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Curtain in vision: Shadow or Dark Curtain in Vision


What Is Carotid Artery Disease?

Carotid arteries are the main blood vessels in your neck that send blood to your eyes and brain. There are two carotid arteries in your neck: one on the right side and one on the left side. Carotid artery disease is when blood flow through your carotid artery is blocked. Without enough oxygen from blood, your eyes and brain do not work properly. You may notice that one side of your body is weak or numb, and you may lose vision on this side of your body.

What causes carotid artery disease?

A buildup of material in your arteries causes a plaque to form. This buildup eventually narrows or hardens the arteries. Pieces of plaque can break off into the blood stream, slowing or blocking blood flow to the eyes and brain.

Vision problems may be warning signs of carotid artery disease

Know the warning signs of a possible blocked carotid artery. If you have these symptoms, call your primary care doctor or ophthalmologist right away.

  • Vision that seems like a curtain is being drawn over your eye. This could be due to a temporary blockage in your carotid artery, called a TIA (transient ischemic attack, or “mini-stroke”). It may last a few minutes to an hour. This could be a warning sign that you may soon have a blocked carotid artery. Call your doctor right away.
  • Loss of side vision or total vision loss. This, along with muscle weakness or paralysis on one side of your body, may be a stroke. This can happen when the carotid artery is completely blocked. Do not wait—get help right away if you think you are having a stroke.

Who is at risk for carotid artery disease?

People at increased risk for carotid artery disease are those who:

  • smoke
  • have high cholesterol
  • drink a lot of alcohol
  • are obese
  • have high blood pressure
  • are not physically active enough
  • have a family history of carotid artery disease

Except for family history, you have some control over these risk factors. Talk with your doctor about ways to help reduce your risk of carotid artery disease. Your doctor may suggest that you eat a healthy diet, stay at a good weight, be active each day, and possibly take medicine.

Diagnosis of carotid artery disease

Your ophthalmologist or primary care doctor may want you to have certain tests if you are at risk for carotid artery disease.

Tests may include certain types of scans of the body. Those scans can show how well blood is flowing through your carotid arteries. Your ophthalmologist might dilate (widen) your pupils and examine the back of your eye to check for blocked blood vessels.

Treatment of carotid artery disease

Your doctors will work as a team to treat carotid artery disease. Your treatment may include:

  • blood-thinning medications (such as aspirin) to help prevent blood clots
  • medicine to lower your blood pressure
  • surgery to remove a blocked section of the carotid artery

Detached Retina – American Academy of Ophthalmology

What Is a Detached Retina?

A detached retina is when the retina lifts away from the back of the eye. The retina does not work when it is detached, making vision blurry. A detached retina is a serious problem. An ophthalmologist needs to check it out right away, or you could lose sight in that eye.

How Do You Get a Detached Retina?

As we get older, the vitreous in our eyes starts to shrink and get thinner. As the eye moves, the vitreous moves around on the retina without causing problems. But sometimes the vitreous may stick to the retina and pull hard enough to tear it. When that happens, fluid can pass through the tear and lift (detach) the retina.

Who Is at Risk for a Retinal Detachment?

You are more likely to have a detached retina if you:

  • need glasses to see far away (are nearsighted)
  • have had cataract, glaucoma, or other eye surgery
  • take glaucoma medications that make the pupil small (like pilocarpine)
  • had a serious eye injury
  • had a retinal tear or detachment in your other eye
  • have family members who had retinal detachment
  • have weak areas in your retina (seen by an eye doctor during an exam)

Early Signs of a Detached Retina

A detached retina has to be examined by an ophthalmologist right away. Otherwise, you could lose vision in that eye. Call an ophthalmologist immediately if you have any of these symptoms:

  • Seeing flashing lights all of a sudden. Some people say this is like seeing stars after being hit in the eye.
  • Noticing many new floaters at once. These can look like specks, lines or cobwebs in your field of vision.
  • A shadow appearing in your peripheral (side) vision.
  • A gray curtain covering part of your field of vision.

How Is a Detached Retina Diagnosed?

Your ophthalmologist will put drops in your eye to dilate (widen) the pupil. Then they will look through a special lens to check your retina for any changes.

How Is a Detached Retina Treated?

Surgery is done to repair a detached retina. Here are some types of detached retina surgery:

Pneumatic Retinopexy

Your ophthalmologist puts a gas bubble inside your eye. This pushes the retina into place so it can heal properly. Afterwards, you will need to keep your head in a very specific position as your doctor recommends for a few days. This keeps the bubble in the right place. As your eye heals, your body makes fluid that fills the eye. Over time, this fluid replaces the gas bubble.


Your ophthalmologist removes the vitreous pulling on the retina. The vitreous will be replaced with an air, gas, or oil bubble. The bubble pushes the retina into place so it can heal properly. If an oil bubble is used, your ophthalmologist will remove it a few months later. With an air or gas bubble, you cannot fly in an airplane, travel to high altitudes or scuba dive. This is because altitude change causes the gas to expand, increasing eye pressure.

Scleral Buckle

A band of rubber or soft plastic is sewn to the outside of your eyeball. It gently presses the eye inward. This helps the detached retina heal against the eye wall. You will not see the scleral buckle on the eye. It is usually left on the eye permanently.

What Are the Risks of Surgery for Detached Retina?

All surgery has risks of problems. But if you do not treat a detached retina, you could quickly and permanently lose your sight. Here are some of the risks of surgery for detached retina:

  • Eye infection
  • Bleeding in your eye
  • Increased pressure inside the eye, which can lead to glaucoma
  • Cataract, when the lens in your eye becomes cloudy
  • Need for a second surgery
  • Chance that the retina does not reattach properly
  • Chance that the retina detaches again

Your ophthalmologist will discuss these and other risks and how surgery can help you. Things to expect after surgery:

  • You might have some discomfort for a few a days to weeks after surgery. You will be given pain medicine to help you feel better.
  • You need to rest and be less active after surgery for a few weeks. Your ophthalmologist will tell you when you can exercise, drive or do other things again.
  • You will need to wear an eye patch after surgery. Be sure to wear it as long as your doctor tells you to.
  • If a bubble was put in your eye, you will need to keep your head in one position for a certain length of time, such as 1–2 weeks. Your doctor will tell you what that specific head position is. It is very important to follow the directions so your eye heals.
  • You might see floaters and flashing lights for a few weeks after surgery. You may also notice the bubble in your eye.
  • Your sight should begin to improve about four to six weeks after surgery. It could take months after surgery for your vision to stop changing. Also, your retina may still be healing for a year or more after surgery. How much your vision improves depends on the damage the detachment caused to the cells of the retina.

Moran CORE | Red Flag Symptoms “Flashes, Floaters, Curtains”

Red Flag Symptoms “Flashes, Floaters, Curtains”

Title: Red Flag Symptoms “Flashes, Floaters, Curtains”
Author: David F. Skanchy, MSIV, McGovern Medical School at UT Houston
Date: 09/20/18
Photographer: James Gilman, CRA, FOPS

Floaters are dark specks that float around inside the eye and may disrupt the field of vision. They may appear as spots, circles, cobwebs, clouds, or squiggly lines and are often easier to see while looking at a plain background or white computer screen. These floaters may drift with eye movement and dart away when attempting to look right at them. Floaters may be accompanied with flashes of light, often compared to streaks of lightning or camera flashes.


The main cause of floaters and flashes is age-related changes of the vitreous humour (gel-like substance) that fills the eye. With time, the vitreous and collagen fibers inside the eye undergo degenerative changes forming clumps and strands. As light hits these strands in front of the retina, they may cast shadows onto the retina, causing the sensation described as floaters.

The vitreous may also begin to liquefy and collapse with age, pulling away from the retinal wall. As this vitreous shrinks it pulls toward the center of the eye causing traction on the retina. This force stimulates the retina causing the perception of flashing lights. Once the gel has completely detached, these flashes of light will subside.

