with diseases of the stomach and intestines should not drink fruit drinks on an empty stomach,” adds Vadim Krylov , – especially with increased acidity. It is important not to abuse the amount of drink.

Cooking the most healthy cranberry juice

When boiled, the healing properties of berries are reduced. To save vitamins, prepare the drink correctly! The main thing is to divide the berries into juice (we will boil it), and cake – we will insist on it.


cranberries – 550 g,
purified water – 1.7–2 l,
granulated sugar or honey – 125 g or to taste.

  1. Rinse the berries under running water. If cranberries are frozen, let them thaw completely.
  2. Mash the berries with a wooden masher.
  3. Squeeze the juice through a piece of gauze into a glass or porcelain dish. Do not use metal bowls – otherwise the juice will oxidize.
  4. Cake, which remained in the gauze, put in a saucepan, cover with water, bring to a boil. Then remove from heat, wrap the pan, for example, with a terry towel and let the cake brew for half an hour.
  5. Strain the infusion through a sieve into another container. Add berry juice (pure vitamins!), sugar or honey. Ready!


Honey, when heated above 40 degrees, loses its beneficial properties. If the honey is too thick, first dilute it in a glass of slightly warm infusion, and then add it to the chilled fruit drink.

Attention! For colds, drink juice at room temperature. Do not heat or boil the finished fruit drink – this way you will “kill” the vitamins.

Which is better – homemade juice or fruit drink from the store?

“Industrial fruit drinks are made using the same technology as domestic ones,” says Lyudmila Khomich, project manager of the Russian Union of Juice Producers.

– Water and sugar are added to the berry juice for taste (natural berry juices are very sour and tart – you won’t drink much). In order for the product not to spoil, it is subjected to short-term heat treatment (30–40 seconds at a temperature of 90–95 °С). Of all the beneficial substances that are contained in berries, with this method, only thermo-unstable vitamin C can be destroyed. Other vitamins, minerals, organic acids, etc. remain unchanged. Multi-layer combined packaging (cardboard bags) does not transmit light, air and microorganisms, so the product is stored for a long time without losing its useful properties.

But this is a standard procedure. Of course, some manufacturers may add, for example, dyes to fruit drinks. But in general this is rare.

The opinion that packaged juices are pure chemistry is nothing more than a myth. This is confirmed by the results of a study of fruit drinks conducted by Roskachestvo

None of the tested samples contains sugar substitutes and sweeteners, pesticides, heavy metals, nitrates.

And most importantly, there are no radioactive nuclides in factory fruit drinks. As you know, cranberries and lingonberries very easily accumulate radiation. That is why fresh berries should never be bought by hand, especially from merchants along the road! At the plant, the purchased berries undergo a mandatory radiation test.

Note that 6 fruit drinks out of 28 tested turned out to be with violations. Morses of which brands are recommended for purchase.

When choosing packaged fruit drinks, keep in mind

  • The minimum volume fraction of berry juice is 15%.
  • If the juice is cranberry, it should contain cranberries, but if the juice is called “berry” – it may contain other berries.
  • Cranberry juice should have a red color, a berry smell and a characteristic sour taste with a pleasant astringency.
  • The clarified fruit drink is not inferior to the non-clarified one in terms of usefulness.

Does cranberry have a diuretic effect © Geostart

Cranberry is a tasty and healthy berry, which contains a lot of vitamins and minerals necessary for a person. It grows predominantly in swampy areas and is mostly a wild plant. Due to its composition, its fruits are used in folk medicine as a remedy for many ailments.

Use of cranberries as a diuretic

Cranberries are an excellent diuretic, especially when prepared as fruit drink, and also in combination with other fruits and berries. This property is due to the ability of these fruits to remove toxins from the body associated with unnecessary fluid and normalize metabolism.

With regular use, cranberry compote or fruit drink normalizes the acid-base balance, which also helps to eliminate excess fluid and has a diuretic effect. These berries are an excellent folk remedy for the treatment of many ailments.

The most positive feedback was noted when using fruits for the treatment of infection or stones in the genitourinary system, due to their pronounced diuretic and uroseptic effect.

Mechanism of action on the genitourinary system

Regular consumption of cranberries increases the glomerular filtration rate by regulating the tone of the renal vessels. Since these berries are rich in macro- and microelements, they normalize the metabolism in the body, which also enhances the diuretic effect.

