Ct scan with barium sulfate: Barium Sulfate: MedlinePlus Drug Information
Prep for abdominal and pelvic CT scan Pittsfield, Massachusetts (MA)
Berkshire Medical Center
CAT Scan Department
Your Doctor has scheduled you for a CT scan of your Abdominal and Pelvic structures, which requires drinking “Readi-Cat II” (barium sulfate contrast) and the possibility of an injection of IV contrast material just prior to the exam.
DO NOT stop taking your medication. All medications may be taken with a small sip of water. If possible, try to avoid taking your regular medications at the same time as the contrast material. Doing so could reduce the effectiveness of your medications.
The following is the preparation for your exam;
- Have nothing to eat or drink four (4) hours prior to
your exam except as stated above.
- Place both bottles of “Readi-Cat II” contrast
material in the refrigerator to chill.
- Shake the contrast material well before drinking.
- Drink the first bottle of contrast two (2) hours
prior to your exam time.
- Drink the second bottle of contrast one (1) hour
prior to your exam time.
- When you arrive in the CT Department you will be asked to drink a cup of contrast just prior to your exam, with the possibility of having an injection of IV contrast at this time.
*Barium contrast is not absorbed into the body; it passes through your colon which may cause loose stools. It can cause bowel movements within the 2 hour period that you are consuming the Readi-CAT. Contact your physician or come to the Emergency Room if you experience any shortness of breath or chest pain after drinking the contrast material.
Please allow time for traffic and parking. We ask that you arrive in the Radiology Department 30 minutes prior to your exam for insurance verification and final exam preparation. If for any reason you are unable to keep this appointment, please try and give 24 hours notice. If you need to cancel or reschedule please call (413) 447-2114 ext. 4414. Our staff is available 24 hours a day to assist you with any questions or concerns that you might have.
Patient Safety – Contrast Material
What are contrast materials and how do they work?
Contrast materials, also called contrast agents or contrast media, are used to improve pictures of the inside of the body produced by x-rays, computed tomography (CT), magnetic resonance (MR) imaging, and ultrasound. Often, contrast materials allow the radiologist to distinguish normal from abnormal conditions.
Contrast materials are not dyes that permanently discolor internal organs. They are substances that temporarily change the way x-rays or other imaging tools interact with the body.
When introduced into the body prior to an imaging exam, contrast materials make certain structures or tissues in the body appear different on the images than they would if no contrast material had been administered. Contrast materials help distinguish or “contrast” selected areas of the body from surrounding tissue. By improving the visibility of specific organs, blood vessels or tissues, contrast materials help physicians diagnose medical conditions.
Contrast materials enter the body in one of three ways. They can be:
- swallowed (taken by mouth or orally)
- administered by enema (given rectally)
- injected into a blood vessel (vein or artery; also called given intravenously or intra-arterially)
Following an imaging exam with contrast material, the material is absorbed by the body or eliminated through urine or bowel movements.
There are several types of contrast materials:
- Iodine-based and barium-sulfate compounds are used in x-ray and computed tomography (CT) imaging exams.
Contrast materials can have a chemical structure that includes iodine, a naturally occurring chemical element. These contrast materials can be injected into veins or arteries, within the disks or the fluid spaces of the spine, and into other body cavities.
Barium-sulfate is the most common contrast material taken by mouth, or orally. It is also used rectally and is available in several forms, including:
- powder, which is mixed with water before administration
When iodine-based and barium-sulfate contrast materials are present in a specific area of the body, they block or limit the ability of x-rays to pass through. As a result, blood vessels, organs and other body tissue that temporarily contain iodine-based or barium compounds change their appearance on x-ray or CT images.
- Gadolinium is the key component of the contrast material most often used in magnetic resonance (MR) exams. When this substance is present in the body, it alters the magnetic properties of nearby water molecules, which enhances the quality of MR images.
- Saline (salt water) and gas (such as air) are also used as contrast materials in imaging exams. Microbubbles and microspheres have been administered for ultrasound imaging exams, particularly exams of the heart.
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Which imaging exams use contrast materials?
Oral Contrast Materials
Barium-sulfate contrast materials that are swallowed or administered by mouth (orally) are used to enhance x-ray and CT images of the gastrointestinal (GI) tract, including:
In some situations, iodine-based contrast materials are substituted for barium-sulfate contrast materials for oral administration.
Rectal Contrast Materials
Barium-sulfate contrast materials that are administered by enema (rectally) are used to enhance x-ray and CT images of the lower gastrointestinal (GI) tract (colon and rectum).
In some situations, iodine-based contrast materials are substituted for barium-sulfate contrast materials for rectal administration.
Intravenous Contrast Materials
Iodine-based and Gadolinium-based
Iodine-based contrast materials injected into a vein (intravenously) are used to enhance x-ray and CT images. Gadolinium injected into a vein (intravenously) is used to enhance MR images. Typically they are used to enhance the:
- internal organs, including the heart, lungs, liver, adrenal glands, kidneys, pancreas, gallbladder, spleen, uterus, and bladder
- gastrointestinal tract, including the stomach, small intestine and large intestine
- arteries and veins of the body, including vessels in the brain, neck, chest, abdomen, pelvis and legs
- soft tissues of the body, including the muscles, fat and skin
Microbubble Contrast Materials
Microbubble contrast materials are tiny bubbles of an injectable gas held in a supporting shell. They are extremely small—smaller than a red blood cell—and have a high degree of “echogenicity”, or ability to reflect ultrasound waves. Structures with higher echogenicity will appear brighter on ultrasound. Once the microbubbles are in the bloodstream, ultrasound technology is able capture differences in echogenicity between the gas in the microbubbles and the surrounding tissues of the body, producing an ultrasound image with increased contrast. The microbubbles dissolve, usually within 10 to 15 minutes, and the gas within them is removed from the body through exhalation. Contrast-enhanced ultrasound with microbubbles is a convenient, relatively inexpensive way to improve visualization of blood flow that does not use radiation. It is a useful option for patients with kidney failure or allergies to MRI and/or computed tomography (CT) contrast material.
Microbubble contrast materials can be targeted or untargeted. Untargeted contrast-enhanced ultrasound —the more common method— helps diagnose certain diseases by providing evaluation of blood flow in the heart and other organs. In targeted contrast-enhanced ultrasound, specific molecules are bound to the surface of the microbubbles. After injection, the microbubbles attach at tissue sites expressing the molecular target, leading to a local increase in the ultrasonic signal.
Contrast-enhanced ultrasound with microbubbles is used in the assessment of:
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How safe are contrast materials?
Contrast materials are safe drugs; adverse reactions ranging from mild to severe do occur but severe reactions are very uncommon. While serious allergic or other reactions to contrast materials are rare, radiology departments are well-equipped to deal with them.
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How should I prepare for my imaging procedure with contrast material?
Because contrast materials carry a slight risk of causing an allergic reaction or adverse reaction, you should tell your doctor about:
- allergies to contrast materials, food, drugs, dyes, preservatives, or animals
- medications you are taking, including herbal supplements
- recent illnesses, surgeries, or other medical conditions
- history of asthma and hay fever
- history of heart disease, diabetes, kidney disease, thyroid problems or sickle cell anemia
You will be given specific instructions on how to prepare for your exam.
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Side effects and adverse and allergic reactions
Barium Sulfate Contrast Materials
You should tell your doctor if these mild side effects of barium-sulfate contrast materials become severe or do not go away:
- stomach cramps
Tell your doctor immediately about any of these symptoms:
- red skin
- swelling of the throat
- difficulty breathing or swallowing
- fast heartbeat
- bluish skin color
You are at greater risk of an adverse reaction to barium-sulfate contrast materials if:
- you have a history of asthma, hay fever, or other allergies, which will increase your risk of an allergic reaction to the additives in the barium-sulfate agent.
- you have cystic fibrosis, which will increase the risk of blockage in the small bowel.
- you are severely dehydrated, which may cause severe constipation.
- you have an intestinal blockage or perforation that could made worse by a barium-sulfate agent.
Iodine-based Contrast Materials
Mild reactions include:
- nausea and vomiting
- mild skin rash or hives
Moderate reactions include:
- severe skin rash or hives
- abnormal heart rhythms
- high or low blood pressure
- shortness of breath or difficulty breathing
Severe reactions include:
- difficulty breathing
- cardiac arrest
- swelling of the throat or other parts of the body
- profound low blood pressure
A very small percentage of patients may develop a delayed reaction with a rash which can occur hours to days after an imaging exam with an iodine-based contrast material. Most are mild, but severe rashes may require medication after discussion with your physician.
Patients with impaired kidney (renal) function should be given special consideration before receiving iodine-based contrast materials by vein or artery. Such patients are at risk for developing contrast-induced nephropathy (CIN), a condition in which already-impaired kidney function worsens within a few days of contrast material administration. Much of the research linking CIN with iodine-based contrast material is based on older contrast agents that are no longer used, and some recent studies have found no increased risk of CIN in patients who received iodine-based contrast material. If you have impaired kidney function, your doctor will assess the benefits of contrast-enhanced CT against any risks.
Some conditions increase the risk of an allergic or adverse reaction to iodine-based contrast materials. These include:
- previous adverse reactions to iodine-based contrast materials
- history of asthma
- history of allergy
- heart disease
- sickle cell anemia, polycythemia and myeloma
- renal disease
- the use of medications such as Beta blockers, NSAIDs, interleukin 2
- having received a large amount of contrast material within the past 24 hours
Being at increased risk for an allergic or adverse reaction to contrast material does not necessarily mean a patient cannot undergo an imaging exam with contrast materials. Medications are sometimes given before the contrast material is administered to lessen the risk of an allergic reaction in susceptible patients.
The contrast material used in MR called gadolinium is less likely to produce an allergic reaction than the iodine-based materials used for x-rays and CT scanning. Very rarely, patients are allergic to gadolinium-based contrast materials and experience hives and itchy eyes. Reactions usually are mild and easily controlled by medication. Severe reactions are rare.
