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Diarrhea body aches chills headache: What Is Norovirus Infection? Symptoms, Contagious Period & Treatment

Sure Signs You Have COVID Now, According to Doctors

As the coronavirus stalks Americans—more than 320,000 dead and counting—doctors around the country are doing their best to save lives. To get a list of the most common COVID-19 symptoms, we tapped the resources of the CDC, Cedars-Sinai, Johns Hopkins, Harvard Health and USC, as well as Dr. Anthony Fauci, the nation’s top infectious disease expert and the director of the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases. Read on to see what you should do if you have these symptoms—and to ensure your health and the health of others, don’t miss these Sure Signs You’ve Already Had Coronavirus. 


“This wouldn’t be a light or fleeting cough—it’s more persistent,” infectious disease specialist Rekha Murthy, MD, vice president of Medical Affairs and associate chief medical officer at Cedars-Sinai, says. “It may be a dry cough, but it’s new and deep and not like a typical allergy cough, which is usually caused by a tickle in the back of the throat.


You might experience a temperature over 100.4 degrees—although not everyone does. “Some people who are elderly or immunosuppressed might not be able to mount a fever, which is a sign of the body trying to fight off an infection,” Murthy said.


“COVID-19, the disease caused by the new coronavirus, can cause lung complications such as pneumonia and, in the most severe cases, acute respiratory distress syndrome, or ARDS. Sepsis, another possible complication of COVID-19, can also cause lasting harm to the lungs and other organs,” reports Johns Hopkins.


Dr. Fauci maintains that muscle aches and pains (myalgia) is another common COVID-19 symptom, with 11-35% reporting the symptom. Recently, Ellen DeGeneres revealed she had “excruciating” back pain from COVID.


“When the virus does cause symptoms, common ones include fever, body ache, dry cough, fatigue, chills, headache, sore throat, loss of appetite, and loss of smell,” reports Harvard Health. “In some people, COVID-19 causes more severe symptoms like high fever, severe cough, and shortness of breath, which often indicates pneumonia.”


During a discussion sponsored by Columbia University, Dr. Fauci explained that the “clinical manifestations” of the virus, aka the “presenting signs and symptoms” are “strikingly similar to what we have been calling a flu-like syndrome. They include those outlined by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, the most common being fever or chills, cough, shortness of breath or difficulty breathing, fatigue, muscle or body aches, headache, sore throat, congestion or runny nose, nausea or vomiting, diarrhea, and one other that is uncommon with other ailments. Of particular interest is the rather frequent occurrence of loss of smell and taste, which precedes the onset of respiratory symptoms,” he revealed.


“Many people with COVID-19 experience gastrointestinal symptoms such as nausea, vomiting or diarrhea, sometimes prior to having fever and lower respiratory tract signs and symptoms,” reports the CDC.

RELATED: The New COVID Symptom Every Woman Needs to Know


As far as first symptoms, “Early symptoms reported by some people include fatigue, headache, sore throat or fever. Others experience a loss of smell or taste. COVID-19 can cause symptoms that are mild at first, but then become more intense over five to seven days, with worsening of a cough and shortness of breath. For some, pneumonia develops,” says Johns Hopkins.


Fauci says you may feel a profound fatigue that lasts even after you’re “sick”—even if you were previously healthy. “Individuals who either had symptoms, stayed at home for a week or two, had, fever, aches, a little shortness of breath—or even people who’ve been in the hospital who, you know, had stays in the hospital—and come back who clear the virus from the body. So the virus is no longer there. Yet maybe 20, 25% of those people” may still feel the symptoms you’re reading about, an unbearable fatigue being the most common.


“USC researchers have found what appears to be the likely order in which COVID-19 symptoms first appear: fever, cough and muscle pain, then nausea and/or vomiting, then diarrhea,” says the college.

RELATED: 7 Tips You Must Follow to Avoid COVID, Say Doctors


You may have a cold. You may have coronavirus. “Some of these symptoms are very common and can occur in many conditions other than COVID-19. If you have any of them, contact a doctor or health care provider so they can assess your risk and help you determine next steps,” advises Johns Hopkins. 


“The most important thing is to stay home and practice social distancing and to isolate yourself for as long as you have symptoms and for at least 72 hours after fever resolves and symptoms have significantly improved,” Murthy said. And of course, contact a medical professional to discuss getting a coronavirus test.


As for yourself, follow Fauci’s fundamentals and help end this surge, no matter where you live—wear a face mask, social distance, avoid large crowds, don’t go indoors with people you’re not sheltering with (especially in bars), practice good hand hygiene, get vaccinated when it becomes available to you, and to protect your life and the lives of others, don’t visit any of these 35 Places You’re Most Likely to Catch COVID.

Gastroenteritis | Cedars-Sinai

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Gastroenteritis is commonly known as an upset stomach (also called traveler’s tummy or stomach flu). This condition is the inflammation of the lining of the stomach and the intestines. It is usually associated with nausea, vomiting, lack of appetite, diarrhea and a stomach ache.


Symptoms depend on the cause and how long the condition has been present, among other factors. The condition usually starts suddenly, sometimes with a loss of appetite, nausea, cramping and growling or rumbling sounds from gas moving through the intestines and diarrhea. If there has been too much loss of fluids, dehydration, headaches, irritability and shock may occur. Other signs include muscle aches, weakness and feeling sick.

Causes and Risk Factors

Although the cause is not always identified, some possibilities include:

  • Infections
  • Viruses
  • Intestinal parasites
  • Chemical toxins found in plants, seafood or contaminated food
  • Ingesting heavy metals (such as arsenic, lead, mercury or cadmium)
  • Drugs that alter the digestive system


To form a diagnosis, doctors will look for a cause, such as the patient’s having:

  • Eaten potentially contaminated food
  • Drunk untreated surface water
  • Recently traveled
  • Contact with people who have similar symptoms

Other tests may include:

  • Samples of stool or vomit to see if bacteria, viruses or parasites are present
  • Blood tests
  • Sigmoidoscopy to rule out other problems


Treatment includes:

  • Bed rest
  • Giving strained broth or bouillon
  • Giving bland foods (e. g., cereal, gelatin, bananas or toast)
  • Drugs may also be given to stop vomiting or diarrhea. Antibiotics may also be given if an infection is suspected.

© 2000-2021 The StayWell Company, LLC. All rights reserved. This information is not intended as a substitute for professional medical care. Always follow your healthcare professional’s instructions.

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Disease Directory | Passport Health NYC

Travel & Specialty Vaccines

  • Anthrax
  • Japanese Encephalitis
  • Malaria Prophylaxis
  • Rabies (pre and post exposure)
  • Typhoid
  • Yellow Fever

Routine Tests

Routine Vaccines

  • Hepatitis A (adult and pediatric)
  • Hepatitis B (adult and pediatric)
  • Combination Hepatitis A & Hepatitis B
  • Meningococcal (Meningitis)
  • Tetanus/Diphtheria
  • Tetanus/Diphtheria/Pertussis
  • Human Papillomavirus (HPV) – Cervical Cancer
  • Influenza (Flu)
  • Pneumonia
  • Measles, Mumps, Rubella (MMR)
  • Poliomyelitis
  • Shingles
  • Varicella (Chickenpox)



Disease Directory

Hepatitis A

A Liver disease spread by contaminated food and water.   It can also be spread by consuming food or drink that has been handled by an infected person. It is rarely spread through sexual contact.

