Diagram of a male: Male Reproductive System (for Teens)
human reproductive system | Definition, Diagram & Facts
Human reproductive system, organ system by which humans reproduce and bear live offspring. Provided all organs are present, normally constructed, and functioning properly, the essential features of human reproduction are (1) liberation of an ovum, or egg, at a specific time in the reproductive cycle, (2) internal fertilization of the ovum by spermatozoa, or sperm cells, (3) transport of the fertilized ovum to the uterus, or womb, (4) implantation of the blastocyst, the early embryo developed from the fertilized ovum, in the wall of the uterus, (5) formation of a placenta and maintenance of the unborn child during the entire period of gestation, (6) birth of the child and expulsion of the placenta, and (7) suckling and care of the child, with an eventual return of the maternal organs to virtually their original state.
For this biological process to be carried out, certain organs and structures are required in both the male and the female. The source of the ova (the female germ cells) is the female ovary; that of spermatozoa (the male germ cells) is the testis. In females, the two ovaries are situated in the pelvic cavity; in males, the two testes are enveloped in a sac of skin, the scrotum, lying below and outside the abdomen. Besides producing the germ cells, or gametes, the ovaries and testes are the source of hormones that cause full development of secondary sexual characteristics and also the proper functioning of the reproductive tracts. These tracts comprise the fallopian tubes, the uterus, the vagina, and associated structures in females and the penis, the sperm channels (epididymis, ductus deferens, and ejaculatory ducts), and other related structures and glands in males. The function of the fallopian tube is to convey an ovum, which is fertilized in the tube, to the uterus, where gestation (development before birth) takes place. The function of the male ducts is to convey spermatozoa from the testis, to store them, and, when ejaculation occurs, to eject them with secretions from the male glands through the penis.
At copulation, or sexual intercourse, the erect penis is inserted into the vagina, and spermatozoa contained in the seminal fluid (semen) are ejaculated into the female genital tract. Spermatozoa then pass from the vagina through the uterus to the fallopian tube to fertilize the ovum in the outer part of the tube. Females exhibit a periodicity in the activity of their ovaries and uterus, which starts at puberty and ends at the menopause. The periodicity is manifested by menstruation at intervals of about 28 days; important changes occur in the ovaries and uterus during each reproductive, or menstrual, cycle. Periodicity, and subsequently menstruation, is suppressed during pregnancy and lactation.
This articles describes the organs, both male and female, that are involved in human reproduction. The reproductive process itself is covered in other articles. For a detailed discussion of the series of changes that occur in a woman’s body as her fetus develops, see pregnancy. For a description of the stages of labour and delivery, see parturition. For the development of the unborn child during gestation, see human embryology. For coverage of the many diseases and disorders that can affect the reproductive organs, see reproductive system disease.
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Development of the reproductive organs
The sex of a child is determined at the time of fertilization of the ovum by the spermatozoon. The differences between a male and a female are genetically determined by the chromosomes that each possesses in the nuclei of the cells. Once the genetic sex has been determined, there normally follows a succession of changes that will result, finally, in the development of an adult male or female. There is, however, no external indication of the sex of an embryo during the first eight weeks of its life within the uterus. This is a neutral or indifferent stage during which the sex of an embryo can be ascertained only by examination of the chromosomes in its cells.
The next phase, one of differentiation, begins first in gonads that are to become testes and a week or so later in those destined to be ovaries. Embryos of the two sexes are initially alike in possessing similar duct systems linking the undifferentiated gonads with the exterior and in having similar external genitalia, represented by three simple protuberances. The embryos each have four ducts, the subsequent fate of which is of great significance in the eventual anatomical differences between men and women. Two ducts closely related to the developing urinary system are called mesonephric, or wolffian, ducts. In males each mesonephric duct becomes differentiated into four related structures: a duct of the epididymis, a ductus deferens, an ejaculatory duct, and a seminal vesicle. In females the mesonephric ducts are largely suppressed. The other two ducts, called the paramesonephric or müllerian ducts, persist, in females, to develop into the fallopian tubes, the uterus, and part of the vagina; in males they are largely suppressed. Differentiation also occurs in the primitive external genitalia, which in males become the penis and scrotum and in females the vulva (the clitoris, labia, and vestibule of the vagina).
Differentiation of the external genitalia in the human embryo and fetus.
Encyclopædia Britannica, Inc.
At birth the organs appropriate to each sex have developed and are in their adult positions but are not functioning. Various abnormalities can occur during development of sex organs in embryos, leading to hermaphroditism, pseudohermaphroditism, and other chromosomally induced conditions. During childhood until puberty there is steady growth in all reproductive organs and a gradual development of activity. Puberty marks the onset of increased activity in the sex glands and the steady development of secondary sexual characteristics.
In males at puberty the testes enlarge and become active, the external genitalia enlarge, and the capacity to ejaculate develops. Marked changes in height and weight occur as hormonal secretion from the testes increases. The larynx, or voice box, enlarges, with resultant deepening of the voice. Certain features in the skeleton, as seen in the pelvic bones and skull, become accentuated. The hair in the armpits and the pubic hair becomes abundant and thicker. Facial hair develops, as well as hair on the chest, abdomen, and limbs. Hair at the temples recedes. Skin glands become more active, especially apocrine glands (a type of sweat gland that is found in the armpits and groin and around the anus).
In females at puberty, the external genitalia enlarge and the uterus commences its periodic activity with menstruation. The breasts develop, and there is a deposition of body fat in accordance with the usual contours of the mature female. Growth of axillary (armpit) and pubic hair is more abundant, and the hair becomes thicker.
Male Sexual Anatomy | Penis, Scrotum and Testicles
Sexual anatomy that’s typically called male includes your penis and scrotum (external male genitalia) and internal reproductive organs like the testicles.
What are the external parts?
Your penis and scrotum are the two parts of the male (or what’s typically called male) external sex anatomy (outside your body).
Your penis is made of 3 layers of spongy tissue. When you get turned on, blood fills these tissues. This makes your penis get harder and stand up, which is also called getting an erection or hard-on.
The average size of an adult erect (hard) penis is 5 to 7 inches long. The size of your penis when it’s flaccid (soft) doesn’t have much to do with its size when it’s hard. Some penises get much bigger when they get hard. Others stay pretty much the same size.
About half of all penises in the US are circumcised, and half are uncircumcised (still have foreskin) — so both types are common. Some people call circumcised penises “cut,” and uncircumcised penises “uncut.”
Every penis looks a little different. For example, some curve like a banana when they’re hard. Others are straighter. All penises have the same parts though:
Your glans is also called the head or tip of your penis. The opening of your urethra is here. This is where pre-ejaculate (precum) and semen (cum) come out of, and it’s where you pee out of. For many people, it’s the most sensitive part of the penis.
The shaft of your penis extends from the tip to where it connects to your lower belly. It looks like a tube. Your urethra is inside the shaft.
