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Ovarian Cysts | Condition | UT Southwestern Medical Center

Ovarian cysts are fluid-filled sacs that develop on or within an ovary. Most women will have an ovarian cyst at some point in their lives, but most will never realize it. The majority of these cysts are harmless, don’t cause symptoms, and disappear without treatment within a few months.

Some ovarian cysts, however, can be a sign of a more serious condition, such as ovarian cancer, or cause problems if they become large or rupture.

Types of Ovarian Cysts

There are several types of ovarian cysts, but most form during the menstrual cycle.

Functional Cysts

Functional cysts comprise the majority of ovarian cysts. During a woman’s childbearing years, the ovaries produce and release eggs in monthly cycles. The eggs grow within a sac. When the egg is ready, the sac releases the egg and then dissolves.

One of two types of functional cysts may form during this process:

  • Corpus luteum cysts: These form when the sac closes after releasing the egg, traps fluid inside, and does not dissolve. This type of cyst usually disappears within a few weeks.
  • Follicle cysts: These form when the sac fails to release the egg. Follicle cysts usually disappear within three months.

Other types of ovarian cysts

Ovarian cysts that are not related to the menstrual cycle are less common, but can include:

  • Cystadenomas: These cysts develop from ovarian tissue.
  • Dermoid cysts: These cysts develop from cells that produce eggs and may contain tissue such as hair, skin, or teeth.
  • Endometriomas: Tissue normally found in the uterus can develop outside the uterus, attach to the ovaries, and form a cyst.

Symptoms of Ovarian Cysts

Most ovarian cysts will not cause symptoms, but they may cause problems if they rupture or twist. Signs of an ovarian cyst include:

  • Menstrual irregularities
  • Pelvic pain
  • Pain during bowel movements
  • Nausea, vomiting, or breast tenderness
  • Bloating, fullness, or heaviness in your abdomen
  • Frequent or difficult urination

These symptoms are similar to ovarian cancer symptoms. If you experience any of these symptoms for more than 12 days, see your doctor immediately. 

Diagnosing Ovarian Cysts

While most ovarian cysts are benign, it’s important we check them to rule out cancer. It is especially important for postmenopausal women to be examined because they are at increased risk for ovarian cancer. 

The doctor may first detect an ovarian cyst during a routine pelvic exam. We can then use several tests to determine the cyst’s type, size, and composition (what it’s filled with). Cysts that are filled with fluid are less likely to be cancerous. Those that are solid or filled with fluid and solids may indicate cancer.

Tests and procedures we may use to diagnose ovarian cysts include:

  • CA-125 blood test: This blood test looks for a protein called cancer antigen 125. Women with ovarian cancer tend to have higher levels of this protein.
  • Laparoscopy: In this surgical procedure, a doctor inserts a laparoscope (a thin, lighted instrument) into the abdomen through a small incision to see your ovaries, remove the cyst, or take a small piece of tissue to test for cancer.
  • Pregnancy test: A corpus luteum cyst can cause a false positive on a pregnancy test.
  • Ultrasound: This imaging test uses high-frequency sound waves to create an image of your uterus and ovaries.

If the diagnosis is ovarian cancer, consult a gynecologic oncologist for treatment options. 

Treatments for Ovarian Cysts

How we treat an ovarian cyst depends on your age, the type and size of the cyst, and your symptoms. 

  • Watchful waiting: Cysts often go away on their own. If no symptoms are present and the cyst is small and fluid-filled, the doctor may recommend follow-up exams to ensure the cyst disappears or does not grow.
  • Birth control pills: Birth control pills can reduce the development of new cysts.
  • Surgery: The doctor can surgically remove a cyst that is large, growing, or causing pain. Some cysts can be removed without taking out the ovary. If the cyst is cancerous, your doctor will likely recommend a hysterectomy to remove the ovaries and uterus.

Ovarian Cyst During Pregnancy | BabyCenter

What is an ovarian cyst?

An ovarian cyst is a fluid- or tissue-filled sac or pouch in or on the ovary.

Ovarian cysts are usually harmless, painless, and disappear without treatment. They can vary in size from half an inch to four inches, and they usually develop during the childbearing years or after menopause. About 7 percent of women worldwide have an ovarian cyst at some time.

There are several types of ovarian cysts:

  • Functional cysts are the most common type of cyst, and they’re related to ovulation. They don’t cause cancer. Functional cysts include follicular cysts and corpus luteum cysts. Follicular cysts form when the follicle holding the egg doesn’t open and release the egg during ovulation but instead holds onto it, forming a cyst. Corpus luteum cysts develop after ovulation. Usually, after an egg is released from the follicle the follicle shrinks. If the follicle doesn’t shrink but instead fluid collects in it, it forms a corpus luteum cyst.
  • Teratoma cysts (also called dermoid cysts) contain different bodily tissues, such as skin and hair tissue. Teratoma cysts might be in the body from birth and then grow during a woman’s childbearing years. It’s rare, but these can become cancerous.
  • Cystadenoma cysts grow on the outer surface of the ovary and are benign (non-cancerous). They can get quite large and are solid.
  • Endometriomas might form when a woman has endometriosis (a condition where the tissue that normally lines the uterus grows outside the uterus, often on the ovaries). They are also called chocolate cysts and are filled with blood.

When the ovaries make many small cysts, it’s called polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS). PCOS can cause fertility problems and lead to diabetes later in life.

What causes an ovarian cyst during pregnancy?

The most common type of ovarian cyst during pregnancy is a corpus luteum cyst. Rather than shrinking, the follicle that released the egg fills with fluid and remains on the ovary. These cysts usually go away on their own by the middle of the second trimester, but sometimes they stay on the ovary and – if they become large or cause symptoms – may need to be removed.

You may also have another type of cyst that you had before pregnancy. It may stay on your ovary while you’re pregnant. Other types of cysts may even grow during pregnancy and become painful, but they don’t usually cause problems for the pregnancy.

What will happen if I have an ovarian cyst during pregnancy?

Ovarian cysts usually don’t cause any problems during pregnancy, though if a cyst continues to grow it might rupture or twist or cause the ovary to twist (this twisting is called ovarian torsion). A growing cyst could cause problems during childbirth, particularly if it’s a large mass obstructing the abdomen or pelvis.

Your caregiver will do regular ultrasounds to monitor your ovaries and the cyst and make sure it doesn’t grow or threaten to cause any problems. If an ultrasound isn’t adequate for viewing a cyst that’s causing problems, you may have an MRI.

Ovarian cyst symptoms

Ovarian cysts usually don’t cause any symptoms. Your caregiver might discover one during a routine pelvic exam or an ultrasound.

If an ovarian cyst becomes large or bleeds, breaks open, or becomes twisted or causes the ovary to twist, it can be painful.

Other possible ovarian cyst symptoms include:

  • Bloating
  • Abdominal fullness or pressure
  • Pain during bowel movements

How will I know if I have ovarian torsion?

Ovarian torsion usually causes intermittent lower abdominal pain on one side. It may also cause:

  • Nausea
  • Vomiting
  • Low-grade fever

Ovarian torsion is a medical emergency. Go to the emergency department right away if you think you could have ovarian torsion.

How will I know if an ovarian cyst ruptures?

If an ovarian cyst ruptures during pregnancy, it’s most likely to happen in the first trimester or early second trimester and disappear on its own by the middle of the second trimester.

A cyst that has ruptured may cause:

  • Sudden, severe pain
  • Fever
  • Vomiting
  • Faintness or weakness
  • Rapid breathing

Contact your healthcare provider right away if you think you have a ruptured ovarian cyst.

Ovarian cyst treatments

Usually ovarian cysts don’t require treatment. They go away on their own. Unless:

  • You have an ovarian cyst that ruptures. In this case, you will likely need pain medication. Usually your body will absorb the ruptured cyst, but your healthcare provider will recommend rest and monitor you for signs of infection.
  • You have an ovarian torsion (the cyst causes the ovary to twist). This is a medical emergency that requires surgery.
  • The cyst is large or causing symptoms. Your caregiver may recommend rest and possibly surgery.