Nephrogenic systemic fibrosis (NSF), a thickening of the skin, organs and other tissues, is a rare complication in patients with kidney disease that undergo an MR with contrast material. Gadolinium-based contrast material may be withheld in some patients with severe kidney disease.
There is evidence that tiny traces of gadolinium may be retained in different organs of the body, including the brain, after contrast-enhanced MRI. While there are no known negative effects from this, your doctor may take gadolinium retention into account when selecting a contrast agent. There are a number of different gadolinium-based contrast agents available, each with its own safety profile. Decisions on which material to use may be affected by the part of the body being imaged, the cost of the material and other factors. These decisions are especially important in patients likely to undergo multiple MRI scans with gadolinium-based contrast material, such as pediatric patients, cancer patients and people with multiple sclerosis.
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What will I experience before and after receiving contrast material?
Barium-Sulfate Oral and Rectal Contrast Material
If a barium-sulfate contrast material (given orally or rectally) will be used during your exam, you will be asked not to eat for several hours before your exam begins. If the contrast material will be given rectally, you may also be asked to cleanse your colon with a special diet and medication (possibly including an enema) before your exam.
If you swallow the contrast material, you may find the taste mildly unpleasant; however, most patients can easily tolerate it.
If your contrast material is given by enema, you can expect to experience a sense of abdominal fullness and an increasing need to expel the liquid. The mild discomfort will not last long.
It is a good idea to increase your fluid intake after an imaging exam involving a barium-based contrast material to help remove the contrast material from your body.
Barium-sulfate contrast materials are expelled from the body with feces. You can expect bowel movements to be white for a few days. Some patients may experience changes in their normal bowel movement patterns for the first 12 to 24 hours.
Iodine-based Contrast Material
When an iodine-based contrast material is injected into your bloodstream, you may have a warm, flushed sensation and a metallic taste in your mouth that lasts for a few minutes.
The needle may cause you some discomfort when it is inserted. Once it is removed, you may experience some bruising.
It is a good idea to increase your fluid intake after an imaging exam involving an iodine-based contrast material to help remove the contrast material from your body.
Gadolinium-based Contrast Material
When the gadolinium is injected, it is normal to feel coolness at the site of injection, usually the arm for a minute or two.
The needle may cause you some discomfort when it is inserted. Once it is removed, you may experience some bruising.
For all of the above administrations of contrast material (barium sulfate, iodine-based, and gadolinium-based):
If you have not been sedated, no recovery period is necessary. You may resume your usual activities and normal diet immediately after the exam. Increased fluid intake will help eliminate the contrast material from your body.
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Pregnancy and contrast materials
Prior to any imaging exam, women should always inform their physician or x-ray technologist if there is any possibility that they are pregnant. Many imaging tests and contrast material administrations are avoided during pregnancy to minimize risk to the baby.
For CT imaging, if a pregnant woman must undergo imaging with an iodine-based contrast material, the patient should have a discussion with her referring physician and radiologist to understand the potential risks and benefits of the contrast-enhanced scan.
For MR imaging, gadolinium contrast material administration is usually avoided due to unknown risk to the baby, but may be used when critical information must be obtained that is only available with the use of gadolinium-based contrast material.
Intravenous Contrast Material (Iodine and Gadolinium) and Breast-feeding:
Manufacturers of intravenous contrast indicate mothers should not breast-feed their babies for 24 to 48 hours after contrast medium is given. However, both the American College of Radiology (ACR) and the European Society of Urogenital Radiology note that the available data suggest that it is safe to continue breast-feeding after receiving intravenous contrast. The Manual on Contrast Media from the ACR states:
“Review of the literature shows no evidence to suggest that oral ingestion by an infant of the tiny amount of gadolinium contrast medium excreted into breast milk would cause toxic effects. We believe, therefore, that the available data suggest that it is safe for the mother and infant to continue breast-feeding after receiving such an agent.
If the mother remains concerned about any potential ill effects, she should be given the opportunity to make an informed decision as to whether to continue or temporarily abstain from breast-feeding after receiving a gadolinium contrast medium. If the mother so desires, she may abstain from breast-feeding for 24 hours with active expression and discarding of breast milk from both breasts during that period. In anticipation of this, she may wish to use a breast pump to obtain milk before the contrast study to feed the infant during the 24-hour period following the examination.”
For further information please consult the ACR Manual on Contrast Media and its references. You may find it here on the ACR website.
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This page was reviewed on July, 23, 2018
What is Contrast Material and How Does it Work?
If you have ever undergone medical imaging, such as an MRI or CT scan, chances are good that you received contrast.
MRIs (magnetic resonance imaging) and CT (computed tomography) are types of medical equipment that creates image of internal organs and structures. Contrast material enhances and improves the quality of these images. Contrast material can also improve the quality of some ultrasound and x-rays. In many cases, the use of contrast can help the radiologist distinguish normal from abnormal conditions.
Contrast material works by temporarily changing the way the imaging machine interacts with the body. Some types of contrast slow down x-ray beams. Other types of contrast temporarily affect the magnetic properties of certain atoms inside your body.
Contrast materials make certain body tissues and structures appear different on the images than they would without the contrast. The materials help “contrast,” or distinguish, specific areas of the body from the surrounding tissue. Contrast materials improves visibility of blood vessels, tissues and specific organs to help doctors diagnose medical conditions.
Contrast used to observe blood vessels in the neck
Contrast materials enter your body in one of three ways for the test:
- By mouth
- Rectally, by enema
- Injected into a blood vessel
Following the imaging exam, your body either absorbs the contrast material or eliminates it through urine or stool. The contrast is not permanent, so it does not discolor your organs forever.
Not all imaging tests require the use of contrast materials, as today’s advanced technology already produces sharp and clear images. Your doctor will specify whether your MRI or other imaging test is with or without contrast. In some cases, doctors request the imaging tests be done with and without contrast.
Types of Contrast
There are several different types of contrast materials, and each works in a different way.
Barium-sulfate and iodine-based compounds, for use in x-ray and CT imaging exams
Contrast materials can include components that have a chemical structure that includes iodine, which is a naturally occurring chemical element. This type of contrast is injected into blood vessels, in the fluid spaces of the spine or inside the rubbery discs that cushion the bones of the spine, and into other body cavities.
Barium-sulfate compounds are the most common contrast materials administered orally, but it can also be administered rectally. Barium-sulfate compounds are available in several forms, including powder that is mixed with water before administration, liquid, paste and tablet.
X-rays and CTs work by passing an x-ray beam through your body to an x-ray detector, which absorbs the x-rays to create an image. Depending on their density, your bones and body tissues can also absorb the x-ray to slow the beam down or stop it completely. In this way, the x-ray beams form “shadows” that represent the tissues and organs on the images.
Iodine-based and barium-sulfate contrast materials limit or block the x-rays’ ability to pass through the tissue. This changes how the blood vessels, organs and other body tissues containing the iodine-based or barium-sulfate compounds appear in the x-ray or CT images.
Doctors typically request the oral administration of barium-sulfate contrast materials to enhance x-ray and CT images of the gastrointestinal tract, including the pharynx and esophagus, stomach, small intestine or large intestine, also known as the colon. Physicians typically order rectal administration of barium-sulfate contrast to enhance x-ray and CT scans of the small intestine and colon. Clinicians order the intravenous injection of iodine-based contrast to enhance x-ray and CT images of internal organs, such as the heart and lungs, gastrointestinal tract, arteries and veins, the brain, breast tissue and soft tissues of the body, such as muscles and fat.
Gadolinium is the key component in the most frequently used MRI contrast material. MRIs use powerful magnets that affect protons, which are parts of a proton that have a positive electrical charge. Protons are constantly spinning, but usually different rates and angles, depending on the various properties of the tissue; in other words, protons in a healthy bit of tissue might spin differently than do the protons of unhealthy tissue. The magnetic field causes the protons to spin out of equilibrium. When the magnetic field is turned off, the protons realign with the magnetic field at different rates, depending on the type of tissue; they also release different amounts of energy, depending on tissue type.
Gadolinium alters the magnetic properties of water molecules to increase the speed at which protons realign with the magnetic field; the faster the protons, the brighter the image.
Doctors order the intravenous injection of gadolinium to enhance MRI images of internal organs, gastrointestinal tract, blood vessels, the brain, breast tissue and soft tissues of the body.
Saline (salt water) and air also make good contrast materials in imaging exams. Ultrasound imaging, especially ultrasound imaging of the heart, may use microbubbles and microspheres that help organs and tissues appear brighter on ultrasound. These contrast materials are suitable for assessing how well blood moves through organs, detecting blood clots, finding abnormalities in the heart, and detecting masses in the liver or kidney.
For more information about contrast materials used in various types of imaging tests, talk with your doctor or radiologist. The more you know about your medical imaging, the more control you will have over your medical care and health.
CT Scan – Central Florida
Computerized Axial Tomography Scan (CT or CAT Scan)
A CT scan is a procedure that combines many X-ray images with the aid of a computer to generate cross-sectional and three-dimensional views of anatomy. CT Scans are performed to analyze the internal structures of various parts of the body. CT Scans can identify normal and abnormal structures and be used to guide procedures.
Radiology and Imaging Specialists has been performing CT scans for more than 50 years in the Lakeland, Florida area. Our equipment is state of the art and provides excellent image quality for a more accurate diagnosis. We have five convenient Lakeland-area imaging center locations. To schedule your CT scan call RIS today at (863) 688-2334.
CT Scans are preferred for numerous parts of the body including brain, sinus, neck, chest, spine, abdomen, pelvis, and extremities. CT Scans can also be beneficial for evaluating the heart and lungs.