Symptoms include a sudden onset of fever, tiredness, loss of appetite, nausea, vomiting, stomach pain, and jaundice (yellowing of the skin and eyes).  Some people have no symptoms, while others have symptoms that last 1-6 months. Most people recover with no lasting liver damage.

Hepatitis A is a common infection among travelers to developing countries. Travelers going to rural areas in developing countries have a higher risk of getting hepatitis A infections than other travelers. However, hepatitis A infections can happen in urban areas with “standard” tourist accommodations as well.  The vaccine for Hepatitis A is given in a 2-dose series.  The second vaccination is given 6-12 months after the first dose.

Hepatitis B

A contagious virus that is transmitted through blood, blood products, and other body fluids.  Travelers can become infected through unprotected sex with an infected person, injection drug use, and transfusions with unscreened blood.

Symptoms include a sudden fever, tiredness, loss of appetite, nausea, vomiting, stomach pain, dark urine, joint pain, and yellowing of the skin and eyes (jaundice). Symptoms may last from several weeks to several months. Some people who get hepatitis B develop lifelong (chronic) hepatitis B. This can cause people to die early from liver disease and liver cancer.

This vaccine is a 3-dose vaccine. The second vaccine is given 1-2 months after the first dose and then the third dose is given 6-12 months later than the first dose.  The vaccine is over 90% effective, and has been considered a routine childhood vaccine since 1995.


An illness caused by a virus, that is spread through mosquito bites.

Symptoms include fever, headache, nausea, vomiting, rash, and pain in the eyes, joints, and muscles. After you are bitten by an infected mosquito, symptoms can take up to 2 weeks to develop but usually end in a week. In severe cases, symptoms may include intense stomach pain, repeated vomiting, bleeding from the nose or gums, and death.   There is currently no vaccine or medicine to prevent dengue. Travelers can protect themselves by preventing mosquito bites.


An illness that is spread through coughing and sneezing. If an infected person has skin sores, it can also be spread by touching the sores.

Symptoms of diphtheria include fever, sore throat, and a thick coating in the throat and nose. Neck swelling and skin sores can also occur. In severe disease, swelling of the heart and nerves can occur, as well as trouble breathing. Death occurs in 5%-10% of cases with breathing problems. People who have diphtheria with skin sores usually recover.  Travelers going to developing countries are at highest risk for diphtheria. Industrialized countries have low rates of diphtheria due to the availability of a vaccine that prevents the disease.

In the United States, diphtheria vaccine is only available in combination with other vaccines that protect you against diseases such as tetanus and pertussis. The diphtheria vaccine comes in three forms: Tdap and Td (for adults), and DTaP (for children).


The flu (influenza) is a contagious respiratory disease caused by flu viruses. It is spread from person to person by coughing or sneezing. It can also be spread by touching contaminated surfaces.

Symptoms of flu include fever or feeling feverish/chills, cough, sore throat, runny or stuffy nose, muscle or body aches, headache, and tiredness.  Nausea, vomiting, and diarrhea also can occur but are more common in children than adults.  Young children, senior citizens, and people who have chronic health conditions are at risk for serious complications. These complications can include pneumonia, ear infections, sinus infections, dehydration, worsening of chronic medical conditions, and death.  Flu is common throughout the world. The flu season lasts from October through May in the Northern Hemisphere and from April through September in the Southern Hemisphere. In tropical countries, flu can be spread year-round.

Japanese encephalitis (JE)

A disease spread through mosquito bites.

Symptoms usually take 5-15 days to develop and include fever, headache, vomiting, confusion, and difficulty moving. Symptoms that develop later include swelling around the brain and coma. JE is a serious disease that may cause death.

Travelers who go to Asia are at risk for getting Japanese encephalitis.  For most travelers the risk is extremely low but depends on where you are going, the time of year, your planned activities, and the length of the trip. You are at higher risk if you are traveling to rural areas, will be outside frequently, or will be traveling for a long period of time.  In mild climates in northern Asia the risk for JE is greater in the summer and fall. In tropical and subtropical areas, there is a risk year-round.


A disease spread through mosquito bites.

Symptoms usually appear within in 7-30 days but can take up to one year to develop. Symptoms include high fevers, shaking chills, and flu-like illness. Without treatment, malaria can cause severe illness and even death.  Malaria occurs in Africa, Central and South America, parts of the Caribbean, Asia, Eastern Europe, and the South Pacific. People spending time outdoors, including sleeping outside, are at higher risk for malaria. Every year about 1500 cases of malaria and 5 deaths occur among international travelers from the United States. Travelers can protect themselves from malaria by taking prescription medicine and preventing mosquito bites.


A disease caused by a virus that is spread through the air by breathing, coughing, or sneezing. Measles virus is highly contagious and can remain so for up to 2 hours in the air or on surfaces.

Symptoms of measles are rash, high fever, cough, runny nose, and red, watery eyes. Some people who become sick with measles also get an ear infection, diarrhea, or a serious lung infection, such as pneumonia. Although severe cases are rare, measles can cause swelling of the brain and even death.


Meningococcal disease can refer to any illness that is caused by the type of bacteria called Neisseria meningitidis.  Meningococcal disease is a contagious infection spread by close contact with an infected person, such as living together or kissing. Quick medical attention is extremely important if meningococcal disease is suspected.

The symptoms of meningococcal disease can vary based on the type of illness that develops. Common symptoms of meningococcal meningitis include sudden fever, headache, and stiff neck. Other symptoms can include nausea, vomiting, increased sensitivity to light, and confusion. Children and infants may show different signs, such as inactivity, irritability, vomiting, or poor reflexes. Meningococcal disease can also cause an infection of the blood which can lead to tiredness, vomiting, cold hands and feet, chills, severe aches and pain, fast breathing, diarrhea, and a dark purple rash. Meningococcal disease is very serious and can be fatal.   In fatal cases, deaths can occur in as little as a few hours.

Anyone can get meningococcal disease, but certain groups of people are at increased risk. Although meningococcal disease is found worldwide, the “meningitis belt” of sub-Saharan Africa has the highest rates in the world. Rates of meningococcal disease are several times higher in the meningitis belt than in the US. The disease is most common in these countries during the dry season (December through June). Travelers who spend a lot of time with local populations in the meningitis belt during a large outbreak have the highest risk of contracting the disease.  In addition to the meningitis belt, travelers to the Hajj pilgrimage in Saudi Arabia are also at risk. The Hajj has been associated with outbreaks of meningococcal disease in returning pilgrims and people in close contact with them.