Warning Signs:

Although floaters are usually benign, there are certain symptoms or situations that put patients at a greater risk of retinal tears or retinal detachments and would prompt urgent evaluation from an ophthalmologist. These include:

  • New onset of a large floater or sudden increase in many floaters
  • Sudden flashes of light, especially when persistent
  • When a dark curtain or dark shadows appear in the visual field
  • Floaters associated with blurred vision
  • Recent eye trauma
  • Floaters associated with high nearsightedness (high myopia)

Retinal Detachment

The retina is a thin layer of neural tissue that lines the inside wall of the eye. As light passes through the pupil and is focused onto the retina, it is converted into an electrical signal (phototransduction) that is carried by the optic nerve to the brain. The retina is like film in a camera that captures light and sends it to the brain, allowing us to visually process the world around us.

When the retina is separated from the retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) layer and choroid plexus below, it is cut off from part of its blood supply and can become ischemic. The macula, or central retina, is highly susceptible to damage when detached. There are three types of retinal detachments:

  1. Rhegmatogenous (most common): A tear in the retina allows vitreous fluid to enter and separate the retina from the underlying structures. A common cause of a retinal tear is posterior vitreous detachment (PVD), which is due to the vitreous shrinking and pulling away from the retinal wall as discussed earlier.
  2. Tractional: Scar tissue or other tissue pulls the retina away from underlying layers. This may happen in patients with severe diabetic retinopathy.
  3. Exudative: Fluid builds underneath the retina pushing it away from the underlying layers. This may be found in various inflammatory disease, kidney diseases, tumors, and with severely high blood pressure.

While a PVD is the most common benign cause of flashes and floaters, retinal detachments are the most worrisome and require prompt treatment to preserve vision. Other causes of flashes or floaters may include vitreous hemorrhage, posterior uveitis, oculodigital stimulation, and migraines.


Figure 1 – What some floaters may look like from the perspective of the patient.

Figure 2 – Floaters can cast shadows onto the retina.

Figure 3/4 – OPTOS and color fundus photos of retinal detachments.

Faculty Approval: Griffin Jardine, MD

Sharma P, Sridhar J, Mehta S. Flashes and floaters. Primary Care: Clinics in Office Practice. 2015 Sep 1;42(3):425-35.
Root, Timothy. OphthoBook. Beginner’s guide to the Retina. https://timroot.com/retina/ Accessed 20 September 2018.

Identifier: Moran_CORE_26803
Copyright statement: Copyright 2019. Please see terms of use page for more information

Retinal detachment: Symptoms, causes and treatment

  1. Risk factors
  2. Symptoms
  3. Causes

A retinal detachment is the separation (detachment) of a portion of the light-sensitive retina from the back of the eyeball. A retinal detachment (or detached retina) is a serious eye condition that is a medical emergency.

If a retinal detachment is not diagnosed and treated promptly, permanent vision loss and even blindness can occur.

When this occurs, the blood supply to the detached retina is cut off, causing the death of specialized cells in the retina that are essential for our sense of sight.

If a retinal detachment is not detected and treated promptly, the retina can continue to tear away from the back of the eye, causing greater and greater vision loss.


Risk factors

Risk factors for retinal detachment include:

Retinal detachment can also occur in someone who has none of the risk factors listed above.


Seeing a curtain-like shadow coming down across your field of vision can be a sign of retinal detachment.

Symptoms of a detached retina include:

If you have a sudden onset of any of these symptoms of a detached retina, contact an eye doctor immediately.

READ MORE: Retinal detachment symptoms and warning signs


Most retinal detachments are caused by a rip or tear in the retina, which often occurs because of traction (pulling) on the surface of the retina.

The risk factors listed above play a significant role in the type of retinal detachment you may experience.

In most cases, this traction is due to the clear, gel-like fluid inside the eye (called the vitreous or vitreous humor) pulling away from its attachment to the front surface of the retina.

Normally, the vitreous (“VI-tree-uhs”) liquifies with age and separates from the retina without causing any problems. Though there may be some tugging on the retina (which causes the symptom of flashing lights), the vitreous eventually works free without damaging the retina.

In some cases, as the vitreous pulls away from the retina, it causes a rip or tear in the retina and pulls the torn retina from the back of the eye.

Retinal detachment can also be caused by the accumulation of fluid under the retina, even if there are no rips or tears in the retinal tissue.

Detection and diagnosis

During a comprehensive eye exam, your optometrist or ophthalmologist will dilate your pupils and closely examine your retinas for signs of detachment.

Your eye doctor also may perform special retinal imaging tests to obtain a full, wide-angle view of the entire retina of both eyes.

If the diagnosis of retinal detachment is made, your eye doctor will then refer you to a specialist for surgical treatment.

If you are experiencing flashes and floaters but your doctor finds no signs of a retinal tear or detachment, you may be asked to return for another exam within a few weeks to make sure no problems have developed. If your symptoms change significantly before your follow-up appointment, be sure to contact your eye doctor immediately.


Surgery is required to repair a detached retina. It is also the only treatment for retinal detachment.

The procedure is usually performed by a retina specialist — an ophthalmologist who has undergone advanced training in the medical and surgical treatment of retinal disorders.
Generally, the sooner the retina is reattached, the better the chances that vision can be restored.

Surgical procedures used to treat a retinal detachment include:

  • Scleral buckling surgery

  • Vitrectomy

  • Pneumatic retinopexy

If the detachment is caused by a tear in the retina, the surgeon usually uses a laser or a freezing probe to seal the tear and firmly reattach the retina to the back of the eye.

  • If a laser is used, this is called laser photocoagulation.

  • If a freezing probe is used, it’s called cryopexy.



Having routine comprehensive eye exams is the best way to prevent retinal detachment and vision loss from a detached retina.

Your eye doctor can spot early warning signs of retinal detachment before you notice symptoms, and may refer you to a retinal specialist for preventive treatment.

Avoiding contact sports that increase your risk of head and eye trauma (such as football and boxing) is one way to reduce your risk of retinal detachment.

You can also ask your eye doctor about myopia control methods. If you can prevent your child from developing a high degree of myopia, you may be able to help prevent retinal detachment.

Though none of these measures will guarantee that you (or your children) will avoid developing a detached retina, they are the best options currently available for preventing retinal detachment.

See an eye doctor

Remember: Retinal detachment is a serious eye condition that can cause permanent vision loss and even blindness.

Don’t take chances with your eyesight. If you experience any symptoms of a potential retinal detachment, see an eye doctor immediately.

Even if you are symptom-free, be sure to have a comprehensive eye exam at least once a year (especially after you turn 50) to assess your risk of a detached retina or other eye conditions that increase with age.

SEE RELATED: Retinal detachment: Frequently asked questions

Page published in March 2019

Page updated in October 2021

Retinal tear surgery

By Adam Debrowski; reviewed by Gary Heiting, OD

When a portion of the retina is ripped or torn, retinal tear surgery may be needed.

A retinal tear happens when a small part of the retina comes loose from the back of the eye. Retinal tears usually happen when the gel-like fluid (vitreous) that fills the back of the eyeball pulls on the retina. This is called posterior vitreous detachment.

Retinal tears can sometimes heal on their own, but still need to be closely monitored. If surgery is recommended but a tear is left without treatment, it can lead to retinal detachment and potential vision loss.

When retinal tears are diagnosed and treated early, the outlook is usually very good.

SEE RELATED: Symptoms of a retinal tear

Retinal surgery is typically done in an ophthalmologist’s office or at a surgical center. It’s performed under local anesthesia to prevent any discomfort and you will be given medication before the procedure to help you relax.

If a retinal tear is treated promptly, before it progresses to retinal detachment, the surgical outcome is typically considered “extremely good,” according to the American Society of Retina Specialists (ASRS).