Some CT Scans require contrast material to be injected intravenously, administered by mouth and/or by enema in order to increase the distinction between various organs or areas of the body that have circulation. The intravenous contrast is an iodine-based liquid given in the vein. Rarely, are there any adverse reactions to the intravenous contrast. New intravenous contrast agents, such as Isovue have been developed and are used at Radiology and Imaging Specialists to decrease allergic reactions. If the patient has a history of allergy to contrast material, the requesting physician and radiology staff should be notified. Patients that are allergic to iodinated products still may have a CT Scan performed with intravenous contrast. To eliminate complications with the contrast medium an antihistamine may be administered prior to or after the examination. With the intravenous injection patients may feel a warm sensation throughout their body or they may experience a metallic taste in their mouth. This is a normal reaction to the intravenous contrast.
Contrast administered by mouth is called barium. Oral barium is a liquid contrast given to outline the bowel and distinguish the bowel from other local structures with similar attenuation values. Oral barium is to be ingested by the patient one hour prior to the CT examination. Certain CT Scans require the barium contrast medium to be administered rectally by the radiologic technologist.
CT Scans are very low-risk procedures. The amount of radiation the patient receives during a CT Scan is minimal and the results are extremely advantageous. CT Scans provide a clear, accurate display of tissues without superimposition of structures. CT Scans may detect disease processes and lesions at an earlier stage than with conventional imaging. CT Scans provide a wide range of imaging and the technique does not have to be limited to specific organs. CT Scans have vastly improved the ability of doctors to diagnose many diseases earlier in their course and with much less risk than previous methods.
Preparation and Special Instructions
Patients having CT exams scheduled without contrast medium require no special preparation.
In preparation for a CT Scan with the use of intravenous or oral contrast medium, patients are often asked to be NPO (nothing by mouth) for four hours prior to having the exam.
Patients who require oral contrast need to arrive one hour prior to their appointment to start the drinking process. It is extremely important to drink plenty of fluids after having a CT study performed with the use of an intravenous or oral contrast medium. Drinking fluids help the body expel the contrast medium through normal body functions.
Patients should continue to take their medications as prescribed. If a woman is pregnant or thinks she might be pregnant, it is important that she informs the referring physician. The patient should also inform the radiologic technologist upon performing the exam.
Please, bring any previous radiology studies and reports that are related to this exam.
You may need lab work within the 30 days leading up to your appointment. Please speak with our scheduling department at (863) 688-2334 to determine if you need lab work.
What to Expect During Your CT Scan in Lakeland, Kissimmee or Plant City, Florida
The CT Scanner is a large donut-shaped machine that acquires images at many different angles around the body. The actual procedure can take from a few minutes to forty-five minutes. Patients are asked to please remove all metallic materials, such as jewelry and certain types of clothing prior to having the CT examination performed. These materials may interfere with the clarity of the images. Patients are placed on a movable table and the table is slid into the center of the large donut-shaped machine. It is important during the CT procedure that the patients minimize any body movement by remaining as still and quiet as possible. For some CT Scans, special breathing instructions are required. The radiologic technologist will inform the patient when to breathe or hold his/her breath during the examination. If the CT exam is to include intravenous contrast medium a small IV will be placed by the radiologic technologist. The IV will be removed upon completing the CT Scan. The technologist directly watches the patient through an observation window during the procedure, there is an intercom system in the room for added patient safety and communication. If any problems are experienced during the CT Scan the technologist should be informed immediately.
Schedule Your CT Scan Today
To learn more about CT Scans, please call (863) 688-2334. Radiology and Imaging Specialists proudly serves Lakeland, Kissimmee, Plant City, and the surrounding areas of Central Florida with several convenient locations.
CT Scan | Diagnostic Imaging Services (DIS)
Frequently Asked Questions Regarding
CT (CAT) Scan
What is a CT scan?
CT stands for Computed Tomography. It is a computerized X-ray machine that examines the body. The scanner is comprised of a table and a gantry. The gantry is the donut shape part that houses the X-ray source. The X-ray source rotates inside the gantry as the patient moves through. Data is obtained and processed by a computer to produce a two dimensional image.
What are contrast agents?
Contrast agents are used to image tissues and structures that are not normally seen, or not seen very well. Intravenous contrast agents are used to enhance organs and visualize blood vessels. Oral contrast agents are used to visualize the digestive tract.
How do CT scans differ from MRI scans?
CT and MRI images sometimes look very similar, but the equipment used to perform the scans is different. CT uses ionizing radiation just as with a routine X-ray, while MRI uses a magnetic field. Depending on the clinical indications, one may be preferred over the other, or both may be desirable. CT scanners are faster and as a result, claustrophobia and movement are not as problematic as with the MRI scanner.
What will I feel during the scan?
CT scanning causes no pain, just as a routine X-ray is painless. If intravenous contrast is used, you may feel warm and flush and get a metallic taste in your mouth. These sensations normally disappear after a few minutes.
Will I need to drink anything?
Most abdominal scans require the patient to drink a barium sulfate oral contrast mixture. This mixture is flavored and not at all unpleasant. Oral contrast highlights the stomach and upper intestine providing the radiologist with a detailed image for review. If you are scheduled for a CT scan requiring oral contrast, you will be asked to arrive one hour before the scan time.
How long will the scan take?
The scan itself takes seconds. The total visit time is much longer due to prep and positioning. If oral contrast is required, about 45 to 60 minutes is needed for the contrast to move through your digestive tract. If no oral contrast is required, the examination will take about 15 to 30 minutes, including the time for intravenous preparation and interview. In some cases additional scanning is required as scans are tailored to suit individual diagnostic needs.
Can my spouse/friend stay in the room with me?
No. CT scanners use ionizing radiation and only the patient requiring the scan is permitted in the room.
Should I have a CT scan if I am pregnant?
Pregnancy is not an absolute contraindication to CT. Most pregnant women should avoid getting CT, but some situations may require it. We are happy to speak with providers to help guide the best course of action, whether that be an alternative to CT, or proceeding with CT in special situations.
Why do some patients need contrast and others not?
Depending upon your condition and the images required to diagnose or rule out pathology, X-ray dye or intravenous contrast may or may not be needed. The radiologist reviews the information sent to us by your physician and decides what contrast is needed to provide the best images.
Are there any instructions I need to follow after the scan?
If no contrast was used, there are no instructions and you may continue with your normal activities. If intravenous contrast or oral contrast is used, you will be instructed to drink water for the rest of the day to help eliminate the contrast.
Will I have to hold my breath?
Depending upon the body part being scanned, you may be required to hold your breath several times during the scan. It is important that you not move during the scan. The technologist will instruct you on breathing prior to the start of the scan.
Can I breastfeed after an injection of intravenous contrast?
Does the radiation stay in my body?
No. CT uses a thin beam of radiation that is captured by detectors as it exits your body.
Computed Tomography (CT) Scan | Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center
This information will help you get ready for your computed tomography (CT) scan.
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About Your CT Scan
CT scans take a fast series of x-ray pictures. The x-ray pictures are put together to create images of the soft tissues and bones in the area that was scanned.
You may need to have a CT with contrast. This depends on the reason for your CT scan and which part of your body your doctor needs to see. Contrast is a special dye used to make it easier for your doctor to see differences in your internal organs.
There are different types of contrast dyes used for scans. The contrast used for CT scans is an iodinated contrast (contrast that has iodine). Iodinated contrast is different from contrast that you get during MRI exams.
Iodinated contrast can be given in 2 ways: orally (by mouth) and through an intravenous (IV) catheter (thin, flexible tube) in your arm or central venous catheter (CVC), such as an implanted port.
If your doctor has ordered a CT with oral contrast, you’ll be asked if you’re allergic to iodinated contrast when you check in for your appointment. Depending on whether you have these allergies, you will get 1 of the oral contrast solutions listed below. Both work the same way, are used for the same purpose, and are safe even if you have diabetes.
- Iodinated contrast
- Diluted barium sweetened with saccharin. You will get this option if you’re allergic to iodinated contrast.
If you’re getting oral contrast, you will start drinking it before your scan. This will give the contrast solution time to move into your bowels (intestines).
If your doctor ordered a CT scan with IV contrast, the contrast will be injected into one of your veins or into your CVC, if you have one.
Reactions to contrast
Some people can have an allergic reaction to contrast. Tell your doctor about any allergies you have or if you’ve had a reaction to CT contrast in the past. If your doctor feels that they need to give you medication(s) to reduce your risk of having a reaction, you will get a resource called Preventing An Allergic Reaction to Contrast Dye.
If you’re breastfeeding, you may choose to continue after your CT scan with contrast. If you have questions or would like to discuss contrast and breastfeeding, talk with your radiologist on the day of your CT scan.
Remove devices from your skin
If you wear any of the following devices on your skin, the manufacturer recommends you remove it before your scan or procedure:
- Continuous glucose monitor (CGM)
- Insulin pump
Talk with your healthcare provider about scheduling your appointment closer to the date you need to change your device. Make sure you have an extra device with you to put on after your scan or procedure.
If you’re not sure how to manage your glucose while your device is off, talk with the healthcare provider who manages your diabetes care before your appointment.
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The Day of Your CT Scan
You can eat and drink as usual on the day of your CT scan.
Before your scan
- You may need to change into a gown before your CT scan.
- If you’re getting oral contrast, you will start drinking it before your scan.
- If you’re getting IV contrast:
- A member of your healthcare team will ask you if you:
- Have kidney disease
- Have poor kidney function
- Have had surgery on your kidneys
- Have diabetes
- Are taking metformin or medication that contains metformin (such as Glucophage® , Glumetza®, or Janumet®)
- If you answer yes to any of these questions, or if you’re 70 years or older, you’ll need to have a blood test called a serum creatinine before your CT scan. If the doctor who ordered your CT scan didn’t check your serum creatinine ahead of time, we will check it before you have your CT scan.
- Your nurse will place an IV catheter into a vein in your arm or hand if you don’t already have a CVC. You will receive your contrast through your IV or CVC.
