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Dead skin on pinky toe: What’s the difference and how can I treat them?


What’s the difference and how can I treat them?

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Corns and calluses are hard, painful areas of skin that often develop on the feet in response to pressure or friction.

They happen when the skin tries to protect an underlying area from injury, pressure, or rubbing.

Neither is dangerous, but they can cause irritation.

They are more common among people who wear ill-fitting shoes, have sweaty feet, and those who stand for long periods each day.

They affect women more than men.

Fast facts about corns and calluses

Here are some facts about corns and calluses. There is more detailed information in the main article,

  • Corns have a distinct, often hard, center, which may be surrounded by inflamed skin.
  • Corns can be painful when pressed, but calluses are not usually painful.
  • Calluses are usually larger than corns, and they vary in shape, while corns tend to be smaller, round and well-defined.
  • Calluses normally develop on the soles of the feet, especially under the heels or balls, on the palms of the hands, and also on the knees. Corns often occur in non-weight-bearing parts of the skin.
  • A pumice stone or over-the-counter topical medicine can be used to treat corns and calluses without going to see a doctor.
  • Painful corns or calluses may need medical attention.
  • Lifestyle and clothing changes can help prevent corns and calluses.

People sometimes mistakenly use the terms corns and calluses interchangeably, but they are not the same.

What is a callus?

A callus is a section of skin that has become toughened and thick because of friction, pressure, or irritation. They often happen on the feet, but they can occur on the hands, elbows, or knees.

Calluses are yellowish or pale in color. They feel lumpy to the touch, but, as the skin is thick, it may be less sensitive to touch compared with the skin around it.

Calluses are often bigger and wider than corns, with less defined edges. They commonly appear where the skin frequently rubs against something, such as a bone, some item of footwear, or the ground.

They typically form over the bony area just under the toes, areas of skin that take the person’s weight when they are walking.

What is a corn?

A corn is a kind of callus, made of dead skin.

They usually form on smooth, hairless skin surfaces, especially on the top or the side of the toes. They are usually small and circular, with a clearly defined center that can be hard of soft.

Hard corns tend to be small, and they occur in areas of firm, hard skin, where the skin has thickened or where there are calluses, and in bony areas of the foot.

Soft corns tend to be whitish in color, with a rubbery texture. They more commonly occur between the toes, in areas of moist and sweaty skin.

Calluses and corns are not normally harmful, but sometimes they may lead to infections or ulcerations of the skin, especially among people with diabetes and those with poor circulation in the feet.

Share on PinterestCalluses have become toughened and thick due to friction. People can normally carry out treatment at home using over-the-counter products, but in especially painful cases may wish to see a podiatrist.

Corns and calluses can make a person feel as if they are walking on stones.

The following signs or symptoms may indicate that there is a corn or callus:

  • a raised, hardened bump
  • a thick and rough area of skin
  • skin that is flaky and dry or flaky and waxy
  • pain or tenderness under the skin

If a corn or callus becomes very inflamed or painful, the patient should seek medical advice.

Patients with poor circulation, fragile skin, or nerve problems and numbness in the feet should talk to their doctors before treating corns and calluses at home.

People with diabetes, peripheral neuropathy, and peripheral arterial disease need to be particularly watchful.

A podiatrist might cut away some of the thick skin with a scalpel to relieve pressure on the tissues that lie beneath. People should not cut the corn or callus themself as it could make it more painful and the risk of infection is high.

More information on removing calluses and corns can be found in the “home remedies” section below.

The following risk factors are linked to a higher incidence of corns and calluses:

  • anything that causes pressure or friction on the skin
  • shoes that are too tight or too high-heeled, causing pressure
  • shoes that are too loose, causing friction
  • a badly placed seam in a shoe that rubs against the skin
  • socks that do not fit well
  • wearing no socks
  • walking barefoot regularly, as the skin will thicken to protect itself
  • repeated actions such as jogging or walking in a particular way
  • older age, as there is less fatty tissue in the skin, which means less padding and a higher risk of developing calluses, especially on the ball of the foot

Calluses often appear on the feet, but friction and pressure can also cause calluses on the hands.

People who frequently cycle or use hand tools without wearing gloves can develop them. Repeated kneeling or resting elbows on a table can cause calluses on the knees or elbows.

Bunions, hammertoe, and other foot problems and deformities increase the risk of corns and calluses. A bunion is an abnormal, bony bump that develops on the joint at the base of the big toe. A hammertoe is when a toe becomes curled up like a claw.

Share on PinterestPeople can treat corns and calluses at home with a pumice stone or salicylic acid.

Many people treat corns and calluses at home, using over-the-counter products from a pharmacy.

Tips include:

  • Soaking the corn or callus in warm water for 5 to 10 minutes, then filing or scraping the area with a pumice stone. Circular or sideways motions help remove dead skin.
  • Using moisturizer every day on the feet. Products that contain salicylic acid, urea, or ammonium lactate help soften the dry skin to prepare it for filing.
  • If repetitive actions are causing the corns and calluses, avoiding these actions can often solve the problem.
  • Shoes and socks that fit properly, protective pads or insoles, and other self-care measure can help. Foam or silicone wedges may be used between the toes to reduce pressure on a corn. Orthotics are custom-made padded shoe inserts which may help people with an underlying foot deformity. A range of orthiotic products are available for purchase online.

When to see a doctor

If the corn or callus is very painful, or if the person has diabetes, fragile skin, or circulatory problems, it is best to consult a doctor or a podiatrist, who is specialized in foot care.

The doctor will examine the feet, ask the person about their lifestyle, and they may check their footwear.

A podiatrist, or foot doctor, may remove some of the hard skin that surrounds the corn so that the center of it can be removed.

After trimming the skin, the doctor may apply a patch with 40 percent salicylic acid. The patient will need to replace the patch periodically. A pumice stone or metal nail file is usually used to rub away dead skin before applying a new patch.

If there is infection or a risk of infection, the doctor may prescribe antibiotic ointment. Red and swollen skin around the corn or callus can indicate an infection.

If the doctor suspects there may be an underlying bone structure problem, they may refer the patient for an x-ray, and possibly surgery.

What is salicylic acid?

The standard treatment for corns and calluses is salicylic acid, which is also used in wart treatment.

This is a keratolytic, which means it dissolves the protein, or keratin, that makes up the corn and the dead skin around it.

It is available in creams, pads, and plasters, or it can be applied using an applicator or a dropper.

The top of the skin will turn white, and the dead tissue can be cut or filed away.

Once the corn or callus has gone, the individual can soak and rub down the area with a pumice stone each week, if the hard skin shows signs of from coming back.

Salicylic acid comes in different concentrations. Stronger doses may work faster, but it will need a prescription.

The ingredients can irritate surrounding skin, so care should be taken when applying it. Do not use this on a cracked corn or callus.


When treating corns and calluses at home, it is important not to remove too much skin, as this can lead to pain and infection.

Older people and those with diabetes should not scrape, file, or trim their feet at home, as this can lead to infections that are difficult to cure. It could lead to ulcers on the skin.

They should ask a doctor before using salicylic acid, as this, too, can cause ulcers.

Any cutting or paring of skin is best done by a podiatrist or other health professional.

Repeated or regular trimming may be needed, as the corn or callus may recur.

The following measures may help reduce the risk of developing corns and calluses:

Share on PinterestWearing well-fitting socks and footwear can help to prevents corns and calluses.