A contagious disease that is spread when infected people cough, sneeze, or talk. Sharing items, like cups or drink cans, with infected people can also spread the virus.   The virus can also live on items and surfaces touched by an infected person for several hours.

Symptoms include fever, headache, muscle aches, tiredness, loss of appetite, and swollen and tender salivary glands under the ears or jaw on one or both sides of the face (parotitis). Most people with mumps recover fully. However, mumps can occasionally cause complications, such as swelling of the brain, testicles (in males), and ovaries and breasts (in females), and temporary or permanent deafness.


Also known as “whooping cough,” is a contagious disease spread when infected people cough and sneeze near others.

Early symptoms are similar to a cold and include runny nose, low fevers, mild cough, and a pause in breathing for babies. Later symptoms of the disease include “fits” of many rapid coughs followed by a high-pitched “whoop,” vomiting, and exhaustion. Pertussis is very serious for babies. Among babies younger than 1 year of age who get pertussis, more than half will be hospitalized and 1 in 100 will die.

Pneumococcal disease

A contagious infection caused byStreptococcus pneumoniae bacteria (pneumococcus).  These bacteria can cause many types of illnesses, including: pneumonia (infection of the lungs), ear infections, sinus infections, meningitis (infection of the covering around the brain and spinal cord), and bacteremia (blood stream infection). Pneumococcal disease is spread through coughing, sneezing, and close contact with an infected person.

Symptoms of pneumococcal disease depend on the part of the body that is infected. They can include fever, cough, shortness of breath, chest pain, stiff neck, confusion and disorientation, sensitivity to light, joint pain, chills, ear pain, sleeplessness, and irritability.  In severe cases, pneumococcal disease can cause brain damage, hearing loss, the loss of arms or legs, and death.


A disease caused by a virus that is mainly spread by person-to-person contact and eating or drinking items contaminated with the feces of an infected person. Polio can also be spread through water, other drinks, and raw or undercooked food.  Most people with polio do not feel sick. Some people have only minor symptoms, such as fever, tiredness, nausea, headache, nasal congestion, sore throat, cough, stiffness in the neck and back, and pain in the arms and legs. Most people recover completely. In rare cases, polio causes permanent loss of muscle function in the arms or legs (usually the legs) or death.

From the late 1940s to the early 1950s, polio crippled around 35,000 people each year in the United States alone, making it one of the most feared diseases of the 20th century. By 1979, the United States was polio free.  Internationally, substantial progress has been made in recent years, and only 3 countries remain where polio has never been stopped: Afghanistan, Nigeria, and Pakistan. The affected areas in these 3 countries have become smaller. Until polio is stopped everywhere, even polio-free countries are at risk for outbreaks.

Travelers going to certain parts of Africa and Asia may be at risk for polio. Everyone should be up-to-date with their routine polio vaccination series. In addition, a one-time adult polio vaccine booster dose is recommended for travelers to certain countries.


A deadly disease caused by a virus that is spread in the saliva of infected animals. All mammals can get rabies. People usually get rabies from licks, bites, or scratches from infected dogs and other animals such as bats, foxes, raccoons, and mongooses. Rabies affects the central nervous system, ultimately causing brain disease and death. Once symptoms of rabies appear, the disease is nearly always fatal, so prevention is especially important.

Travelers who may come into contact with wild or domestic animals are at risk for rabies. This includes travelers spending a lot of time outdoors (such as campers and cavers), travelers with occupational risks (such as veterinarians and wildlife professionals), and long-term travelers and expatriates. Children are also at higher risk because they often play with animals, might not report bites, and are more likely to be bitten on the head and neck.


Also called German measles,  Rubella is a disease spread by the coughs and sneezes of infected people.

Symptoms include rash and fever for 2 to 3 days. Some people do not feel sick. If a pregnant woman gets rubella virus, her baby could have birth defects such as deafness, cataracts, heart defects, mental disabilities, and organ damage.


An illness that can occur after an injury with a contaminated object. The bacteria that cause tetanus are commonly found in soil and can get into the body through any type of break in the skin, such as wounds, burns, or animal bites.  Tetanus is often called “lockjaw” because the jaw muscles tighten, and the person cannot open their mouth. Other symptoms of tetanus include headache, painful muscle stiffness, trouble swallowing, seizures, fever, and high blood pressure. Tetanus is very dangerous. It can cause difficulty breathing and paralysis. Even with intensive care, 10%–20% of people with tetanus die.

Tetanus occurs throughout the world, and international travel generally does not increase the risk. However, people who are doing humanitarian aid work, such as constructing or demolishing buildings, may be at higher risk. Anyone who is not vaccinated against tetanus is at risk if he or she is injured by a contaminated object, uses injection drugs, or has a medical procedure in an unhygienic setting.

Typhoid fever

A serious disease spread by contaminated food and water.

Symptoms of typhoid include lasting high fevers, weakness, stomach pains, headache, and loss of appetite. Some patients have constipation, and some have a rash.  Internal bleeding and death can occur but are rare.

Typhoid fever is common in most parts of the world except in industrialized regions such as the United States, Canada, western Europe, Australia, and Japan, so travelers to the developing world should consider taking precautions. Travelers to Asia, Africa, and Latin America are especially at risk, and the highest risk for typhoid is in south Asia.

About 300 people get typhoid fever in the United States each year, and most of these people have recently traveled. About 22 million cases of typhoid fever and 200,000 related deaths occur worldwide each year.

Yellow Fever

A disease caused a virus, which is spread through mosquito bites.

Symptoms take 3–6 days to develop and include fever, chills, headache, backache, and muscle aches. About 15% of people who get yellow fever develop serious illness that can lead to bleeding, shock, organ failure, and sometimes death.

You should receive a yellow card called the International Certificate of Vaccination or Prophylaxis (ICVP) to prove that you have had yellow fever vaccine. Some countries require all travelers to show proof of yellow fever vaccination before they can enter the country. Other countries require proof of vaccination only if travelers have been in a risk area, so if you are visiting multiple countries, the order of travel may be important. Proof of vaccination is not valid until 10 days after you get the vaccine, so plan to get the vaccine early if you need it.

Note: CDC’s recommendation is different from the country’s requirement. A vaccine recommendation is designed to keep you from getting yellow fever; a vaccine requirement is the country’s attempt to keep travelers from bringing the yellow fever virus into the country. CDC does not have any control over other countries’ vaccine requirements or how they are enforced.


Source:  http://wwwnc.cdc.gov/travel/diseases

Allergy Doctor of King of Prussia – Allergy & Asthma Specialists

COVID-19 is still spreading, which makes every cough and sniffle suspect. It’s important to remember, though, that even with the new coronavirus spreading COVID-19, it’s still cold and flu season, and other respiratory ailments are still in play. How can you tell if you have a cold, a flu, allergies, asthma, or COVID-19? Let’s look at the symptoms of each condition separately to help you understand the differences.