- A member of your healthcare team will ask you if you:
During your scan
When it’s time for your scan, your technologist will bring you to the scanning room and will help you onto the scanning table. The CT machine looks like a large doughnut, with a hole in the middle. This is the scanning ring. It’s not a tube like an MRI machine.Once you’re on the scanning table, the table will move slowly through the scanning ring. You must lie very still in the scanning ring until your scan is done.
After your technologist takes the first series of pictures, you’ll get the injection (shot) of contrast in your IV or CVC. You may feel warm and have a mild metallic taste in mouth. Let your nurse know if you feel any pain at your IV site or if you feel any symptoms such as itchiness, swelling, dizziness, if you have trouble breathing, or if you feel like you’re going to faint.
Your CT scan will take under 30 minutes.
After your scan
- If you had an IV placed, your nurse will remove it and place a bandage over the area. You can remove the bandage after 1 hour, as long you aren’t bleeding.
- If you’re not feeling well, or if you have any questions or concerns, talk with your doctor or technologist.
- Let you nurse know if you have any of the following symptoms:
- Trouble breathing
- Feel weak or like you’re going to faint
- Swelling or discomfort in the area where your IV was placed
Drink plenty of liquids, especially water, for 24 hours after your CT scan. Drinking water will help remove the contrast from your body.
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Do You Have To Drink All The Barium For A CT Scan?
Can you drink water with barium sulfate?
Take medications with water as usual, but do not eat or drink anything except water 4 hours prior to your appointment.
Shake well and drink the second bottle of barium one (1) hour before your appointment..
Why do you drink barium for a CT scan?
Barium sulfate works by coating the inside of your esophagus, stomach, or intestines which allows them to be seen more clearly on a CT scan or other radiologic (x-ray) examination. Barium sulfate is used to help diagnose certain disorders of the esophagus, stomach, or intestines.
Do you have to drink barium for a CT scan?
When to arrive: If you are having a CT scan of your abdomen or pelvis, you need to arrive two hours before your scheduled appointment. This is to allow time for you to drink barium sulfate before your exam and to ensure that the barium fluid completely coats your gastrointestinal tract.
What does not show up on CT scan?
Examples of conditions that we would not diagnose on CT scan or ultrasound include viral infections (‘the stomach flu’), inflammation or ulcers in the stomach lining, inflammatory bowel disease (such as Crohn’s Disease or Ulcerative Colitis), irritable bowel syndrome or maldigestion, pelvic floor dysfunction, strains …
Can I have coffee before a CT scan?
Preparing for Your Exam For four hours prior to your exam, please do not eat solid foods. You may drink fluids such as water, juice, or black decaffeinated coffee or tea.
What is the best way to drink barium?
This medicine is given by mouth. You will swallow the barium liquid or paste just before a CT scan or x-ray. Your doctor may tell you not to eat or drink anything the night before your test. Barium will work better if your stomach and bowels are empty.
Does barium sulfate make you poop?
Barium may cause constipation or impacted stool after the procedure if it isn’t completely cleared from your body. You may be told to drink plenty of fluids and eat foods high in fiber to help the rest of the barium leave your body. You may also be given a laxative to help with this.
How much barium do I have to drink?
You will drink about 1 1/2 cups of a barium preparation-a chalky drink with the consistency (but not the flavor) of a milk shake. Children will drink less. The barium can be seen on an X-ray as it passes through the digestive tract. The barium swallow procedure may take about 30 minutes to finish.
Does a CT scan show inflammation?
A CT scan can reveal a tumor in the abdomen, and any swelling or inflammation in nearby internal organs. It can show any lacerations of the spleen, kidneys, or liver.
What can a CT scan not detect?
Where MRI really excels is showing certain diseases that a CT scan cannot detect. Some cancers, such as prostate cancer, uterine cancer, and certain liver cancers, are pretty much invisible or very hard to detect on a CT scan. Metastases to the bone and brain also show up better on an MRI.
How do you flush barium out of your system?
You should drink lots of fluids and eat high-fiber foods to help move the barium through your digestive tract and out of your body. If that doesn’t help, your doctor might give you a laxative to help move it through. After your procedure, you might notice that your bowel movements are lighter in color.
Can you pee before a CT scan?
For a CT scan of your abdomen or pelvis you might need: a full bladder before your scan – so you might need to drink 1 litre of water beforehand. to drink a liquid contrast – this dye highlights your urinary system on the screen. to stop eating or drinking for some time before the scan.
How much contrast do you have to drink for CT scan?
If a contrast injection was used during your exam, drink at least 50-60 ounces of water within 24 hours to eliminate the contrast (dye) from your body.
How many CT scans is too many?
How much is too much? The more scans you have, the higher your lifetime exposure and therefore the higher your risk. The American College of Radiology recommends limiting lifetime diagnostic radiation exposure to 100 mSv. That is equal to 10,000 chest x-rays, or up to 25 chest CTs.
Does the barium make you sick?
Patients may feel nauseous after a barium swallow test or become constipated. Drinking lots of fluids can help to relieve constipation. Symptoms of nausea should improve as the barium passes through the system.
Do you have to drink all the contrast for a CT scan?
Depending on the reason why you’re getting a CT scan, you may need to drink a large glass of oral contrast. This is a liquid that contains either barium or a substance called Gastrografin (diatrizoate meglumine and diatrizoate sodium liquid).
Why can’t I eat before a CT scan?
Why am I not allowed to eat before the CT exam with contrast? If you have food on your stomach, and get an injection of contrast, you could become nauseated. Aside from your discomfort, there is the danger of throwing up while lying down, which could cause the vomit to enter your lungs.
What does barium do to the human body?
Small amounts of water-soluble barium may cause a person to experience breathing difficulties, increased blood pressures, heart rhythm changes, stomach irritation, muscle weakness, changes in nerve reflexes, swelling of brains and liver, kidney and heart damage. Barium has not shown to cause cancer with humans.
X-ray of the stomach with barium | Diagnostic Center Health Clinic on Maroseyka
What is X-ray with barium
Barium sulfate X-ray is aimed at studying the state of the gastrointestinal tract. The contrast agent facilitates the examination of internal organs, their relief, contours and shape, size.
The essence of the method
Hollow organs are difficult to visualize completely, so a mixture of barium is injected before scanning.It dyes fabrics that are shaded in X-ray images. Thus, in the picture of the examination, the walls of the large intestine, parts of the small intestine, stomach, esophagus are clearly examined, foci of pathologies are revealed.
The doctor issues a referral for diagnostics with the following complaints:
- Abdominal pain.
- Unstable bowel function.
- Changes in the color and structure of feces.
- Admixture of blood in the feces.
- A sharp decrease in body weight.
- Intra-intestinal gases.
If the administration of barium sulfate is planned before the X-ray, the patient should prepare in advance for the procedure:
- Follow the diet for 2-3 days. It is necessary to refuse to take flour, dairy, spicy, smoked products, legumes, black bread, carbonated drinks. Food should be easily digestible.
- Cleanse the intestines with laxatives per day.The dosage and the number of doses are calculated according to the instructions in accordance with the weight. With proper cleansing, an enema is not needed.
A barium x-ray is done on an empty stomach in the morning, so you should not eat breakfast before scanning. You should leave jewelry at home, wear loose-fitting clothes without metal inserts.
How is X-ray performed with barium
First, the doctor injects a contrast agent. Usually 400-600 ml of barium sulfate solution is given in liquid form. The patient drinks it and waits for 10-15 minutes.Then the subject takes the desired position, scanning begins, which lasts 50-60 minutes. During this time, the patient lies motionless, and the device takes from 6 to 10 pictures to assess the state of the gastrointestinal tract in dynamics. If necessary, the doctor asks to roll over.
Barium is excreted from the body within 24 hours. To speed up it is recommended to drink more still water.
Where to make an x-ray with barium
In the Health Clinic, located in the very center of the capital, the examination is carried out using modern high-precision equipment of an expert class.Qualified doctors with extensive experience will thoroughly examine the internal organs and describe the condition of the stomach.
Within an hour, a specialist at the Health Clinic interprets the images and then hands them over to the patient. The attending physician, based on the results of the examination, establishes or refutes such diseases as stomach ulcers, tumors of various etiologies, protrusion of the gastric walls, intestinal obstruction, hernias, dyskinesia, etc.
Recording for X-ray with barium
In order to make an appointment for diagnostics, choose any method:
- Call the clinic + 7 (495) 628-22-05,
- Request a call back,
- Write or call via online chat, in the right corner of the page,
- Immediately make an appointment through the convenient form on the website:
RECORDING FOR RECEPTION
You should choose a different diagnostic method if you have the following restrictions on x-rays with barium:
- Barium intolerance.
- Bleeding in the intestines.
It became possible to make an X-ray with barium cheap in Moscow at the Health Clinic. Low prices, ongoing promotions and high-quality services attract visitors to our medical center.
Free parking is provided for the patients of the Diagnostic Center. Car seat reservation is made no later than one hour before arrival at the clinic.Call: +7 (495) 628-22-05
Consultation can be obtained by phone: +7 (495) 628-22-05
Price for X-ray of stomach with barium
|Service name||Price in rubles|
Fluoroscopy and radiography of the esophagus with contrast
Fluoroscopy and radiography of the stomach and duodenum with contraction
X-ray examination of the small intestine with the introduction of a contrast agent – passage of barium suspension
If you did not find a service in the price list, please call us at +7 (495) 961-27-67,
You will be given the necessary information.
Modern technologies have made it possible to significantly expand the possibilities of studying human internal organs for detecting diseases and making diagnoses. Today, there are many different methods of visualization of internal organs, with the help of which you can see the details of the internal structure of organs and tissues, displayed on x-ray film or a computer monitor. To obtain images of internal organs in medicine, special instruments are used, for example, endoscopes, with which you can penetrate into hollow organs and vessels and examine their condition.