  • Wash the feet with soap and water every evening. Use a scrubbing brush.
  • Apply a specially moisturizing foot cream after washing and drying them well. Do not use a body lotion. Foot lotions are available for purchase online.
  • Wear well-fitting shoes and socks with seams that do not rub the skin.
  • Shop for shoes later in the day, when the feet are at their largest, because feet swell slightly as the day progresses.
  • Deal with any foot pain or skin irritation as it arises.
  • Have a regular check up with a foot specialist.
  • When trimming the toenails, cut straight across, and not down at angles or over the edges.
  • Use a pumice stone or foot file regularly, and remove hard skin gently. Pumice stones are available for purchase online.
  • Wear clean socks every day and use talcum powder to prevent sweating. Talcum powder is available for purchase online.
  • Protect the hands when using tools, either with padded gloves or by padding the tool handles.

With treatment, corns and calluses can be removed, but they may return without lifestyle or footwear changes.

Bunions: Causes, Symptoms & Treatment


What is a bunion?

A bunion is a bump that forms on the outside of the big toe. This foot deformity occurs from years of pressure on the big toe joint (the metatarsophalangeal, or MTP, joint). Eventually, the toe joint gets out of alignment, and a bony bump forms. The medical term for bunions is hallux abducto valgus.

Who might get a bunion?

Up to one in three Americans have bunions. The foot problem is more common in older adults, especially women. Bunions can form on one or both feet.

What are the types of bunions?

Bunions on the big toe are the most common. Other types include:

  • Congenital hallux valgus: Some babies are born with bunions.
  • Juvenile or adolescent hallux valgus: Tweens and teens between the ages of 10 and 15 may develop bunions.
  • Tailor’s bunion: Also called a bunionette, this bunion forms on the outside base of the little (pinky) toe.

What causes bunions?

Pressure from the way you walk (foot mechanics) or the shape of your foot (foot structure) causes your big toe to bend in toward the second toe. Bunions happen gradually over time. Standing for long periods and wearing ill-fitting, narrow shoes can make bunion pain worse, but they don’t cause the problem.

What are the risk factors for bunions?

You may be more likely to get a bunion if you have:

  • Family history of bunions due to inherited foot structure problems, like flatfeet.
  • Foot injuries.
  • Inflammatory diseases, such as rheumatoid arthritis.

What are the signs of bunions?

A bunion resembles a turnip — red and swollen. In fact, some sources say the word bunion comes from the Greek word for turnip. Other symptoms include:

  • Inability to bend the big toe, or pain and burning when you try to bend it.
  • Difficulty wearing regular shoes.
  • Corns or calluses (thickened skin).
  • Hammertoes (painful, tight toe tendons and joints).
  • Numbness in the big toe.

Symptoms and Causes

What causes bunions?

Pressure from the way you walk (foot mechanics) or the shape of your foot (foot structure) causes your big toe to bend in toward the second toe. Bunions happen gradually over time. Standing for long periods and wearing ill-fitting, narrow shoes can make bunion pain worse, but they don’t cause the problem.

What are the risk factors for bunions?

You may be more likely to get a bunion if you have:

  • Family history of bunions due to inherited foot structure problems, like flatfeet.
  • Foot injuries.
  • Inflammatory diseases, such as rheumatoid arthritis.

What are the signs of bunions?

A bunion resembles a turnip — red and swollen. In fact, some sources say the word bunion comes from the Greek word for turnip. Other symptoms include:

  • Inability to bend the big toe, or pain and burning when you try to bend it.
  • Difficulty wearing regular shoes.
  • Corns or calluses (thickened skin).
  • Hammertoes (painful, tight toe tendons and joints).
  • Numbness in the big toe.

Diagnosis and Tests

How are bunions diagnosed?

Your healthcare provider can diagnose a bunion by looking at it. You may also get X-rays to check for joint damage and bone alignment.

Management and Treatment

How are bunions managed or treated?

Bunions don’t go away. Treatment often focuses on relieving symptoms and may include:

  • Bunion pads and taping: Over-the-counter bunion pads can cushion the area and ease pain. You can also use medical tape to keep the foot in the correct position.
  • Footwear changes: Switching to shoes with wide, deep toe boxes can take pressure off of your toes. You may be able to use a stretching device to widen shoes you already own.
  • Orthotic devices: Over-the-counter or custom-made shoe inserts (orthotics) can help to control alignment issues such as pronation that may be contributing to bunion formation. You can also place a spacer between the big toe and second digit. Some people find relief by wearing a splint at night to keep the big toe straight.
  • Pain relievers: Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) both oral and topical can be combined with ice packs help with pain and swelling.
  • Physical therapy: Massage, physical therapy and ultrasound therapy can break up soft-tissue adhesions to reduce pain and inflammation. There are actually exercises that can help improve muscle strength around the bunion and can modestly improve alignment.
  • Injections: Steroid injections may reduce pain and swelling but may also be damaging if used too often or injected into the joint itself. This is often a late treatment of bunions when trying to avoid surgery.
  • Surgery: If nonsurgical treatments don’t help, and walking becomes extremely painful, your provider may recommend surgery. This procedure is called a bunionectomy. Your provider removes the bunion and realigns bones to bring the big toe back into the correct position.


How can I prevent a bunion?

Proper-fitting footwear is key to preventing bunions or keeping an existing bunion from getting worse. Your healthcare provider can offer tips on how to select appropriate shoes. In general, you should buy shoes with a wide toe box and soft soles. Avoid shoes that are narrow and pointed at the tip, and high heels that put pressure on the front of the foot. If you have flatfeet or another inherited structural foot problem, custom-fitted orthotics can help prevent, or slow the progression of, bunions.

Outlook / Prognosis

What are the complications of bunions?

Having a bunion may increase your risk of:

What is the prognosis (outlook) for people with bunions?

Without the right care, like changing your footwear or using orthotics, bunions can get worse over time. If you have severe pain when you walk or stand, you may become sedentary (inactive), which isn’t good for your health or quality of life. Most people get symptom relief with over-the-counter aids or through treatments at a medical office. If needed, surgery can help.

Living With

When should I call the doctor?

You should call your healthcare provider if you experience:

  • Difficulty walking.
  • Lack of movement in the big toe.
  • Severe inflammation or redness in toe joints.
  • Signs of infection after surgery, such as fever.

What questions should I ask my doctor?

You may want to ask your healthcare provider:

  • Why did I get a bunion?
  • What are the best treatments for bunions?
  • What can I do to lower the risk of getting a bunion on my other foot?
  • How can I lower the risk of other foot problems like calluses and corns?
  • What complications can occur if I do not treat my bunion?

A note from Cleveland Clinic

Bunions are very common. While over-the-counter bunion pads and pain relievers ease symptoms, you should see a healthcare provider. Your provider can recommend other treatment options, such as shoe gear modifications, physical therapy, medications and orthotics. Treatments can reduce pain and stop bunion symptoms from getting worse. If the pain becomes severe, surgery to remove the bunion and realign the big toe can help you get moving again.

Calluses and corns – Harvard Health

Calluses and corns are thickenings of the outer layer of skin. They develop to protect skin from damage against prolonged rubbing, pressure, and other forms of irritation. Calluses and corns usually form on the hands or feet.

Callus. A callus is a thickening of skin exposed to prolonged rubbing. The thickening is evenly distributed. On the hands, a callus may form on a finger due to repeated pressure or rubbing from a pen or pencil, or from playing a stringed instrument. Calluses can also form at the base of the fingers from using gardening tools, playing tennis, chopping wood, or any activity in which you tightly grasp an object. On the feet, calluses typically develop near the base of the toes, where they are caused by friction from the inside of shoes. Some calluses are related to walking problems or foot abnormalities that place unusual stress on parts of the foot during walking.