Is it safe to remove an ovarian cyst during pregnancy?

If necessary, an ovarian cyst can be safely removed during pregnancy, though your caregiver will probably avoid removal unless you’re in pain or the cyst is bleeding. If you need surgery, you may be able to have minimally invasive laparoscopic surgery through tiny incisions. In some cases, though, regular abdominal surgery is necessary.

If you have a corpus luteum cyst removed early in pregnancy (before 10 weeks), you’ll likely take progesterone supplements afterwards to support the pregnancy. (Normally, the corpus luteum provides progesterone to support the pregnancy until the placenta takes over.)

Learn more:

Symptoms, Risks, & Treatments by Kidadl

Pregnancy can feel overwhelming, especially when it comes with tons of new medical terms being thrown around that can sound totally scary.

Ovarian cysts are actually really common during pregnancy, and most of the time they are benign, and there’s nothing to worry about. Occasionally they might start to feel uncomfortable or behave differently and cause you problems, so it’s good to know what to look out for while you’re pregnant, so that you can limit any risk.

If you’re of childbearing age, you probably know people who have had ovarian cysts, and it’s not at all unusual for women to find out that they have cysts while they’re pregnant, simply because before this point they had no pain or symptoms from the cysts at all. It’s very rare that you’ll have to resort to surgery for a cyst, but it’s often a good idea for your doctor to keep an eye on them, to make sure they don’t grow and cause complications for you and your baby down the line. Fortunately, though, the majority of ovarian cysts are completely harmless and cause no pain at all.

We’ve got all you need to know about ovarian cysts while you’re pregnant here. Check out our article on the worst weeks for morning sickness or this piece on working while pregnant to learn more about pregnancy.

What Are The Symptoms Of An Ovarian Cyst?

There are a few different symptoms of ovarian cysts during pregnancy, and it’s good to be aware of them, so that if you do experience any, you don’t feel overwhelmed or worried unnecessarily, and can take the relevant action. Often you won’t actually experience any signs at all that you have ovarian cysts, and they will go away without any treatment at all within a few months, but here are a few of the most common symptoms you could experience.

Pelvic pain, ranging from dull and heavy pain to more sharp and severe pain in the pelvic area. This pain can be a symptom of ovarian tumors or cysts.

If you’re experiencing any abdominal pain while having sex, this can also be a symptom and is something to check out with a specialist.

You might be having some difficulty emptying your bowels, or a more frequent need to urinate.

Bloating and swelling in your abdominal area can also be caused by ovarian cysts, and you might find that you’re feeling really full after only eating small amounts.

If you’re experiencing periods as part of your menstrual cycle, ovarian cysts can make these heavier, lighter, or just more irregular than your normal menstrual cycle.

Occasionally ovarian cysts can cause a bit of difficulty for women who are trying to get pregnant, though fertility is usually unaffected by them.

As you can see, the symptoms are wide and varied, and signs of an ovarian cyst during pregnancy might be overlooked as just general pregnancy symptoms. It’s always best to get a check-up with your doctor if you have any worries at all.

What Is An Ovarian Cyst?

Ovarian cysts are fluid-filled sacs that grow on the ovary. They are extremely common, and often you won’t even know that you have one, especially when it goes away naturally on its own.

There are two main types of ovarian cyst you might experience during pregnancy. The most common kind are functional ovarian cysts, which develop during your menstrual cycle and are usually harmless. Less common are pathological ovarian cysts, which are a result of abnormal cell growth.

One of the most common kinds of cyst you might come across is called the follicular cyst, which is when the tiny sac that the egg grows in, called the ovarian follicle, doesn’t open to release the egg and grows into a cyst.

During pregnancy, you might end up growing an ovarian cyst because the corpus luteum (the structure that houses your maturing egg) produces hormones that nourish the uterine lining for your growing baby. Sometimes in pregnancy, the corpus luteum gets filled with fluid and stays on the ovary when it’s no longer needed. This will form a corpus luteum cyst.

Less common types of ovarian cysts can include dermoid cysts called teratomas, which are made up of ovarian germ cells that contain teeth, skin, hair, or fat. Endometrioma cysts, which are common for women who suffer from endometriosis and are usually filled with blood, making them darker in color than other ovarian cysts. If you experience lots of cysts on your ovaries, this could point to an underlying condition like endometriosis. Cystadenomas cysts are solid and develop on the surface of an ovary.

What Are The Risks?

Most ovarian cysts that are diagnosed in pregnant women are not dangerous at all and pose little to no increased risk to your baby’s health. If you experience a corpus luteum cyst in your first trimester, most of the time it will go away by itself by the second trimester, so your doctor will just ask you to keep an eye on how you’re feeling and any pain you experience.

Some other kinds of cysts might keep growing after they’ve been diagnosed during pregnancy, and can even become quite painful. This pain doesn’t mean that they are anything to worry about, most of the time they actually still don’t cause any problems to your baby.

You might experience the rupture of an ovarian cyst during pregnancy, which sounds much worse than it usually is. Most of the time the cyst will just heal on its own, with no harm done. Draining an ovarian cyst during pregnancy will often happen naturally, or your doctor will guide you to how is best to proceed. Some women don’t feel anything at all when a cyst bursts, but you might experience vaginal bleeding or spotting, nausea or vomiting, pain, dizziness, fever, or a sharp pain in the lower abdomen.

If there is a lot of bleeding after an ovarian cyst rupture during pregnancy, or if you experience a lot of bleeding or a more complex ovarian cyst during pregnancy like a torsion (when the cyst causes your ovary to move or twist and can block blood flow), or if there’s another complication that impacts your pregnancy, then surgery might be recommended by your doctor.

Occasionally a cyst on your ovary can point to a longer-term condition like endometriosis, and occasionally an ovarian cyst can contain cancer, which means that more treatment will be needed.

What Is The Treatment?

The treatment that a doctor suggests for women who have cysts on their ovaries will depend on a number of factors including age, symptoms, and the type and size of your ovarian cysts.

Women who have been diagnosed by their doctor with having a large ovarian cyst during pregnancy will have a regular ultrasound of the uterus and ovaries. This uterus and ovary ultrasound can monitor any changes in the cyst.

Your doctor might give you the diagnosis of ovarian cysts when you have a pelvic exam. Depending on what it feels like (if it is fluid-filled, solid, or a mixture of both) and what size it is, your doctor will probably recommend more tests to work out the best approach to treatment. This can be anything from a pregnancy test to a pelvic ultrasound (where a wand-like device sends and receives ultrasound waves inside of your uterus and ovaries), a CA 125 blood test, or a laparoscopy, which is a surgical procedure using tiny incisions to remove the cyst.

A lot of the time, your doctor will simply ask you to be mindful of the cyst and to wait for a few months to see if it goes away on its own accord without any interference. If ovarian cysts are smaller than 1.97 in (5 cm) and the pregnant woman is not experiencing any symptoms, this is typically a treatment option your doctor will suggest. If this is the route you go down, you’ll probably have another ultrasound scheduled to monitor whether the cyst changes size.

A doctor might offer you pain medication for a painful ovarian cyst during pregnancy that is uncomfortable, and as a last resort, they may suggest surgery to remove a cyst that could put your baby at risk. Your doctor will most likely do this using laparoscopes which are tiny incisions, but if your cyst is very large then that might not be possible and regular abdominal surgery might be the only option.

If you experience ovarian cysts when you’re not pregnant or find an ovarian cyst after pregnancy, then the process of removing or treating the cyst might be very different. It’s always important to get cysts checked out in case they contain cancer, but it’s important to note that the risk of cancer is generally quite unlikely, and the majority of the time these ovarian cysts are nothing to worry about and go away naturally on their own. If you do find out that your cyst has a risk of being cancerous, then your doctor will usually book you in for an MRI scan (Magnetic Resonance Imaging) to get a bit more information about it.

If you found this article helpful, then why not take a look at our guide to morning sickness at night or whether pregnant women can drink wine?

Ovarian Cysts (Functional Cyst on Ovary): Symptoms, Types, Treatment

What Is an Ovarian Cyst?