When a retinal tear needs to be treated, a retina specialist will usually use one or both of the following procedures:

Laser photocoagulation

Laser surgery for a retinal tear involves using a high-beam laser to create scar tissue around the edges of the tear. Your eye will be numbed beforehand.

The new scar will help the area of torn retina reattach to the back of the eye and heal over the coming days. This operation prevents a future retinal detachment by making sure vitreous fluid doesn’t get under the tear.

After surgery, you will need to have someone drive you home. You will probably be asked to limit your movement for a period of days or weeks, depending on your condition.

After-effects of laser surgery are usually mild and go away within a week. They often include slightly blurry vision and some discomfort. Your eye doctor may prescribe oral medication or eye drops to help.


As with laser surgery, the goal of cryotherapy is to create a scar around the retinal tear.

Instead of a laser, this procedure uses an extremely cold medical instrument to freeze the tissue. The freezing creates a scar that seals the tear, preventing any fluid from getting behind the tear and detaching the retina.

Also like laser surgery, you will need to have someone drive you home after a cryotherapy procedure. Your doctor will likely suggest a short period of bed rest followed by several days of reduced activity.


It generally takes about two weeks to heal after retinal tear surgery, but you can usually resume normal activities within a few days. Heavy lifting and other more strenuous activities should be avoided while your eye heals. Overall recovery times may vary slightly from person to person.

Your doctor will prescribe medications to help with discomfort and reduce any inflammation.

People who have had a retinal tear have a higher chance of developing another tear in the future. Therefore, it’s important to schedule regular eye exams and be mindful of any future symptoms you experience.

SEE RELATED: What is a retinal hole?

A torn retina may be a medical emergency

If you think you may be suffering from a retinal tear, schedule an appointment with an eye doctor as soon as possible. A retinal tear can lead to retinal detachment (with or without warning), a condition that can result in blindness.

The early symptoms of a retinal tear can go unnoticed. If you experience a sudden onset of eye floaters or flashes, contact an eye doctor immediately.

READ MORE: Retinal imaging tests

Page published in October 2020

Page updated in October 2020

Retinal tears: Symptoms and causes

By Anna Barden; reviewed by Gary Heiting, OD

The retina is the thin layer of specialized nerve cells that lines the inside of the back of the eye. It’s here that the process of vision begins.

A tear can form in the retina due to trauma or surgery (among other risk factors), which can eventually challenge the functionality of the eye itself.

Even small retinal tears should be taken very seriously, because they can lead to a retinal detachment that may cause permanent vision loss and even blindness.


It is important to note that some retinal tears are asymptomatic, meaning there is nothing to alert you that a problem is developing in your retina. (This is one reason why routine eye exams are so important to keep your eyes healthy — your eye doctor can spot signs of trouble before you are aware of them.) 

Of course, there are some key symptoms of retinal tears to take note of as well. Common retinal tear symptoms include:

If the condition is associated with retinal detachment or bleeding (vitreous hemorrhage), symptoms can also include the following:

Generally, symptoms of a retinal tear or detachment occur in one eye only. But in some cases, it’s possible for both eyes to be affected.

Do not hesitate to contact an eye doctor if you believe you are experiencing symptoms of a retinal tear or another serious eye condition, whether the symptoms are mild, moderate or severe.

RELATED READING: Retinal detachment FAQs


Retinal tears can occur spontaneously, following trauma to the head or eyes, or after eye surgery.

The vitreous is the gel-like substance that fills the large chamber in the back of the eye (between the lens and the retina). The vitreous is attached to the retina at birth but detaches as the body ages. This process is known as posterior vitreous detachment (PVD), and typically doesn’t cause any serious problems.

However, some people have a more “sticky” vitreous, causing the vitreous to tug on the retina as it separates. When this happens, it can cause a spontaneous tear in the retina. The majority of retinal tears occur this way.

Aside from this spontaneous occurrence, retinal tears can also happen due to trauma or following an eye surgery, such as a vitrectomy or cataract removal.

Risk factors

Who is most susceptible to retinal tears? Many retinal tears are spontaneous, though some factors can play a role in the probability of the condition occurring in some individuals.

Risk factors for retinal tears may include the following:

  • Pre-existing conditions related to the retina

  • Trauma or risk of trauma in employment or physical activities

  • Extreme nearsightedness (myopic retinas can be notably thin)

  • Family history of retinal detachment

  • Previous eye surgery, such as a vitrectomy or cataract removal

  • Advanced age

There is no way to predict if a retinal tear will occur — there is also no way to predict when one will occur.

SEE RELATED: Types of retinal detachment


A retinal tear can only be diagnosed by your eye doctor. During a comprehensive eye exam, your doctor will dilate your pupils and carefully examine your retinas for any signs of retinal tears.

If a retinal tear is detected, you may then be referred to a retina specialist who will confirm the diagnosis, determine the severity of the tear and recommend an appropriate treatment plan.


Because a rip or tear in the retina can lead to a retinal detachment, retinal tears should be evaluated as soon as possible. 

How do you care for a retinal tear? Treatment may vary depending on the degree of the condition.  

Retinal tear surgery

Some retinal tears are treated with laser eye surgery. During the procedure, a laser is used to seal the edges of the tear. Sealing the tear will help to prevent the condition from worsening or leading to retinal detachment. 

Aside from laser surgery, retinal tears may also be treated with a freezing procedure called cryotherapy. Both procedures are out-patient procedures (meaning they don’t require an overnight stay in a hospital and you can go home immediately after the treatment).

SEE RELATED: Retinal tear surgery


If a retinal tear is determined to be mild or low-risk, treatment may not be required — at least not immediately. And sometimes, a scar will form around the border of the retinal tear, which self-heals the tear and eliminates the need for surgical treatment.

That said, any identification of a retinal tear should be evaluated and monitored by an eye doctor and/or retinal specialist during regular eye examinations. A yearly eye exam is the best way to ensure that your retinas are healthy and no further vision problems have occurred or progressed. 

READ NEXT: The seriousness of a retinal hole

Page published in October 2020

Page updated in October 2021

Seeing a curtain coming down in eye

Seeing a curtain in the eye is a serious concern and should prompt a patient to seek care from an optometrist immediately as it is often an indicator of a retinal tear or detachment.


A curtain coming down in the eye may appear as greyness in your field of vision or a curtain/veil falling across your field of vision. Seeing a curtain coming down in the eye is usually an indication of a retinal detachment. The retina is a layer of cells at the back of the eye that is sensitive to light and sends signals to the brain allowing you to see. In the case of a retinal detachment, the retina becomes separated from the back of the eye.


Retinal detachment is more common in people with nearsightedness (myopia), who have had eye surgery, or who have had an eye injury. Alongside seeing a curtain coming down in the eye, symptoms of a retinal detachment could include sudden vision loss, seeing flashing of bright lights, or floaters (dark spots moving across the field of vision) in the eye.


A retinal detachment can occur after the presence of retina tears. A retinal tear becomes more likely with aging, severe nearsightedness, eye surgeries or any recent eye injuries. It can also occur if you have thinning or scarring of the retina, which is usually found along the edges of the retina. Fluid or blood buildup behind the retina, or the drying and shrinking of the jelly-like substance in front of the retina can also increase the risk of a retinal tear. The risk of retinal tear and detachment can also be heightened by other conditions that affect the retina, such as diabetes. If you have a family member who has experienced a detached retina, you may also be at greater risk for a detached retina.


Your optometrist can see and diagnose a detached retina by looking into the eye with a special scope. This is accomplished with the use of special eye drops that widen your pupils, giving the optometrist a view of your retina. The retina will be assessed by ophthalmoscopy, a volk lens, or use of fundus imaging. If you are at risk for a detached retina, you should have your eyes examined for retinal tears regularly to ensure potential tears are caught and treated early.