Corns. A corn is a protective thickening of the skin on the top of the foot, usually on a bony, knobby portion of a toe. Corns often develop because of irritation caused by tight shoes. At the center of a corn is often a dense knot of skin called a core, which is located over the area of greatest friction or pressure. Firm, dry corns that form on the upper surfaces of the toes are called hard corns. Pliable, moist corns that form between the toes are called soft corns.

Symptoms of calluses and corns

A callus is a yellowish, flat, hard layer of dead skin. It can cause:

  • pain
  • difficulty grasping an object or walking

A corn is also a layer of dead skin, usually around the toes. It may have a dense knot of skin in the center of the hardened area. Like calluses, corns can cause:

After prolonged irritation, a brown, red, or black discoloration may develop under a large corn or callus. This is caused by a small amount of bleeding in the space between thick and normal skin. In severe cases, the thick and normal skin may separate, exposing the area to possible infection.

Diagnosing calluses and corns

Simple inspection of the hands or feet is often enough to diagnose a callus or corn. Your doctor may ask about your shoes, because shoes with narrow toes are more likely to cause corns. He or she also will ask about the health of your feet and your history of other medical problems, including diabetes and circulation problems. Some types of foot problems can change the mechanics of the foot, causing abnormal pressure on certain areas and leading to calluses. Any previous surgery or trauma to the feet may also affect the structure and alignment of foot bones, increasing the chance of developing a callus or corn.

To find out whether your corns and calluses are related to foot abnormalities, your doctor will inspect your feet for:

  • toe deformities
  • structural problems of the bones
  • poor bone alignment
  • problems related to an abnormal way of walking (gait)

Treating calluses and corns

Self help

Calluses and corns need treatment by a doctor or other clinician only if they cause pain or other problems. Self-help treatments include:

  • wearing gloves or other protection when gardening, playing racquet sports, or doing other activities that put pressure on your hands.
  • wearing shoes that fit well, with plenty of room around the toes (wide and deep toe boxes). This reduces the irritation that caused the problem in the first place. Over time, the corns or calluses will shrink on their own. This process often weeks or months.
  • cushioning the affected area with moleskin to relieve pressure. You can also make a “donut” with moleskin, lamb’s wool, felt, or foam. Many pharmacies sell over-the-counter products to cushion corns and calluses.

If a callus or corn gets in the way of activity, or causes pain, there are two main ways to shrink or reduce it:

  • Soak the affected hand or foot in warm water to soften the callus or corn. Dry the area. Then rub a pumice stone gently over the callus or corn. Afterward, moisturize the area with skin lotion. Repeat every day or every few days as needed.
  • Use an over-the-counter liquid or ointment that contains salicylic acid to soften the callus or corn. Then rub it with a pumice stone to lightly scrape away the dead skin. Be careful with salicylic acid, and follow the instructions exactly, since it can harm surrounding healthy skin. Some foot care specialists advise against using these products at all.

Medical care

It may be wise to see a food specialist (podiatrist) if a callus or corn makes it hard to walk or do other activities. The doctor may find a structural problem with your feet, or find that you place unusual stress on parts of your foot while walking. If that’s the case, he or she may suggest special padding or shoe inserts. Shoe inserts redistribute the forces that cause friction and pressure inside your shoes, relieving some of the stress on your feet when you walk.

If your corn or callus is painful, your doctor may shave away some of the thickened skin to relieve pain and pressure in the affected area.


In rare cases, surgery to correct an underlying problem of bone structure may be needed to treat a corn or callus that keeps returning and is not relieved by padding, shoe inserts, and periodic shaving.

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should ever be used as a substitute for direct medical advice from your doctor or other qualified clinician.

Calluses and Corns | PeaceHealth

Condition Basics

What are calluses and corns?

Calluses and corns are areas of thick skin caused by pressure or friction. They may cause pain when you walk or wear shoes.

Calluses usually form on your hands or feet. They usually don’t need treatment.

Corns have an inner core that can be soft or hard. Soft corns are found between your toes. Hard corns may form on the tops of your toes. Corns caused by poorly fitting shoes will often go away with the right size shoe.

What causes them?

Calluses and corns are caused by repeated pressure or friction on an area of skin. The pressure causes the skin to die and form a hard, protective surface. A soft corn is formed in the same way, except that when sweat is trapped where the corn develops, the hard core softens. This typically occurs between toes. Calluses and corns are not caused by a virus and are not contagious.

Repeated handling of an object that puts pressure on the hand, such as tools (gardening hoe or hammer) or sports equipment (tennis racquet), typically causes calluses on the hands.

Calluses and corns on the feet are often caused by pressure from footwear. Walking barefoot also causes calluses.

Calluses and corns often form on bunions or on hammer, claw, or mallet toes. They also often form on the bumps caused by rheumatoid arthritis. Calluses and corns on the feet may also be caused by repeated pressure due to sports (such as a callus on the bottom of a runner’s foot), an odd way of walking (abnormal gait), or a bone structure, such as flat feet or bone spurs (small, bony growths that form along joints).

What are the symptoms?

You can tell you have a corn or callus by the way it looks. A callus is hard, dry, and thick, and it may appear grayish or yellowish. It may be less sensitive to the touch than surrounding skin, and it may feel bumpy. A hard corn is also firm and thick. It may have a soft yellow ring with a gray center. A soft corn looks like an open sore.

Calluses and corns often are not painful, but they can cause pain when you are walking or wearing shoes. And they may make it hard for your feet to fit in your shoes.

How are they diagnosed?

Your doctor will look at the calluses or corns that are causing problems for you. He or she may also ask you questions about your work, your hobbies, or the types of shoes you wear. An X-ray of the foot may be done if your doctor suspects a problem with the bones.

How are calluses and corns treated?

Calluses and corns do not need treatment unless they cause pain. If they do cause pain, you can ease the pain by:

  • Wearing shoes that fit well and are roomy, with wide and deep toe boxes (the area that surrounds the toes).
    • A wider toe box keeps the toes from pressing against each other, relieving pressure on soft corns.
    • A deeper toe box keeps the toes from pressing against the top of the shoe, relieving pressure on hard corns.
  • Using protective padding while your foot heals, such as:

Other things you can try include:

  • Reducing the size of the callus or corn by soaking your callus or corn in warm water and then using a pumice stone to lightly wear away the dead skin. Never cut the corn or callus yourself, especially if you have diabetes or other conditions that cause circulatory problems or numbness.
  • Using salicylic acid to soften the callus or corn. You can then rub the callus or corn off with a pumice stone. Some doctors advise against using salicylic acid because it can damage surrounding skin. If you use salicylic acid, be sure to apply it only to the callus or corn and not to the surrounding skin. And never use salicylic acid if you have diabetes or other conditions that cause circulatory problems or numbness.
  • Having your doctor pare (trim) the callus or corn with a small knife. Your doctor can do this in his or her office.

If you keep having problems with calluses or corns, or your problem is severe, your doctor may have you see a foot specialist (a podiatrist). You may be fitted for orthotic inserts or metatarsal bar inserts for your shoes to distribute your weight more evenly over the ball of your foot. Athletes who run a lot may wear orthotic shoe inserts for the same purpose.

Surgery is rarely used to treat calluses or corns. But if a bone structure (such as a hammer toe or bunion) is causing a callus or corn, surgery can be used to change or remove the bone structure. This is used only if other treatment has failed.