Ovarian cysts are solid or fluid-filled pockets in or on your ovary. They’re common, especially in women who are pregnant or who haven’t gone through menopause yet. Most of the time, they’re painless and harmless. You might get one every month as part of your menstrual cycle and never know it. They usually go away on their own without treatment.

A cyst becomes a problem when it doesn’t go away or gets bigger. It can become painful. There’s also the possibility of cancer, but it’s rare. The chances go up as you get older

Ovarian Cyst Symptoms

Most ovarian cysts are small and don’t cause any problems. When there are symptoms, you might have pressure, bloating, swelling, or pain in one side of your lower belly. This pain may be sharp or dull, and it can come and go.

Sometimes, a cyst needs emergency attention. See your doctor right away if you have:

  • Sudden, severe belly pain
  • Pain with fever and throwing up
  • Dizziness, weakness, or feeling faint
  • Fast breathing

These things could mean your cyst has caused the ovary to twist.

Ovarian Cyst Causes

Most cysts are “functional.” They’re a part of your monthly cycle.

  • Follicle cyst. Your ovaries usually release one egg each month. It grows inside a tiny sac called a follicle. When the egg is ready, the follicle breaks open and releases it. If the sac doesn’t open, it causes a follicle cyst. These often go away in 1 to 3 months.
  • Corpus luteum cyst. Once the egg is released, the empty follicle usually shrinks and helps get ready for the next egg. It becomes a cyst when it closes back up and fluid collects inside. It may go away in a few weeks. But it may bleed or cause pain as it grows.

Others are nonfunctional. In some women, their ovaries make a lot of small cysts. This condition is called polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS). It can make it hard to get pregnant. Other nonfunctional cysts may be caused by cancer. Ovarian cysts in women after menopause (once your period has stopped) are more likely to be cancerous than those in younger women.

Ovarian Cyst Risk Factors

Things that may make you more likely to get ovarian cysts include:

  • Hormonal problems. Taking the fertility drug clomiphene (Clomid) to help you ovulate can increase your risk of cysts.
  • Pregnancy. The cyst that forms during ovulation may stay on your ovary after you get pregnant and throughout your pregnancy.
  • Endometriosis. Cells that usually line the inside of your uterus grow outside it. These wayward cells can attach to your ovary and cause a cyst to grow.
  • A severe pelvic infection. If this spreads to your ovaries, it can cause cysts there.
  • A previous ovarian cyst. If you’ve had at least one ovarian cyst before, you’re more likely to get others.

Ovarian Cyst Complications

Some women can have unusual complications with ovarian cysts. Your doctor might pick these up during a pelvic exam, so it’s important to get regular checkups.

  • Ovarian torsion. If cysts grow large, they can make the ovary move and twist. This twisting (ovarian torsion) is very painful.
  • Rupture. Cysts can break open, causing severe pain and bleeding, especially if the cysts are large. Vaginal sex and other activities can make a rupture more likely. A ruptured cyst sometimes heals on its own, but often, it’s a medical emergency.
  • Infected ovarian cyst. An ovarian cyst can develop in response to a pelvic infection, forming an abscess. If the abscess bursts, dangerous bacteria can spread through your body.

Ovarian Cyst Diagnosis

Sometimes, your doctor finds cysts during a pelvic exam. They’ll ask questions about your pain and other symptoms.

A cyst can be fluid-filled, solid, or mixed. To diagnose what kind you have, your doctor may recommend one or more of the following tests:

  • Pregnancy test. A positive pregnancy test may mean you have a corpus luteum cyst.
  • Pelvic ultrasound. This uses sound waves to make an image of your uterus and ovaries. Your doctor can confirm that you have a cyst, pinpoint its location, and figure out what kind it is.
  • Laparoscopy. Your doctor inserts a slim instrument with a light and a camera into your belly through a small cut. They can see your ovaries and remove any ovarian cysts.
  • CA 125 blood test. If you have a partially solid ovarian cyst, your doctor may want to test your blood for levels of a protein called CA 125 (cancer antigen 125). It’s often higher in women who have ovarian cancer and in those who have conditions such as uterine fibroids, endometriosis, and pelvic inflammatory disease (PID).

Ovarian Cyst Treatment

Most cysts go away on their own. Your doctor may suggest watching and waiting for changes.

Your doctor can give you medicine for pain. They might also prescribe birth control pills. The hormones in the pills won’t make the cysts go away, but they can help prevent new ones.

Some ovarian cysts need surgery. That includes those that are large, don’t go away, or cause symptoms. You could also need surgery if you’re near menopause, because cysts are more likely to be cancerous. Depending on your case, the surgeon may take just the cyst or the entire ovary.

There are different types of surgery:

  • Laparoscopy is for smaller cysts. The doctor makes a tiny cut above or below your bellybutton. A small tool with a camera allows your doctor to see inside, and a different tool removes the cyst or ovary. You probably won’t have to stay in the hospital overnight.
  • Laparotomy is for cysts that may be cancerous. It is done with a bigger cut in the belly.

What is an ovarian cyst? My ultrasound scan picked one up

An ovarian cyst is a fluid-filled pocket (sac) that develops in one of your ovaries. Your ovaries are the two bean-shaped organs that hold your eggs.

Ovarian cysts are common. Most are harmless (benign), and don’t require treatment, unless they are large, and are bothering you. For example, large cysts can cause pelvic pain, make sex painful, or affect your bowel function.

There are two main types of ovarian cyst in pregnant women:

  • Functional ovarian cysts develop as part of your normal menstrual cycle. These are harmless and very common.
  • Pathological ovarian cysts form as a result of abnormal cell growth. These are rare, and, even more rarely, become cancerous (malignant). Across all women of child-bearing age, only one in 1,000 will have a cyst that becomes malignant.

If a functional ovarian cyst is found during pregnancy, it shouldn’t cause you or your baby any problems. Functional cysts are usually small, less than 5cm (1.9in) across.

There are two common types of functional ovarian cysts: follicular cysts and corpus luteum cysts.

Follicular cysts

These are the most common type of cyst. Your ovaries are primed to release an egg every month (ovulation). This is when cysts form. Every cycle, several egg-containing sacs (follicles) start to ripen. Each follicle is filled with fluid that nourishes the egg. The largest follicle bursts and releases the egg.

Sometimes a follicle starts to develop, but the egg is not released, or the follicle releases an egg but stays filled with fluid. If this happens, fluid continues to build, and a follicular cyst develops.

Corpus luteum cysts

The next most common ovarian cyst is a corpus luteum cyst. Once the follicle has burst, and the egg has been released, a shell (corpus luteum) is left. Sometimes, the shell reseals and fills with fluid or blood.

Most functional cysts spotted during an ultrasound in early pregnancy disappear on their own by the second trimester. However, a corpus luteum cyst may remain longer than a few weeks or months, and continue to grow larger. Sometimes this can cause pelvic pain or other complications. If your sonographer identifies a large or complex corpus luteum cyst during a routine ultrasound scan, your doctor will recommend that you have extra scans to keep an eye on the cyst during your pregnancy and they may also request extra blood tests.

Other benign cysts that may be spotted during early pregnancy include:

  • Endometriomas which are cysts on the ovaries caused by endometriosis. These tend to shrink during pregnancy. Although benign, they may make it harder to conceive in the future.
  • Theca lutein cysts, which are a type of follicular cyst. These are more common if you’ve had fertility treatment to help you conceive. Most commonly, they’re caused when high levels of the fertility drug, human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG), over-stimulates your ovaries.

If the cyst continues to grow, or your doctor is concerned about your cyst, you may need an operation to remove it. Large cysts are more likely to cause problems later on. However, it’s rare for an ovarian cyst to be cancerous. Fewer than one in 1,000 pregnant women have a cyst that becomes malignant. So try not to worry if you are offered surgery.

Your doctors will wait until you’re in your second trimester before removing the cyst. Waiting until then will protect your baby, as surgery to remove the cyst during early pregnancy may increase the risk of miscarriage.