A retinal detachment is a serious issue and should be treated immediately. Often, immediate treatment can prevent the loss of additional vision. However, if left untreated, retinal detachment can lead to permanent vision damage or loss. Retinal detachment is considered an emergency procedure, and usually require same-day surgery to limit loss of vision.


If you have any symptoms associated with a retinal detachment, including seeing a curtain coming down in your eye, you should visit your optometrist or an emergency room immediately for referral to a retinal surgeon to prevent permanent vision loss.


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90,000 five exhibits of the exhibition dedicated to director Yuri Lyubimov / City news / Moscow website

On August 30, the Museum of Moscow opened the exhibition “Lyubimov and Time. 1917-2017. 100 Years of the Country and Man “, timed to coincide with the centenary of the birth of the Soviet and Russian actor, theater director and teacher Yuri Lyubimov.

The exposition is divided into three parts. The largest, central one, houses installations dedicated to Lyubimov’s activities associated with the Taganka Theater. Theatrical artist Alexei Tregubov recreated the atmosphere of the performances “The Kind Man from Sesuan” (1964), “10 Days That Shook the World” (1965), “The Life of Galileo” (1966), “Hamlet” (1971), “The Dawns Here Are Quiet” (1971) and Boris Godunov, which was staged in 1982, but the public saw it only in 1988.

In the “corridors” on both sides of the central part there are the director’s personal belongings and a chronicle that inscribes his life in the history of the country.

A separate space is dedicated to parting with Vladimir Vysotsky, one of the leading theater actors and a friend of Yuri Lyubimov.

Pocket Flashlight

The small tricolor flashlight that Lyubimov brought back from the war was well known to all the actors of the Taganka Theater. During the performances, being in the hall, the director gave real combat signals with his help. They were invisible to the audience, but they were clearly visible from the stage. There was a simple notation system. A red light that suddenly lit up in the depths of the dark hall, as if saying to the actor: “My eyes would not see, I am leaving the theater!” The green light approved: “Nothing, decent”, and the white one urged to get together: “There is no proper rhythm, pace, liveliness.Pull yourself up! ”

Lyubimov abandoned the Stanislavsky system, which assumed the active participation of the actor in the work on the production. Even before the start of work on the play, he imagined it in detail and demanded that the actors obey his vision. This approach was criticized – in Soviet times, Lyubimov was accused of a director’s dictatorship.

However, as the head of the design laboratory for the study of Lyubimov’s creativity at the State Technical University of the Higher School of Economics Evgenia Abeluk says, the Taganka Theater gave everyone an opportunity to express themselves.At the exit from the hall, spectators were waiting for two boxes, into which they were asked to throw their ticket in accordance with the attitude to the performance: they liked it – in red, did not like it – in black. Once an article appeared in Komsomolskaya Pravda in which Yuri Petrovich was accused of inappropriate treatment of actors and spectators. The authors of the article complained that they could not put their ticket in either the black or the red box. On the same day, a third box appeared in the theater – a yellow one. It bore the inscription: “For the abstaining.”

Letter to mom

Yuri Lyubimov’s parents – Anna Alexandrovna and Pyotr Zakharovich – moved to Moscow in 1922. During the NEP years, the family was quite prosperous – the father of the future director kept a store in Okhotny Ryad. The Lyubimovs tried to instill in their children a love of literature and art. Acquaintance with the theater also happened thanks to his parents: as a child, Lyubimov often visited the Moscow Art Theater, where he watched the legendary “Blue Bird” with the music of Ilya Sats, and later saw Konstantin Stanislavsky himself in the role of Famusov in the play “Woe from Wit”.

A photo is attached to the letter in which Yuri Lyubimov congratulates his mother on the 35th anniversary of living with his father. It depicts the congratulatory person as Hamlet on the stage of the Vakhtangov Theater.


In 1963, Yuri Lyubimov staged a performance based on the play by Bertolt Brecht “The Good Man from Sesuan” with the students of the Shchukin School. With this production, in which Alla Demidova, Boris Khmelnitsky and Anatoly Vasiliev first appeared on the professional stage, the Taganka Theater began.In 1964, the cast of the student performance formed the core of his troupe. The performance is still the hallmark of the theater.

For the 1960s, the performance was downright audacious. Many Brechtian songs-zongs, performed on stage by the actors of the Taganka Theater, raised questions from the Ministry of Culture, and “The Kind Man from Sesuan” was almost removed from the repertoire. The ability of Lyubimov to insist on its own helped also the press, which responded to the performance with a flurry of admiring reviews.

In the space dedicated to The Kind Man from Sesuan, the artist Alexei Tregubov placed three drums – this image came from the key zone about rams.Scenes from the performance are projected onto the surface of the instruments – small projectors are installed under each of them.

Wicker curtain

It is better to enter the space dedicated to another legendary performance of the Taganka Theater – “Hamlet”, it is better to enter one at a time. A wall of moving wicker curtains will simply push the crowd to the opposite side. It is also better to look into the grave dug in the center of this cramped space and listen to Hamlet’s monologue alone.

You should definitely take a closer look at the curtain – it exactly reproduces the legendary canvas created for Lyubov’s “Hamlet” by the artist David Borovsky. This curtain is still included in the textbooks on scenography. “Then, in 1971, Borovsky created an installation on the stage of the Taganka Theater – the curtain in Hamlet moved in different directions, the actors interacted with it. How the copy of the curtain is positioned at our exhibition, how it moves, how it affects the viewer, coupled with what he hears, is our composition on the theme of the set design of this performance, ”says Alexey Tregubov.


In 1980, by order of the USSR Ministry of Culture, Lyubimov’s performance “Vladimir Vysotsky” was banned, in 1982 – “Boris Godunov”, a year later rehearsals of the play based on Mikhail Bulgakov’s “Theatrical Novel” were stopped. And in 1984, Lyubimov, who was on a business trip in London and gave an imprudent interview to the Times newspaper, was deprived of his citizenship in absentia.

From that moment his life in emigration began – for five years Lyubimov lived and worked in the USA, Italy, France, Germany, England, Israel, Scandinavian countries.His drama and opera performances were given a standing ovation at Covent Garden, La Scala, and the Grand Opera. And in 1989 Lyubimov returned to the USSR. As his widow Katalin Lyubimova says, not only because he was called, but because he could not live without the Motherland.

This moment in Lyubimov’s biography is illustrated with a simple and clear metaphor. Between the stylized decorations for Boris Godunov and the wooden iconostasis of 24 posters for the plays that Lyubimov staged abroad, there is a frame similar to those we pass through at the airport.“I wanted to make this moment understandable for the modern viewer and was looking for a simple symbol of transition in the present day,” says Alexey Tregubov.

The exhibition will run until October 26. During this time, creative meetings, student performances, performances and performances of artists will be held within its framework. The central event will be a performance by director Maxim Didenko and actors from Dmitry Brusnikin’s Workshop, based on the performance of Lyubimov’s “Ten Days that Shook the World”.You can follow the events on the museum’s website.

“If they lower the iron curtain, they might inadvertently pinch something”

Russia’s Western partners began to change their attitude towards Russian initiatives to create the broadest possible coalition to fight the terrorist organization “Islamic State” (IS; banned in Russia). This was stated by Russian Foreign Minister Sergei Lavrov in an interview with Radio Russia. At the same time, he, in fact, accused the West of being involved in the creation of IS, an organization whose members, as the minister noted, at a certain moment got out of the control of the Western powers and “some of their friends in the region.”Also, Mr. Lavrov told why Syrian President Bashar al-Assad cannot be called a “magnet for IS” and why it will not be possible to find a solution to the conflict without the participation of the current head of the belligerent state. In addition, the head of Russian diplomacy commented on fears about the possibility of an iron curtain between Russia and the West – according to him, in the current era of “globalization and interdependence” this is impossible.