The foreskin is a patch of skin that covers and protects the head (AKA glans). When your penis gets hard, the foreskin pulls back and the tip is exposed. Sometimes foreskin is circumcised (when a doctor surgically removes your foreskin) soon after birth, so not everyone has it.
The frenulum is where your foreskin meets the underside of your penis. It looks like a small V just below the head. Usually part of it remains after circumcision. And for many people, it’s very sensitive.
Other external parts include:
The scrotum (AKA ballsack) is the sac of skin that hangs below your penis. Your scrotum holds your testicles and keeps them at the right temperature. If it’s too cold, your scrotum pulls your testicles closer to your body. If it’s too warm, your testicles hang away from your body.
Your scrotum is covered with wrinkly skin and hair. Your scrotum can be big or small, have a little or a lot of hair, and vary in color. Some people’s scrotum is larger on one side than the other.
The scrotum is super sensitive, so any hitting or twisting is extremely painful. But many people like having their scrotum gently touched during sex.
The anus (AKA butthole) is the opening to your rectum. The anus has lots of sensitive nerve endings, so some people experience sexual pleasure from anal stimulation.
What are the internal parts?
The internal parts of male sex anatomy are made up of:
The testicles (AKA balls) are 2 ball-like glands inside your scrotum. They make sperm and hormones like testosterone.
The epididymis is a tube where your sperm matures. It connects each testicle to each vas deferens. And it holds your sperm before you ejaculate (come).
A vas deferens is a long, narrow tube that carries sperm from the epididymis to the seminal vesicles when you ejaculate (come). There are 2 of them — one connected to each epididymis.
Seminal vesicles are 2 small organs that produce semen, the fluid that sperm moves around in. They’re located below your bladder.
The prostate gland makes a fluid that helps your sperm move. It’s about the size of a walnut or golf ball. The prostate gland is sensitive to pressure or touch in a way that many people find pleasurable.
The Cowper’s glands produce a fluid called pre-ejaculate or precum. This fluid prepares your urethra for ejaculation (coming). It reduces friction so your semen can move more easily. The Cowper’s glands are under the prostate and attach to your urethra. They’re also called bulbourethral glands.
The urethra is the tube that carries urine (pee), pre-ejaculate, and semen to your urethral opening and out of your body.
The cremaster is a muscle that moves your scrotum and testicles closer to your body. This happens when you’re cold, you’re aroused, or when someone touches your inner thigh.
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The Male Reproductive System: Organs, Function, and More
The purpose of the organs of the male reproductive system is to perform the following functions:
- To produce, maintain, and transport sperm (the male reproductive cells) and protective fluid (semen)
- To discharge sperm within the female reproductive tract during sex
- To produce and secrete male sex hormones responsible for maintaining the male reproductive system
Unlike the female reproductive system, most of the male reproductive system is located outside of the body. These external structures include the penis, scrotum, and testicles.
Penis: This is the male organ used in sexual intercourse. It has three parts: the root, which attaches to the wall of the abdomen; the body, or shaft; and the glans, which is the cone-shaped part at the end of the penis. The glans, also called the head of the penis, is covered with a loose layer of skin called foreskin. This skin is sometimes removed in a procedure called circumcision. The opening of the urethra, the tube that transports semen and urine, is at the tip of the penis. The glans of the penis also contains a number of sensitive nerve endings.
The body of the penis is cylindrical in shape and consists of three circular shaped chambers. These chambers are made up of special, sponge-like tissue. This tissue contains thousands of large spaces that fill with blood when the man is sexually aroused. As the penis fills with blood, it becomes rigid and erect, which allows for penetration during sexual intercourse. The skin of the penis is loose and elastic to accommodate changes in penis size during an erection.
Semen, which contains sperm (reproductive cells), is expelled (ejaculated) through the end of the penis when the man reaches sexual climax (orgasm). When the penis is erect, the flow of urine is blocked from the urethra, allowing only semen to be ejaculated at orgasm.
Scrotum: This is the loose pouch-like sac of skin that hangs behind and below the penis. It contains the testicles (also called testes), as well as many nerves and blood vessels. The scrotum acts as a “climate control system” for the testes. For normal sperm development, the testes must be at a temperature slightly cooler than body temperature. Special muscles in the wall of the scrotum allow it to contract and relax, moving the testicles closer to the body for warmth or farther away from the body to cool the temperature.
- Testicles (testes): These are oval organs about the size of large olives that lie in the scrotum, secured at either end by a structure called the spermatic cord. Most men have two testes. The testes are responsible for making testosterone, the primary male sex hormone, and for generating sperm. Within the testes are coiled masses of tubes called seminiferous tubules. These tubes are responsible for producing sperm cells.
The internal organs of the male reproductive system, also called accessory organs, include the following:
Epididymis: The epididymis is a long, coiled tube that rests on the backside of each testicle. It transports and stores sperm cells that are produced in the testes. It also is the job of the epididymis to bring the sperm to maturity, since the sperm that emerge from the testes are immature and incapable of fertilization. During sexual arousal, contractions force the sperm into the vas deferens.
Vas deferens: The vas deferens is a long, muscular tube that travels from the epididymis into the pelvic cavity, to just behind the bladder. The vas deferens transports mature sperm to the urethra, the tube that carries urine or sperm to outside of the body, in preparation for ejaculation.
Ejaculatory ducts: These are formed by the fusion of the vas deferens and the seminal vesicles (see below). The ejaculatory ducts empty into the urethra.
Urethra: The urethra is the tube that carries urine from the bladder to outside of the body. In males, it has the additional function of ejaculating semen when the man reaches orgasm. When the penis is erect during sex, the flow of urine is blocked from the urethra, allowing only semen to be ejaculated at orgasm.
Seminal vesicles: The seminal vesicles are sac-like pouches that attach to the vas deferens near the base of the bladder. The seminal vesicles produce a sugar-rich fluid (fructose) that provides sperm with a source of energy to help them move. The fluid of the seminal vesicles makes up most of the volume of a man’s ejaculatory fluid, or ejaculate.
Prostate gland: The prostate gland is a walnut-sized structure that is located below the urinary bladder in front of the rectum. The prostate gland contributes additional fluid to the ejaculate. Prostate fluids also help to nourish the sperm. The urethra, which carries the ejaculate to be expelled during orgasm, runs through the center of the prostate gland.
- Bulbourethral glands: Also called Cowper’s glands, these are pea-sized structures located on the sides of the urethra just below the prostate gland. These glands produce a clear, slippery fluid that empties directly into the urethra. This fluid serves to lubricate the urethra and to neutralize any acidity that may be present due to residual drops of urine in the urethra.
How Does the Male Reproductive System Function?
The entire male reproductive system is dependent on hormones, which are chemicals that regulate the activity of many different types of cells or organs. The primary hormones involved in the male reproductive system are follicle-stimulating hormone, luteinizing hormone, and testosterone.