Sometimes, a cyst needs to be removed as soon as possible, regardless of your stage of pregnancy. If you have sudden, severe abdominal or pelvic pain you need to seek help immediately. Call your GP, NHS 111 or go to your nearest A&E. A cyst can usually be removed in the second trimester using keyhole surgery (laparoscopy). However, if the cyst is large, or there are concerns that it may be cancerous, your doctor may need to do the operation by making an incision in your tummy. If the cyst is very large or cancerous, doctors may have to remove the ovary too although this is rare.

It’s most likely that your cyst doesn’t need treatment, and won’t affect this pregnancy, or your ability to get pregnant again. However, if you have cysts caused by endometriosis or as a result of polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS), it may be harder for you to conceive.

You can share your experience and find support in our endometriosis or PCOS community groups.

Find out if a large cyst can affect your baby’s position.

Last reviewed: February 2020

Ovarian cysts: Symptoms, treatment, and causes

An ovarian cyst happens when fluid accumulates within a thin membrane inside the ovary. The size can range from as small as a pea to larger than an orange.

A cyst is a closed sac-like structure. It is divided from surrounding tissue by a membrane. It is an abnormal pocket of fluid, similar to a blister. It contains either liquid, gaseous, or semi-solid material. The outer or capsular portion of a cyst is called the cyst wall.

It is different from an abscess because it is not filled with pus. A pus-filled sac is an abscess.

Most ovarian cysts are small and harmless. They occur most frequently during the reproductive years, but they can appear at any age.

There are often no signs or symptoms, but ovarian cysts can sometimes cause pain and bleeding. If the cyst is over 5 centimeters in diameter, it may need to be surgically removed.

There are two main types of ovarian cysts:

Share on PinterestCysts can develop anywhere on the body, some may be microscopically small and others very large.

  • Functional ovarian cysts – the most common type. These harmless cysts form part of the female’s normal menstrual cycle and are short-lived.
  • Pathological cysts – these are cysts that grow in the ovaries; they may be harmless or cancerous (malignant).

The causes are different for each type. We will look at each type in turn.

Functional ovarian cysts

There are two types of functional ovarian cysts:

1) Follicular cysts

Follicular cysts are the most common type. A woman has two ovaries. The egg moves from an ovary into the womb, where it can be fertilized by sperm. The egg is formed in the follicle, which contains fluid to protect the growing egg. When the egg is released, the follicle bursts.

In some cases, the follicle either does not shed its fluid and shrink after releasing the egg, or it does not release an egg. The follicle swells with fluid, becoming a follicular ovarian cyst.

One cyst normally appears at any single time, and it normally goes away within a few weeks.

2) Luteal ovarian cysts

These are less common. After the egg has been released, it leaves tissue behind, known as the corpus luteum. Luteal cysts can develop when the corpus luteum fills with blood. This type of cyst normally goes away within a few months. However, it may sometimes split, or rupture, causing sudden pain and internal bleeding.

Pathological cysts

There are two types of pathological cysts:

1) Dermoid cysts (cystic teratomas)

A dermoid cyst is usually benign. They are formed from the cells that make eggs. These cysts need to be removed surgically. Dermoid cysts are the most common type of pathological cyst for women under 30 years of age.

2) Cystadenomas

Cystadenomas are ovarian cysts that develop from cells that cover the outer part of the ovary. Some are filled with a thick, mucus-like substance, while others contain a watery liquid.

Rather than growing inside the ovary, cystadenomas are usually attached to the ovary by a stalk. By existing outside the ovary, they can grow quite large. They are rarely cancerous, but they need to be removed surgically.

Cystadenomas are more common among women aged over 40 years.

Most cysts are symptomless. If symptoms are present, they are not always useful for diagnosing an ovarian cyst, because other conditions, such as endometriosis, have similar symptoms.

Symptoms of an ovarian cyst may include:

  • Irregular and possibly painful menstruation: It may be heavier or lighter than before.
  • Pain in the pelvis: This may be a persistent pain or an intermittent dull ache that spreads to the lower back and thighs. It may appear just before menstruation begins or ends.
  • Dyspareunia: This is pelvic pain that occurs during sexual intercourse. Some women might experience pain and discomfort in the abdomen after sex.
  • Bowel issues: These include pain when passing a stool, pressure on the bowels or a frequent need to pass a stool.
  • Abdominal issues: There may be bloating, swelling, or heaviness in the abdomen.
  • Urinary issues: The woman may have problems emptying the bladder fully or she may or feeling the need to urinate frequently.
  • Hormonal abnormalities: Rarely, the body produces abnormal amounts of hormones, resulting in changes in the way the breasts and body hair grow.

Some symptoms may resemble those of pregnancy, for example, breast tenderness and nausea.


An ovarian cyst often causes no problems, but sometimes it can lead to complications.

  • Torsion: The stem of an ovary can become twisted if the cyst is growing on it. It can block the blood supply to the cyst and cause severe pain in the lower abdomen.
  • Burst cyst: If a cyst bursts, the patient will experience severe pain in the lower abdomen. If the cyst is infected, pain will be worse. There may also be bleeding. Symptoms may resemble those of appendicitis or diverticulitis.
  • Cancer: In rare cases, a cyst may be an early form of ovarian cancer.

Treatment will depend on:

  • the person’s age
  • whether they have undergone menopause or not
  • the size and appearance of the cyst
  • whether there are any symptoms

Watchful waiting (observation)

Sometimes watchful waiting is recommended, especially if the cyst is a small, functional cyst (2 to 5 centimeters) and the woman has not yet undergone menopause

An ultrasound scan will check the cyst a month or so later, to see whether it has gone

Birth control pills

To reduce the risk of new cysts developing in future menstrual cycles, the doctor may recommend birth control pills. Oral contraceptives may also reduce the risk of developing ovarian cancer.

Surgery may be recommended if:

  • there are symptoms
  • the cyst is large or appears to be growing
  • the cyst does not look like a functional cyst
  • the cyst persists through 2 to 3 menstrual cycles.

Two types of surgery are:

  • Laparoscopy, or keyhole surgery: The surgeon uses very small tools, to remove the cyst through a small incision. In most cases, the patient can go home the same day. This type of surgery does not usually affect fertility, and recovery times are fast.
  • Laparotomy: This may be recommended if the cyst is cancerous. A longer cut is made across the top of the pubic hairline. The cyst is removed and sent to the lab for testing. The patient usually stays in the hospital for at least 2 days.

Cancer treatment

If the cyst may be cancerous, a biopsy can be taken for testing.

If the result shows that cancer is present, more organs and tissue may need to be removed, such as the ovaries and uterus.

Most ovarian cysts present no signs or symptoms, so they often remain undiagnosed.

Sometimes a cyst that does not produce symptoms may be diagnosed during an unrelated pelvic examination or ultrasound scan.

Diagnosis aims to assess the shape, size, and composition of the cyst, whether it is filled with solid or liquid.

Diagnostic tests may include:

  • an ultrasound scan
  • a blood test
  • a pregnancy test
  • laparoscopy

There is no way to prevent ovarian cyst growth.

However, regular pelvic examinations will allow for early treatment if needed. This can often prevent complications.

Do Ovarian Cysts Affect My Chances of Becoming Pregnant?

15 December 2017    by – Dr Pandelis Athanasias

Ovarian cysts are fluid-filled sacs which can be found on or inside the ovaries. They are very common, with many women developing them at some point in their life. Most are harmless and cause no symptoms or pain, which is why they usually go undetected, disappearing over time without the need for medical intervention.

As such, ovarian cysts are often only found during routine pelvic examinations or ultrasounds. If you know you have ovarian cysts and are not finding it as easy as you thought to get pregnant, you might be wondering why.

Ovarian cysts do not usually cause infertility

Having a cyst on an ovary does not usually affect one’s chances of becoming pregnant, which is why doctors will typically only investigate further if a couple has been trying to conceive naturally through regular intercourse for a year, but have not yet been successful in falling pregnant.

However, one condition which can prevent fertility is Polycystic Ovary Syndrome (PCOS), in which there are several small cysts on the ovaries.

PCOS and fertility

PCOS is a chronic condition which affects around 20% of women. Typical symptoms include irregular or no periods, weight gain, acne, excessive hair growth, mood swings and difficulty becoming pregnant.