Asthma is chronic and causes inflammation of the airways. Symptoms include coughing, wheezing, shortness of breath, rapid breathing, and chest tightness, and they can either come on gradually or suddenly. There’s no cure for asthma but it can be managed by identifying triggers and treating symptoms with medication.

COVID-19 is new, and there’s not yet a comprehensive list of symptoms because scientists are still learning about it. We do know that symptoms can include fever, chills, cough, shortness of breath or trouble breathing, fatigue or weakness, muscle or body aches, headache, loss of taste or smell, sore throat, stuffy or runny nose, diarrhea, nausea or vomiting, pinkeye, blue or purple lesions on toes, and hives or rashes. If you experience any of these symptoms, contact your doctor and follow the doctor’s instructions carefully. If you have severe symptoms, like trouble breathing, pain or pressure in the chest that won’t go away, confusion or an inability to wake up, or a bluish tint on the lips, face, or fingernails, call 911. While vaccines for COVID-19 are available, the best way to prevent its spread is currently still wearing a face mask, washing hands frequently, socially distancing, and cleaning and sanitizing frequently touched surfaces. If you think you have COVID-19, isolate yourself, even from those who live in your house, and wear a face mask any time you’re around someone.

Influenza, commonly called the flu, is a contagious respiratory illness caused by viruses. It can be mild or severe, and the symptoms can come on suddenly. In the most severe cases, the flu can be fatal. Symptoms include a fever that often gets very high, headache, extreme fatigue, chills, cough, sore throat, runny or stuffy nose, body aches in bones and/or muscles, and sometimes diarrhea and vomiting. An annual flu vaccine is the best way to lower your risk of getting and transmitting the flu and is especially important if you’re in a high-risk group, like senior adults and people with pre-existing conditions, like asthma. Because it’s possible to get the flu and COVID-19 at the same time, this year it’s more important than ever to get the flu vaccine. If you develop flu symptoms, contact your doctor right away so that you can start on anti-viral treatments. These treatments can lessen flu symptoms but must be taken within two days of getting the flu.

The common cold is comparably mild. It’s not as bad as the flu or COVID-19, but it still should be taken seriously, especially because colds can trigger asthma symptoms. Symptoms of a cold include a mild cough, sneezing, runny or stuffy nose, sore throat, a short fever, and aches and pains.

Allergies, unlike these other respiratory ailments, are not contagious. Rather, an allergy is caused by a reaction of your immune system. Allergy symptoms can include itchy nose and eyes, sneezing, stuffy or runny nose, and post-nasal drip. If you have allergy symptoms, you can control them by avoiding contact with allergens. There are also allergy treatments that can help.

If you’re struggling with respiratory issues and would like to determine exactly what’s troubling you, contact Allergy & Asthma Specialists SM. We’ll help you determine what you’re dealing with and how to manage it. When you enlist the help of an experienced, board-certified allergist, you can be confident that your doctor will help you find the solutions you need to manage your allergies. At Allergy & Asthma Specialists SM, all physicians are board-certified in allergy and immunology and can help you identify triggers and learn to control your symptoms. Call 610-825-5800 or visit the website for an appointment, or to learn more about services available to help you with your allergies.

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Delta variant may have different symptoms, early data suggests

The delta coronavirus variant appears more commonly linked to a different range of symptoms than other variants, according to a large U.K. study cited by CNBC.

Throughout the pandemic, officials have observed the main symptoms of COVID-19 to be fever, persistent cough and loss of taste or smell, with some variations. The CDC’s list of symptoms, updated Feb. 22, includes fatigue, muscle or body aches, headache, sore throat, congestion or runny nose, nausea or vomiting, and diarrhea. Asymptomatic infections are also common. 

However, the delta variant, first identified in India, may be producing a different set of symptoms. 

Three things to know: 

1. Researchers with the Zoe COVID Symptom Study, an ongoing study in the U.K., are examining self-reported COVID-19 symptom data from the public. “Since the start of May, we have been looking at the top symptoms in the app users and they are not the same as they were,” Tim Spector, professor of genetic epidemiology at King’s College London and researcher with the Zoe COVID Symptom project, said in a June 9 YouTube briefing. “The number one symptom is headache, then followed by sore throat, runny nose and fever.”

2. More “traditional” COVID-19 symptoms, such as a cough and loss of smell, are less common now, with younger people experiencing more of a bad cold or “funny off feeling,” Mr. Spector said.

3. Other symptoms not typically seen in COVID-19 patients have also been reported, such as hearing loss and gangrene, according to Bloomberg. Dr. Abdul Ghafur, an infectious disease physician in Chennai, India, said he’s seeing more COVID-19 patients with diarrhea than during the pandemic’s first wave. Dr. Ghafur noted that more research must be done to analyze if the newer clinical presentations are linked to the delta variant. 

On June 14, the CDC classified the delta variant as a “variant of concern.” The strain now accounts for nearly 10 percent of U.S. cases and is doubling every two weeks, Scott Gottlieb, MD, former FDA commissioner, said June 13.

Gastroenteritis – causes, symptoms, treatment

Gastroenteritis is the irritation of the digestive track caused by direct viral, bacterial, or parasitic infection or the ingestion of preformed toxins contained within food. The main symptom is diarrhoea. Treatment mainly involves symptom relief and fluid replacement. Gastroenteritis is also known as a tummy bug, stomach flu, intestinal flu, food poisoning, and traveller’s diarrhoea.

It is a common condition, mainly because the microbes that can cause gastroenteritis are easily spread via contaminated food or water, and through person-to-person contact. The infection causes the digestive tract to become irritated, which results in diarrhoea and other symptoms such as vomiting and abdominal pain and cramping.

Gastroenteritis is usually not serious in healthy adults, but it can cause life-threatening dehydration in people who are very ill or weak, very young children, and the elderly.


Gastroenteritis is usually caused by a viral or bacterial infection, and less often by a parasitic infection. The most common causes of viral gastroenteritis are norovirus and rotavirus. Campylobacter, Escherichia coli (E.  coli), and Salmonella are the most common causes of bacterial gastroenteritis. Parasitic gastroenteritis is usually caused by Giardia.

Viral gastroenteritis is the most frequent cause of gastroenteritis outbreaks, which occur when groups of people are affected at the same time and place. Norovirus outbreaks can affect both children and adults, while rotavirus mainly affects infants and children.

Campylobacter is the most commonly reported cause of foodborne illness in New Zealand, often found on raw chicken or raw red meat, and in unpasteurised milk. It has a 24-48 hour incubation time and symptoms can last for 5 to 8 days on average.

The most common cause of ‘food poisoning’ is preformed toxins that will cause vomiting within 6-8 hours of eating food with the toxin present. As most infections have an incubation time of more than 24 hours, a person cannot pick up an ‘infection’ from eating suspicious food. It is more likely there was a toxin in the food. 