Follicle-stimulating hormone is necessary for sperm production (spermatogenesis), and luteinizing hormone stimulates the production of testosterone, which is also needed to make sperm. Testosterone is responsible for the development of male characteristics, including muscle mass and strength, fat distribution, bone mass, facial hair growth, voice change, and sex drive.
Male reproductive system | healthdirect
beginning of content
The male reproductive system contains the external genitals (the penis, testes and the scrotum) and internal parts, including the prostate gland, vas deferens and urethra. A man’s fertility and sexual traits depend on the normal functioning of the male reproductive system, as well as hormones released from the brain.
Organs and functions
The male reproductive system is responsible for reproduction. It is made of the following parts:
- Penis — this has spongy tissue which can fill with blood to cause an erection. It contains the urethra, which carries both urine and semen. It is used for urinating and sexual intercourse.
- Scrotum — this is a loose bag of skin that hangs outside the body, behind the penis. It holds the testes in place.
- Testes (or testicles) — these are a pair of egg-shaped glands that sit in the scrotum, on the outside of the body. They produce sperm and testosterone, which is the male sex hormone.
- Epididymis — this is a highly coiled tube that lies at the back of the testes. All sperm from the testes must pass through the epididymis, where they mature and start to ‘swim’.
- Vas deferens — this is a thick-walled tube joined to the epididymis. It carries sperm from the epididymis up to the prostate gland and urethra.
- Prostate gland — this is a walnut-shaped gland that sits in the middle of the pelvis. The urethra runs through the middle of it. It produces the fluid secretions that support and nourish the sperm.
- Urethra — this is a tube which extends from the bladder to the external opening at the end of the penis. The urethra carries both urine and sperm.
Diagram showing the external and internal parts of the male reproductive system.
The brain also has an important role in reproductive function, as it controls the release of sex hormones.
What can go wrong?
As with any other part of the human body, things can sometimes go wrong with the male reproductive system, including:
If you notice any symptoms or problems, it’s important to see your doctor quickly. Early treatment can avoid serious long-term problems.
(What every man needs to know),
(The Male Body – pdf),
(Male Reproductive System (Male Urogenital System))
Learn more here about the development and quality assurance of healthdirect content.
Last reviewed: March 2019
Great Plant Escape – Plant parts
Plant Parts – Flowers
Flowers not only look pretty but, in fact, are important
in making seeds. Flowers have some basic parts. The female
part is the pistil.
The pistil usually is located in the center of the flower
and is made up of three parts: the stigma,
The stigma is the sticky knob at the top of the pistil.
It is attached to the long, tubelike structure called the
style. The style leads to the ovary that contains the female
egg cells called ovules.
The male parts are called stamens
and usually surround the pistil. The stamen is made up
of two parts: the anther
The anther produces pollen (male reproductive cells).
holds the anther up.
During the process of fertilization,
pollen lands on the stigma, a tube grows down the style
and enters the ovary. Male reproductive cells travel down
the tube and join with the ovule, fertilizing it. The fertilized
ovule becomes the seed, and the ovary becomes the fruit.
Petals are also important parts of the flower, because
they help attract pollinators such as bees, butterflies
and bats. You can also see tiny green leaf-like parts called
at the base of the flower. They help to protect the developing
on to the next plant part >>>
Study reproductive anatomy: Labeled diagrams and quizzes
Molly Smith DipCNM, mBANT
Dimitrios Mytilinaios MD, PhD
Last reviewed: October 28, 2020
Reading time: 5 minutes
So, you want to learn the anatomy of the reproductive system? We have good news and bad news. The bad news is that, since the male and female reproductive systems differ quite substantially, you effectively have not just one, but two systems to learn.
From the uterus to the ovaries, the prostate to the epididymis, there’s a lot to cover. But here’s the good news: with the reproductive system quizzes and diagrams from Kenhub, learning this topic will be a breeze. Are you ready? Let’s learn about the human reproductive system!
Download this unlabeled reproductive system worksheet below
Male and female reproductive system: Parts and functions
As mentioned, the male and female reproductive systems, and therefore their parts and functions, are very different. In this section, we’ll give you an overview.
The male reproductive system
Alongside the production and secretion of male sex hormones, the key functions of the male reproductive system include the production, maintenance and storage of sperm and semen and their discharge into the female reproductive tract.
The female reproductive system
Similarly, the female reproductive system is responsible for producing female sex hormones which maintain the reproductive cycle. The reproductive cycle is what makes the female reproductive system different – this cycle is geared toward the production of eggs necessary for reproduction.
In the video below, you’ll learn about the key male and female reproductive parts and functions.
Improve your identification skills with diagrams
Now that you’ve learned about the anatomy of the reproductive system, it’s time to test how well you understood all of the different structures and functions. The most effective way to do this is with our reproductive system quizzes.
First, though, you might like to begin by spending some more time getting familiar with their location on a labeled diagram. Memorizing location is helpful as it helps you to form a mental image in your mind, which in term can be used to aid your memory of the different functions and how they relate to one another. That’s where our labeled male and female reproductive system diagrams come in.
Male reproductive system labeled
Parts of the male reproductive system diagram
Let’s begin the revision process with a reproductive system labelling quiz: one for each system! We’ll begin with the male reproductive system. Spend some time analyzing the male reproductive system diagram above to solidify your knowledge of the structures you’ve learned about in the video.
Once you’re feeling confident about what goes where, it’s time to try your hand at labeling the structures yourself using a fill in the blank (unlabeled) diagram. You can download both the labeled and unlabeled diagrams below.
DOWNLOAD PDF WORKSHEET (BLANK) DOWNLOAD PDF WORKSHEET (LABELED)
Female reproductive system labeled
Parts of the female reproductive system diagram
Now do exactly the same thing using the labeled female reproductive system diagram above as reference. Once you’re ready to test yourself, you can use the female reproductive system diagram (unlabeled) linked below.
DOWNLOAD PDF WORKSHEET (BLANK)DOWNLOAD PDF WORKSHEET (LABELED)
Learn faster with quizzes
Still need a bit more practice to really solidify your understanding? Our spaced repetition reproductive system quizzes are at your service. You can use four different quiz types including basic and advanced identification, question banks and intelligent mix (a mixture of all the quiz question types) to really master this topic from every angle.
The best part? These clever quizzes are powered by an algorithm which learns the areas you need more practice with and consequently gives you more questions on those topics. This is inspired by the scientifically proven concept of spaced repetition, which dictates that repeated testing on a topic over timed intervals aids you in memorizing it more effectively. The result? No mind-gone-blank situations in your exam!
Ready to see what all the fuss is about? Start with a quiz on the uterus and ovaries!
Consolidate your knowledge of the human reproductive system with a few more examples of our male and female reproductive system quizzes below.
Enjoying this learning approach? Check out our full guide to learning anatomy with diagrams and quizzes.