The purpose of image acquisition of internal organs is to collect accurate visual information about their condition with minimal risk and inconvenience. Most images can now be carefully processed on a computer. These approaches have largely replaced surgical interventions, which were previously the only way to identify certain diseases and their severity. With the help of modern technologies, it is also possible to determine how adequately a particular organ is functioning.
The first technology for imaging internal organs was created on the basis of X-rays, which, it was found, can penetrate the tissues of the human body.
This image shows the first ever X-ray image. This is an image of the hand of Mrs. Roentgen, the wife of the first inventor of this method. The picture shows her wedding ring.
Over the past 30-40 years, many new technologies based on the use of X-rays have been developed and implemented, most of which involved the use of a computer capable of generating three-dimensional images.
This section begins by explaining the basic imaging techniques that use X-rays and the principles of computed tomography. Then you will learn about other technologies such as magnetic resonance imaging, ultrasound echography and radioisotope scanning.
X-ray is a method of obtaining images of bones and internal organs, based on the registration of high-energy radiation transmitted through them.
X-rays were discovered in 1895. In medical diagnostics, it is commonly used to obtain images of bones and certain soft tissues, such as the lungs. Hollow organs or organs filled with fluid, such as the stomach, intestines, or blood vessels, are poorly visible on conventional x-rays, but much better when using radiopaque contrast agents.
Despite the development of modern technologies such as computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), conventional X-ray examination continues to be one of the most common methods for diagnosing diseases.The advantages of x-ray examination are that it is inexpensive and can be done quickly and easily. This type of examination in many cases provides the doctor with the basic information needed to make a diagnosis.
PRINCIPLES OF X-RAY EXAMINATION
X-rays are a type of radiation, similar to waves of light, but carrying more energy. This high energy allows X-rays to penetrate the tissues of the body. However, the degree of transmission depends on the density of the tissues: X-ray beams easily penetrate soft tissues, but are largely absorbed by bone tissues.
If the X-ray beam is focused on a certain point of the human body, then the hollow organs through which the X-ray radiation passes will turn black on the film. Soft tissues such as skin, adipose tissue and muscle take on different shades of gray on the film. Dense tissues such as bone appear white on the film.As a result of these differences in X-ray absorption, a complete image of the human body can be seen on the negative of photographic film.
X-ray can only reproduce 2D images. For this reason, sometimes this procedure has to be carried out two or more times at different angles in order to accurately determine the state of a particular organ. For example, in order to locate a tumor in the lungs or the shape of a fracture, x-rays must be taken from the front, from the side, and sometimes at a specific angle.
WHAT IS THE X-RAY STUDY USED FOR?
Usually, X-ray examination gives a clear image of bones. For this reason, this method is most often used to detect fractures. A chest X-ray may be done to look for changes in heart size or damage to lung tissue in a patient with indicative symptoms.
X-ray is used to obtain a detailed image of soft tissue.Therefore, it is widely used to diagnose breast cancer with a special type of examination called mammography. A small dose of X-ray radiation is used to assess bone density (densitometry). This technology is used to detect osteopenia or osteoporosis – a decrease in bone density.
WHAT IS THE DANGER OF AN X-RAY EXAMINATION?
There is no immediate danger from routine x-rays, but there is a small risk that the radiation will harm cells, which could potentially lead to cancer.The danger of this increases if you are exposed to multiple x-rays. The younger the patient is exposed to radiation, the higher the risk. The radiologist always tries to use the minimum dose, especially since modern equipment makes it possible to obtain a high-quality image at low radiation doses.
During the X-ray examination, those areas of the body that are not examined must be covered with special devices.For example, in a pelvic x-ray, measures are taken to protect the genitals to avoid damage to the sperm or ovaries.
Before an X-ray examination, women should be asked if they are pregnant. The fact is that X-rays in the early stages of pregnancy can lead to fetal development disorders. The radiologist should always be protected by a lead apron or screen to avoid repeated exposures.
When performing an X-ray examination, you position yourself on a special table so that the part of your body you want to image is between the drawer containing the film and the X-ray source.After setting up the X-ray machine, the radiologist stands behind the screen. While the entire procedure takes a few minutes, you are only exposed to radiation for a fraction of a second.
X-RAY CONTRAST STUDY
Hollow or fluid-filled organs of the human body, such as the intestines or blood vessels, are usually hard to see in a conventional X-ray image. To visualize them, a substance called a contrast agent is used.It is injected into these organs in order to make them visible. Contrast agents absorb radiation to the same extent or more strongly than dense tissues of the body. Therefore, X-rays cannot pass through them, and in the X-ray image the areas containing these substances turn white.
X-ray contrast agents include dyes such as iodine (water-soluble) and barium sulfate (water-insoluble).
Contrast substances are injected into the body through a vein using a syringe, orally (through the mouth) or rectally (through the rectum) – depending on the examined organ.In principle, this is a simple procedure, but it can cause discomfort and even have a share of risk, for example, due to the possibility of developing an allergic reaction or individual intolerance to the contrast medium. Contrast X-ray is increasingly being replaced by other technologies, such as computed tomography, nuclear magnetic resonance imaging and ultrasound scanning, which cause less discomfort and have few health risks.
X-RAY TESTS OF BLOOD VESSELS
Soluble iodine-containing dye, getting into the blood, can be transported through the body through the blood vessels.For this reason, and also because it is clearly visible on X-ray, this dye is widely used for X-ray contrast studies.
Taking images of blood vessels is called angiography. To do this, the dye is injected into the blood through a catheter inserted into the blood vessel. The catheter is advanced until the end is near the vessel to be examined. It is through such a catheter that the dye (radiopaque substance) is injected. On x-ray examination, the dye allows you to see various changes in the vessels, for example, their narrowing (stenosis) or expansion (aneurysms).
Angiography is often used in the study of the condition of the arteries to identify the narrowing or fatty deposits characteristic of atherosclerosis. Coronary angiography is used to produce images of the arteries that carry blood to the heart. Angiography is also done to obtain images of the vessels of the lower extremities. The images obtained in this way can be processed using a computer by eliminating unnecessary data and artifacts. This procedure is called digital subtraction angiography.
X-RAY STUDIES OF KIDNEYS AND URINARY TRACT
Passing through the urinary system, the dye envelops the inner surfaces of the ureter and bladder. If you need to see only the bladder and urethra in the picture, then the contrast agent is injected directly into the bladder through a special catheter. Contrast X-ray is often used in the study of kidney disease and obstruction of the urethra, as well as for suspected kidney stones or neoplastic diseases.
X-RAY EXAMINATION OF THE DIGESTIVE TRACT
X-ray examination of the digestive tract can be performed using barium sulfate, a viscous insoluble liquid that absorbs X-rays well. Therefore, barium sulfate is clearly visible on an X-ray. Liquid barium moves slowly through the digestive tract and is not absorbed in it. All these qualities make barium a good contrast agent for examining the digestive tract.Endoscopy, in which special probes are used to examine internal organs, can sometimes be a more acceptable method than examination with barium. However, barium x-rays are very useful in examining certain functions, such as swallowing, for example.
If an image of the upper digestive tract from the esophagus to the duodenum is to be taken, the patient is given barium sulfate by mouth. Its progress through the digestive tract after barium has passed the duodenum can be traced by taking several pictures at short intervals, or by filming its progress on video.
Barium sulfate is also used for colon imaging. There it is introduced with the help of an enema after preliminary cleansing of the intestines with a laxative. A barium enema is used for examinations to detect abnormalities in the intestine, such as polyps.
The double contrast method is sometimes used. For this, air is introduced into the digestive tract following the barium. Air replaces the contrast agent so that barium remains only on the inner surface of the digestive tract.This method allows you to detect changes characteristic of diseases such as Crohn’s disease.
WHAT IS THE HAZARD OF RADIATION?
Radiation damages the cells of the body, which can potentially lead to the development of cancer. In a radiopaque study, the patient is exposed to a higher level of radiation than is usually the case, since X-ray diagnosis requires the use of a higher X-ray dose (see.”Doses of radiation”) .
Another rather rare complication may be associated with the likelihood of developing anaphylaxis, which is the most serious form of allergic reactions. Anaphylaxis can develop in response to the administration of a contrast agent. People with allergic asthma and those who are hypersensitive to iodine are generally advised not to undergo X-ray contrast studies. Sometimes such people are specially prepared for X-ray contrast studies using drugs such as antihistamines and corticosteroids.In addition, other substances can be used as a contrast medium.
In many people, when a radiopaque dye is injected into the body, an increase in body temperature may be noted. Another possible complication of radiopaque imaging is constipation caused by barium sulfate. To prevent it, after passing the X-ray, the doctor may prescribe a laxative.
COMPUTER TOMOGRAPHY (CT)
Computed tomography is a diagnostic method based on obtaining layer-by-layer images of various parts of the body using a computer.
The idea of this method is that X-rays are directed through the human body several times at different angles to obtain detailed layered images of the human body, which are called slices (laminograms). By exposing the patient to only small doses of radiation, computed tomography can painlessly obtain detailed information about various organs.
PRINCIPLES OF COMPUTER TOMOGRAPHY
X-ray computed tomograph consists of an X-ray source and a radiation detector.During the scan procedure, both of these objects rotate relative to the organ being examined. Unlike a conventional X-ray machine, tomography uses X-rays in a slightly different way in order to obtain a higher quality image. The film used in conventional X-rays can only show a few levels of density, such as hard tissue, soft tissue, and air. And the detector used in computed tomography can record hundreds of gradations of different tissue densities that cannot be seen using conventional X-rays.
Instead of directing a single beam of X-rays, in computed tomography, the radiation source inside the scanner, moving in a circle, successively emits many narrowly directed beams. After the X-rays pass through the tissues of the body, they fall on a detector, which records the intensity of the radiation. After each complete rotation of the scanner, the device advances the patient in order to make the next X-ray section.