The people most at risk of gastroenteritis are:  

  • Infants and young children, who have an immature immune system
  • The elderly, who have less efficient immune systems, and especially those living in nursing homes
  • Children in day care, school children, and students living in dormitories
  • Anyone with a weakened immune system, such as people with HIV/AIDS or receiving chemotherapy
  • Travellers.  

Signs and symptoms

The main symptom of gastroenteritis is diarrhoea, which is when your bowel movements (faeces or stools) become watery and you need to go to the toilet frequently and urgently.  Although diarrhoea is the primary symptom of gastroenteritis, there are many other symptoms and signs.

Additional symptoms and signs of gastroenteritis may include:   

  • Nausea and vomiting
  • Abdominal pain and cramping
  • Mild fever and chills
  • Loss of appetite
  • Headache and muscle aches
  • Tiredness and general body weakness
  • Incontinence (loss of control over bowel motions)
  • Poor feeding in infants.

Depending on the cause, symptoms may appear within one to three days after infection and can range from mild to severe. Symptoms usually last a few days, but occasionally may persist for up to ten days.

You should contact your doctor if your symptoms don’t improve after a few days and/or increase in severity, your symptoms go away but come back, your stools become bloody or pussy, you have constant abdominal pain, you have been vomiting for more than two days, or if you develop dehydration. 
Dehydration can arise from the excessive loss of fluid from the body, which can occur quickly with gastroenteritis. 

The signs and symptoms of dehydration include:  

  • Extreme thirst
  • Not having urinated in the past eight hours or passing only a small volume of urine 
  • Urine that is dark in colour and smelly 
  • Dry lips and mouth, and a lack of tears
  • Cold hands and feet
  • Sunken cheeks or eyes
  • Dizziness, lethargy, floppiness
  • In infants, dry nappies (for longer than 4-6 hours) and/or a sunken fontanelle (the soft spot on the top of a baby’s head)
  • Skin that ‘tents up’ when pinched.

Signs of dehydration in anyone, especially infants and children, the elderly, and people with weakened immune systems, are reasons to contact a doctor immediately. 


Gastroenteritis is usually diagnosed by the symptoms that it produces, primarily diarrhoea. However, if the symptoms are severe or persistent, your doctor may take a stool (faeces) sample to identify the cause of the gastroenteritis.

Stool samples may be taken during outbreaks of gastroenteritis, such as those occurring on cruise ships and in hospitals and nursing homes, to identify the virus or bacteria that has caused the outbreak. Also, identifying patients with similar histories of food or drink they have recently consumed often helps to determine the source of the outbreak. 


Most people with gastroenteritis recover within a few days without the need for medical treatment, as long as they stay properly hydrated. 

To help keep yourself comfortable and prevent dehydration while you recover, try the following: 

  • Avoid dairy products, caffeine, alcohol, and nicotine
  • Avoid sugary, fatty, or highly seasoned (spicy) foods
  • Drink plenty of liquid every day, taking small, frequent sips, including clear thin broths or soups, diluted non-caffeinated sports drinks (e.g., Powerade or Gatorade), and rehydration formulas (e.g., Gastrolyte) that are available without prescription from a pharmacy
  • Make sure that you get plenty of rest
  • Avoid taking non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), such as aspirin, ibuprofen, and diclofenac, for pain relief as they can make your stomach more upset
  • Paracetamol (e.g., Panadol) can be taken for fever and pain, but it should be used cautiously.

For infants with gastroenteritis, let the baby’s stomach rest for 15 to 20 minutes after vomiting or a bout of diarrhoea, then offer small amounts of liquid. Let the baby nurse if being breast-fed. If you are bottle-feeding, offer a small amount of an oral rehydration solution or regular formula.

Anti-diarrhoeal medications, such as Imodium, can be taken to slow the diarrhoea. In most cases, however, it is better for the body to clear itself of the virus or bacteria causing the gastroenteritis.

Use of antibiotics is usually avoided because they are not effective against viruses, and their overuse contributes to the development of antibiotic-resistant strains of bacteria. 


The following actions can be taken to avoid getting and spreading gastroenteritis:  

  • Frequent and thorough hand washing, especially before eating or preparing food, and after going to the toilet or contact with an infected person
  • Ensure that children wash their hands frequently and thoroughly
  • Avoid direct contact with infected individuals, if possible
  • Stay home from work and keep children away from day care or school until symptoms have gone
  • Washing the clothing, bedding, and toys of an infected person
  • Cleaning and disinfecting kitchen surfaces, especially after working with raw meat or chicken, or eggs
  • Avoid eating undercooked foods, especially meat, chicken, and fish
  • Avoid drinking untreated water
  • Avoid eating raw meats, fish, and shellfish unless you are sure that they have been freshly prepared and are from a reliable source
  • Thoroughly wash any fresh produce, such as fruits and vegetables
  • Have your infant or child vaccinated with a rotavirus vaccine, which can prevent gastroenteritis caused by rotavirus
  • When travelling, drink only bottled or boiled water and avoid ice cubes, especially in developing countries. 

A vaccine for rotavirus is available free for New Zealand babies to have before 15 weeks of age.  The oral vaccine is given in two doses (at the 6-week and 3-month immunisation visits) to reduce the incidence or severity of rotavirus infection, which is a very common cause of gastroenteritis in infants and young children.  

Further information and support

Free phone: 0800 611 116
Website: www.healthline.govt.nz

Free phone: 0800 933 922
Website: www.plunket.org.nz 


Mayo Clinic (2018). Viral gastroenteritis (stomach flu) (Web Page). Rochester, MN: Mayo Foundation for Medical Education and Research. https://www.mayoclinic.org/diseases-conditions/viral-gastroenteritis/symptoms-causes/syc-20378847 [Accessed: 07/04/21]

Ministry of Health (2017). Guidelines for the management of norovirus outbreaks in hospitals and elderly care institutions (Web Page). Wellington: New Zealand Government Ministry of Health. https://www.health.govt.nz/publication/guidelines-management-norovirus-outbreaks-hospitals-and-elderly-care-institutions [Accessed: 07/04/21]

Ministry of Health (2018). Rotavirus (Web Page). Wellington: New Zealand Government Ministry of Health. https://www.health.govt.nz/your-health/conditions-and-treatments/diseases-and-illnesses/rotavirus [Accessed: 07/04/21]

NHS inform (2020). Gastroenteritis (Web Page). Glasgow: National Health Service (NHS) Scotland. https://www.nhsinform.scot/illnesses-and-conditions/stomach-liver-and-gastrointestinal-tract/gastroenteritis [Accessed: 07/04/21]

O’Toole, M.T. (Ed.) (2017). Gastroenteritis. Mosby’s Dictionary of Medicine, Nursing & Health Professions (10th ed.). St Louis, MI: Elsevier.


Reviewed: April 2021


Sorting out symptoms of COVID-19, influenza, colds and allergies – News

Hear from UAB experts on the differences of COVID-19, flu, alleriges and colds.