Layout: Molly Smith
© Unless stated otherwise, all content, including illustrations are exclusive property of Kenhub GmbH, and are protected by German and international copyright laws. All rights reserved.
Draw a labeled diagram of male reproductive system. – Biology Q&A
Male reproductive system has two parts viz. The reproductive tract and accessory glands. The main reproductive organ or male reproductive organ or male gonad is testis which is situated in scortum. Main reproductive tract : 1. Scrotum : The scrotum is a pouch of pigemented skin arising from lower abdominal wall and having wall consisting of dartos tunic which are smooth muscles . It is divided into two compartments right and left by muscle septum . Scrotum protects testes and acts as thermoregulator , i.e., regualtes the temperature for proper funtioning of testis 2 . Tests : (a) Tests are primary sex that are soft smooth , pinkish oval having dimensions of about 4. 5 cm length , 2.5 cm width and 3 cm thickness. (b) Tests ate extra abdominal in position . They are suspended in the scrotum by the spermatic cord and is connected to the wail of scrotum by short fibromuscular band called gubernaculum. (c) There are about 200 to 300 lobules in each testis in which there are 1 to 4 convoluted loops composed of germinal epithelial cells . These are called seminiferous tubules. (d) Seminiferous tubules converag towards posterior surface and form a network of irregualr tubules called rete testis . (e) Seminiferous tubules converge of spermatogonia ( sperm mother cells ) and nurse cells or cells of Sertoil . (f) Between seminiferous tubules there are inteestitial cells or cells of Leydig which secrete the hormone testosterone after puberty . 3. Vasa efferntia : Vasa efferentia are a pair of ducts starting from the rete testis and entering in epididymis . They are 15 to 20 fine convoluted ductules that pierce the tunica albuginea to enter the caput epididymis . 4. Epididymis : Epididymis are ‘C’ shaped paired structure showing about 6 metres long highly coiled duct situated on the posterior border of each testie . It is differentiated into the following three regions : (a) Caput epididymis which is upper wider head that receives vasa efferentia . Here the sperms undergo physiological maturation acquiring increased motility and fertilizing capacity . (b) Corpus epididymis which is middle narrower body . (b) Corpus epididymis which is middle narrower body . (c) Cauda epididymis which is a lower duct or tail , sperms remain for short period and then enter the vas deferens. 5. Vasa defernia : (a) A pair of tubular structures about 40 cm long arising from cauda epididmis are called vasa deferentia. (b) Each vas deferens enters the abdominal cavity through the inguinal canal and then ascends in the form of spermatic cord, medially towards the posterior wall of the urinary bladder . (c) Vas deferens of each side is joined by the duct from seminal vesicle to form ejaculatory duct . 6. Ejaculatory duct : About 2 cm long pair of ducts formed by joining of vas deferns and a duct of seminal vesicle are the ejaculatory ducts. Both ejaculatory ducts open into urethra near the prostate glad . Seminal fluid containing spermatozoa are carried by ejaculatory duct to the urethra. 7. Urethra : The male urethea is a common pathway for the flow of urine and semen. The urethra has three parts , viz ., prostatic urethra , membranous urethra and penile uretha. Urethra carries both urine and semen . It has two sphincters – internal sphincter made up of smooth muscle fibres at its beginning and external sphincter made up of striated muscles. 8. Penis : (a) Penis is the copulatory organ used for insemination or deposition of sperms in female genital tract. (b) It is cylindrical ,erectile and pendulous organ suspended in public region in front of scrotum . Through the length of penis passes the uretha . (c) It contains three column of erectile tissues which has abundant blood sinuses. (d) The penis contains two postero – lateral tissue called corpora cavernosa and a median corpus spongiosum . (e) The urethra passes through corpus spongiosum . Hence , it is also called spongia urethra . (f) Near the tip of the penis , the corpus spongiosum is enlarged to form a soft and highly sensitive glans penis. It is covered by a loose retractable fold of skin called prepuce of foreskin . Accessory sex glands : 1. Seminal vesicles : (a) The semina, vesicals are two small fibromuscular pouches present on the posterior side of the urinary bladder . (b) They have semina ducts which join with vas deferens and form ejaculatory ducts. (c) Seminal fluid is secreted by seminal vesicle which forms about 60% of the total volume of the semen . (d) Seminal fluid is a viscous fluid containing fructose , fibrinogen and prostaglandins . Fructose provides energy to sperms for swimming . (e) The prostaglandins stimulate contractions in the female reproductive tract to help the process of fertilisation . (f) The fibrinogen helps in coagulation of semen after ejaculation . 2. Prostate gland : (a) About 20 to 30 seprate lobes form a prostate gland which opens separately into the urethra. (b) It secretes prostatic fluid which is about 30% of total volume of semen . (c) The prostatic fluid is a whitish and alkalin liquid . (d) The prostatic secretion neutralizes the acidity of vaginal secretion . (e) Due to its alkalinity sperms become motile and thus it facilitates the process of fertilization . 3. Cowper’s glands (Bulbo-urethral glands ): Situated in either sides of membranous urethra are pea – sized Cowper’s glands which secrete an alkaline viscous fluid . 90,000 Approximate Personality Chart (for Men)
Sample Character Chart (for Women)
stronger and more enduring by nature
physically than women, men have more
wide bones and well-developed muscles,
Woman cannot lift and carry
heavy things, what it seems to a man
in the order of things – for a woman very
heavy. This is why a woman needs
in defense, subconsciously a woman
chooses a strong man to be
like “behind a stone wall”.
physical strength God endowed the woman
emotions, and they change very often.
A woman is a generator of emotions. Sure,
it’s better if it’s positive
emotions, admiration for her husband, joy,
cheerfulness. For men this is very
very logical, they clearly line up
logical connections, chains, understand
cause and effect, predict
result…. Therefore, all decisions in the family
must be taken by a man, he bears
responsibility, he understands the result,
which will follow his decision. So
how women are emotional, then acceptance
decisions on emotions quite often
turn out to be wrong. Therefore, all
decisions in the house are made by a MAN!
in most cases, men have no purpose
in life, why did they come to this world?
All the philosophers who asked about
sense of life, were men. Man
you need to find your purpose in life, and in
a woman will help him.Unlike
men women know their goals, they have
there are desires and needs. Exactly
a woman inspires a man to new
think first, process information
passing it through the logical center,
reason and then speak.
first they say – then they think! Female
reflects during conversation, expresses
your thoughts out loud. That is why they
you must first let it out
character traits that should
have a real man
– Say them every day to your loved one
man, you can friends and just acquaintances!
– start supporting yourself,
saying these words to yourself
character traits that should
to have a real Woman
- ____________________________________________ _____________________________________
– Say these words to yourself every day,
feel them, pass them through
yourself, accept that you are. Fit!