Answering the question of the journalists of “Radio Russia” about whether the relations of the Russian leadership with foreign colleagues have been simplified recently (in particular, on the issue of the Syrian settlement and the fight against IS), Sergei Lavrov recalled the speech of Russian President Vladimir Putin at the end of September with rostrum of the UN General Assembly.Then the head of state, addressing the leadership of Western countries, asked a rhetorical question: “Now do you understand what you have done?” The answer, according to the minister, is gradually “beginning to come in.”

According to Mr. Lavrov, “the reaction to what is happening in Syria began to change just in the period after the UN General Assembly.” “We felt this change in the enthusiasm with which the idea of ​​full-format multilateral negotiations on Syria was greeted,” the Russian Foreign Minister noted. “Until recently, our western partners did not want to create an inclusive, as it is now fashionable to say, circle of players.” He explained that the point is that “all countries that somehow influence the situation in Syria should be represented” at international meetings on the Syrian settlement.

The Minister made it clear that in the end this idea was accepted and implemented. Over the past month, two meetings of the so-called International Syrian Support Group took place in Vienna, during which two documents were adopted by consensus.They, according to Sergei Lavrov, “set out the principles that Russia has been promoting throughout the Syrian crisis.”

“This suggests that the Western partners realized the futility of the line they took and which, in fact, consisted of an ultimatum:” Assad will leave, and then all problems will be solved, “the minister said. He assured that President Assad “reflects the interests of a significant part of the Syrian society.” “Therefore, a peaceful solution (to the Syrian conflict – Kommersant ) cannot be found without his participation,” summed up Mr. Lavrov.

The head of the Russian diplomatic department recalled that until recently, the United States refused to “deeply coordinate” with Russia on the Syrian issue, arguing that only the departure of the current President of Syria from his post “will allow to establish coordination in the fight against the so-called” Islamic State “banned in Russian Federation”.

“They call Assad a magnet that attracts all terrorists.But if this logic is followed, it turns out that not only Assad is a magnet for IS. Lebanon, Turkey, France and Egypt have become magnets. IS is trying to achieve its goal – the creation of the so-called caliphate – without any connection with what is happening in Syria, and without any connection with who and how relates to Bashar al-Assad, ”the minister said.

One way or another, according to Sergei Lavrov, now “sane politicians leave aside secondary things and understand the need to concentrate on the main priority – suppressing the attempts of IS to conquer positions in the vast territory of the globe. “Concretizing, Mr. Lavrov noted the latest statements by French President François Hollande. “He made a major step in the government, proposing to put aside all other differences,” recalled Mr. Lavrov, adding: “This is fully in line with the initiative of President Putin.”

Sergey Lavrov also spoke about his vision of the history of the emergence of IS. “The period when our Western colleagues and some of their friends in the region were constantly withdrawing from the political process (in Syria – Kommersant ) was associated with the influx of a huge number of terrorists, extremists, foreign fighters in order to solve the problem of overthrowing the regime (Bashara Assad.- “b” ). And at some point, apparently, those who encouraged this process lost, as in similar cases in the past, control over the situation. The terrorist instincts of these foreign fighters prevailed, and they realized that they had a brilliant chance to implement the idea that this so-called Islamic State was hatching, ”the minister said. At the same time, he added that IS itself was actually created “back in the middle of the last decade by guys whom the Americans, having held in prisons in Iraq and Afghanistan, then released.”“The process has gotten out of the control of foreign powers,” the minister summed up.

Sergei Lavrov noted that Moscow is ready to cooperate with the West on Syria, and urged to act proactively, because “the terrorists do not argue with each other and agree perfectly.” “Once again, we see the readiness to rally on the anti-terrorist platform only after the next tragedies.And I hope that we will no longer wait for new troubles. God forbid this to happen again. Although nothing can be guaranteed, ”the minister expressed regret.

During the interview, Mr. Lavrov also answered a number of questions not directly related to Syria and the disagreements around it. In particular, the minister dwelled on the activities of NATO, assuring that the alliance is increasing the presence of its heavy weapons equipment on the border with Russia in violation of the fundamental act on relations with the Russian Federation. “The document says that such forces will not be deployed on the territory of new member states on a permanent basis,” the minister recalled.- They are trying to get around this by small tricks, they tell us, not constant forces, this is rotation. But what difference does it make if every six months the brigade changes the brigade, fully equipped, armed to the teeth … This will not add any stability. This all fits into the logic of searching for the image of the enemy, so that later we can begin to explore additional political spaces more intensively. ”

Sergey Lavrov also noted with regret: “Our Western partners have frozen some formats, the Russia-NATO Council has been frozen, sectoral dialogues with the EU have been frozen, and in some cases the work of intergovernmental commissions on trade and economic cooperation has been frozen.But this process is already returning to normal, the work of these mechanisms is being resumed. ” At the same time, according to him, “none of our delegation feels any isolation.” “The Russian delegation at any forum is in the spotlight, we are consulted, requests are made to support this or that initiative within the framework of the agenda of the corresponding meeting. I am sure that these attempts were initially doomed to failure, ”the minister said.

In an interview, he also answered the question of whether it is possible to talk about a new iron curtain between the Russian Federation and the West.First, the minister briefly told the history of the relationship between the USSR and the Western powers, noting: “The Soviet Union’s preference was cooperation.” He recalled that in 1954 it was the USSR that proposed to conclude a common European treaty on collective security, but the proposal was rejected. “A course was taken to consolidate pro-Western forces within NATO, and then the USSR began to respond not so much with diplomatic methods as with concrete military and other methods, including the construction of the Berlin Wall, which in the material and symbolic sense most closely embodies the concept of the Iron Curtain,” he said. Sergey Lavrov.

As for the fears about the possibility of a new iron curtain, then, as the minister noted, now – in the era of “globalization and interdependence” – this is impossible. “If they lower the iron curtain, they might inadvertently pinch something,” said Mr. Lavrov.

Pavel Tarasenko

90,000 Alexander Lukashenko is ready to lower the “iron curtain” and draw a new currency

The President of Belarus, seized by the economic crisis, on June 17 addressed the citizens at a press conference.Alexander Lukashenko urged people to calm down and stop buying food, dollars and euros. Lukashenka did not even rule out that a new national currency may appear in the country. According to the Belarusian leader, “if you don’t like bunnies, let’s draw some other money.”

The representatives of the Belarusian opposition came up with the idea of ​​marching in a circle to the song about the fact that “it’s too early to die, since there are still things to do at home”. There are no posters, no rallies, these people express their disagreement with their hands, clapping, and their feet, stamping.Something similar took place in several cities of Belarus. And then Alexander Lukashenko, dissatisfied with the way his government is taking the country out of the economic downturn, decided to personally “pull the wheel.” For which he called journalists and outlined his vision of the situation. The main idea: the population itself is to blame for the troubles of the population of Belarus. “You didn’t listen to me, you started buying currency, withdrawing deposits from banks; when there wasn’t enough currency, you ran to buy sugar, salt, vinegar; why not? There’s no sugar! But you raised the price,” the Belarusian leader said.

The President of Belarus also answered the main, probably, question – when will it all end (it meant an increase in food prices, their disappearance from the shelves, a sharp drop in the exchange rate of the Belarusian currency, and hence the real income of the population). The answer was simple. “We will accelerate in July …”.

The TV version of Lukashenka’s meeting with journalists is promised to be shown at 21:00 Minsk time. But from the middle of the day, the Belarusians began to discuss what was said, since there was also a radio broadcast, which, instead of music, even taxi drivers listened to.