The information is transferred from the detector to the computer, where section-by-section imaging of various layers of the body takes place.These images are then displayed on a monitor. They can be stored either as computer files or as conventional X-rays. Modern computers can create 3D images from computed tomography data.
More modern scanners use spiral (or helical) technology, in which the scanner rotates around the patient while the bed is slowly moved forward so that the X-ray beams go in a spiral. This type of computed tomography provides a three-dimensional image and reduces the time spent on the scan procedure, reducing the overall radiation dose.
WHAT IS COMPUTER TOMOGRAPHY USED FOR?
Computed tomography of the head and abdomen is most often performed. Head scan technology is very informative and is usually used to examine the brain after a stroke or for a tumor. Computed tomography of the abdominal cavity is most often used to detect tumors and to diagnose inflammatory and other disorders of internal organs. Computed tomography can also be used to examine the lungs and during biopsies, when samples of cells or tissues are taken from the internal organs.
Computed tomography provides a clear image of bone tissue. Blood vessels and tissues with strong blood flow, such as the lungs, can also be seen on CT images. The quality of these images can be improved by using a contrast agent that allows hollow or fluid-filled organs to be seen in the image.
WHAT IS THE HAZARD OF A CT EXAMINATION?
As well as a conventional X-ray examination, CT is accompanied by a radiological burden, which theoretically may be associated with the likelihood of developing cancer.The radiation dose for a CT scan depends on the number of images (slices) taken. In modern computed tomography, spiral scanning is used, due to which the procedure time and X-ray burden are significantly reduced compared to how it was before. In general, the degree of radiation exposure during CT scan is relatively small and the method is considered to be quite safe.
NUCLEAR MAGNETIC RESONANCE TOMOGRAPHY (MRI)
This is a computer-assisted imaging technology that uses a strong magnetic field instead of radiation.The technology of magnetic resonance imaging has been used in medicine since the early 1980s. It is used to obtain detailed sectional images of internal organs and structures. These images are created by a computer using information received from a scanner. MRI scans do not use radiation. Instead, magnetic waves are used.
Although MRI is a rather expensive procedure and the scanning process usually takes longer than others, it has certain advantages.MRI images are similar in appearance to CT images. At the same time, MRI tomography makes it possible to clearly distinguish tumor tissues. In addition, compared to CT, MRI allows you to produce a larger number of sections, which allows you to more effectively detail the structures of individual parts of the body. An important advantage of MRI tomography is that this technology is not accompanied by radiation, and it is considered one of the safest diagnostic technologies currently available.
PRINCIPLES OF MRI TOMOGRAPHY
During an MRI scan, the patient is positioned in the scanner inside a large, powerful magnet. The receiving magnet is located near the parts of the body that need to be examined. If large areas such as the abdomen are to be imaged, the receiving magnet is placed inside the MRI scanner. For examining small areas of the body, such as a joint, the magnet can be positioned around the part of the body to be scanned
Your body, like everything else, is made of atoms.When the atoms in your body are exposed to a magnetic field generated by a strong magnet in the scanner, they are parallel to each other. Short pulses of radio waves from a high-frequency magnet briefly knock atoms out of line. When the atoms leave the row, they emit weak signals that are captured by the receiving magnet. Information about these signals is then transmitted to a computer, which creates an image based on the strength and location of the signal.
The quality of MRI images can be improved by using a contrast medium that allows you to highlight certain structures in the body, such as tumors or blood vessels.
WHAT IS MRI TOMOGRAPHY USED FOR?
MRI can produce clear images of virtually any part of the body. This type of scan is especially used in brain studies to detect tumors. MRI is also used to examine the spinal cord. Minor injuries, especially knee injuries such as tearing of the knee cartilage and meniscus, are also increasingly diagnosed with MRI scans.
In some cases, MRI is used to examine the breast in women.MRI scans are more objective than conventional 2D x-rays. It allows you to establish the exact location of tumors in the breast tissue. In addition, because MRI scans do not use radiation, scans can be performed more frequently without harming the patient’s health.
A special type of MRI called magnetic resonance angiography (MRA) allows doctors to monitor blood flow by comparing signals from immobile tissue with particles in the blood. MRA can be performed without contrast and is therefore safer and less discomforting than conventional angiography, which uses radiopaque contrast agents.
WHAT IS THE DANGER OF MRI TOMOGRAPHY?
The adverse effects of magnetic exposure have not yet been established. Many people have had MRI scans multiple times without any harm to their health. However, if possible, doctors recommend that women abstain from MRI scans during the first months of pregnancy.The fact is that while science still does not know what harm this procedure can cause to a developing fetus. The gadolinium contrast agent, which can be used during MRI scans, is believed to have no side effects. If you know that there may be a metal object in your body, such as a surgically inserted cardiac implant (pacemaker), you must tell your doctor before having an MRI scan. During scanning, a metal object will rotate under the influence of a magnetic field and can cause serious internal injury.Before an MRI scan, your doctor may send you an x-ray to make sure there are no metal objects in your body.
A technology that uses high-frequency sound waves to obtain an image of the internal structures of the body or an image of the fetus in the womb. Ultrasound scans use very high frequency acoustic waves that are inaudible to the human ear.These sounds travel through the body, and echoes from various organs are processed on a computer to produce an image of the internal structures of the body or the fetus in the uterus.
Ultrasound is a technology that can show both motionless organs and movements. The number of new research methods created on the basis of this technology is constantly increasing. For example, organs deep in body cavities can now be examined using ultrasound scanning.Since ultrasound scanning does not use radiation, it is considered the safest.
PRINCIPLES OF ULTRASONIC RESEARCH
The principle of operation of the ultrasound scanner is similar to the principle of operation of a naval sonar, when sound waves are reflected from objects deep in the ocean. Ultrasound scanning uses a sound source called a transducer that converts electrical current into high-frequency sound waves.
The sensor is moved with hands over the surface of the investigated body area Sometimes, with the help of special devices, it is inserted into the vagina or rectum in order to better examine the internal organs. An ultrasound probe can also be built into an endoscope, a tube for acquiring images of internal organs. The sound waves emitted by the transducer are focused into a narrow beam that travels through various parts of the body as the transducer is moved. Sound waves, which easily pass through soft tissues and liquid, are reflected wherever dense tissues meet in their path.For example, after passing the fluid in the bladder, they are reflected from its walls.
In addition to generating sound waves, the transducer acts as a receiver for sound waves, converting echoes back into electrical impulses. These pulses are processed by the computer and displayed on the monitor in a two-dimensional image. The images are constantly changing, allowing the scanner to show movements such as how heart valves open and close. A special type of ultrasound known as Doppler ultrasound uses short pulses of ultrasound to determine the direction and velocity of blood flow.
WHEN DOES ULTRASONIC SCANNING BE USED?
During pregnancy, at least one ultrasound scan is required to check the development of the fetus. Ultrasound can also be used to image the brain of a newborn baby through the fontanelle (the soft point on the baby’s head between the bones of the skull). With the help of ultrasound, you can find out about a cerebral hemorrhage from blood vessels located nearby – a possible complication in premature babies.
Ultrasound scanning is commonly used to study internal organs, as it allows you to create a high-quality image of soft tissue and organs filled with fluid. It is also often used to examine the heart and its rhythm (echocardiography).
With an endoscope inserted into the esophagus, ultrasound can provide more detailed information about the condition of the heart. It allows you to study organs deep in the body, such as the stomach and pancreas.An ultrasound probe can also be inserted into the vagina using a female genital probe. Ultrasound can be used to examine the eyes: for example, to diagnose visual impairments, in particular with retinal detachment. This method can also be used in biopsy to monitor the site of tissue sampling.
The so-called Doppler ultrasound scan is commonly used to examine blood vessels. For example, for the detection of venous thrombi and atherosclerotic processes in the walls of blood vessels, in particular, in the cervical arteries.
In pregnant women with high blood pressure, Doppler scanning can be used to examine the uterine artery that carries blood to the uterus.
WHAT IS THE DANGER FROM ULTRASONIC RESEARCH?
Ultrasound scans are believed to have no side effects and can be repeated as often as necessary. It is the only diagnostic method found to be safe for regular fetal examinations.
Medical Center “Consultant” – Irrigoscopy
Irrigoscopy (contrast enema)
Irrigoscopy is a contrasting study aimed at clarifying the presence or absence of pathology in the large intestine, and in the presence of pathology – to clarify the nature of the identified changes.
Irrigoscopy is a completely safe, non-invasive procedure. Allergic reactions to contrast media are extremely rare due to the fact that barium sulfate is not absorbed from the digestive tract into the blood.The radiation dose received in the process of research on a modern digital apparatus is extremely small and does not lead to the development of negative consequences.
The study is carried out both in the horizontal position of the patient (on the stomach, on the back, on the left and right side). In some cases, the study is carried out in the Trendelenburg position – on the back with the head end of the table lowered (up to -30 degrees) and, less often, in an upright position.
During the examination, a contrast agent is injected into the rectum through a special trauma-safe tip – an aqueous suspension of barium sulfate (contrast enema).The volume of injected contrast is from 500 to 1500 ml. The temperature of the contrast suspension is 37 degrees. In the process of introducing contrast into the intestines, unpleasant sensations, soreness, a feeling of fullness, and the urge to defecate may occur. Extremely rare sensations are so intense that they interfere with the quality of the research.
The indications for irrigoscopy are the following clinical symptoms and clinical situations:
- Colon diverticulosis.
- Inflammatory bowel disease.
- Colon cancer screening.
- Colon obstruction.
- Examination of patients with unclear changes identified using other research methods, such as computed tomography, etc.
- Inability to conduct optical colonoscopy.
The following clinical symptoms and clinical situations are relative indications for irrigoscopy:
- Abdominal pain.
- Other changes in the condition of the large intestine.
- Signs of bleeding from the gastrointestinal tract.
- Palpable mass in the abdomen.
- Intestinal obstruction.
- Weight loss.