– give support to your women,
say these words to them and hug them tight
until a slight crunch and then, gradually
you will see your woman just like that!
fall in love with appearance, but live with
the character of the person. And yet the first
impression and appearance are very important,
for both women and men. there is
very simple principles and rules,
performing which you will be profitable
stand out against the general background and precisely on
that person will pay attention to you
who you want to like! it
so simple that at first it didn’t even
I believe we always say – is simple
CHECK everything in practice!
tie, bow tie
“Square” things – watches, shoes with
square nose, etc.
ask the woman for permission,
just go and do
Want to dream
your girlfriend? Walk up to her from behind
hug tightly until a light crunch, and
only mine! ” I
go away…. Look at her reaction, you
she won’t forget anymore!
dresses, wear skirts. No pants!
In clothes, choose
light colors. Men for details
pay no attention, they see clothes
one “spot” and the main thing is that it
was bright, pleasant to the eye.
smooth, soft, flowing to be
nice to hug and touch you
Your main “weapon” sequins
in the corners of the eyes !
Associate men with the holiday,
with joy, with happiness! Smile!
and inspire Men.There is one thing
the main word that if you say
to a man – he never afterwards you
will forget, you will be dreaming of him. it
which you need as often as possible
tell your husband – “dear,
the most important thing that I did in this
life, it married you! ”
our! Your attitude to family life,
your settings were laid down in
childhood. Look at your parents
remember what they told you like
treated each other. What are the rules
respected in your family? Answer to
the questions below, think
Did you find out about yourself after this research?
What you want to change
first memory associated with
biggest fear associated with
You learned about family relationships in
my parents thought about husband / wife
parents talked to each other in
Are you in touch with men now /
would you like to change in your attitude
to the opposite sex?
3 personality traits that are your best
mom, if you are a woman / your dad –
if you are a man
3 personality traits you wanted
would improve your mom if you
your dad’s woman – if you are a man
installations about family life, which
you most often heard from your parents, from
friends, through the media
information in everyday life? Not
thinking. What comes first
your thoughts, what exactly you say
attitudes are more negative that the family
– is it difficult, difficult? Or positive,
that having the best family is easy and
you can be happy and happy
translate them and negative statements
never lucky with the choice of partner
always lucky.I’m in the process of attracting
the very best that suits me
many children are very difficult and difficult
Is a great joy in life, with them
easy, they take care of me
happy, large and family
– it is powerful, limitless, the strongest
source of vital energy! it
like a beacon that guides you forward, not
letting go astray. Dream inspires
inspires. When you live yours
dream – you are truly happy.
The bigger your dream, the bigger
energy and strength is given for its implementation.
– something that you really want is necessary
– should not change if you decide
create the best family, then this
you have a desire all the time
“Rope” holding you back. not necessary
be afraid or think that this is not real
Live your dream every day
goals based on your dreams.
detail your brightest dream ‘s
success, passionately striving for their
dream. Feel the growing
force, at great speed rushing into
future! Live traveling all over
planet, setting and reaching interesting
goals in creativity, love and joy!
what exists in this world, once
was someone’s Dream!
to make a dream come true it must be translated
her in purpose.Goal for 1 year, 3 years, 5 years, 10
years. List your goals in several
goal setting is 50% of success. We put
(translated from English – “smart, mind, brains”)
is a standard for setting goals and objectives,
which takes into account the five most important
– specific. Extremely clear and
specific, clearly described
( measurable )
Quantity, amount, volume.
( achievable )
– achievable. You need to clearly
be aware of and assess the presence
necessary resources. Psychologically
motivates an overestimate by 3-5 times.
– corresponds to the activity. purpose
must support the achievement of goals
– consistent in time.Limited
in time and fixed in time
framework – both the ultimate goal and
intermediate (time, day, month and
Do not forget about personal responsibility
“I”, start with a verb. Your aim
must be positive and environmentally friendly
(safe) for others. Can add
emotions: “I am easily successful joyfully
remarkably delicious …. ”
should inspire you. After reading
your Purpose, so that you immediately want it
reach To make your eyes shine! This
is your goal!
detailed step-by-step action plan how
you will reach your goal. Can
break your big goal into several
small subgoals. Convert
obstacles on the way to the goal in the new goal.
90,000 Who should make decisions in pairs? Survey of Ukrainian women
Ukrainian women are increasingly willing to make decisions in pairs. However, as before, the main material burden on the maintenance of the family, in their opinion, should be borne by a man
In December 2018, UkrSocStandart completed the study “Family roles through the eyes of women in the largest cities of Ukraine.”The method of data collection was a survey of women 23-40 years old, which is the core of the group of women of fertile age. Recruiting for participation in the survey took place in Kiev, Kharkov, Dnipro, Odessa, Lvov and Nikolaev. Namely, in the largest retail locations in cities. In total, 1,500 people were interviewed.
Who provides for the family?
The main expenses for providing everything necessary in the families of Ukrainian women are borne by men – almost 44%. Another 39% of women answered – “when he, when me.”At the legislative level, a vector of struggle for gender equality is envisaged. However, only about 13% answered that they alone bear the main expenses for maintaining a family (Diagram 1).
Obviously, for many women, bearing the main material burden on the maintenance of the family is a forced question. Only 0.7% of the respondents made it clear that the main material burden on the maintenance of the family should be borne by the woman. While 54.3% indicated that it should be carried by a man (diagram 2).Women who indicated that they alone bear the main burden of providing for the family (13.33%), would like the burden to be equal. In-depth analysis showed such responses in half of the cases. Almost the same number (42.5%) wanted the main material burden to fall on the shoulders of their men.
Who makes decisions in the family?
An interesting comparison is provided by the obtained data with the results on another question. Namely – “Who in your family makes the most responsible decisions?” (diagram 3).At first glance, it might seem that the respondents’ partners bear the main responsibility. About 15% and 44%, respectively, for the options “husband / partner alone” and “husband / partner with my participation”. Against 22% and 9%, respectively, for the options “I am with the participation of my husband / partner” and “I am alone”.
In our opinion, the last 2 indicators need to be summed up. To summarize with the most numerous indicator – “husband / partner with my participation”. Indeed, in this case, the man is not independent in making decisions regarding the life of the family.This will allow us to see that 75.5% of the women surveyed make decisions in one way or another in the life of their family! We designated this indicator as the total coefficient of female involvement.
Is the man the head and the woman the neck?
The respondents were asked to rate the extent to which they agree / disagree with the popular thesis “A man is a head, and a woman is a neck. Where the neck turns, there the head looks ”(diagram 4). The most common rating was “7” (nearly 42%). However, the average rating was fixed at 5.5!
It was decided to summarize the share that fell on the top three marks for each of the decision models.Oddly enough, but most of all those respondents who agreed with this thesis were those who previously indicated that in their pair the decisions are made solely by the partner (Table 1).
Who in your family makes the most important decisions? Assessment amount 5-7,% husband / partner single-handed 85.2 husband / roommate with my participation 81.6 I with the participation of my husband 71 I am alone 68.9 parents 62.6 could not decide 65.6
Obviously, there are a number of women who are trying to show that a man should make the key decisions in their pair.It is permissible to assume that in reality the share of the option “the main decisions are made by the husband / cohabitant alone” is even lower. And the total coefficient of women’s involvement in decision-making can be even higher than 3/4.