Editor’s Note: The information published in this story is accurate at the time of publication. Always refer to uab.edu/uabunited for UAB’s current guidelines and recommendations relating to COVID-19.

As the COVID-19 pandemic grows, many health care systems across the country are beginning to become overrun with patients experiencing symptoms that are common to many illnesses. To alleviate the pressure on health care workers, here is a guide from the University of Alabama at Birmingham to help you determine whether you have a cold, the flu or allergies or are indeed infected with COVID-19.


Primary symptoms of COVID-19 include:

  • Fever
  • Runny nose
  • Dry cough
  • Shortness of breath
  • Fatigue
  • Body aches

Severe symptoms include:

  • Fever (100.4 degrees Fahrenheit or higher)
  • Pneumonia


COVID-19 is believed to spread from person to person through sneezing or coughing. Respiratory droplets containing the virus can remain on surfaces even after the ill person is no longer near.

“It’s important for us to distinguish the difference between COVID-19 and influenza,” said William Curry, M.D., associate dean UAB primary care and rural medicine. “This will become apparent with shortness of breath.”

“It’s important for us to distinguish the difference between COVID-19 and influenza,” said William Curry, M.D., associate dean UAB primary care and rural medicine. “This will become apparent with shortness of breath.”

If you are experiencing symptoms, call your primary care physician or urgent care facility first.

Influenza (Flu)

Influenza (flu) can cause mild to severe illness, and at times can lead to death. Flu is different from a cold. Flu usually comes on suddenly. People who have the flu often feel some or all of these symptoms:

  • Fever or feeling feverish/chills
  • Cough
  • Sore throat
  • Runny or stuffy nose
  • Muscle or body aches
  • Headaches
  • Fatigue
  • Some people may have vomiting and diarrhea, though this is more common in children than adults.

It is important to note that not everyone with the flu will have a fever. Symptoms typically last one week.

Common cold

While both colds and the flu are caused by viruses and typically lead to a stuffy nose, coughing and a sore throat, knowing the difference between cold and flu symptoms, many of which overlap, can make a world of difference when it comes to figuring out the type of infection you may have.

A cold happens gradually and is felt mainly in the head and the nose, usually with more mild symptoms and fatigue. While you may feel crummy, if you do not have a fever, you can still generally continue to go about your day.

However, if you have the flu, symptoms are much more severe than with a cold and have a quick onset.


Allergies are often confused with the flu, but there are a few important distinctions to make. Typical allergy symptoms are:

  • Sneezing
  • Congestion
  • Runny or stuffy nose
  • No fever

Every season brings with it different allergens, and the most common triggers for spring and fall allergies include pollen from weeds, trees, grasses and mold spores.

Be vigilant

“Knowing the difference in symptoms can help you determine the best route for treatment,” said Molly Fleece, M.D., assistant professor of infectious diseases. “Depending on the type of infection, a physician may be able to prescribe an antiviral drug to help speed up the recovery process by shortening the amount of time that a person is sick and preventing the serious complications that can come with the flu.”

Fleece says many health care providers are utilizing telemedicine and eMedicine during the coronavirus epidemic to provide patients with appropriate therapies while avoiding unnecessary in-person contact. She says patients should call their medical provider before going to a clinic, doctor’s office or emergency department and should follow their instructions. Do not go to a medical facility without calling first. If you have COVID-19, you run the risk of infecting others and continuing the spread of the disease. If you do not have it, you run the risk of becoming infected yourself.  

For more updates on COVID-19, visit uab.edu/coronavirus.

90,000 Muscovites infected with coronavirus talk about unusual symptoms of COVID-19

According to the city authorities, today almost 90% of patients with coronavirus in Moscow have become infected with the “Indian” strain “Delta”. The new mutation from India has atypical symptoms, spreads faster and is more aggressive than its predecessor from China. Infected residents of the capital told Moscow 24 how their disease progressed.

Photo: portal of the mayor and government of Moscow / Denis Grishkin

Intestinal COVID-19

A resident of the capital, Yana Artyuscheva, told Moscow 24 that at the beginning of June her mother fell ill with COVID-19.The woman’s lung was damaged by 75%, the second – by 25-50%, she was admitted to the temporary hospital named after Inozemtsev. After her condition improved, she was transferred to home treatment and prescribed to use an oxygen concentrator – a device that saturates the blood with oxygen.

Yana herself fell ill the very next day after the first symptoms appeared in her mother. In her opinion, the new strain of coronavirus is highly contagious.

“I contacted my mother wearing a mask, did not hug, did not kiss.And after 18 hours I realized that I had been infected. Symptoms are standard, like with a cold: a severe runny nose and cough – one day dry, and in the morning it was severely humid, the temperature was within 38.5. With the pills, she dropped by four hours to 37.4 “, – explained Yana.

In addition to the symptoms of acute respiratory viral infections, the girl had a loss of appetite. In 10 days she lost four kilograms.” I am not fat, and for me to lose even two kilograms Is a whole process. But now the appetite began to return. I’ve been sick for 17 days. The sense of smell disappeared on about the fourth day, now it is slowly returning: I can taste and smell some food, “added Yana.

There is fatigue, but at night my husband takes to walk for 45 minutes, I feel better. And even thoughts scatter like cockroaches. For work, I write the tasks on a piece of paper, otherwise I don’t remember that I need to do something, there is no concentration.

According to a resident of the capital, many of the acquaintances’ illness began with intestinal disorders. Her mother said that in the hospital many vomited and had stomach pains.

“At the pharmacy, the pharmacist told my spouse that she had never sold so many drugs for diarrhea.Her conclusion was that now COVID-19 is intestinal. Our friends in St. Petersburg also started with the toilet. Among our acquaintances, many people fell ill at the same time as my mother and I, in early June, “she emphasized.

Golikova named the regions where the” British “and” Indian “strains were detected

Yana also added, she still suffers from coughs and runny nose. ”The temperature, according to her, is gone, but fatigue, absent-mindedness and a fairly frequent headache, which did not exist before, remained.

I was not in the hospital, I had a lesion of both lungs up to 5% – this is considered healthy. The doctors were surprised.

Yana Artyuscheva


Elena Rybakova from Zelenograd was ill with COVID-19 back in March. During her illness, she had a dry, exhausting cough and wheezing in her chest, but she did not have a fever. A week later, the Muscovite was found to have a lung lesion of 35%. At the same time, she only now showed signs of postcoid syndrome.

“As a result, the intestines were sore and hair began to grow three months after the illness.After each washing of hair – just to tears, “she explained.

Alexander Osyanin from Lyubertsy contracted the coronavirus in May this year. The symptoms were nausea, he was often nauseous and had a fever.

The sense of smell was gone, but nothing more unusual Then, however, the concentration of oxygen in the blood dropped to 86, since the lungs were damaged more than 65%. I began to choke and they put me in intensive care. , but a new problem has arisen: the heart rate at rest is much higher than normal.