- Fever or sepsis.
- History of colon polyps or tumors.
- Colonic fistulas.
- Familial hereditary diseases of the large intestine.
- Preoperative and postoperative examination of the large intestine.
Contraindications to irrigoscopy are:
- Free gas in the abdominal cavity.
- Toxic megacolon.
- Aggressive, non-contact patient (during the study, cooperation and friendly actions of the radiologist and the patient are necessary).
- Deep endoscopic biopsy or polypectomy, any type of biopsy against the background of an infectious or other active inflammatory process in the large intestine.In these cases, an irrigoscopy is possible 7 days after the invasive procedure.
WARNING! Preparation for research required!
REMEMBER! The quality of training affects the amount of information received and, as a result, the diagnostic value of the study.
- X-ray examinations of the esophagus, stomach, duodenum – carried out using a contrast agent – barium sulfate, which allows you to determine the position, shape, internal contour, size of the stomach.It also allows us to identify esophagospasm, gastroesophageal reflux, hiatus hernia, esophageal diverticula, stomach and duodenal ulcers, malignant and benign neoplasms, to assess the state of the stomach after surgery
- Enterography (studies of the small intestine) – is carried out using a barium suspension, according to an original technique, worked out at the Institute of n-gastroenterology for decades and allowing, with minimal radiation exposure, to obtain an image of absolutely all parts of the small intestine.The research is carried out within a few hours. Used to diagnose Crohn’s disease, celiac disease, malabsorption syndrome, various enteropathies, Whipple’s disease, adhesions, small bowel diverticula
- Irrigoscopy (examination of the colon), including through the stoma, requires special preparation, is carried out using a “contrast” enema. Allows us to identify – colon diverticula, ulcerative colitis, Crohn’s disease of the colon, malignant neoplasms.
- Retrograde cholangiopancreatography and fistulography – performed on a modern C-arm using the most modern radiopaque contrast media.
- Percutaneous transhepatic cholangiography – performed in aseptic operating room conditions, which significantly reduces the risk of developing infectious complications.
- Fluorography of the lungs – used as a screening diagnostic method to exclude tuberculosis and malignant neoplasms of the lungs
- Chest X-ray – gives a general idea of the structure and location of the lungs, mediastinum, diaphragm, ribs, pleural cavities.
- Plain image of the abdominal cavity – for the diagnosis of intestinal obstruction, perforation of a hollow organ
- Study of the genitourinary system (Excretory urography, hysterosalpingography)
- X-ray of bones, joints, spine – to clarify the nature of their damage in rheumatological diseases: rheumatoid arthritis, spondyloarthritis, osteoarthritis; aseptic necrosis of joints
- X-ray of the paranasal sinuses – performed to diagnose inflammation of the mucous membrane, to confirm the diagnosis and monitor the effectiveness of treatment of sinusitis
- X-ray of the bones of the skull, auditory canals
Some types of X-ray examinations that do not require special training can be carried out on the day of your visit to our Center
COMPUTER TOMOGRAPHY (CT)
What is CT scan?
CT (computed tomography) is an X-ray method of obtaining a layer-by-layer image of organs.The latest generation of CT devices are multispiral (MSCT), which, thanks to a more modern device design, also provide the ability to construct a 3D image.
Why do I need intravenous contrast medium for CT?
The contrast agent accumulates in different ways in normal and altered organs and tissues of the body, this primarily concerns tumor formations. With the help of contrast, even a small tumor can be detected and the degree of its malignancy can be assumed.Intravenous contrast also helps to determine the condition of the vessels (arteries and veins). Such studies include CT angiography (abdominal aorta, arteries and veins of the lower extremities).
CT – coronary angiography (examination of the blood vessels of the heart).
It makes no sense to perform CT scan of the abdominal cavity without using a contrast agent, because the doctor will not receive complete information and the study will need to be repeated.
Can intravenous administration of contrast medium lead to any complications?
No, the latest generation of contrast media are generally well tolerated by patients.Sometimes, at the time of introduction, a feeling of heat is noted, which quickly passes. Only a few patients with a tendency to allergies can develop a more pronounced reaction, which will require additional therapeutic measures. All CT rooms are equipped with an appropriate set of necessary drugs. Also in GBUZ MKSC DZM specialists in intensive care work around the clock, who in extreme cases will provide the necessary highly qualified assistance on time.
Is there a contraindication to CT?
The only contraindication is pregnancy, especially in the first trimester, since the method is associated with radiation exposure.
The study of which organs is possible in the conditions of GBUZ MKSC DZM?
Almost all organs and systems of the body:
- Head and Brain Examination
- Retroperitoneal space,
- Urinary system,
- Small pelvis,
- Vessels, including heart vessels,
- The skeletal system.
- A separate type of research in the GBUZ MKSC DZM is CT-Enterography and virtual colonoscopy, which allow you to detect diseases of the small and large intestine without endoscopy.
What is the procedure for CT scan?
The research is carried out by appointment to avoid the need for long waiting times.
During the study, the patient is alone in the room, but at the same time he has the possibility of audio communication with the specialist performing the procedure.
The table on which the patient lies is pushed into the tunnel and during the examination process to obtain more complete organ scan results. The depth of this tunnel is very small, so there is no fear of confined space. During the procedure, the patient must lie still. In some cases, the technician may ask you to hold your breath. The time for conducting a CT scan is about 15 minutes, but if intravenous contrasting is necessary, the time increases to 40 minutes.
It is necessary to bring with you previous images and descriptions of ultrasound, CT, MRI.
Doctors with many years of experience work in the GUZ “KB SMP No. 7”, after the study, a transcript with a detailed description is issued, and medical recommendations are given. The obtained digital images are saved and attached to the examination results on a CD or film.
The results of X-ray examinations can be obtained on the day of treatment, and the results of MRI and CT examinations can be obtained the next day, in some cases the conclusion is issued 40 minutes – 1.5 hours after the examination (depending on the number of zones and the use of contrast).Also, at your request, we can send the conclusion by e-mail, and you will not have any need to waste your time waiting. Right after the CT scan, you can go home.
Many patients believe that the sooner a conclusion is written to them, the better the service process is in such a department. This is a big misconception!
The key to qualitative research is a calm, thoughtful analysis of each symptom, multifaceted differential diagnosis, discussion of each case with colleagues, surgeons, and the attending physician.Naturally, this approach takes time. You can judge the thoroughness of the work of the department employees by the volumetric protocol of the study, which will be given to you one day after the study. However, if we see a problematic situation that requires urgent action, the analysis of the study and its protocol will be performed immediately.
Which bowel diseases can be diagnosed with CT?
What bowel diseases can be diagnosed with computed tomography?
Multispiral tomographic examination is undoubtedly a valuable diagnostic method for visualizing the state of internal organs and tissues, in particular, the abdominal organs.Computed tomography (CT) is quick and can pinpoint the exact cause of abdominal pain. CT makes it possible to assess the condition of the intestinal walls, to reveal the presence of intraluminal neoplasms and the condition of the surrounding tissues.
There are many indications for bowel testing. First of all, these are emergency conditions: intestinal obstruction caused by intussusception of intestinal loops or obstruction by a tumor. If the intestine is obstructed, CT can not only detect the location and cause of the obstruction, but also diagnose complications such as perforation or entrapment.In case of abdominal trauma, CT will help to identify which organs are affected and to detect a violation of the integrity of the intestinal wall with the release of its contents into the abdominal cavity or retroperitoneal space.
CT is also effectively used in the diagnosis of doubtful cases of acute appendicitis, when the decision to perform surgery cannot be made without additional imaging. The tomograms clearly show a thickening of the wall of the appendix and inflammation of the surrounding tissues.On tomograms, tumors can be seen, measured, mesenteric deformity and mesenteric lymph node involvement assessed.
In addition, abnormalities in intestinal development are visualized on CT, which can cause impaired flow of contents or indigestion. These are changes in the normal length of the intestinal tract (shortening or lengthening of some sections), duplication of the colon, pathological subhepatic location of the cecum, incomplete rotation of the colon.
Which bowel diseases are not suitable for CT examination?
Those that require exclusively endoscopic examination of the intestinal mucosa with a biopsy specimen (to study the pathomorphology of cells). This, for example, Crohn’s disease, ulcerative colitis, intestinal bleeding, various disorders of digestion and absorption of food. These are situations in which fiber-optic colonoscopy with targeted biopsy is indispensable.
How in to select a study area for the diagnosis of bowel disease?
In order to achieve maximum information content, for a complete examination of the intestine, CT oncoscreening of 2 zones is shown: the abdominal and pelvic organs.This is necessary to visualize the entire intestinal tract.
How is contrast enhancement performed when examining the intestines?
Intravenous contrasting is the main CT tool for studying blood circulation in organs and tissues. CT scan of the abdominal cavity and small pelvis without contrast is possible only in the situation of diagnosing urgent conditions – trauma or intestinal obstruction. In all other cases, the introduction of contrast is mandatory. In addition to intravenous contrasting, the intestine is filled with the drug “Triombrast”.It is a radiopaque substance that provides contrast to the intestinal loops on tomograms. Its use allows a detailed assessment of the relief of the inner surface of the intestine, the patency of the lumen, the presence of neoplasms, foreign bodies in the lumen.
It is important to note that after examining the gastrointestinal tract by the classical X-ray method using barium sulfate, at least 3 days must elapse before computed tomography can be performed.This is because barium, which is also a radiopaque substance, absorbs X-rays and will interfere with good CT imaging.
X-RAY SCOPE (transillumination) – a method of X-ray examination, in which a positive image of the object under study on a fluorescent screen is obtained using X-rays. One of the main methods of X-ray diagnostics. During fluoroscopy, dense areas of the object (bones, foreign bodies) look dark, less dense (soft tissues) – lighter.