Konstantin, who lives near the border with Poland, as he himself admits, from the Belarusian crisis “is already swelling” in the sense that he acutely feels the shortage of his favorite type of cigarettes, and prepares to feel this shortage even more acutely – after all, the president is on the radio Lukashenko said that he does not rule out the possibility of closing the borders of the republic and stopping imports. Konstantin is outraged and hopes for the Customs Union.

Approximately half of the shelves of the Central Department Store in Minsk are filled with imported goods, and more than half of non-food products.If the borders of Belarus are closed, then the matter will not be limited to the puffy ears of smokers.

“The government, governors, ministers – within a week to provide a full range of goods in retail chains! To the roof,” Alexander Lukashenko ordered. The President of Belarus gave this order to “up to the roof”, meeting with the government.

The ranks of people who, during the crisis, tried to earn money by moving across the Polish border, have noticeably thinned out. They were suspected of taking out the greatly increased price of gasoline in gas tanks, and now they can cross the border only once every 5 days and no more than 5 times a month.A resident of the border town gave an interview only on condition of anonymity. “According to my information, 16 people were detained, given 2 million 800 fines, and made restricted to travel outside the republic,” he said.

Alexander Lukashenko from TV screens, as part of the fight against the crisis, shaming people all past week. “We started buying vinegar, matches, sugar, salt, flour, but cockroaches will start in three weeks and you’ll throw it all away,” Lukashenka said.

The head of Belarus admitted that he learned in detail about what was happening on a business trip to Kazakhstan when he watched the news of the Russian TV channel.Then I became especially ashamed of my fellow citizens. “I want to appeal to people, and do not be offended at me; I neglect everything that you come up with about me; stop creating warehouses in basements and garages; expel from work immediately, revoke a license, put in jail,” the President of Belarus said.

The current problems of Belarus are a direct consequence of the considerable achievements of Belarus, Lukashenka said. “We built a lot, treated well, sent the children to rest,” he said, now we have to pay for it.But after all, during the crisis, all were opened from a new side and obvious to everyone, as the head of Belarus believes, achievements. “If the village had not been saved, what would have happened now? There would have been nothing to eat. Have we stolen or ate this money? Did we do the right thing? We did the right thing. We got carried away, did not stop in time – we could live beyond our means, we could have slipped through; and we would have experienced it, but it happened exactly the opposite, “said Alexander Lukashenko.

He warned everyone about difficulties earlier, six months before the crisis, the President of Belarus said.But the Belarusians did not obey their leader, they suddenly began to panic and buy food, which should not have been done. As another practical recommendation, a new analogue of the “last Chinese warning” – the “last Belarusian warning”, the head of the country asked his fellow citizens not to withdraw money from bank accounts. And if “you run and shoot, there will be no increase in benefits and salaries, as I promised.” Whether this warning will have any effect on the Belarusians will become clear in the near future.

The last day of Pompeo: the State Department “under the curtain” arranged a series of demarches | Articles

There are only a few days left before Donald Trump leaves the White House, but his administration does not think to slow down.For example, Secretary of State Mike Pompeo finally decided to seriously influence the fate of different countries of the world: he declared the Houthi rebels in Yemen a terrorist group, called Cuba a state sponsor of terrorism, and also risked angering China by lifting restrictions on interaction between American and Taiwanese officials. What the current American authorities are trying to achieve in this way and what this can lead to – in the material of Izvestia.

Sources of terrorism

“The United States is the source of terrorism.The Trump administration’s policies are terrorist in nature. The step taken by the Trump administration testifies to a crisis of thinking, ”said Muhammad Ali al-Husi, a member of the political council of the Yemeni movement Ansar Allah (Houthis), commenting on the statement of US Secretary of State Mike Pompeo. He also added that Washington’s actions deserve condemnation, and the Houthis, in turn, “reserve the right to retaliate.”

The fact is that on January 10, the head of the State Department announced his intention to include Ansar Allah in the list of terrorist organizations, which is compiled by the US Foreign Ministry.According to him, such a decision “will provide additional tools for countering terrorist activities” by Ansar Allah, which, according to Washington, is supported by Tehran. This, according to the White House, “will contribute to progress in overcoming instability in Yemen.” Inclusion in the list of terrorist organizations means, in particular, the freezing of assets in the United States and a ban on American citizens or companies from doing business with its defendants.

According to President and Chief Executive Officer of the International Rescue Committee David Miliband, the decision of the US administration makes the work of the organization’s employees in Yemen “practically impossible”.This, in turn, can lead to the death of civilians.

Members of the government army celebrate the capture of Sertin village in southern Taiz province, which was under the control of a group of Houthis, 2016

Photo: Global Look Press / ZUMA Press / Abdulnasser Alseddik

Yemen’s civil war began in 2014 after Houthi forces, an armed group of Shia-Zaidites fighting for autonomy in a Sunni-majority state, took the city of Amran in the northwest of the country.Since then, the struggle between the Shiite forces, receiving support from Iran, and the government of Yemen, which is actively supported by the Arab coalition led by Saudi Arabia, has not stopped. From the very beginning of the conflict, most of the major cities were taken over by the Houthi rebels. In the meantime, the UN-recognized government controls only a few large localities. Now the country, in addition to serious economic problems, is experiencing a humanitarian crisis.

The United States has previously introduced restrictive measures against individual Houthi leaders, but this decision of the State Department actually makes any interaction with this movement illegal, which, in turn, prevents the delivery of international humanitarian aid to Yemen.Joe Biden, who won the presidential election in the United States, said during the election campaign that Washington, if elected, would stop supporting this campaign in Yemen. The US Congress is also calling for the repeal of recent actions by the Trump administration.

Cuba – far away

Secretary of State Mike Pompeo has also returned Cuba to the list of states sponsoring terrorism, along with Iran, North Korea and Syria. This action is completely contrary to the steps taken by the 44th US President Barack Obama.He strove to establish diplomatic relations with Havana, under him in 2015 the country was excluded from the list of sponsors of terrorism. Biden probably intends to continue the policy of detente initiated by Obama, said Victoria Zhuravleva, head of the Center for North American Studies at IMEMO RAN. “The Democrats were just afraid of the actions that Trump is now taking, as they will interfere with their activities. Putting Cuba on the list of terrorist states could certainly have repercussions for the Biden administration.This step is aimed at making it more difficult for the Democrats to restore relations with Havana , ”the Americanist told Izvestia.

President-elect of the United States Joe Biden and former President of the United States Barack Obama

Photo: REUTERS / Jason Reed

The current American authorities also decided to punish those who trade with Cuba, limit US aid, ban the export and sale of defense products, and impose controls on the export of dual-use goods.Pompeo said that the Cuban authorities received representatives of the Colombian National Liberation Army even after Bogotá demanded their extradition in connection with their involvement in the terrorist attack. In addition, the head of the State Department accused Cuba of harboring fugitives who are wanted by American law enforcement agencies, including for murder.

House Foreign Affairs Committee Chairman Gregory Meeks criticized the Trump administration’s “hypocrisy,” which inappropriately uses the list of states sponsoring terrorism.The congressman expressed the hope that the new administration of Joe Biden will be able to challenge the current actions of the State Department.

African No Man’s Land

In the last month of operation, the Trump administration also decided to open a diplomatic mission in Western Sahara. Pompeo said this on Twitter. “I am happy to announce that we have begun the process of establishing a consulate in the region, right now we are opening a virtual presence post for Western Sahara, whose activities will focus on promoting economic and social development,” the head of the State Department wrote, adding that Washington will soon open a fully functioning diplomatic representation.

In the Smara refugee camp after the escalation of the conflict in Western Sahara with the start of a military operation by the Moroccan army in the Gergerat buffer zone and the response of the Polisario front, November 13, 2020


In December, Trump announced that the United States would recognize Morocco’s sovereignty over this disputed territory bordering Algeria and Mauritania. Washington is actually acting bypassing the UN, which considers Western Sahara to belong to no one and has not exercised the right to self-determination as a territory.