“Lying down – 80–90 beats per minute, standing – 100, with a load – 120. The doctors said that it will pass over time, when the lungs return to normal or completely intoxication will subside,” the interlocutor of Moscow concluded 24.

Evolution coronavirus

Photo: Moscow 24 / Anton Velikzhanin

At the end of December 2019, there were reports that people in China were suffering from pneumonia of unknown origin, and in March 2020, the World Health Organization (WHO) announced a pandemic of a new coronavirus.Typical symptoms of the disease: fever, shortness of breath, sneezing, cough, nasal congestion, as well as muscle and chest pain, headache, weakness. Nausea, vomiting, and diarrhea are possible.

As the virus spread across the planet, it mutated and changed its properties. New strains have been found in the Republic of South Africa (South Africa), Brazil, Germany, Japan, the United States and Britain. Moreover, the “British” version, which was given the name “Alpha”, until recently was considered one of the most infectious on the planet and supplanted all other strains.

However, in early October 2020, a new mutation was discovered in the Indian city of Nagpur. The strain was given the name “Delta”. It is known that those infected with it have unusual symptoms that are not characteristic of other variants of the coronavirus. During the illness, problems with the gastrointestinal tract are more often manifested. These can include abdominal pain, loss of appetite, vomiting, and nausea. In addition, some patients experience joint pain and even hearing loss.

According to Indian doctors, in comparison with the beginning of the pandemic, diarrhea and microthrombosis of the lower extremities have become more common in humans.Such microthrombosis can lead, among other things, to the development of gangrene and amputation of the fingers.

The World Health Organization (WHO) reported that the strain from India has already spread to more than 50 countries around the world, including the UK, Italy, the Netherlands, Austria, Norway, Mexico, Russia and other states.

At the same time, a new strain has already appeared in India – “Delta Plus”. Experts believe that the main feature of this mutation is extremely high infectivity. In particular, it is assumed that for infection it is enough to walk past the infected person without a mask.

How to protect yourself from new strains?

Photo: Moscow 24 / Yulia Ivanko

Many experts believe that the only protection against any strain of coronavirus at the moment is vaccination.

Director of the Research Center for Epidemiology and Microbiology named after Gamaleya Alexander Gunzburg said that laboratory studies indicate a high efficacy of the vaccine against all mutations of the virus, including the “Indian” one.

Head of the Ministry of Health of the Russian Federation Mikhail Murashko also noted the importance of revaccination against coronavirus for those who have been ill for a long time or have been vaccinated more than six months ago.

In turn, the chief doctor of the hospital in Kommunarka, Denis Protsenko, explained that infection of vaccinated citizens can occur, but usually those who have managed to be vaccinated only with the first component get sick. He stressed that among the patients who are in the intensive care unit of the hospital, not a single one is vaccinated.

Read also

90,000 Intestinal flu – causes, symptoms and treatment –

Rotavirus infection is an infectious disease caused by rotaviruses.Rotavirus, the symptoms of which are manifested in moderately severe symptoms of enteritis or gastroenteritis, is often combined with respiratory and intestinal syndromes during the initial manifestation of the disease. People of any age are susceptible to rotavirus infection, meanwhile, the incidence is most often noted among children from six months to two years.


Rotavirus infection is also defined as RI, rotavirus gastroenteritis, rotavirus, gastric or intestinal flu.The transmission of the virus is carried out mainly by food, that is, through unwashed products, dirty hands, etc. Thus, infection with an infection is possible in a variety of ways and, again, through products with rotavirus (in particular, dairy products should be distinguished here, which are especially susceptible to infection due to the specifics of their production). It is noteworthy that rotaviruses can live even in a refrigerator for a long period of time, and chlorination of water does not affect them.Contrary to the generally accepted opinion regarding the effect of holy water on viruses due to its altered structure, it should be emphasized that it does not in any way affect the activity of rotaviruses.

Given that rotavirus also provokes inflammation in the respiratory tract, they spread by analogy with the traditional influenza virus, that is, by droplets (coughing, sneezing). The virus penetrates into the mucous membrane of the gastrointestinal tract (GIT), while the small intestine is mainly affected.When the gastrointestinal tract is damaged, rotavirus infection causes a disease such as enteritis, which manifests itself in inflammation of the intestinal mucosa, respectively, after this, symptoms characteristic of rotavirus infection appear. They are expressed in particular in disorders of food digestion, which provokes the development of diarrhea with simultaneous dehydration.


The course of the disease in children is more severe than in adults.The patient becomes the distributor of the virus from its first manifestations, remaining infectious until their complete completion, along with the disease itself. Recovery, as a rule, comes after five to seven days, and the body develops a sufficiently stable immunity to the virus, which makes it possible to assert about the practical impossibility of subsequent infection with rotavirus. The incubation period is from 1 to 5 days, while the acute period begins in children from 3-7 days. The severe course of the acute period of the disease can provoke a subsequent increase and the duration of the course of this period, in this case it can be more than 7 days.It takes about 4-5 days to recover from an illness.

Rotavirus infection is characterized by an acute onset of its own. Its main manifestations are expressed in vomiting and a sharp increase in temperature, diarrhea is possible. Stool with rotavirus infection is quite typical. So, on the first day it is yellow, liquid, on the second and third – clay-like, gray-yellow in color. As a rule, among the sick there is a runny nose and redness of the throat, as well as pain that occurs when swallowing.The acute period is characterized by a lack of appetite, as well as a state of fatigue. Most often, rotavirus infection in children is characterized by the following scenario. So, the morning rise is noted in the child by lethargy and moodiness, in the morning there is nausea. Vomiting is possible (often with mucus), and it is relevant even if the stomach is empty. Appetite is significantly reduced, after eating, vomiting occurs with the release of pieces of undigested food, it also occurs after drinking more than 50 ml of liquid.

Further, the temperature rises, and by the evening it can exceed the mark of 39 ° C. It is noteworthy that the disease is characterized by a stable and high temperature, that is, it is very difficult to bring it down. The duration of the state in a stay with a high temperature can be of the order of 5 days. In addition, symptoms of rotavirus infection are manifested in the form of loose stools with an unpleasant odor, as well as abdominal pain. In very young children, who are not yet able to explain their painful sensations, crying with a characteristic rumbling in the tummy acts as a sign of pain.Babies become irritable and whiny, in addition, they also rapidly lose weight. The second day of the disease (as well as the following days) is characterized by drowsiness. Proper treatment allows you to eliminate all manifestations of the infection in question within up to 7 days, after which full recovery comes. The only thing that can subsequently cause discomfort for some time is loose stools. As for the intensity of manifestations, as well as the severity and duration of the symptoms that rotavirus infection brings with it, in general they are different.It is noteworthy that the symptoms characteristic of the infection are similar to those of other diseases of a more severe nature. As such, one can distinguish, for example, salmonellosis or cholera. It is for this reason that when a child’s temperature rises, as well as in case of nausea and / or loose stools, a doctor should be immediately called at home. In case of severe abdominal pain, an ambulance must be called as an additional symptom. Self-medication should be ruled out until the specific prescription of a doctor.