The main advantage of fluoroscopy is the fact of research in real time. This makes it possible to assess not only the structure of the organ, but also its displacement, contractility or extensibility, the passage of contrast medium, filling. The method also allows you to quickly assess the localization of some changes, due to the rotation of the research object during transillumination. Fluoroscopy allows you to control the performance of some instrumental procedures – placement of catheters, angioplasty, fistulography.
The main differences of digital fluoroscopy are the use of modern X-ray detectors and the ability to perform digital processing of an X-ray image with its simultaneous display on a monitor screen or in an image recording device. With the advent of digital technology, 3 main disadvantages inherent in traditional fluoroscopy have disappeared:
- Relatively high radiation dose compared to radiography – modern low-dose devices have left this disadvantage in the past.The use of pulse scattering modes further reduces the dose load by up to 90%.
- Low spatial resolution – on modern digital devices, the resolution in the copy mode is only slightly inferior to the resolution in the X-ray mode. In this case, the ability to observe the functional state of individual organs (heart, lungs, stomach, intestines) “in dynamics” is of decisive importance.
- The impossibility of documenting research – digital image processing technologies make it possible to save research materials, both frame by frame and in the form of a video sequence.The resulting images can be placed on a regular CD-ROM or in a network storage.
Fluoroscopy is performed mainly for X-ray diagnostics of diseases of internal organs located in the abdominal and thoracic cavities, according to the plan, which is drawn up by the radiologist before the start of the study. Sometimes, the so-called plain fluoroscopy is used to recognize traumatic bone injuries, to clarify the area of the subject of radiography.
In contrast to the organs of the chest, which are a favorable object for X-ray examination, the abdominal cavity with its contents and the organs of the retroperitoneal space, due to X-ray anatomical features, are not differentiated during conventional fluoroscopy.
If the shadow of the heart is clearly visible against the background of transparent pulmonary fields, and the elements of the bone skeleton clearly stand out against the background of soft tissues, then to identify the liver, biliary tract, spleen, gastrointestinal tract, urinary tract against the background of the surrounding soft tissues and organs, they usually resort to contrast research methods.
Artificial contrasting greatly expands the possibilities of fluoroscopic examination of organs and systems where tissue densities are approximately the same (for example, the abdominal cavity, the organs of which transmit X-rays to approximately the same degree and therefore have low contrast). This is achieved by introducing an aqueous suspension of barium sulfate into the lumen of the stomach or intestines, which does not dissolve in digestive juices, is not absorbed by the stomach or intestines, and is excreted naturally in a completely unchanged form.The main advantage of barium suspension is that it, passing through the esophagus, stomach and intestines, smears their inner walls and gives on a screen or film a complete picture of the nature of elevations, depressions and other features of their mucous membrane. The study of the internal relief of the esophagus, stomach and intestines contributes to the recognition of a number of diseases of these organs. With a tighter filling, it is possible to determine the shape, size, position and function of the organ under study.
When examining the stomach and intestines, double contrast is often used.For this purpose, air is additionally introduced into the examined organ. In this case, a small amount of high-density barium covers the surface of the mucous membrane, and the introduction of gas inflates the organ, increasing the contrast.In some cases, oxygen is injected into the abdominal cavity to study the walls of the stomach between two air media.
The main contraindication to radiopaque studies is suspicion of perforation, since free barium is a strong irritant to the mediastinum and peritoneum; A water-soluble contrast agent is less irritating and can be used if perforation is suspected.
More details about contrast media can be found in the special section Radiopaque substances
For the study of the large intestine, irrigoscopy is used, consisting in the fact that an aqueous suspension of barium sulfate after preliminary cleansing of the intestine is introduced into it using an enema.
During fluoroscopy of the esophagus, stomach and duodenum, the patient is given a radiopaque mixture to drink before examination.At the same time, special mixtures based on barium sulfate with flavoring additives are used.
Methods of fluoroscopy of the esophagus, stomach, intestines have been worked out in great detail. They are safe and not burdensome for the patient. The diagnostic value of scopic studies is extremely high. For millions of patients, doctors annually conduct X-ray examinations of organs, both to establish a diagnosis of the disease, and in order to monitor the results of treatment.
Registration and preparation for complex examinations (X-ray of the stomach, urography, irrigoscopy, etc.) must be discussed with the X-ray laboratory assistant.
Department of Radiation and Functional Diagnostics
MRI is a modern, safe, non-radiation, accurate and fast way to make a diagnosis.
At your service is a modern, absolutely safe and accurate diagnostic method — magnetic resonance imaging using the equipment of a recognized world leader – TOSHIBA EXCELART Vantage Atlas-X 1,5 Tesla (Ts) .The high magnetic field strength and resolution of the tomography will allow you to see the smallest details of your body.
The Vantage System uses the world’s shortest (1.4m) self-shielded superconducting magnet. The wide and short canal with a diameter of 655 mm minimizes anxiety and provides a comfortable environment for all patients.
Toshiba is proud to introduce the Vantage Atlas-Z and Atlas-X systems to its line of MR systems. This system features the world’s shortest open gantry and Pianissimo technology in addition to outstanding image quality and high performance.
The Evolution of the Vantage System is a comfortable, patient-focused MR system.
The Vantage Series features a 1.4m ultra-short magnet and PianissimoTM (Toshiba Patented Scan Noise Reduction Technology) to provide the world’s best MR patient experience. These unique patient comfort-enhancing properties significantly reduce patient anxiety.
Unrivaled image quality and improved clinical performance.
Only Toshiba offers a 55 cm field of view with such a short magnet, reflecting our efforts to fully meet your clinical needs and expectations. In addition to our Fat-free TM homogeneous signal technology, superior image quality and head-to-toe MPA, the Vantage System also delivers extremely crisp and clear images.
Atlas technology opens up new perspectives in diagnostics.
Powerful, fast and easy to use, the Vantage Atlas features an all-new RF system and controller structure.Utilizing Toshiba’s latest Atlas SPEEDER parallel acquisition technology, unrivaled diagnostic versatility is possible in today’s demanding workflow, from routine examinations to complex scans such as full body scans.
The patient table is ergonomically designed for maximum patient comfort. The table top can be lowered up to 420 mm from the floor for easier patient handling. The hydraulic drive provides smooth and quiet vertical movement of the table top section.
Maximum patient weight 205 kg .
You will receive a written opinion from the doctor on the results of the study (+ disc with the study and X-ray film with the study).
Today, MRI is considered the most informative method of radiological examination of the fibrocartilaginous structures of the osteoarticular apparatus. As a result, the most common indication for an MRI scan of the joints is the diagnosis of traumatic injuries to the menisci, ligaments and tendons. MRI allows you to identify the presence of damage, clarify its nature and localization, differentiate ruptures and degenerative changes in these structures.
MRI is indispensable in the diagnosis of rheumatoid arthritis in the early stages of the disease. MRI of the hands, in contrast to X-ray imaging, allows visualizing changes in all joint structures in RA, namely: thickening of the synovial membrane, marginal bone usuria and subchondral cysts, joint effusion, signs of destruction of articular cartilage, tendosynovitis. An ultrasound scan does not determine the entire symptom complex characteristic of RA (rheumatoid arthritis).
MRI is a highly effective method for diagnosing RA, which, in combination with other research methods, helps to establish a diagnosis at different stages of the disease, especially at early stages, and to timely prescribe adequate antirheumatic treatment.
Advantages of diagnostic methods in our institution:
– expert class of equipment for tomography;
– full range of MRI studies;
– European quality of the survey.
List of medical services
provided by the MRI room of the radiation diagnostics department
– brain and skull bones,
– paranasal sinuses,
– eye orbits and optic nerves,
– pituitary gland,
– pituitary gland with contrast,
– cerebral arteries,
– cerebral veins,
– neck arteries,
– soft tissues (muscles, subcutaneous fat).
– cervical vertebrae – atlantooccipital region,
– cervical spine,
– cervical spine and craniovertebral junction,
– cervical spine and neck arteries,
– thoracic spine,
– lumbosacral spine,
– sacral coccygeal spine,
– lumbosacral and sacrococcygeal spine,
– soft tissues (muscles, subcutaneous fat).
– contrast-enhanced peripheral arteries,
– contrast-enhanced aortography.
– mammary glands,
– mediastinal organs (thymus, great vessels, lymph nodes, bronchi).
– liver, gallbladder and biliary tract + MRI cholangiography,
– kidneys, adrenal glands + mR urography (three-dimensional image of the urinary tract),
– pelvic organs (uterus and appendages, prostate gland, bladder),
– external genital organs,
– soft tissues (muscles, subcutaneous fat),
– small intestine,
– large intestine (colon, sigmoid and rectum),
– all parts of the intestine (small and large).
Joints (study from one side):
– shoulder joint,
– elbow joint,
– wrist joint and hand,
– sacroiliac joints,
– hip joint,
– knee joint,
– ankle joint and toes,
– soft tissues (muscles, subcutaneous -fat fiber).
Joints (study from both sides):
– temporomandibular joints,
– shoulder joints,
– elbow joints,
– wrist joints and hands,
– sacroiliac joints,
– hip joints,
– knee joints,
– ankle joints and toes,
– soft tissues (muscles, subcutaneous fat),
– distal parts of the skeleton,
– hand (on one side),
– foot (on one side).
– brain + paranasal sinuses,
– brain + pituitary gland,
– brain + pituitary gland with contrast,
– brain + eye orbits,
– brain + eye orbits with contrast,
– brain + cerebral arteries ,
– brain + cerebral arteries with contrast,
– brain + cerebral veins,
– brain + veins with contrast,
– brain + veins + arteries,
– brain + veins + arteries with contrast,
– all parts of the spine,
– upper limbs,
– lower limbs,
– chest (lungs, ribs, heart)
– abdominal cavity (liver, biliary tract, pancreas, spleen, adrenal glands, kidneys, retroperitoneal and mesenteric lymph nodes) + MR cholangio-pancreatography (three-dimensional image of the biliary tract).