Properties and nutritional value of cranberries

In addition, the degree of tubular reabsorption of fluid decreases due to saturation of the body with sodium and chlorine, which increases the amount of urine. Together with urine, calcium salts are excreted from the kidneys, which are the main factors provoking the formation of stones and the development of urolithiasis.

How to use

Berries can be consumed raw, in fruit drink and juice, combined with other fruits or on their own. You can also add these fruits to compotes and uzvars, make jam from them.

In addition, for long-term storage, you can use the recipe for soaking berries. To do this, pour 20 glasses of fresh fruits with a glass of honey and 10 glasses of water. If desired, add spices (cinnamon and cloves).


Morse is a juice with pulp, which is an excellent source of vitamins and has excellent taste. Sugar or honey is often added to this drink. The latter enhances the beneficial properties of fruit drink.


  • cranberries: 500 g;
  • honey: 2 tbsp. l.;
  • water: 2 l.

Cooking instructions:

  1. Rinse cranberries under running water for 5 minutes.
  2. Sort through the berries, discarding those unfit for consumption.
  3. Mash the cranberries with a spoon in a bowl or saucepan.
  4. Squeeze the resulting mass through gauze, and place the juice in a glass dish.
  5. Pour the squeezed mixture with water and boil for 5 minutes.
  6. Strain the broth, add honey.
  7. Stir and cool.

Juice without cooking

Under the influence of temperature, useful vitamins and minerals are often destroyed, so juice without cooking retains even more useful substances. It is easier to separate the pulp from the seeds after scalding with boiling water, in which the structure of the fruit is not damaged.


  • cranberries: 500 g;
  • honey: 4 tbsp. l.;
  • drinking water cool: 2 l.

Step by step preparation instructions:

  1. Sort the fruits and rinse them under running water for 3 minutes.
  2. Scald fruit with boiling water. To do this, pour the water boiling in the kettle directly onto the berries.
  3. Blend with a blender.
  4. Add water.
  5. Strain the mixture through a fine sieve.
  6. Pour in honey and stir.



Decoction involves a thermal effect on the berries. Thanks to this, the drink acquires excellent taste, especially when combined with leaves.


  • cranberries: 400 g;
  • sugar: 100 g;
  • crushed plant leaves: 4 tbsp. l.;
  • cool drinking water: 200 g.

Step-by-step preparation instructions:

  1. Sort and rinse the berries under running water.
  2. Mash them with a spoon.
  3. Place the mass in a saucepan, adding water and sugar.
  4. Put on fire and bring to a boil.
  5. Remove from heat and add leaves.
  6. Cool slightly and bring to a boil again.
  7. Remove the pan from the stove, cover with a lid and wrap in a warm towel.
  8. Leave the decoction in a dark, cool place until it cools down completely.
  9. After steeping, strain and pour into glassware.


Juice contains the most benefit from cranberries. However, this drink is very acidic, so not many people can drink it. In addition, cranberry juice is contraindicated for people with high acidity of gastric juice, which is accompanied by gastritis and frequent heartburn. Of the ingredients for making a drink, you only need 500 g of cranberries.

Step-by-step preparation instructions:

  1. Rinse and sort the berries, removing unsuitable ones.
  2. Scald them with boiling water.
  3. Mash with a spoon or blend with a blender.
  4. Strain the mixture.
  5. Store the juice in a glass container in the refrigerator for no more than a day.

Leaf tea

Leaf tea is an excellent substitute for store-bought drinks and will warm you up on cold evenings. In addition, the leaves, like berries, contain a huge amount of vitamins and minerals.


  • crushed cranberry leaves: 100 g;
  • drinking water: 1 l;
  • sugar: 2 tbsp. l.

Cooking instructions:

  1. Wash and chop the leaves.
  2. Add them together with sugar to the kettle.
  3. Pour in water and boil for 5 minutes.
  4. Serve hot.

The cranberry is officially the symbol of Massachusetts (USA) and has been grown here for over 200 years. Every year in Massachusetts there is a cranberry festival that lasts 2 days.

Contraindications for use, side effects

Cranberries are not recommended for use in gastritis, especially if it is accompanied by increased stomach acidity. This berry is dangerous for all inflammatory diseases of the gastrointestinal tract, including ulcerative colitis, Crohn’s disease, cholecystitis, pancreatitis and hepatitis.