Analysis of the results obtained allows us to draw several key conclusions:
- Against the background of the current vector for the development of equality of gender rights, a high level of expectations of Ukrainian women for greater material responsibility on the part of men remains.
- At the same time, the total coefficient of women’s involvement in the area of making key decisions in the life of a family / couple tends to 1, amounting to at least 0.75.
- The level of expectations of women on the issue of financial responsibility differs significantly from the real picture. At the same time, the great factual (against the background of expectations) material responsibility of women for the family for many is rather a forced phenomenon. Obviously, the desire to participate more in decision-making for most women does not at all mean a willingness to bear more financial responsibility in a couple.
90,000 Population of Russia
Russia population counter
145 987 854
67 617 737
90,017 Male population (46.3%) 90,018
78 370 117
90,017 Female population (53.7%)
Born this year
Died this year
Migrated this year
90,017 Population growth this year
90,017 Population growth today
Source: United Nations Department of Economic and Social Affairs: Population Division.
Daily COVID-19 Statistics
The data presented on this site does not reflect the real migration picture, due to the restriction of movement,
introduced by most countries in the world due to the COVID-19 coronavirus infection pandemic.
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Facts about the population of Russia
Population today 145 987 780 Country ranking by population 9 (1.85% of the world’s population) Area 17 125 426 km 2 Population density 8.5 per km 2 Sex ratio 0.86 ( 67,617,737 males per 78,370,117 females)
66.3 (59.8 – men, 73.2 – women) Population literacy 99.7%
(Number of people calculated by Countrymeters (countrymeters.info)
based on the latest data published by the United Nations Population Division)
Population of Russia in 2021
In 2021, the population of Russia will increase by 59 845 people and at the end of the year it will be 146 023 195 people. Natural population growth will be negative and will amount to 167,858 people.Over the entire year, approximately 1,855,194 children will be born and 2,023,052 people will die. If external migration remains on the previous year level,
then, due to migration reasons, the population will change by 227 703 people. That is, the total number of people entering the country for the purpose of long-term stay (immigrants)
there will be more people leaving the country (emigrants).
Dynamics of change in the population of Russia in 2021
Below are the coefficients of change in the population of Russia, calculated by us for 2021:
- Fertility: Average 5 083 children per day (211.78 per hour)
- Mortality: average 5,543 people per day (230.94 per hour)
- Migration population growth: on average 624 people per day (25.99 per hour)
The population growth rate of Russia in 2021 will be 164 people per day.
Population of Russia 2020
According to our estimate, at the end of 2020, the population of Russia was 145,963,350. In 2020, the population of Russia increased by approximately 59,820 people. Taking into account that the population of Russia at the beginning of the year was estimated at 145,903,530 people, the annual increase was 0.04%.
Here are the main demographic indicators of Russia for 2020:
- Births: 1,854,434
- Deaths: 2,022,223 people
- Natural population growth: -167 789 people
- Migration population growth: 227 610 people
90,162 Males: 67,488,431 (as of 31 December 2020) 90,165
90,162 Women: 78,474,919 (as of 31 December 2020) 90,165
Population growth 1952 – 2021
Population density of Russia
According to the United Nations Department of Statistics, the total area of Russia
is 17,125,426 square kilometers.
Total area means the land area and the area of all water surfaces of a state within international boundaries.
Population density is calculated as the ratio of the total population living in a given territory to the total area of that territory.
According to our calculations, at the beginning of 2021, the population of Russia was approximately 145,963,350 people.
Thus, the population density of Russia is 8.5 people per square kilometer.
Population density of the constituent entities of the Russian Federation
Below is a map of the population density of Russia by municipalities (districts) as of 01.01.2013.
Religion in Russia
Religion Number of followers
91,044 Percentage of total 90,914 population 91,045
Christianity 107 009 043 73.3% Non-religious and atheists 23 650 020 16.2% Islam 14 598 778 10.0% Judaism 291 976 0.2% Popular beliefs 291 976 0.2% Buddhism 145 988 0.1%
Source: Pew Research Center. The Global Religious Landscape
Number of followers (30.05.2021 – Countrymeters.info
Urbanization of Russia
Over the past 100 years, the urbanization of Russia has more than quadrupled.
Namely, the proportion of the population in urban areas increased from 17.5% in 1914 to 74.2% in 2014.
According to the results of the first general census of the population of the Russian Empire in 1897, the share of the urban population was 14.7%.
This growth is mainly associated with the economic policy pursued by the leadership of the Soviet Union.
In 1929-1939, industrialization and mass collectivization in rural areas were carried out on the territory of the state.This economic policy led to the large-scale famine of 1932-1933 on the one hand, but also to significant industrial development on the other.
The significant growth of the urban population continued in the late 1940s, when the Great Patriotic War gave way to the confrontation between the USSR and the Western world (Cold War).
In the mid-1960s, the rate of urbanization gradually begins to decline and in the 1980s does not exceed 1.5% per year.
For more than 20 years that have passed since the collapse of the Soviet Union, the share of the urban population of the Russian Federation has remained practically unchanged at 74%.
As of January 1, 2014, the share of the population in urban areas of the country is 74.2%
or 106,549,000 people.
Accordingly, 25.8% or 37 118 000 people live in rural areas.
The ratio of the urban and rural population of Russia
Largest cities in Russia
Millionaire cities or largest cities, according to the classification of the Ministry of Regional Development of the Russian Federation, are cities with a population of over 1 million.human.
As of January 1, 2014, there are 15 such cities in Russia.
At the same time, 2 of them are also multimillionaire cities, that is, with a population exceeding 2 million people.
In total, according to official data, about 32.5 million people or almost 23% of the country’s population live in the largest cities of Russia.
City Population 91,045 Moscow 12 108 257 St. Petersburg 5 131 942 Novosibirsk 1 547 910 Yekaterinburg 1 412 346 Nizhny Novgorod 1 263 873 Kazan 1 190 850 Samara 1 172 348 Chelyabinsk 1 169 432 Omsk 1 166 092 Rostov-on-Don 1 109 835 Ufa 1 096 702 Krasnoyarsk 1 035 528 Perm 1 026 477 Volgograd 1 017 985
Voronezh 1 014 610 90 700 Total 90 700 32 464 187
Population distribution by age groups
According to our calculations, as of the beginning of 2021, the population of Russia had the following age distribution:
– percentage of people under 15 years old – percentage of people aged 15 to 65 years – percentage of people over 64 years old
In absolute numbers:
- 22,171,833 young people under 15 years old (males:
11 380 762 / women: 10 791 070)
- 104 779 791 persons over 14 and under 65 years of age (males:
49 953 037 / women: 54 826 754)
- 19,011,726 persons above 64 years old (males:
5 740 739 / women: 13 270 988)
We have prepared a simplified model of the age-sex pyramid, in which only three age groups are represented, the data for which were given above:
male 91,260 women
Note: The scale of the pyramid differs from the absolute values given above as each age group contains a different number of years.