This region has been trying to achieve independence since the mid-1970s. However, Morocco considers this territory its integral part and does not allow its independence, advocating only for granting it broad autonomy within the kingdom.

“Opening of a new anti-Chinese season”

China, which the Trump team apparently decided to annoy in the last days of its work, did not go unnoticed. Thus, the United States lifted all “voluntary restrictions” on cooperation with Taiwan that had been in effect for the past 40 years. “It is a dynamically developing democracy and a reliable partner of the United States, and yet for several decades the State Department has imposed internal restrictions on the regulation of the interaction of our diplomats, military personnel and other officials with their Taiwanese counterparts. The US government took these actions unilaterally in an attempt to placate the communist regime in Beijing. This will not happen anymore, ”Pompeo said in a statement. Beijing criticized these words, and also called on the United States to “refrain from further steps along the wrong and dangerous path.”

The Taiwan issue is seriously aggravating relations between Beijing and Washington. This topic is especially sensitive for China, which considers it to be its inalienable territory. The fact is that all countries that have diplomatic relations with Beijing have signed up to the “one China” principle: it implies a refusal to consider Taiwan an independent state and the termination of all official ties with the island. The United States, which officially recognized the PRC in 1979, was no exception. Despite the fact that Washington tried not to tease Beijing once again, the United States nevertheless continued to actively contact Taiwan: the American Institute in Taiwan actually performs the functions of an embassy.In addition, the United States regularly supplies Taiwan with billions of dollars in weapons.

Rally in support of Trump and rapprochement between Taiwan and the United States against the Chinese communist regime, Taipei, December 19, 2020

Photo: REUTERS / Hans Lucas / Jimmy Beunardeau

Pompeo’s policy towards Taiwan and China is a continuation of Trump’s rhetoric, Zhuravleva said. “This is one of the few issues on which the positions of both parties agree.Democrats are likely to continue in the same vein as Republicans, maybe even longer. The ideological theme will expand: there will be even more attempts to interfere in internal affairs and criticize the Chinese Communist Party under the Democrats. This is the opening of a new anti-Chinese season, ”Americanist explained in an interview with Izvestia.

According to the political scientist, a similar situation will be in relations with Russia. “Take the latest accusations of hacker attacks. The tone has been set, and then it will be supported by the democratic administration, ”the specialist is sure.

Certified by the “Trump seal”

Donald Trump’s team and, in particular, Mike Pompeo do not hide that by their actions they are trying to “tie the hands of the elected US President Joe Biden”, especially when it comes to the tough policy of the incumbent president towards Iran and China , reports The Axios. The publication notes that such sudden foreign policy somersaults cause concern for representatives of both the Democratic and Republican parties in Congress, especially given that the current administration has so little time until January 20, when the inauguration of Joseph Biden will take place, which means there is no room for careful planning. their actions.

US President Donald Trump and US Secretary of State Mike Pompeo

Photo: Global Look Press / CNP / Ron Sachs

“Lack of inter-party consensus, different visions of world threats, different understanding of how to deal with them – this is a particular example of continuing inter-party feuds between Republicans and Democrats. Thus, the Republicans, while they are still in power, are trying to push through the key points of their foreign policy agenda, ”says Alexei Davydov, a researcher at the Center for Middle East Studies at the IMEMO RAS.According to the specialist, the fact that the Democrats took some steps, and the Republicans scrapped these initiatives, and now the Democrats will come again and refuse the decisions of the Republican Party representatives, can lead to serious image losses for the United States. “The reputation of the United States as a negotiable subject of international relations will be dealt a serious blow. The result of the inconsistency of the United States and their incapacity to negotiate has already become that the Europeans have begun to actively develop the theme of European security without the participation of the United States – PESCO, as well as a system for bypassing American sanctions.Instruments are emerging in the system of international relations that bypass the American-centric structure of international relations, ”the political scientist noted in an interview with Izvestia.

The decisions announced by Pompeo last month are the agreed position of the administration and Trump, says Victoria Zhuravleva, head of the Center for North American Studies at IMEMO RAN. “The Secretary of State in the United States is, in most cases, the continuation of the president. Perhaps there is also Pompeo’s personal political ambitions.He is still a fairly young politician and could work with the next Republican administration. But everyone who has been with the current American leader all these four years bears the “Trump seal.” Pompeo continues to remain loyal to the Republican president, remains with him, and all the steps that he is taking now, they are in the key of the Trump administration “, the expert added.

NATO will not let Moscow make a new iron curtain – RBK

Russia is playing a “very dangerous game” with the United States and its allies, NATO will not allow Moscow to win a victory in Georgia, destabilize the situation in Europe and “create a new iron curtain.”This statement was made by the US Secretary of State Condoleezza Rice.

“We are determined to deprive Russia of its strategic goals, which are to undermine Georgian democracy, as well as damage the country’s infrastructure and weaken the Georgian state,” the Secretary of State added.

She especially stressed that the North Atlantic Alliance does not accept the “new line of Russia”, reports Associated Press.

The United States asked NATO about a week ago to organize a meeting of the foreign ministers of the NATO countries to discuss the situation in Georgia.

Let us remind you that an emergency meeting of the foreign ministers of 26 NATO member states will be held today in Brussels without the participation of Russia.

The NATO Council is expected to reaffirm its position in relation to Georgia and Ukraine.A few days ago, K. Rice at a joint press conference with Georgian President Mikhail Saakashvili said literally the following: “I think that the NATO Council will confirm its transatlantic vision of Georgia and Ukraine.” She also said that the Alliance plans to make a statement that NATO is an organization open to countries that meet its standards.

Raise the curtain with smart curtains Slide

On the Kickstarter platform, a gadget has now achieved a success that provides a new possibility of dimming a room for a smart home.The Slide curtain system made it possible to program individual curtain scenarios in the smart home through the timer application and IFTTT. Who doesn’t want to be awakened by natural light without ever opening the curtains on their own? Compatibility with products such as Amazon Echo and Fitbit opens up a wide range of other applications for the user. And now the Slide system can also be controlled using the Alexa voice assistant.

100% customizable, 100% smart
The Slide system can be installed on most conventional curtain mechanisms.The device is supplied complete with special mounting parts for different types of curtains. Within minutes, Slide is installed on the cornice, and with a few clicks, the dedicated Slide application is set up. Through a wireless connection with other smart home devices, the user can create customized scenarios using IFTTT. Curtains can, for example, be programmed to open at dawn and close at dusk, so you can enjoy every minute of natural light and wake up thanks to it too.There are several other uses: if Fitbit notices, for example, that a user is waking up, the curtains open, or if Amazon Echo calls a certain time, they close. If there is a vacation ahead, the Slide system can be programmed so that the curtains, with their movement, will simulate the presence of a person. Thanks to the built-in Geofencing technology, users can save on heating – in the absence of all households, the curtains close and work as a natural tool for keeping warm.

Slide Outperforms Competitors
Unlike competing products, this system is more affordable and can be installed without the need for specialist installation. Plus, Slide works without a remote control and is very easy to set up. The disadvantage of this device is that it usually does not work with curved curtains. The developers have so far managed to prevent criticism in this regard by advising customers individually using photographs to help them avoid a bad purchase.An encrypted connection also protects against data theft.

Curtain for smart ideas
In 2014, the developers of the Slide system Teis Olthof and Kai Bistra came up with the idea of ​​smart curtains: in their vision, it was a device that could be fixed on an existing curtain rod without complicated installation and large costs. In December 2016, after a successful product development, they launched a Kickstarter campaign and within a very short time, the crowdfunding goal was achieved.Starting February 2017, the Slide system is slated to go into production, and in June 2017 it will be delivered to waiting campaign supporters.