If you have diabetes, peripheral arterial disease, peripheral neuropathy, or other conditions that cause circulatory problems or numbness, talk to your doctor before you try any treatment for calluses or corns.

How can you prevent them?

Calluses and corns can be prevented by reducing or eliminating pressure on the skin.

Calluses on your hands usually can be prevented by wearing gloves to protect your hands, such as when gardening or lifting weights. Calluses on your feet can usually be prevented by wearing shoes and socks that fit well.

Corns on your feet can usually be prevented by wearing shoes that have a wider toe box. It can also help to get both feet measured by a shoe store clerk before buying a pair of shoes.

In general:

  • Wear shoes that fit well.
  • Wear gloves while using a tool such as a garden spade or rake.
  • Wear appropriate padding if you expose other parts of your body to friction. For example, if you are on your knees laying carpet, wear knee pads.

The way you walk can be affected by the bones in your feet or even tight calf muscles. If so, a podiatrist may be able to help you make changes that can prevent foot problems like calluses and corns.

Reliable treatment for corns and calluses

Why treat corns and calluses?

Corns and calluses are painful. This might range from a little discomfort to quite severe pain. This pain is caused by pressure on the soft underlying tissue which is under the corn or callus. The pressure or rubbing that has caused the corn or callus pushes on the hardened tissue – and this is transmitted through to the soft tissue and pin or discomfort is felt.

Podiatrists and Chiropodists treat corns and calluses to remove this pain or discomfort.

Principles of treatment

As the pain or discomfort is caused by the mass of hardened tissue being pressed into the soft underlying part of the foot, the best way to treat a corn or callus is to remove both:

  • the cause of the pressure
  • the mass of hardened tissue

whilst causing as little damage to healthy tissue as possible.

The underlying causes

For successful treatment of a corn or callus, one of the most important factors is to identify what has caused it in the first place. It is essential to remove the cause of rubbing or pressure prior to removal of the corn or callous. There are two reasons for this.

Firstly as the corn or callus has been caused by this pressure or rubbing, any good from treatment will be immediately undone if the underlying cause is not removed.

Secondly, the corn or callus only formed in the first place to try and protect the underlying tissue from the rubbing or pressure. Therefore if your podiatrist or chiropodist removes this protective layer, but does not also remove the cause, the soft underlying tissue would be exposed to the damaging effects of the pressure or rubbing directly onto soft and healthy tissue.

Treatment of a Callus

A callus is a thickened mass of dead skin, that is caused by pressure or rubbing over a part of the foot or toes. This pressure is created by a bony prominence on the inside of foot rubbing against something else on the outside of the foot – such as ill fitting footwear or another toe.

The layers of dead skin that make up the callus, are discoloured – usually a yellow in colour. An expert podiatrist or chiropodist is able to remove this in very thin slices with a scalpel, ensuring that the callus is completely removed, without damaging the underlying healthy tissue.

Although this may sound painful, it is not – provided the healthy tissue is left completely alone. Hence the need for an expert!

The reason the removal of calluses do not hurt the patient is that there are no nerve cells in the thickened, dead layers of skin that make up the callus. Therefore, when these layers are carefully peeled away with a scalpel, it is really only cutting through dead protein – just like cutting nails or hair.

As the podiatrist or chiropodist is only removing dead tissue, there should be no bleeding whatsoever nor risk of infection.

Usually, only one treatment is needed. Patients are usually asked to return after 6 to 8 weeks to ensure that the area is healing healthily and that there are no signs of recurrence. Occasionally, a callus can be extensive and might need more than one treatment episode. In addition, if the underlying cause has not been adequately treated, there may be signs at the follow-up that the callus is coming back and so further treatment can be advised.

Treatment of Corns

Treatment of hard corns

The treatment of hard corn is virtually identical as that for calluses – with one exception. As a hard corn is actually a callus but with a deep hard centre, once the callus part has been removed, the centre needs to be cut out. This is called “enucleation” of the centre.

Removal, or enucleation, of the centre will leave a dimple or hole in the tissue of the foot. In time, with healing, the body will naturally fill this up with healthy tissue. However, whilst the healing process is occurring, the cavity is usually filled with a gel (polymer, silicon or acrilyic) which discourages further corn formation.

As with the treatment of calluses, the treatment of corns is often limited to one episode only. However, if the corn is large, in a difficult area or has been there for years (ie: is a chronic corn), there may need further treatments to get resolution. A podiatrist or chiropodist will be able to decide this at the 6 – 8 weeks review.

Treatment of soft corns

Treatment of soft corns requires removal of the dead tissue with a scalpel – just like hard corns. However, as the skin is not hard but “macerated” by fluid, the white soft tissue can be separated from healthy tissue with care.

As sweat collects between the toes, and the toes rub against each other to cause the corns, there is often need for a toe separator. This is a device that holds the toes apart – allowing sweat to evaporate and to stop the toes rubbing together.

As part of the treatment, a podiatrist or chiropodist will suggest that the patient pays special attention to careful cleaning and drying of the toes and the web spaces between them. In addition, surgical spirit (which is alcohol) can be used on soft corns. Surgical spirit, when it is put on the skin and allowed to evaporate, dries out the skin cells as well as sterilising the area.

Treatment of seed corns

Seed corns are associated with dry skin (anhidrosis)

Treatment of these is based upon removal of the little corns themselves and and then application of an emollient – often containing Urea cream. An emollient cream is one that keeps the water in the skin, keeping it well moisturised and preventing it from drying out.

As seed corns are usually multiple, it is usual to review patients in 3 months after treatment, to see if there is any need for further treatment.

Treatment of subungual corns (corns situated under the nails)

Corns that occur under the toe nails (subungual corns) are very difficult to treat. It is impossible to get to the corn with the nail still in place. Therefore to get to the corn in order to treat it, the nail needs to be removed. Usually a podiatrist or chiropodist will only need to cut back the nail sufficiently to expose the corn. However, in some cases, the whole nail might have to be removed.

Once the nail has been cut back or removed, the corn can be removed with scalpel. As it is so important not to get the corn back again, in most cases a caustic agent such as silver nitrate can be used to destroy the corn tissue. If the corn can be eradicated, then it may not be necessary to remove the nail again.

With subungual corns, it is important to review the patients every 2-3 weeks to check nail is growing back healthily and with no recurrence of the corn.

Treatment of neurovascular corns

Neurovascular corns are corns that have both nerves and blood vessels in them. As most corns have only dead tissue in them, this makes neurovascular corns more difficult to treat. Firstly they are sensitive and can be painful to treat and secondly they can bleed if removed. As such, podiatrists and chiropodists usually remove these under local anaesthetic.

Neurovascular corns need extensive excision to get rid of them and bleeding may occur. A caustic such as silver nitrate can be used to help to destroy the corn tissue. They often recur and need further treatment is often needed. Fortunately they are rare.

Patients are followed up and reviewed at 6 – 8 weeks to see if further treatment is needed – unless silver nitrate is used in which case the patient needs to reviewed weekly.


With expert treatment most corns can be adequately managed, and have a possibility of eradicating them completely.

Calluses, Corns, and Your Feet – Foot Health Center

Thick, hard sections of skin that form from too much pressure or friction on the feet, corns and calluses can be caused by a number of problems, but especially by wearing poorly fitting shoes. These conditions aren’t serious, but they can result in some serious foot pain.