As we can see, the age pyramid of Russia has a regressive or decreasing type. This type of pyramid is usually found in highly developed countries.
Such countries usually have a fairly high level of health care, as well as the level of education of citizens.
Due to the relatively low mortality and birth rate, the population has a high life expectancy.
All these factors, along with many others, lead to an aging population (increase the average age of the population).
Source: Data in this section is based on the latest publications of the United Nations Department of Statistics in the field of demographic and social statistics.
The dependency ratio shows the burden on society and the economy from the population that does not belong to the able-bodied population (dependent part of the population).
The population that does not belong to the working-age population is understood as the total population under 15 years old and the population over 64 years old.
The age of the working-age population (productive part of the population) is between 15 and 65 years, respectively.
The dependency ratio directly reflects the financial spending on social policy in the state.
For example, with an increase in this coefficient, the costs of the construction of educational institutions, social protection, health care, pension payments, etc. should be increased.
General load factor
The general dependency ratio is calculated as the ratio of the dependent part of the population to the able-bodied or productive part of the population.
For Russia, the coefficient of the total demographic load is 39.3%.
The value of 39.3% is relatively low.
It shows that the working-age population is more than double the working-age population.
This attitude creates a relatively low social burden on society.
Potential replacement rate
Potential replacement ratio (child load ratio) is calculated as the ratio of the population below the working age to the working age population.
Child dependency ratio for Russia is 21.2%.
Aged dependency ratio
The pension dependency ratio is calculated as the ratio of the population above the working age to the working age population.
Aged dependency ratio in Russia is 18.1%.
Source: Data in this section is based on the latest publications of the United Nations Department of Statistics in the field of demographic and social statistics.
Life expectancy is one of the most important demographic indicators.
It shows the average number of years of a person’s life ahead.
That is, the number of years that a person can theoretically live, provided that the current fertility and mortality rates remain unchanged throughout a person’s life.
Generally, “life expectancy” refers to life expectancy at birth, that is, at age 0 years.
Total life expectancy (both sexes) at birth for Russia is 66.3 years.
This is below the world average life expectancy, which is around 71 years
(based on the Population Division of the United Nations Department of Economic and Social Affairs).
Average life expectancy for males at birth – 59.8 years (years). 90,914 90,700 The average life expectancy of women at birth is 90,701 – 73.2 years (years).
According to our calculations, in Russia about 123 445 952 people over 15 years old can read and write in any language. This represents 99.72% of the total adult population.
In this case, the adult population means all people over the age of 15.
Accordingly, about 345,566 adults are illiterate.
The literacy rate for the male adult population is 99.73% (55,542,289).90,914,151,487 are illiterate.
The female adult literacy rate is 99.72% (67,903,663). 90 914 194 079 are illiterate.
Youth literacy rates are 99.66% and 99.75% for men and women, respectively.
The overall youth literacy rate is 99.7%.
The concept of youth in this case covers the population aged 15 to 24, inclusive.
Source: Data for the section “Literacy of the population of Russia”
based on latest data published by UNESCO Institute for Statistics (retrieved 13 March 2016)
Russian population history (1951 – 2021)
Data shown as of January 1 of the corresponding year.
Russia population history
Year Population Population growth 1951 103 557 863 N / A% 1952 105 140 435 1.53% 1953 106 854 432 1.63% 1954 108 639 342 1.67% 1955 110 453 377 1.67% 1956 112 259 732 1.64% 1957 114 041 287 1.59% 1958 115 775 108 1.52% 1959 117 455 928 1.45% 1960 119 078 147 1.38% 1961 120 644 095 1.32% 1962 122 137 033 1.24% 1963 123 539 790 1.15% 1964 124 823 957 1.04% 1965 125 971 775 0.92% 1966 126 964 220 0.79% 1967 127 805 460 0.66% 1968 128 525 434 0.56% 1969 129 181 268 0.51% 1970 129 825 751 0.50% 1971 130 492 490 0.51% 1972 131 187 116 0.53% 1973 131 910 707 0.55% 1974 132 657 103 0.57% 1975 133 421 734 0.58% 1976 134 202 704 0.59% 1977 135 008 138 0.60% 1978 135 840 058 0.62% 1979 136 703 220 0.64% 1980 137 598 762 0.66% 1981 138 527 362 0.67% 1982 139 478 186 0.69% 1983 140 449 232 0.70% 1984 141 439 868 0.71% 1985 142 452 072 0.72% 1986 143 480 584 0.72% 1987 144 518 381 0.72% 1988 145 525 863 0.70% 1989 146 442 199 0.63% 1990 147 200 488 0.52% 1991 147 765 480 0.38% 1992 148 132 826 0.25% 1993 148 321 512 0.13% 1994 148 361 414 0.03% 1995 148 287 956 -0.05% 1996 148 123 597 – 0.11% 1997 147 874 241 -0.17% 1998 147 543 798 -0.22% 1999 147 136 436 -0.28% 2000 146 659 006 -0.32% 2001 146 115 448 -0.37% 2002 145 520 689 -0.41% 2003 144 910 806 -0.42% 2004 144 344 314 -0.39% 2005 143 874 708 -0.33% 2006 143 536 587 -0.24% 2007 143 334 169 -0.14% 2008 143 257 438 -0.05% 2009 143 288 155 0.02% 2010 143 403 715 0.08% 2011 143 592 070 0.13% 2012 143 849 252 0.18% 2013 144 161 035 0.22% 2014 144 496 541 0.23% 2015 144 826 264 0.23% 2016 145 131 010 0.21% 2017 145 403 779 0.19% 2018 145 632 901 0.16% 2019 145 803 715 0.12% 2020 145 903 530 0.07% 2021 145 963 350 0.04%
All data in this table are given as of January 1 of the corresponding year.
Population forecast (2020-2100)
Year Population Population growth 2020 143 786 843 N / A% 2025 142 606 888 -0.82% 2030 140 543 419 -1.45% 2035 138 076 421 -1.76% 2040 135 836 499 -1.62% 2045 134 127 424 -1.26% 2050 132 730 512 -1.04% 2055 131 309 571 -1.07% 2060 129 695 935 -1.23% 2065 127 958 458 -1.34% 2070 126 393 174 -1.22% 2075 125 263 188 -0.89% 2080 124 675 353 -0.47% 2085 124 520 364 -0.12% 2090 124 512 828 -0.01% 2095 124 381 968 -0.11% 2100 124 012 614 -0.30%
Data are given as of July 1 of the corresponding year (average forecast version).
Source: United Nations Department of Economic and Social Affairs: Population Division
90,000 Chart. Lesson 2 The event was attended by 90 people. Among them there were 38 women, 27 men, and
NOD AND NOC Help please !!!