While many women living with PCOS do manage to conceive naturally, some may require medication to help regulate their ovulation or even begin ovulating altogether. Clomifene is most often prescribed to these women and stimulates the monthly release of an egg from the ovaries.

If medication is unsuccessful, it may be recommended to undergo minor surgery, referred to as laparoscopic ovarian drilling (LOD) which is carried out under general anaesthetic. Here, a small incision is made in the lower abdomen and a microscope passed through so that the surgeon can examine the internal organs. Heat or lasers are then used to destroy abnormal tissue which is producing the male hormones associated with PCOS.

The outcome is, hopefully, a reduction in the hormonal imbalance and restoration of normal function of the ovaries. This could then increase chances of falling pregnant.

Other ovarian cyst complications

Most ovarian cysts are ‘functional’, simply occurring as a result of the normal ovulation cycle and going away on their own. However, in rare circumstances, some women may experience cyst-related problems. Functional cysts can rupture and cause bleeding, triggering terrible abdominal pain.

In other cases, a different type of cyst can form – these are known as ‘pathological cysts’ and have several types. Dermoid cysts are those which contain unwanted tissue such as hair, skin or teeth and can grow rather large. Cystadenomas are those which develop from cells covering the outer layer of the ovary and can be filled with watery liquid or mucous. Both of these types may require surgical removal for ovarian cysts.

This surgery should not, however, affect fertility, unless the doctor removes an ovary. This is rare though and only occurs where cysts are extremely large, complex or cancerous. It is highly recommended that surgery is carried out before pregnancy, so as to avoid complications.

How do I fall pregnant naturally?

There are several things you can do to maximise your chances of becoming pregnant naturally:

  • Ensure you follow a healthy, well-balanced diet
  • Carry out regular exercise – 3-5 times per week for 30 minutes
  • Stop smoking and cut down alcohol intake
  • Get at least 7 hours’ uninterrupted sleep per night
  • Take folic acid supplements daily

90,000 Vaginal cyst: description of the disease, causes, symptoms, cost of treatment in Moscow

A cyst is a saccular tumor that is located in the vestibule of the vagina. Over time, the cyst can grow in size due to the accumulation of fluid, air or other substance in the body. The disease can be asymptomatic for a long time. Diagnosed with gynecological examinations. At the initial stage, drug treatment is prescribed.In the running form, they do the operation to remove.

The vaginal cyst can be located both on the outer and inner parts. The tumor can be as large as a tennis ball or very small. The cyst is round or oval in shape. It is an elastic ball filled with transparent mucous contents, light yellow or dark brown in color. The outer part of the tumor is in contact with the muscle tissue of the walls of the vagina. Usually the size does not exceed 10 cm in diameter.Cystosis most commonly affects the anterior vaginal wall. According to statistics, a cyst is diagnosed in women with dysplasia.

Thanks to modern medicine and special equipment, the vaginal cyst is detected and treated at an early stage. There were no cases of development from a cyst to a malignant tumor. As the disease progresses, pain sensations increase, a lot of discomfort is created. To save yourself from unwanted consequences and complications, seek medical help in time.

Causes of occurrence

A number of reasons for the formation of a cyst in a woman’s vagina are determined. There are several main factors of appearance:

Congenital factor refers to the abnormal development of the vaginal walls. This is formed even during the uterine life of the girl. Formations can develop on both sides of the canals of the external opening. This cyst is often anterior to the wall, but may be deeper. The cyst of the vestibule is due to the fact that it is located quite close to the opening of the vagina, and a woman can detect it on her own.

Traumatic is most often obtained as a result of rough sexual penetration, as well as traumatic effects in the groin area. An implantation cyst occurs after surgery. For example, abortion or postpartum trauma.

Also, the cause of the development of a cyst can be:

  • non-compliance with hygiene rules;

  • bacterial infections of the vagina;

  • complications during pregnancy;

  • postpartum complications;

  • artificial disruption of pregnancy;

  • injury;

  • painful sex;

  • dysplasia;

  • endometriosis;

  • gonorrhea, chlamydia, trichomonas.

The cause of a cyst in the vagina is determined by its visual appearance and location. There are the following types:

1. Bartholin’s cyst. Found on the Bartholin glands, which secrete a natural fluid to lubricate the labia.

2. Gartner’s cyst. It appears as a result of non-disappearance of embryonic canals. Residual secretion can lead to the development of a cyst.

3.Müller. Appears anywhere on the vaginal wall. A common type of cyst. It develops from materials left over from the development of the fetus.

4. Epidermal. Location – the lower part of the wall. It is difficult to see, it is small in size. The most common type of cyst that occurs as a result of traumatic injury.

This truly female disease has no age category. Both newborns and the elderly are at risk.Only a few percent of girls are diagnosed with a cyst at a young age. A woman can live her whole life, and not even know about the existence of this pathology in her in the absence of causes, complaints and symptoms.

A sharp and rough penetration during sexual activity, most often provokes the appearance of a cyst. Bruises and micro tears appear on the vaginal wall.


With a small size, the cyst does not cause any inconvenience to a woman throughout her life.There is no sensation when having sex or urinating. Most often, a cyst of this size is diagnosed at a routine routine examination. At large sizes, there is a possibility of infection of the cyst with bacteria that are on the skin. Also, sexually transmitted infections caused by non-compliance with hygiene rules can lead to infection of the cyst. Induce purulent inflammation, abscess.

A cyst accompanied by an abscess has symptoms of body intoxication.Fatigue and weakness, dizziness, nausea, vomiting appear.

A cyst occurs as a result of the presence of abnormal development. Blockage of the canal leads to the accumulation of secretion fluid. Its outflow into the vagina is disturbed. Thus, a blockage occurs, and over time, the duct begins to overgrow. If you find a growth on your own, but it does not bring discomfort and pain, do not panic. To establish and confirm the diagnosis, take a course of gynecological examination.

This type of endometrium is rare. Occurs during mechanical damage to the vagina. The cavity is filled with liquid, has a brown color and bloody spots. Patients experience severe pain in the lower abdomen, as well as pain when using the toilet. Severe menstrual pain. The following signs of a malignant tumor are distinguished:

  • significant increase in body temperature;

  • sharp weight loss;

  • lack of appetite;

  • uterine pain;

  • the seal is felt through the abdominal cavity;

  • discoloration of discharge, presence of odor;

  • fast fatiguability.

Diagnostic procedures

The cyst is diagnosed during the examination by the gynecologist with the help of auxiliary instruments. Transvaginal ultrasound is performed. A special gynecological kit must be purchased. Also, a cyst is found during a routine ultrasound scan.

The first and quite important point is the questioning of the patient for complaints. The severity of the symptoms will help determine the degree of development of the disease.Mandatory procedures are the delivery of general urine and blood tests. A bacterial vaginal smear is also taken to check.

When setting this diagnosis without fail, girls and women should visit a proctologist and urologist to exclude and prevent other concomitant diseases.

Failure to diagnose cysts early can cause an infection of the vaginal tissues. Purulent inflammations will be cystic in nature. Severe pain can occur as a result of a bursting soft-elastic or tight-elastic tissue of the bag.After treatment, a relapse of the pathology occurs.

Clinic selection

You should be serious about choosing a clinic in which you want to perform surgical removal of a vaginal cyst. Choose only qualified professionals with extensive experience in performing such operations. Specialists offer little-known and effective treatments. The price must match the quality. The main goal is to work for the result, the speedy recovery of the patient.

The location of the hospital and operating rooms plays an important role.The presence of modern equipment is required for the operation and all types of diagnostics. A sufficient number of medical workers to ensure control over the course of the rehabilitation period. Availability of comfortable beds and comfortable conditions of hospital stay.

Types of operations

In other cases, the method of treatment is operational. There are two main types of treatment for vaginal cysts:

1. Puncture. Using a syringe and a biopsy needle, fluid is removed from the cystic sac.The method is temporary. Over time, the cavity begins to fill with liquid again. It is used, for example, during pregnancy, when surgery is contraindicated for a woman.