What Corns and Calluses Look and Feel Like

“Calluses and corns are an increase in the thickness of the skin overlying a bony prominence. Calluses are typically on the bottom of the foot; corns are calluses that occur on the toes where you commonly see a hammertoe,” says Alan K. Mauser, DPM, a podiatrist in Louisville, Ky. “They can be painful when you walk, and cause pain when you put on shoes.”

These thick layers of dead skin cells are usually white or yellow in color, and appear tough and thick. Corns and calluses may also look flaky, or seem like really dry skin. A corn tends to be small and round, with a very sore spot in the middle and yellowish skin surrounding it. Calluses, on the other hand, are usually larger and may be a little sore but are generally not as painful.

Corns and Calluses: Causes and Risk Factors

Most often, corns and calluses are caused by poorly fitting shoes that are too small and squeeze the toes or too high and place pressure on the ball of your foot. The style of shoe matters, too. If a seam or other part of the shoe rubs against your toe, a painful corn can develop. Corns and calluses may also result from not wearing socks, or wearing socks that are too big or have irritating seams.

A history of other foot problems can increase your risk of corns. If you have a hammertoe or a claw toe (where the toes bend in the middle), the awkward position of your toes may cause corns to develop on the tops of your toes.

“Almost anyone can develop a callus or corn, from poor fitting shoes to biomechanical abnormalities of the foot/ankle,” says Timothy C. Ford, DPM, director of the podiatric residency program at Jewish Hospital & St. Mary’s HealthCare in Louisville, Ky. But the good news is that they can be easily treated if you just “reduce the friction, pressure, or irritation causing the corn or callus,” says Dr. Ford.

Corns and Calluses: Diagnosis

Corns and calluses are usually pretty easy to spot. Calluses probably don’t need a doctor’s treatment, because they’re not that uncomfortable and will eventually go away on their own. A very painful corn, however, may need a doctor’s care. Your podiatrist will inspect the corn, and determine whether the skin needs to be trimmed away to relieve pain and pressure. He can also diagnose a deformity that may be causing recurring corns, and may suggest surgery to alleviate the problem.

So when picking out shoes, consider your feet for a moment. Thick, rough calluses and painful corns are a steep price to pay for fashion. Treat your feet to comfortable shoes, and protect them from corns and calluses.

Corns and Calluses | Foot Health | Patients

What is a Corn? What is a Callus?

Corns and calluses are areas of thickened skin that develop to protect that area from irritation. They occur when something rubs against the foot repeatedly or causes excess pressure against part of the foot. The term callus commonly is used if the thickening of skin occurs on the bottom of the foot, and if thickening occurs on the top of the foot (or toe), it’s called a corn. However, the location of the thickened skin is less important than the pattern of thickening: flat, widespread skin thickening indicates a callus, and skin lesions that are thicker or deeper indicate a corn.

Corns and calluses are not contagious but may become painful if they get too thick. In people with diabetes or decreased circulation, they can lead to more serious foot problems.


Corns often occur where a toe rubs against the interior of a shoe. Excessive pressure at the balls of the feet—common in women who regularly wear high heels—may cause calluses to develop on the balls of the feet.

People with certain deformities of the foot, such as hammer toes, are prone to corns and calluses.


Corns and calluses typically have a rough, dull appearance. They may be raised or rounded, and they can be hard to differentiate from warts. Corns or calluses sometimes cause pain.

Home Care

Mild corns and calluses may not require treatment. If the corn or callus isn’t bothering you, it can probably be left alone. It’s a good idea, though, to investigate possible causes of the corn or callus. If your footwear is contributing to the development of a corn or callus, it’s time to look for other shoes.

Over-the-counter treatments can do more harm than good, especially if you have any medical conditions such as diabetes. Some over-the-counter treatments contain harsh chemicals, which can lead to burns or even foot ulcers. 

When to Visit a Podiatrist

If corns or calluses are causing pain and discomfort or inhibiting your daily life in any way, see a podiatrist. Also, people with diabetes, poor circulation, or other serious illnesses should have their feet checked.

Diagnosis and Treatment

The podiatrist will conduct a complete examination of your feet. X-rays may be taken; your podiatrist may also want to inspect your shoes and watch you walk. He or she will also take a complete medical history. Corns and calluses are diagnosed based on appearance and history.

If you have mild corns or calluses, your podiatrist may suggest changing your shoes and/or adding padding to your shoes. Larger corns and calluses are most effectively reduced (made smaller) with a surgical blade. A podiatrist can use the blade to carefully shave away the thickened, dead skin—right in the office. The procedure is painless because the skin is already dead. Additional treatments may be needed if the corn or callus recurs.

Cortisone injections into the foot or toe may be given if the corn or callus is causing significant pain. Surgery may be necessary in cases that do not respond to conservative treatment.


  • Wear properly fitted shoes. If you have any deformities of the toe or foot, talk to your podiatrist to find out what shoes are best for you.
  • Gel pad inserts may decrease friction points and pressure. Your podiatrist can help you determine where pads might be useful. 

Related Resources

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90,000 A little attention to the skin of the legs – and they will always be beautiful!

These calluses are formed in places that we focus on when walking. If these formations were not there, the delicate skin of the heels from the weight of our body would crack and bleed.

On the one hand, this hardened layer of skin protects our legs, but on the other hand, the corns themselves cause a lot of inconvenience.

While calluses can be a hassle, they can be dealt with at home.

The reason for the formation of corns is pressure on the foot

Corns are formed in places that are constantly under the onslaught of our body weight.With this constant exposure, the skin becomes more durable in order to more easily withstand pressure.

If the skin becomes too thick, calluses begin to hurt when walking. Most often, calluses form on the heels, on the outer sides of the big toe and little toe, and on the tops of the toes.

Corns usually turn yellow. Dry skin may be white or, if an inflammatory process has begun, red.

Corns are often formed in those who like to walk barefoot, often wear uncomfortable or open shoes .

Learn to follow simple rules

In order to prevent the formation of corns or to get rid of existing ones, it is necessary to take care of the legs and regularly remove the rough skin. The first step is to remove the layer of dead cells to relieve pressure on the skin underneath.

The Scholl electric file with an abrasive coating will help to get rid of calluses, because it quickly and easily removes dead skin cells.You will need much less effort than using a regular file.

The Scholl file uses a special technology that will ensure the safe removal of corns without harming the new skin underneath. It comes with several types of roller attachments that will help you cope with even the most serious calluses.

After removing corns, make it a rule to remove dead skin cells every day. Also check regularly for new calluses.You need to stop them before they start to hurt when walking.

After the procedure, it is necessary to thoroughly moisturize the skin; this will help you keep it soft and prevent corns.

For example, a cream for intensive moisturizing of the skin of the feet from Scholl can provide the correct hydration.

90,000 Dry hands and cracked fingers: causes and treatment

A problem with which thousands of people (not only diabetics!) Around the world are familiar.It is relevant both in winter and summer. Both children and adults suffer from it.

Parchment-dry hands and rough fingerpads that crack, ache, and bleed over time. A real attack that causes incredible discomfort. What is the reason and what to do?

Why does the skin of the hands dry up and the fingers crack


Naturally, we put this reason first! When diabetes is poorly controlled, metabolism is disrupted, the body becomes dehydrated, the skin dries up, becomes sensitive and fragile.

Lack of nutrients in the diet

Any malfunctions in the work of the body are first of all displayed on the exterior. If the skin is dry, “sticking” appears in the corners of the mouth, there is significant hair loss, and nails are peeling and breaking, perhaps your diet lacks healthy fats, vitamins A, E, C. Add unrefined oils, nuts, fatty fish to the menu , offal, citrus fruits.