Source: Smart-Home.Market

90,000 Dmitry Petrov on the new relevance of Churchill’s Fulton speech

On March 5, 1946, humble Fulton became a famous city. And Winston Churchill is the luminary of world politics. The creator of the “Iron Curtain” slogan. Or even the “parent of the modern West,” as Ronald Reagan will say about him.True, Joseph Stalin in an interview with Pravda will put him on a par with Hitler. In this Fulton speech, world leaders will see different things: some – a call to war, others – to fight for peace.

Winston and Harry play poker on the way. So, by name, Churchill and Truman call each other. Their train is heading for Jefferson City, the capital of Missouri. From there they will travel to Fulton, a town far from the highways with 8 thousand inhabitants and a tiny college, where Winston will give a speech that largely determined the contours of world politics in the second half of the 20th century.Yes, partly the current one.

Curious: the speech, which sets out the vision of a new world order, sounds not in London or Washington, but in the provincial college of Westminster, known only for the fact that the first student fraternity in the United States was created there.

But this is surprising only at first glance. In 1946, the world situation required new approaches. And shortly before Churchill’s speech, diplomat George Kennan, in a telegram from Moscow to Washington, outlined them, taking into account the mores and plans of the Kremlin. But, firstly, the dispatch was secret, and secondly,

, it was not a little-known embassy adviser who had to present the world with a new reality, but someone whom the world knew.

That someone was Winston Churchill.

Shortly before World War II, Westminster graduate lawyer John Green died. And his widow founded the Green Foundation, inviting “people of international reputation” to lecture on world politics.The subject is chosen by the guest. And speaks in a spirit of tolerance and benevolence. After the war, Churchill was invited to speak first.

So decided the head of the college, Frank McClure, realizing that the lecture of such a politician would seriously increase the prestige of the educational institution. He was assisted by a Westminster classmate, General Harry Vine, an adviser to President Harry Truman, who grew up nearby. Truman wrote to Churchill. And he agreed – on condition that they go together. This gave special weight to the speech. Lord Winston wanted to show that even in retirement he influences the course of events.

And events developed rapidly. The alliance of Britain, the USSR and the United States collapsed. Stalin turned part of Asia and the east of Europe into his sphere of influence – clearly with an eye on the entire continent. Many in the West understood this, including Churchill. Only the States could interfere with these plans. But is the White House ready to reason with the Kremlin?

Churchill addressed a people who possessed enormous power, but had just won and were in no hurry to fight.

Secretary of State Byrnes cried out: “Ideological differences exist.But in the world there is a place for people with different views and different political systems. The great powers … must work together to build a friendlier, happier world. ” In the United States, they discussed: why not share the secret of a nuclear bomb with the USSR? John Foster Dulles replied: “Then the Soviets will think we are feeble-minded.”

Churchill saw: Americans value “lively Russian guys”, in part they even trust their leader “Uncle Joe”. And I wanted to persuade them from innocent trust to caution. From concessions to firmness.

The original title of the lecture was “World Peace”, but on the train Churchill revised the speech and changed the title to “The Sinews of Peace”.The text is sent to the media. Truman believes that “speech is excellent; it will cause confusion, but it will only lead to positive results. ”

They arrive at Jefferson City on March 5, 1946. From there they go to Fulton by car. Upon entering the city, Churchill asks: “Stop. It’s blowing and I can’t light a cigar. And when they see me without her, everyone will be disappointed. ”

They drive into town sitting in the back of a convertible. Truman – with a smile on his lips, Churchill with a cigar and a gesture: V – victory!

The audience shouts: “Hello Winnie!”

At lunch at McLuher’s house, after tasting a ham in orange and pineapple sauce, Churchill says: “I love pigs.The dogs look up at us. Cats – from top to bottom. And only pigs are treated as equals. ” And he goes to the hall, where 2,800 guests are waiting.

Harry Truman personally introduces the lecturer.

Lord Winston on the rostrum in his Oxford robes. Thanking the president, he says: “I… will allow myself, based on the experience of my whole life, to look at the problems that surrounded us the next day after the victory; in order to preserve with all his might everything achieved by such sacrifices and suffering, for the sake of the future security and triumph of mankind. “

Stresses that he arrived as a private person. But he speaks, showing the intuition of a politician who sees the structure and nature of global relations for years to come.

“From Stettin in the Baltic to Trieste in the Adriatic… the iron curtain has come down,” he declares. Bearing in mind that it was designed in the USSR, under whose authority Eastern Europe is passing. The local communists are building a totalitarian system. Apart from the British Commonwealth and the United States, “where communism is still in its infancy,” the danger is growing everywhere, for the “fifth columns” “carry out the directives of the communist center.”

He stresses: the enemies of the United States are war and tyranny. Therefore, discovering the secret of a nuclear bomb is “criminal madness.” And only the “fraternal association of English-speaking peoples” can keep the peace and resist tyranny. This means a special relationship between the British Commonwealth and the Empire and the United States of America. Including the pooling of military forces, arsenals, intelligence, etc.

In 1938, he already argued: we need a “Grand Alliance” capable of stopping Hitler. Now Churchill is proposing an alliance to stop Stalin.

“Prevention,” Churchill reminds, “is better than cure.” “I have a lot of respect and admiration for the valiant Russian people,” says Churchill, “and my military comrade Marshal Stalin … We invite Russia … to take a place among the world’s leading nations … We welcome … the constant, frequent, growing contacts between the Russian people and our people on both sides of the Atlantic. Nevertheless, it is my duty to present the facts as I see them … “

But, he says, “I reject the idea of ​​the inevitability of war… I do not believe that Soviet Russia is hungry for war. She longs for the fruits of war and … the expansion of her power and ideology. ” This should be the starting point. And under the auspices of the UN and on the basis of the military force of the English-speaking community to find mutual understanding with it. Then “the road to the future will be clear not only for us, but for everyone. Not only in our time, but also in the next century. ”

This speech was immediately named The Iron Curtain.By the way, there is no paragraph about him in the first version of the text. The journalists almost missed it at all, having restored it in parts. They liked the vivid images – “totalitarian control” and others.

After the lecture, Churchill and Truman were presented with diplomas and mantles of honorary doctors of Westminster. Sir Winston joked that he was happy to get his degree without an exam. However, his politics and the gift of a leader, shown in difficult years for the world and Britain, became the best test of all.

Saying goodbye, he said, “I hope I have awakened a thought that will affect the course of history.”And so it happened.

His speech in a distant American town awakened the world’s capitals. NATO was created. The understanding of the importance of curbing ambitions, which, as Kant teaches, give rise to wars, has come.

Churchill’s speech was published in many media, and the college published it as a pamphlet. This version is considered classic. In the USSR, it was never published, referring to it only as the speech with which the Cold War began. Although its author and his followers have always tried to dismantle the “iron curtain” and remove it from the world agenda.Today it is available, and the reader can easily find in it instructive parallels between eras.

Among them – the struggle for spheres of influence in the world. Lack of will to curb aggressors who violate international law and who use force to maintain or destroy the status quo. Disrespect for sovereignty and separatism. Attempts to maintain tyranny by force, introduce totalitarian control and police restrictions. Striving to construct and re-lower the “iron curtain”. The desire to revive the mythology of the “fifth columns” and to establish in the mind the image of the enemy.

As in the 1940s, public opinion is an object of influence. If, according to the Levada Center, 53% of Russians treated the United States badly in 2008, then in 2015 it was already 81%. And according to Gallup, in 2005, 61% of Americans had a positive attitude towards Russia, and in 2015 only 24% – this is the lowest indicator in the history of the study.

These are the results of sophisticated media operations and political adventures. At the same time, statesmen are increasingly talking about a new “cold war”.

However, experience says: cold snaps are always followed by warming.

As he left Fulton, Churchill said: “God bless you!”

I wish the same to all of us today.

Author – journalist, writer, author of the books “Aksenov”, “Vasily Aksenov.