2. Complete removal of education. During surgery, the doctor completely removes the build-up with fluid. The operation is performed under anesthesia. Also during childbirth in the process of removing perineal tears. The method is rarely used. This is the most extreme case of deletion.There is a likelihood of complications to touch the urinary duct. Due to the removal and stitching, the visual aesthetic appearance is lost.

3. Marsupialization. It is also possible to pump fluid from the capsule and suture its shell to the vaginal wall to prevent re-accumulation. This is the safest type of surgery.

Preparation for operation

Before the operation, a number of preparation activities should be carried out. Hand over and study laboratory tests.

1. Visiting a therapist, gynecologist, urologist, proctologist and other designated specialists.

2. Obligatory general blood and urine tests are taken.

3. Fluorography.

4. Cardiogram.

5. The level of blood clotting is determined.

6. Studies of the smear.

7. PCR for AIDS, HIV, syphilis and hepatitis.

eight.Ultrasound of the female genital organs.

9. Consultation with an anesthesiologist.

10. The presence of allergies and anesthetic immunity.

11. Additionally MRI.

It is recommended to give up sexual intercourse 5-7 days before the operation. No food is consumed for 8-10 hours. Enemas are given or laxatives are given. All preoperative procedures are explained to the patient in advance.


Surgery is not performed during menstruation.There is also a list of contraindications:

1. Poor urine and blood tests.

2. Lack or excess in the blood of platelets, leukocytes, erythrocytes.

3. Low or high hemoglobin level.

4. Severe cardiovascular failure.

5. Infectious disease.

6. Intolerance to drugs.

7.Elderly age.

8. Oncology.


The anesthesiologist administers local anesthesia to the patient. The surgeon makes a longitudinal incision with a scalpel in the desired area. Performs the necessary actions with the cyst shell. Then, catgut or silicone sutures are used to hem the wall incisions. The seam is treated with an antiseptic. The patient is awakened.

The prospect of a complete cure is high enough. In most cases, no complications arise and the healing period occurs as quickly as possible.The cyst is a benign tumor, therefore, its transition to a cancerous tumor is completely excluded and has not been encountered in medical practice. In case of incomplete cleaning of the liquid, there is a possibility that the vaginal cyst will reappear.

Do not touch the cyst if it does not bring any complaints. There is a possibility that complications will go after the surgery. Suppuration or fistula formation.

Gartner’s cyst is the safest. It is not a contraindication for conception, pregnancy and childbirth.Does not disturb the menstrual cycle. But a woman must be under constant supervision of a specialist.

Getting rid of a cyst at home and using folk methods can lead to complications or bleeding. Do not use any medicinal products or aids without a doctor’s prescription.


The period of rehabilitation and therapy is short. The healing and resorption of the sutures is quick. The woman is in the hospital for a couple of days.Further, as you feel and with the permission of the doctor, you can go to the day hospital.

Moving is allowed for 2-3 days. Without making sudden movements and inclinations. Do not lift heavy objects. Within a month, the menstrual cycle is restored. Supportive housing can be worn after surgery.

The seams are treated with antiseptic solutions to avoid infection. Do not drink alcoholic beverages and quit smoking.Do not take vasodilators.


Timely diagnosis and removal helps women avoid problems during pregnancy. All visits to the gynecologist should not be painful, and examinations are carefully performed by the gynecologist. An asymptomatic cyst does not adversely affect the reproduction of the female body.

If a cyst is found, immediately schedule an examination at the clinic. And in order to reduce the risk of its appearance, observe the following points:

Keep your vagina clean at all times.A healthy lifestyle, painless and protected sex are the main factors in the health of female genital organs. Use a lubricant to normalize the vaginal environment during sex, to avoid damage and pain. By following these points, the incidence of vaginal cysts decreases or disappears completely.

A vaginal cyst is not a terrible ailment, which is easy and simple to cope with, observing certain rules. If you find and increase a build-up, the manifestation of characteristic symptoms, seek advice from a gynecologist in time.Do not self-medicate. Start the process of deterioration and make the disease progressive.

Left ovarian cyst: symptoms and treatment of a woman

Definition of disease

A cyst of the left ovary is a fluid-filled benign mass enclosed in a capsule, which tends to gradually increase due to the accumulation of exudate.

Experienced gynecologists are engaged in the treatment of women with symptoms of a left ovarian cyst in the Elena Malysheva center.

Classification of ovarian cysts

By the nature of development and morphological structure, cysts are divided into functional and organic:

  • Functional cysts (follicular, luteal) – this is the result of incomplete ovulation, when the mature follicle does not burst, the egg cell in it dies, and the follicle capsule is gradually filled with secretion, forming a cyst on the surface of the ovary;
  • Organic varieties of ovarian cysts (dermoid, mucinous and others) are tumor-like formations that are prone to malignancy.

Functional cysts of the left ovary develop less frequently than the right one, which is due to the difference in blood supply. The right ovary receives more blood from the abdominal aorta, and therefore more hormones that affect the maturation of the dominant follicles.

Causes of ovarian cysts

  • pathologies of endocrine organs leading to hormonal disorders: menstrual disorders, lack of ovulation;
  • 90,021 abortions;

  • inflammatory diseases of the pelvic organs, as well as operations that cause adhesions;
  • drug stimulation of folliculogenesis in preparation for the IVF procedure;
  • heterotopy of the endometrium in the abdominal cavity, when the normal processes of follicular maturation are disrupted;
  • 90,021 early onset of the first menstruation;

  • incorrect selection of combined oral contraceptives;
  • Frequent traumatic situations, heavy physical exertion.

Symptoms of an ovarian cyst in a woman

With a small cyst size, up to 5 cm, the woman has no signs of pathological lesions of the ovary. Only when the cystic neoplasm increases in volume do the following symptoms appear:

  • Bursting pulling pains in the lower abdomen on the left, aggravated after physical exertion or sex;
  • menstrual disorders: soreness, increased blood volume;
  • 90,021 spotting not associated with menstruation;

    90,021 signs of “false” pregnancy: nausea, weakness, absence of menstruation, swelling of the mammary glands.


The diagnosis is made on the basis of the patient’s complaints, medical history, gynecological examination, as well as on the results of laboratory and instrumental studies:

  • blood for hormones;
  • bacteriological analysis and microscopy of smears from the vagina and cervix;
  • Ovarian ultrasound.

If necessary, the scope of the examination can be expanded due to additional diagnostic procedures: Doppler echography, CT, MRI of the pelvic organs.

Treatment of a cyst of the left ovary in Izhevsk

Treatment of a cyst of the left ovary is strictly individual and depends on the cause that caused this pathology. In the presence of hormonal disorders, they begin to treat with pharmaceuticals that normalize the function of the ovary. The goal of therapy is to prevent possible complications and prevent relapses of the disease.

With the ineffectiveness of conservative therapy, if the cyst does not undergo reverse involution within 3-4 menstrual cycles, surgical methods of treatment are used.

Benefits of treatment at the Elena Malysheva Center

In the gynecological department of Elena Malysheva’s clinic, highly qualified gynecologists are receiving appointments.

Do not waste precious time, seek medical help at a clinic where you are guaranteed an individual approach, delicate attitude, accurate diagnosis, effective treatment and supervision of an experienced doctor until complete recovery.

You can make an appointment with a gynecologist by calling (3412) 52-50-50 or using the online form on the website.