Use of household chemicals

Let’s be clear: Not many people wear gloves when washing dishes and cleaning up.But household chemicals are sometimes so aggressive that they can corrode the skin and cause burns. In any case, the skin of the hands is not very comfortable from daily fiddling in soapy water.


Wind and cold also lead to dry skin and dehydration of the upper layers of the skin. Remember how in childhood parents scared us with “tiptoes” on their hands and forced us to wear gloves?

Glycerin creams

You’ve probably heard how well glycerin moisturizes the skin. Only its optimal proportion in the composition of the cream is no more than 5%, otherwise there will be the opposite effect.The role of glycerin in the cream is to attract moisture from the air to the surface of the skin and keep it there. When there is too much of this component, then it draws water molecules not only from the air, but from the epidermis, thereby dehydrating it.

Favorite finger

100% do you have a favorite finger that you most often use to puncture your blood sugar? And this poor fellow gets day after day … And even more your beloved finger gets upset when you use the same lancet week after week.Dozens of punctures, black spots on the pad, non-healing microscopic lesions, dryness …

Sanitizers with alcohol

Today, even those who did not know what a sanitizer was 3 months ago carry it in a bag. Alcohol sanitizers, which are recommended as a means of combating coronavirus infection, are very drying to the skin.

How to restore dry hand skin

    1. Keep track of sugars, drinking regime and diet.
    2. All household chores and contact with household chemicals only with gloves!
    3. Wear gloves during the cold season.
    4. Use regenerating and regenerating creams, creams with urea.
    5. For punctures, alternate fingers and change lancets in time.
    6. Use an alcohol-based sanitizer on your skin if absolutely necessary. Wear gloves when handling objects or surfaces with alcohol, antiseptic.

    With care,
    Your DiaMark!

    Dry skin on the fingers: causes of dryness on the tips and pads of the fingers

    Causes of dry skin on the fingers

    No wonder they say that hands are the first to give out age.This is absolutely true. In addition, the skin of the hands is less resistant to aggressive environmental factors – cold, cold, wind and temperature extremes, so the winter season begins with the purchase of gloves and a good protective cream.

    So why can the skin of your hands dry?

    The skin of the hands has a thinner lipid barrier. © iStock

    1. 1

      Physiological features

      On the skin of the hands, the lipid barrier is much thinner than, for example, on the skin of the back or forearm, therefore it is more prone to aging processes.

    2. 2

      No protection

      The skin of the hands is the most vulnerable. If in cold weather it is not protected by gloves, then it is easily weathered. One walk without cover – and dryness, redness and peeling occur.

    3. 3

      Contact with household chemicals

      Household chemicals: hand wash powders, dishwashing gels and bath cleaners dry out the skin of the hands, often causing irritation and redness.

    4. 4

      Dermatological diseases

      Severe dry skin and persistent irritation may be signs of atopic dermatitis.But only a doctor can make a diagnosis, so we recommend refraining from self-medication and contacting a specialist if the condition of the skin of the hands causes serious anxiety.

      Caring for dry hand skin is not limited to applying cream. © iStock

    Back to the table of contents

    Signs of dry skin of the hands

    The following symptoms indicate dry skin of the hands:

    If you encounter the listed phenomena only after cleaning (without protective gloves) or a whole day in the cold, this is normal.But constant dryness and itching may indicate the presence of dermatitis. An accurate diagnosis can be made by a dermatologist.

    Three Key Signs of Dry Skin on Fingers:

    1. 1

      dryness around nails and rough, sloppy cuticles;

    2. 2

      redness in areas that are more likely to come into contact with external stimuli (for example, on the knuckles or fingertips), which may be accompanied by painful sensations;

    3. 3

      peeling that does not go away for a long time.

    Use masks to restore hand skin. © iStock

    Back to the table of contents

    Required care

    When things get really bad, hand care shouldn’t end with a cream. We will show you what else you can do to make your hands grateful to you.

    • Pay attention to what you wash your hands with.If your skin is prone to dryness, it makes sense to replace the classic bar or gel soap with cleanser marked “no soap” .

    • Hand scrub is not the most popular product, but it certainly does not hurt to get one. Exfoliation with abrasive particles stimulates cell renewal, removes dead epidermal scales, so that the skin not only becomes softer, but also better absorbs the beneficial substances from the cream.

    • Hand cream – a product that must be on the bedside table (you can put the second in your bag, and the third in the office desk drawer).Why you need it, you already know, so we’ll tell you what will happen if you ignore it: the skin of your hands will age twenty years ahead of time.

    • Use hand masks as restorative agents. It can be either special products or any greasy hand cream. The latter should be applied in a thick layer, after which it is recommended to wear cotton gloves.

    Back to the table of contents

    Methods for the prevention of dryness

    Preventive measures can help you avoid many problems.

    • Wash the dishes with gloves: detergents contain a high concentration of surfactants. They will not harm the plates and cups, but the delicate skin of the hands – yes.

    • Use gloves for cleaning too, even if the instructions for the detergent do not indicate that skin protection is mandatory. Cleaning products often contain lye or other harsh chemicals that injure the delicate skin of your hands.

    • In the cold season, make it a rule to wear gloves or mittens, they will protect your hands from the harmful effects of wind and frost.

    Back to the table of contents

    Tools Overview

    Intensive Repairing Hand Cream for Very Dry Skin, Garnier

    The main component of the formula is allantoin, known for its healing properties. The cream intensively nourishes and softens even very dry skin of the hands, promotes the healing of microcracks and injuries.

    L’Oréal Paris Repairing Cream Serum

    Instantly absorbent cream with panthenol and 30% glycerin is designed for very dry skin of the hands and is able not only to soften it, but also to protect it from aggressive environmental influences.

    Lipikar Xerand Revitalizing Hand Cream, La Roche-Posay

    Allantoin and thermal water from the La Roche-Posay mineral springs, which are part of the composition, are responsible for the regeneration of the hydrolipid mantle, promote the healing of epidermal injuries and restore tenderness to the skin of the hands. The cream is quickly absorbed and has a neutral odor.

    Cicaplast Baume B5 Soothing Multi-Repair Balm, SPF 50, La Roche-Posay

    Shea butter, panthenol, a complex of copper, manganese and zinc improve the skin regeneration process.Also, the product relieves redness and irritation, instantly gives a feeling of comfort.

    Care for dry and rough skin areas Intensive Treatment And Moisturizer, Kiehl’s

    Avocado, wheat and shea butter, rich in fatty acids, soften rough skin on hands overnight. The product will help even if your hands are chapped or in contact with harsh chemicals (such as solvent or detergent).

    Back to the table of contents
    90,000 Harsh skin on hands: how to soften

    The skin of the hands is constantly exposed to stress due to the negative influence of external factors.Every day our hands come into contact with various objects, chlorinated water, household chemicals. Wind, sun rays and temperature extremes have an additional effect. Gradually, the skin coarsens: small peeling, cracks, a constant feeling of dryness and tightness may appear. Experts from the Velvet Handles brand will talk about effective prevention and solutions to the problem.

    Rough skin of hands: main causes

    Roughness and severe dryness of the skin can be provoked by various factors.