HELP PZHZHZHYU ALL POINTS
HELP URGENTLY IMPLEMENT TO DELIVER NEEDED SEVERE 15 MINUTES
The distance from the city to the village takes one full seven-twelve hours, and the bus takes two three-eight hours, while the speed of the bus
and twenty-seven km / h less than the speed of the car.Find:
A) the distance from the city to the village
B) what percentage of the speed of the car is the speed of the bus
B) by what percentage is the speed of the car greater than the speed of the bus
Record the results as whole numbers or decimal fractions, if necessary, round them to hundredths.
Guys, I had a question, I wanted to go with my friends to Sochi Park unaccompanied (age: 11, 11, 12) I just don’t know we will be admitted to the park without p
!! solve the equation !!
1210.For 2 years, a tourist walked 9.6 km, and for the first year he passed 1.2 km less than a friend. Know yaku come to pass the tourist for leather
well, one day.
Rectangle ABCD with sides 6 cm and 10 cm is divided into equal squares Find the sum of the areas of the shaded parts
Please help with 8-14 tasks Problem 8 The perimeter of the rectangle is 80 cm. 60% of this perimeter is the sum of the lengths of the rectangle. What is the width
and the rectangle? Problem 9 One of the sides of the triangle is 15 cm, the length of the second is 80% of the first, and the length of the thirds is 150% of the second.What is the perimeter of this triangle? Problem 10 It took Mom 2 hours to cook dinner. It took 40% of the time to prepare meat dishes, the dessert took 20%, the rest of the time was spent on preparing salads. How long did it take for mom to prepare each of the dishes? Problem 11 For a month, Sasha and dad played chess. During this time, 25 games were played, of which dad won 80%. How many chess games did Sasha win in a month Problem 12 Lena has 8 swordtails in her aquarium, which is 40% of all her fish.How many fish does Lena have in the aquarium? Problem 13 During the winter, Winnie the Pooh the bear ate 16 pots of honey. How many pots of honey has Winnie the Pooh prepared if he has 20% of all his reserves left? Problem 14 Mushrooms lose 75% of their mass during drying. How many fresh mushrooms do you need to prepare 4 kg of dried mushrooms?
Razvyazyat the problem for the scheme – “tree”. On a school flower bed, there are 100 bushes of trojands 40 – hornbills, 30 – big ones, and a worm-ni sieve. Skіlki kushchіv chervonykh tro
yand roztsvіlo naklumbі?
90,000 The number of women who smoke has increased in Russia :: Society :: RBC
The craving for nicotine is strongest among the older generation, who have accumulated “the capital of a bad habit,” the authors of the study say.The report notes that over the 22 studied years, the smoking situation among the older generation remained almost unchanged – about 10% of people over 65 years of age smoke.
At the same time, the share of smokers aged 16-18 years dropped sharply – from 24 to 5%, from 18 to 24 years – from 43 to 20%, from 25 to 34 years – from 44 to 37%.
Read on RBK Pro
Why start smoking
“Among people with a university diploma, smokers are 18%, with secondary education – 38%, with incomplete secondary education – 36%,” the authors of the report note.The researchers suggest that as the price of cigarettes rises, smokers switch from imported products to cheaper Russian products. Among smokers, there are 4% more workers than unemployed.
On June 1, 2013, an anti-tobacco law came into force in Russia, prohibiting smoking in public places. This affected the amount of tobacco consumed, but not the number of smokers. On average, people smoke 5% fewer cigarettes.
According to Maxim Korolev, the anti-tobacco law still affected the popularity of smoking in general.When there were no restrictions, including in the 1990s, both nicotine-dependent people and those who did it “for the company” and “to keep their hands busy” smoked. “Many did not have a real addiction: drank – smoked, and if sober, then he didn’t. These people smoked few cigarettes, but influenced the statistics. When various bans on the display of cigarettes began, as well as a sharp rise in prices, this category of smokers became the first to quit tobacco. The statistic, according to which the remaining 28% began to smoke more, is explained by the fact that it is not diluted by amateur smokers, ”he said.
Over 22 years the number of people who prefer non-filter cigarettes has significantly decreased. If in 1994 there were 35%, then in 2016 – 3%. And the popularity of cigarettes and hand-rolled cigarettes, which in the mid-1990s smoked 5% and 7%, respectively, dropped to almost zero.
Researchers note many factors due to which Russians start smoking. Among them are nationality and the state of the economy in the region of residence. A person is more likely to start smoking in a more prosperous region, experts conclude.In addition, those who associate themselves with Russians are more likely to smoke, according to the report.
At the end of 2017, the Ministry of Health recorded that the share of adult smokers in Russia decreased to 29%, which is one percentage point more than the HSE study showed. RBC sent a request to the press service of the Ministry of Health with a request to comment on the report “What and How People Smoke in Russia.”
is a graphical display of numerical data and the relationship between them.You can add various elements to charts, such as titles, data labels, legend, and change the design and type of charts.
each value is displayed with a vertical bar of the corresponding height. Histograms are used to compare discrete values.
diagram – a histogram rotated by 90 °. Graphs are used to illustrate continuous change.
A diagram is used to demonstrate the relationship between two variables. To build a chart, select the data that you want to display using the chart, then on the Insert tab, in the Charts group, click on the chart of the required type and select its type.
After the diagram is built, you can change it.
To do this, click on the chart you want to format.
1 Working with diagrams
2 with additional Design, Layout and Format tabs.
Task 1 . Building a histogram.Open the table Number of men and women in Belarus. According to the table, construct a histogram showing the number of men and women by regions of the Republic of Belarus in 2009.
1. Highlight the table with headings (range A4: C11).
2 . On the Insert tab, select the Histogram chart type, 3D histogram view.
3. Insert the title of the diagram: Number of men and women by regions of the Republic of Belarus in 2009. Change the font size if necessary.
4. Insert the title of the main vertical axis: Thousand people.
5. Change the direction of the text containing the horizontal axis labels. To do this, select the horizontal axis, right-click on it, and select Format Axis in the context menu. In the Axis Format window, on the Alignment tab, set the vertical direction of the text.
6. Install the legend at the bottom. 7
… Change the color of the data series in the histogram. To do this, right-click on the bars on the histogram and select Format data series in the context menu.In the Format Data Series window, on the Fill tab, select a fill style and color.
8. Turn on Data Signatures. In the Format Data Labels window, select the Values option.
9. As a result, the diagram will look like this:
10. Using the data in the same table, construct a bar chart:
Task 2 . Plotting a function. Plot the function y = 4×2 + 3x – 2. Choose the values of the x argument in the range from –3 to 3 with a step of 0.5.
1. Make a table of argument and function values:
2.Select the table along with the headings (cell range A3: N4).
3. On the Insert tab, select the Scatter chart type, the Scatter view with smooth curves.