Ovarian cyst treatment | Gynecology


Obstetrician-gynecologist, primary appointment

Obstetrician-gynecologist, follow-up appointment

Obstetrician-gynecologist (higher category / candidate of medical sciences / doctor of medical sciences), primary appointment

Obstetrician-gynecologist (higher category / candidate of medical sciences / doctor of medical sciences), repeated appointment

Obstetrician-gynecologist E.V., initial appointment

Obstetrician-gynecologist Tanchuk E.V., follow-up appointment

Obstetrician-gynecologist Ph.D. Basos A.S., initial appointment

Obstetrician-gynecologist Ph.D. Basos A.S., repeat appointment

Obstetrician-gynecologist Volkova A.V., primary appointment

Obstetrician-gynecologist Volkova A.V., repeated admission

Obstetrician-gynecologist Zakharova O.V., initial appointment

Obstetrician-gynecologist Zakharova O.V., follow-up appointment

Obstetrician-gynecologist Bokach O.M., initial appointment

Obstetrician-gynecologist Bokach O.M., follow-up appointment

Obstetrician-gynecologist endocrinologist, primary appointment

Obstetrician-gynecologist endocrinologist, follow-up

Obstetrician-gynecologist for adolescents and children, primary appointment

Adolescent and pediatric obstetrician-gynecologist, follow-up

Obstetrician-gynecologist, pregnancy appointment, initial appointment

Obstetrician-gynecologist, pregnancy appointment, follow-up appointment

Adolescent and pediatric obstetrician-gynecologist (higher category / candidate of medical sciences / doctor of medical sciences), primary appointment

Adolescent and children’s obstetrician-gynecologist (higher category / candidate of medical sciences / doctor of medical sciences), repeated appointment

Family planning consultation with an obstetrician-gynecologist, initial appointment

Family planning consultation with an obstetrician-gynecologist, follow-up

Ovarian cyst – Veterinary clinic “Kolibri”

It so happens that during the examination, the doctor finds an ovarian cyst in a dog or cat.What does it mean? Afraid or Watching? Operate urgently? Let’s figure it out.

Ovarian cyst is a kind of ball of fluid (non-atresia follicle) that is found in the ovary and most often produces hormones. Cysts can occur in young animals, but they are usually a problem in middle age. They can be single or multiple. Multiple cysts in one ovary are called polycystic ovary disease.

There are two categories of ovarian cysts that occur in cats and dogs

The first – not dangerous, but rare – cysts that do not produce hormones.Such structures usually become an accidental finding on ultrasound, they do not cause symptoms or problems and are not dangerous.

The second category is hormone-producing ovarian cysts . During the sexual cycle in dogs and cats, an increase in the level of one or another hormone occurs at a certain time, everything happens sequentially and according to a plan conceived by nature. But when a hormone-producing cyst appears in the ovary, the entire harmonious series of hormonal processes may suffer.Hence, a series of various symptoms: change in the intervals between estrus (suddenly become more frequent, in cats estrus can follow one after the other), irregular intervals, estrus that does not end, constant strange discharge and an increase in the loop, interest in males, estrus can become rare, blurry , or disappear altogether, the coat may change (baldness in characteristic places), the absence of ovulation, infertility, abortion, embryo resorption, the development of pyometra, and more. But asymptomatic course is possible.The only symptom of an ovarian cyst may be infertility without any external manifestations.

It is because of the lack of characteristic symptoms that the diagnosis of ovarian cysts is not so easy . An ovarian cyst should be ruled out in any dog ​​or cat that has reproductive problems or has a history of pyometra.

How do you do this?

Ultrasound is the best method for diagnosing ovarian cysts. But in order to conduct a study and its correct interpretation, it is necessary to know some subtleties and have an ultrasound scanner of sufficiently good quality – it is not always easy to find the ovaries.It is optimal for the study to be conducted by a fertility specialist. The second point is that ovarian cysts cannot always be seen on ultrasound. During the period of sexual rest, they can decrease and be completely invisible. Therefore, the doctor must understand at what point the study will be as informative as possible.

What to do if you find a cyst?

It all depends on the breeding status of the animal, age, whether it is multiple cysts, whether both ovaries or one are affected.

For non-breeding animals or breeders whose reproductive careers are coming to an end, sterilization is the best treatment.Hormone-producing ovarian cysts cause hormonal imbalance, which threatens the development of a number of unpleasant complications, at least pyometra.

If the dog or cat should further participate in breeding work, then depending on the number and location of the cysts, as well as the symptoms, the optimal therapy is chosen.

Why can’t you just watch , can’t the cyst heal by itself? This is a common myth with roots in humane medicine.People really have a different tactic for treating ovarian cysts. But a dog and a cat are not human. We have very different sex cycles.

What’s wrong with watching? If the cyst produces hormones (and if symptoms are present), the longer the cat or dog lives with the cyst, the more the reproductive tract suffers from permanent imbalance. And most of all, the uterine mucosa (endometrium) suffers – the place where the placenta of embryos should be attached and further develop and function well.The longer the ovarian cyst is present in the body, the higher the risk of “accumulation” of irreversible changes in the endometrium, respectively, the higher the risk of developing irreversible infertility.

Don’t give birth with an ovarian cyst?

It must be remembered that there are ovarian cysts that do not secrete hormones and are not dangerous. But if a dog or cat has infertility, then how to understand whether it is associated with a cyst or not? And is it worth treating infertility in an animal with an obvious ovarian cyst while ignoring it? Sometimes it means knowingly taking a risk and skipping another attempt to get pregnant, wasting a certain amount.And if the animal is not young? This is always a very delicate question and in each case the decision is made individually. But there are minimally invasive methods that can help you figure out whether a find is dangerous or not. This is aspiration of an ovarian cyst under ultrasound control.

How can a cyst be treated?

Conservative methods of therapy – treatment with drugs , for ovarian cysts in dogs, have extremely low efficiency and are fraught with the development of certain complications, therefore they are usually not widely used in practice.In cats, the effectiveness of such methods is slightly higher, but the percentage of complications is also higher, so this cannot be called the method of choice.

Surgical treatment is more reliable and safer. The first option is ultrasound-guided minimally invasive puncture . This procedure is performed under light sedation or without anesthesia at all. The needle is inserted into the cyst cavity under ultrasound control, and the contents are removed. The plus is that the resulting fluid is tested for hormones in order to understand the hormone-producing cyst or not.In addition to the dignity – speed and minimal intervention, there is also a minus – a fairly frequent percentage of relapse. About 40% of the cysts are recruited. Therefore, this option is suitable for single cysts.

If the cyst has returned after a puncture, or there are many cysts, then the best way would be surgical removal of cysts . If ovarian tissue is atrophied, the entire ovary is sometimes removed.

How to diagnose, what method of treatment to choose, what chances of maintaining fertility should be determined by a specialist.Moreover, if a dog or cat has infertility, then simply removing the cyst is often not enough. In the future, such patients require monitoring for mating and pregnancy.

Our clinic has all the possibilities for the diagnosis and treatment of this pathology. If such a problem arises, it is worth planning a visit to a fertility specialist.

90,000 “False pregnancy” in women. What’s this?

False (imaginary) pregnancy has been described by doctors since the time of Hippocarat.In Latin, this phenomenon is called pseudocyesis. In this case, a woman can feel all the signs of pregnancy, but in fact there is no developing fetus in the uterus. Most often, this condition appears in suspicious and susceptible women, with a mobile psyche, an overly excitable central nervous system, who have experienced stress or shock.

False pregnancy sometimes occurs in those women who strongly want to have a child. It may be the other way around – fear of motherhood becomes the basis for her development.Patients who have suffered from infertility for many years and undergo long-term treatment for this often feel falsely pregnant. Reaching despair, they begin, through self-hypnosis, to look for symptoms that indicate pregnancy.

A hormonal imbalance can be the cause of a false pregnancy. Regular stress causes the body to produce a lot of pituitary hormones, an increase in the amount of which is observed in a real pregnancy.

In women, the mammary glands or uterus (“baby uterus”) may be lagging behind.In these conditions, doctors may prescribe a long course of hormonal drugs that lead to menstrual irregularities. The absence of menstruation is often mistaken for a sign of pregnancy.

A false pregnancy manifests itself in the same way as a real one.

Main (doubtful) signs of false pregnancy:

– Morning sickness or vomiting appears

– The perception of smells is enhanced, taste sensations and preferences change
– Mood swings occur
– In rare cases, a woman even feels the movements of a non-existent fetus

The above signs are considered dubious because the woman herself talks about them.The situation becomes more convincing when probable signs appear. These include the following:

– Cessation of menses, long delays
– Enlargement and engorgement of the mammary glands, sometimes there is a characteristic pigmentation in the area of ​​the halo and nipples
– Possibly colostrum-like nipple discharge
– The abdomen increases in size

The state of a false pregnancy is so similar to a real pregnancy that a woman is firmly convinced that she is expecting a child. Declaring her interesting position, she does not deceive anyone!