    The most famous of them:

    • Unfavorable weather conditions: wind, frost, high solar activity.
    • Regular contact of hands with chemicals (cleaning and washing dishes without household gloves).
    • Lack of fluid in the body.
    • Seasonal lack of vitamins and minerals.
    • Incorrect power supply.
    • Disruption of metabolic processes inside the body.
    • Excessive cleaning: constant use of bactericidal sprays and gels with alcohol, aggressive detergents.
    • Complete lack of proper care or irregular use of cream / lotion.
    • Professional activity that obliges you to work with chemicals, all kinds of solvents, etc.
    • Decreased air humidity – this problem is common in winter, when heating systems are actively used in the premises.

    The more negative factors simultaneously affect the skin, the faster the hands become rough and dry.In this case, it is necessary not only to exclude the acting factors, but also to help the skin with intensive care.

    Rough, rough skin on the hands: how to fix the situation

    For severe skin problems, it is very important to choose the right care. Creams with a rich texture can relieve flaking, unpleasant tightness and roughness of the hands. Products with caring components in the composition significantly reduce moisture loss, intensively soften and nourish rough skin on the hands.

    Velvet Hand Cream Emollient designed to actively moisturize and soften dry skin. The complex of active ingredients will help to get rid of tightness, dryness and flaking, helps to restore and soften the skin. With regular use of the product, hands become more tender and well-groomed. The active action of the cream is enhanced by the Silk oil elixir formula. Special micro-oils in the composition are able to restore skin cells, together with silk proteins make the skin smooth and soft.

    To enhance the effect of the caring cream and get a quick result – after applying the cosmetic, you should wear cotton gloves. They can be purchased at almost every beauty store. This procedure should be repeated daily before bedtime for intensive care of rough skin (as a preventive measure – once a week). As a result, your hands will become soft and tender.

    Rough skin of hands: tips for prevention

    Hand skin requires careful and regular care.If you adhere to the basic rules, you can easily forget about the rough skin on the palms and fingers. Top tips for tender hands:

    • Drinking a sufficient amount of clean water every day is necessary for the course of all metabolic processes in cells, their rapid recovery.
    • Fresh fruits, vegetables and nuts are rich in vitamins, minerals and essential fatty acids that are essential for healthy skin.
    • Regular use of caring creams is essential for intensive moisturizing, nourishing and regenerating the skin.The best option is to apply a care product after each hand wash.
    • Do not get carried away with tanning without using sunscreen cosmetics – such products will protect the skin from photoaging processes, support its youth and tenderness.
    • In the cold season, it is important to use products with a richer texture. They create a thin protective barrier that prevents dehydration and dryness. It is recommended to apply such creams at least 40-60 minutes before going outside.
    • It is necessary to refuse cleaning without gloves, since aggressive detergents can significantly worsen the condition of the skin, lead to rapid coarsening, cracking and increased sensitivity.
    • A light massage in combination with a caring cream promotes a deeper penetration of active ingredients.
    • Thanks to the use of hand scrubs based on ground coffee beans, sugar or sea salt, you can effectively remove dead skin cells and start natural regeneration processes.

    The skin on the hands is quite vulnerable and requires regular care. If it becomes coarse, dryness and a feeling of tightness appear, intensive care is needed. For this, it is important to use only high-quality creams with emollient, moisturizing, nourishing and regenerating effects. Also, do not forget about the basic principles of care, a healthy diet and water balance – good habits will keep your hands youthful and beautiful for a long time.


    Corns – are areas of thickened, rough, dead skin.They are formed to protect the skin and subcutaneous structures from pressure, friction and damage. They may have a gray or yellow tint, are less sensitive than the surrounding skin, and are rough to the touch.

    Foot corns are formed on the pads of the toes, heel, and the back of the big toe. They often form at the junction of the foot and big toe.

    Calluses – are areas of hard, rough and dead skin. They are formed to protect the skin and subcutaneous structures from pressure, friction and damage.They can be gray or yellow in color, are less sensitive than the surrounding skin, and have a lumpy texture.

    Calluses on the feet are formed where the fingers rub against each other. Soft calluses form mainly between the fourth and fifth toes, while hard calluses form on the bony part of the toe, usually on the little toe.

    Calluses and calluses appear over time, as a result of constant pressure on the skin area. With prolonged friction, the skin dies off and forms a hard, rough surface.Callus occurs in the same way. When sweat accumulates at the site of the callus, the hard callus softens. This usually occurs where the fingers rub.

    Calluses and calluses on the feet are formed due to the pressure of the shoes.

    Tight shoes compress the foot. High-heeled shoes squeeze the forefoot. Shoes with thin soles can put more pressure on the arch of the foot when walking than shoes with thicker soles. Sandals and other shoes can add friction when worn without socks.The foot may rub against the seams inside the shoe. Crumpled socks can also create pressure.

    Calluses and corns often occur on bony growths due to rheumatoid arthritis, also on bursitis, hammer toes and nails. Calluses and calluses on the feet can also be caused by constant pressure from sports (for example, a callus on the sole of a runner), walking (abnormal gait), or bone structure, including flat feet and bone spurs (small bony growths on the joints).

    Calluses and calluses need treatment if they cause pain. You need to stop the pressure or friction that is causing the blisters to heal. To do this, you must wear comfortable shoes, using soft pads and other protective equipment to soften the area of ​​the callus or corns.

    Prevention of corns and calluses comes down to wearing the right footwear, using special orthopedic insoles, and taking regular care of the skin of the feet .

    90,000 Trophic ulcer. Treatment methods.

    Trophic ulcer is a defect in the skin or mucous membrane in the form of an open wound. An ulcer appears as a result of the rejection of dead tissue due to a violation of its blood circulation. Most often, trophic ulcers appear in the area of ​​the lower leg or foot and occur against the background of some other disease, as a result of which they are very difficult to treat. Improvement directly depends on the course of the previous disease, as well as on the general condition of the patient.In addition, the disease can progress.

    Trophic ulcer does not heal for six months, and if you do not identify the cause of the ulcer, and, of course, do not eliminate it, then there is a risk of its reappearance. With trophic ulcers as a result of the addition of a bacterial infection, complications may arise, including lymphangitis, erysipelas and inguinal lymphadenitis. In addition to these complications, trophic ulcers can also lead to the degeneration of cells in the foci of infection into malignant cells.

    There are several types of trophic ulcers:

    1. Trophic ulcers caused by arterial disease.

    2. Venous trophic ulcers.

    3. Trophic ulcers arising on the background of neurological diseases.

    4. Trophic ulcers arising from diabetes mellitus.

    1. The causes of trophic ulcers can be arterial diseases such as obliterating endarteritis, atherosclerosis and hypertension due to insufficient tissue oxygen and all necessary nutrients and due to persistent narrowing of the lumen of the arteries.Wearing uncomfortable and squeezing footwear, hypothermia and various injuries can also cause trophic ulcers. These ulcers usually develop in the heel, big toe, and foot. These small ulcers with dense, uneven edges are very painful, as they are constantly injured when walking. With such ulcers, the pain does not go away even when the leg is given an elevated position.

    Trophic ulcers, which occur against the background of hypertension, are quite painful and usually appear symmetrically on both sides on the front surfaces of the lower leg.

    2. Venous trophic ulcers occurring against the background of thrombophlebitis and varicose veins are the most common type of trophic ulcers. The location of such ulcers is the outer and inner surfaces of the lower third of the leg. Due to the occurrence of stagnation of venous blood, a malnutrition of the tissue occurs, as a result of which its destruction begins with the formation of an ulcer, to which an infection later joins.

    The first symptoms of this disease are the onset of severity and cramps in the calf muscles, fever and burning on the surface of the skin, and the appearance of edema.The skin becomes thickened and painful, blue-violet age spots appear on it. If the diseased limb is given an elevated position, then the condition is much improved. With this disease, a violation of the outflow of lymph occurs, as a result of which tissue death and ulcer formation occur.