The most surprising thing is that a test for the presence of hCG in urine can also show a positive result. This fact will convince a woman even more that there is a real pregnancy. However, hCG can also increase if there is a cyst, pelvic tumor, or some other pathology.

Sometimes, with a false pregnancy, women can see two stripes on the test. This is possible if they take a course of hormonal drugs for the treatment of infertility, which contains hCG. It is also impossible to exclude a situation in which the test is spoiled (marriage or improper storage).

Obstetricians-gynecologists at the Genom-Don IVF and Reproductive Health Clinic recommend that you confirm pregnancy with transvaginal ultrasound, starting from the 1st week
delayed menstruation. 90,000 Ovarian cyst. Causes. SymptomsTreatment.

An ovarian cyst is a benign neoplasm, like a bladder, which is filled with fluid inside. It can appear in women of any age.


  • retention of blood in the pelvic organs, poor outflow.
  • hormonal disruption;
  • 90,021 inflammatory diseases of the pelvic organs.

May also indirectly affect:

  • endocrine disorders
  • menstrual irregularities
  • weight problems
  • taking hormonal drugs (for contraception or in preparation for IVF)
  • chronic diseases of the gastrointestinal tract
  • smoking, stress
  • 90,021 operations on the pelvic organs, abortions, etc.


Most often, cysts sit inaudibly and imperceptibly)) That is, they do not manifest themselves in any way. That is why it is very important to visit your gynecologist regularly to make sure everything is okay (once or twice a year, if nothing bothers you).

But it is especially worthwhile to be on your guard and run to the doctor if you have:

  • trouble with the menstrual cycle (menstruation is absent or goes too long)
  • enlargement of the abdomen
  • aching or pulling pains
  • infertility
  • Vaginal spotting
  • Frequent urge to go to the toilet, constipation.


If the cyst is not noticed and treated in time, it can happen:

  • Torsion of the cyst pedicle. Here, as a result, tissue death (necrosis) and inflammation of the peritoneum (peritonitis).
  • Cyst rupture. The consequence is intra-abdominal bleeding.
  • Abdominal enlargement. There is even a known case when, due to a cyst, the belly of one woman grew even more than that of a pregnant woman at the 9th month!
  • Infertility.


Treatment of cysts is conservative and surgical.If the case is not severe, sometimes even observation and waiting tactics can be used under the constant supervision of a doctor.

The conservative method involves the use of hormonal drugs. If the effect is not observed (after 2-3 months of treatment), then an operation is performed – laparotomy or laparoscopy.

In rare cases (if the cyst is very large, there is a risk of oncology or large-scale inflammatory processes), the cyst is removed together with the ovary (oophorectomy) or even together with the fallopian tube (adnexectomy).

90,000 how to detect and can it be cured?

What is a cyst?

Ovarian cyst is a neoplasm with liquid contents , a kind of bubble with “water”. Cysts are divided into functional and true (true).

The first ones appear due to a malfunction of hormones.

Day of the beginning of menstruation – the starting point of the new cycle. At this time, a follicle forms in the ovary, which bursts by the middle of the cycle, releasing a mature egg.Ovulation occurs. If the follicle does not burst or even continues to increase in size, one of the functional cysts appears – the follicular one.

Normally, a corpus luteum (from the Latin “corpus luteum”) is formed at the site of the bursting follicle. Its task is to produce progesterone, which will be especially needed if a sperm fertilizes an egg and a pregnancy occurs. If this does not happen, then the corpus luteum gradually disappears. If the corpus luteum has not gone anywhere, and even began to grow, accumulating fluid, we can talk about the appearance of another functional cyst – luteal (the name comes from the phase of the cycle when the cyst was formed).

A complicated version of a functional cyst is the case when blood accumulates inside it due to bursting blood vessels. Such a cyst is called hemorrhagic .

True cysts include teratomas, cystadenomas and endometriomas. The reasons for the appearance of all three are not completely clear – genetics plays an important role.

So, a teratoma is a congenital benign tumor, but it grows and develops very slowly. Interestingly, inside it is the so-called undifferentiated body tissues – hair, fat, teeth, etc.d.

Cystadenomas – something like a functional cyst – inside with fluid or mucus. With such a cyst, you should be very careful, because cystadenomas often reach quite large sizes and have increased cancer risks.

The most unpleasant cyst is endometrioma . It is associated with endometroisis – a situation when one of the layers of the uterus (outer, lining the uterine cavity) for some reason “goes” beyond its limits and settles in another place – for example, fallopian tubes or, in the case of endometrioma – in the ovary.Regardless of the location, the tissues of the uterus retain their properties – for example, they bleed once a month when menstruation occurs. And since the ovary is not a suitable place for this, chronic inflammation forms in it. This, in turn, provokes the appearance of adhesions – special “threads” of connective tissues, which, as it were, “glue” the ovaries with the surrounding tissues and provoke the appearance of unpleasant symptoms.

What symptoms can there be?

Basically, the symptoms of a cyst do not depend on its type, but on the size.Small masses (2-4 cm) such as functional cysts, teratoma or cystadenoma may be asymptomatic .

If the cyst continues to grow, it may cause:

  • Drawing pains, feeling of heaviness in the lower abdomen,
  • Pain during intercourse,
  • Delayed menstruation.

In the case of endometrioma, one of the additional symptoms is infertility due to chronic inflammation and adhesions accompanying this type of cyst.And it is she who most often causes atypical severe pain before and during menstruation.

The most common complication is cyst rupture . This most often occurs in the case of a functional hemorrhagic cyst in the middle of the menstrual cycle, especially after physical exertion or sexual intercourse.

Small cysts rarely burst and, even if ruptured, no further action is required. A large cyst can cause serious trouble, therefore, if the patient feels sharp severe pain on one side of the abdomen, an urgent need to consult a doctor.

Another complication is that due to the severity of the cyst, the ovary can twist. The blood supply is blocked, the ovary becomes inflamed, the tissues begin to die off and cause very severe sharp pains, nausea, vomiting, and rapid pulse. This is also an acute situation requiring immediate surgery.

How is a cyst diagnosed?

Since most often the cysts are small and do not cause any complaints – it is very important to see a gynecologist for examination and prophylactic ultrasonography.

Ultrasound is the main diagnostic method. It is he who helps to determine the size of the cyst, its type and plan further tactics of behavior.

If the cyst looks “suspicious” on ultrasound, then an additional blood test will be prescribed for the so-called onco markers – CA-125, HE-4, CEA. It is important to evaluate several markers at once, because, for example, CA-125 can give a false-positive result – for example, in endometriosis, fibroids, liver diseases, etc.

If cancer is suspected, computed tomography or magnetic resonance imaging may be needed to check nearby organs and lymph nodes.

How to treat a cyst?

The main question here is when it is worth doing this. If it is a small, unequivocally benign cyst (up to 4 cm), which does not cause any symptoms, then it is better to choose an observational tactic. For example, functional follicular cysts usually resolve on their own within 3-6 months. Teratomas, endometriomas and cystadenomas, if they are small, are also better not to touch – surgery is an unnecessary trauma to the ovary.

If the cyst does not disappear by itself – you can try to speed up this process with hormonal contraception – prescribe drugs for 3 months to temporarily “turn off” the ovaries from the hormonal system chain and let the cyst disappear. The doctor can choose this option for a hormone-dependent cyst: follicular and luteal. Hormonal contraception can be combined with pain relief therapy to relieve symptoms.

But, in the case of a large cyst that causes complaints or if there is a suspicion of malignancy of the formation, of course, it is necessary to act.And the only possible option is surgery. The main task of such treatment is to remove the cyst, minimally traumatizing the ovary. In 95 % cases, laparoscopy is performed , in which 3-4 small (no more than a centimeter in diameter) incisions are made in the patient’s anterior abdominal wall under anesthesia. Through these incisions, a camera and instruments are inserted into the abdominal cavity.