    3. Trophic ulcers in neurological diseases most often appear against the background of spinal cord and brain injuries. Such trophic ulcers are very difficult to treat and one cannot do without surgical intervention.To completely close such ulcers, a skin graft is done.

    4. Inflammation of the walls of small blood vessels is the cause of trophic ulcers in diabetes mellitus. As a result of inflammation, metabolic disorders occur, which leads to tissue breakdown. These ulcers are usually located at the ends of the toes. Unlike all other trophic ulcers, these ulcers are not very painful.

    Diabetic foot in diabetes mellitus

    What is a diabetic foot? Suppuration of the soft tissues of the foot and toes, or their necrosis, occurring against the background of nervous and vascular lesions associated with diabetes mellitus, is called diabetic foot.Against the background of diabetes mellitus, there is an accelerated development of obliterating atherosclerosis. With diabetes mellitus, immunity decreases, and wounds and ulcers heal for a rather long time and poorly. Fabrics require a very careful attitude to themselves, as they are sensitive to any injury.

    To prevent damage to the feet in diabetes mellitus, you need to know how to properly care for your feet. First of all, you need to carry out a daily examination of the feet by feeling. This method will help to identify painful areas of the foot and calluses in time.It is necessary to wash your feet daily in warm water, and then lubricate them with non-greasy creams, which are specially designed for people with diabetes.

    When choosing shoes, you must pay attention to the fact that the inner surface does not have rough seams and is soft. The shoe insole is selected individually. In addition to the fact that it must be elastic, it is also necessary to take into account the zones of increased pressure on the sole. Patients with diabetes mellitus are advised to wear different shoes during the day to avoid the appearance of edema in the evening.It is best to choose sneakers or shoes that are made of soft leather or soft felt.

    Diabetic foot treatment is no easy task

    But what to do if a diabetic patient still has damage to the skin on his foot? First, you need to treat the wound well with an antiseptic, such as hydrogen peroxide. But you should not use any dyes as an antiseptic, as this can greatly disrupt the course of the wound process.After the wound has been treated, it is necessary to apply a clean dry bandage or a bandage soaked in an antiseptic. It should not be applied tightly, as this will interfere with the outflow of blood, which can lead to the appearance of edema, which prevents the flow of oxygenated blood. As a result, not only oxygen starvation of tissues can occur, but also a decrease in their resistance to microbes, and this leads to a slowdown in the healing process.

    What is the treatment of trophic ulcers?

    When diagnosing trophic ulcers, first of all, they establish the reason that served as their appearance.The veins, lymph nodes, arteries and, of course, the bones of the affected limb are carefully examined. For this, X-ray and ultrasound examination of blood vessels is used. If necessary, rheovasography is prescribed – this is a method by which a study of the pulse blood filling of organs, as well as the functional state of peripheral vessels, is carried out.

    After conducting the necessary examination, the doctor, on the basis of the data of this examination, prescribes the necessary complex therapy, and also decides on the issue of surgical intervention.Surgery is usually necessary in the most severe cases of this disease. With surgical intervention, the cause that caused the appearance of trophic ulcers, for example, dilated and impassable areas of veins, is eliminated.

    Simultaneously with complex treatment, ulcer treatment is also carried out. To cleanse the wound and reject dead tissue, the patient is prescribed enzymes that dissolve them. After thorough cleaning of the wound, ointments are applied to promote wound healing, and physiotherapy procedures are prescribed.If a person has this disease, he needs to give up bad habits as soon as possible. In addition, the patient is assigned a regimen and diet.

    In our medical center, trophic ulcers are treated by the method of shock wave therapy using a modern Masterpulse MP 200 apparatus and photodynamic therapy. The effect of shock wave therapy is to stimulate reparation processes, improve microcirculation, accelerate metabolic processes and proliferate microcapillaries in the pathological area, which, accordingly, leads to the restoration of blood supply in tissues and ulcer healing.

    The course of treatment of trophic ulcers with this method consists of 5-8 sessions. The session is carried out 1 time in 5-7 days. In the complex treatment of metabolic-dystrophic diseases of soft tissues in combination with shock wave therapy, the effectiveness of treatment is more than ninety percent. We also successfully use special antiseptic dressings “Geomatrix” and the latest technology “Bio-skin”.

    Photodynamic therapy has a pronounced antibacterial effect, after the procedure, the wound is cleansed, and rapid granulation and epithelialization of the wound begins.

    Prevention of trophic ulcer

    Prevention of this disease primarily consists in the treatment of the disease, which served as the emergence of trophic ulcers. It is these diseases that include venous insufficiency, chronic arterial insufficiency and, of course, varicose veins. Particular attention should be paid to the prevention of trophic ulcers for people with diabetes.It is also necessary to choose such a job so that it does not cause the appearance of varicose veins. The main cause of varicose veins can be long-term sedentary work. If the work is sedentary, then after it it is necessary to arrange regular walks. Long outdoor walks are recommended on weekends.

    The use of ESWT and PDT allows avoiding surgery and shortening the treatment time. The effect of the treatment is noticeable after the first procedure.

    Before the treatment After the second procedure

    15 ways to get rid of calluses at home

    Calluses, as a rule, do not require medication and visits to the doctor.You can get rid of them with the help of traditional medicine recipes. These tips will be discussed below.

    Gruel made from raw potatoes or onions can relieve pain. You need to apply the mixture to the corn, fix it with a bandage or other bandage, leaving it overnight. In the morning, the hardened area will become much softer. After that, you should remove the dead skin with a fine-grained pumice stone, but only with extreme caution. Then lubricate the damaged area with a greasy and nourishing cream.

    The aloe plant is a good remedy for rough skin, calluses and calluses on the hands.The pulp of aloe leaves must be kept on the damaged skin for at least a day, for this, fix it with a plaster. Then remove the corn and apply a greasy cream. The procedure must be repeated for several days in a row until the problem disappears.

    Fresh calluses can be treated with eggshells. Remove the white film from the inside of the eggshell, place it on the wet side of the corn and leave to dry.

    A hot water bath can help remove calluses.Soak your feet in the water for five to ten minutes and then use a pumice stone or a special scraper. You need to repeat the procedure until the callus disappears.

    There are special over-the-counter medications and patches that help in the treatment of corns. But be careful: they may contain salicylic acid, which can irritate the skin or even burn.

    Needles are able to heal the skin. Therefore, you can do coniferous calluses. After the bath, apply pine resin to the damaged area, apply a bandage and put on socks or cloth gloves.Such a remedy must be kept for one night, and if possible, then for a day. Then you need to wash the wound with soapy water and repeat the procedure. With rough calluses, at least 10 such procedures will be required.

    Fresh tomatoes can also be used to remove rough skin from calluses. Chop the tomatoes into slices or boil them lightly to puree them. In any case, it will be effective. Apply them to the skin for a couple of hours, securing with a bandage. Do the procedure a couple of times a day.

    Propolis must be attached to steamed legs and secured with a plaster. The product should stay on damaged skin for three days. Then you need to repeat the procedure again, and so on until the problem is eliminated.

    Vinegar essence can quickly get rid of corns. To do this, soak the pulp of the bread with a little vinegar, and then knead until smooth. The product is applied to dried corns and secured with a plaster. A burning sensation is almost inevitable, but it’s normal.Having done the procedure at night, you will notice that in the morning the dead skin has come off.