Correct treatment of rotavirus infection does not cause complications. However, if you exclude frequent drinking with diarrhea and vomiting, especially for children under the age of one year, dehydration can even lead to death (up to 3% of all cases). Failure to take the required measures can also lead to the addition of an intestinal bacterial infection to the virus, which will further complicate the course of the disease and the condition of the child.It is imperative to monitor the child’s temperature, because with a prolonged increase in the range of 39 ° C, the load on the cardiovascular system increases significantly, convulsions are possible.
In general, the transferred disease does not entail any long-term consequences, therefore, one can indicate favorable forecasts for the future.

As we have already noted, the course of the disease in adults is lighter than in children.As for the re-incidence, here, in contrast to them, with a low level of antibodies, immunity is not developed properly against rotavirus infection, and therefore its symptoms may recur again. The specificity of the disease is the same. So, it is still a viral gastroenteritis, whose course affects the gastrointestinal tract, and is also expressed in dehydration and general intoxication. The most common method of infection is contact with contaminated food, but household, water and other contact is not excluded.In adults, intoxication is moderate, with lethargy, muscle weakness, headache and adynamia, the temperature is subfebrile (up to 37.7 ° C). The pharynx acquires swelling, a white bloom appears on the tongue, muffled heart sounds (which is determined on examination by a doctor). The onset of the disease is also characterized by its own severity, which manifests itself during the first days from the moment of infection. Also abdominal pain (epigastric region) occurs. The stool is watery (within 3-9 times a day), nausea and vomiting are also present among the symptoms.With this infection, diarrhea is profuse, characterized by a sharp odor and pallor in color, in some cases an admixture of mucus is possible, lasting up to a week. Given the severity of fluid loss, dehydration also develops rapidly, which, in turn, can lead to circulatory failure and the body’s cessation of urine production (anuria). It should be noted that rotavirus infection is often a relevant phenomenon that arises as a complication of diseases affecting the respiratory tract (rhinitis, pharyngitis).Meanwhile, in many cases, the disease is characterized by an easy course with the absence of its characteristic symptoms in the form of nausea and vomiting, while the stool is liquid and infrequent. In any of the variants of the course of the disease, the patient is a carrier of the infection, respectively, in this he is dangerous for the people around him.


There are no drugs as such to eliminate rotavirus. For this reason, the treatment of the infection is symptomatic, and, therefore, is focused on normalizing the condition by restoring the water-salt balance, which is disturbed due to vomiting and diarrhea.Also, the goal of treatment is to combat the results obtained from the infectious effect in the form of dehydration, toxicosis and disorders in the work of the urinary and cardiovascular systems. The manifestation of symptoms indicating gastrointestinal disorders in a child, in no case, does not allow the consumption of milk and dairy products in any form, because at the moment they are an excellent aid for the growth of bacteria. The child may also have a decreased appetite or it is completely absent – in any case, there is no need to force him to eat.A good alternative to food in this state will be a small amount of jelly (on water, jam and starch, that is, homemade), you can also give chicken broth. In the event that the child does not refuse to eat, you can give him liquid rice porridge without oil (slightly sweetened). The main thing in nutrition is the small volume of portions, which will prevent the gag reflex with gradual saturation.

In addition to dietary restrictions, the main treatment is the use of rehydration therapy, sorbents are also applicable (activated carbon, attapulgite, dioctahedral smectite).Days in which severe vomiting or diarrhea occurs, provide for the replenishment of salts and fluid volumes lost through vomit and loose stools. This provides for the possibility of using a rehydron (sachet per liter of water), 50 ml at intervals of every half hour or hour until the liquid runs out. When you skip taking this solution because of sleep, you should not wake the child, just as you do not need to give him, for this reason, a solution in a volume exceeding 50 ml, because he can simply pull it out.As for the temperature, the important point is the fact that the virus dies at 38 ° C, respectively, the temperature below this limit does not need to be brought down. This applies not only to rotavirus infection, but also, say, the common cold – it is a well-known fact that it is highly discouraged to bring down the temperature before reaching this mark (figuratively speaking, the body and its immune system in particular must be allowed to “fight”). To bring down the temperature to a higher one, the doctor will prescribe suppositories for children under the age of 3 years (cefikon), for older children, paracetamol is prescribed (in accordance with the dosage for a specific age).To bring down the temperature, you can also apply rubdowns using a weak vodka solution (the entire body is wiped without allowing temperature drops in the areas between its individual areas). Rubdown is done half an hour after taking the medicine for the temperature in the absence of a result.
Gastrointestinal disorders with fever are eliminated by taking Enterofuril as prescribed by the doctor in the dosage indicated by him. The drug is intended for the treatment and prevention of infection, as well as to prevent a protracted course in a patient with diarrhea.Abdominal pains are eliminated by no-spa, again, according to the doctor’s prescription and at the dosage indicated by him (usually in the form of a solution).


Considering the greater adaptability of the adult organism to this type of shocks (and the adaptability of the gastrointestinal tract to them in particular), as well as their stronger immunity, the disease proceeds in a mild form of exposure. Given this, special treatment is not required in this case.If the symptomatology is pronounced, then the treatment is focused on eliminating specific symptoms. So, this can provide for the prevention of dehydration due to frequent drinking of saline solutions (based on rehydron), as well as water, tea.

Additionally, sorbents are taken to accelerate the elimination of toxins and improve well-being, as well as astringent medications. An important point is also a restriction in diet (in particular, the restriction is extended to the consumption of foods saturated with carbohydrates in the form of fruits, sugar, vegetables), again, dairy products are excluded.Due to the fact that the disease is contagious, the patient must be isolated during treatment, thereby limiting the spread of rotavirus infection. Hospitalization is possible on the basis of epidemiological and clinical indications. If you suspect the presence of rotavirus infection, you should contact your attending physician (pediatrician) or an infectious disease specialist, who will determine the necessary treatment based on the tests required for this. Additionally, he can refer the patient to a gastroenterologist.


For more information, contact us in a convenient way for you:

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Memo for a pregnant woman

Instruction for a pregnant woman on actions in case of influenza, acute respiratory infection, new coronavirus infection COVID-19

Influenza is an acute infectious disease.The duration of the incubation period for influenza is from several hours to 7 days, most often 2-3 days.

The disease begins acutely with a sharp increase in body temperature to 38 ° C and above and severe symptoms of intoxication (chills, headache, aching joints, pain in muscles and when moving the eyeballs). Further (sometimes after a few days), symptoms of respiratory tract damage (dryness of the mucous membranes of the nose and mouth, sore throat, chest pain, dry cough, shortness of breath) join.With the flu, there may be symptoms of an upset gastrointestinal tract: nausea, vomiting, diarrhea.

The new coronavirus infection COVID-19 often has the same symptoms as the flu. Unlike influenza, the incubation period for this infection is from 2 to 14 days, on average – days. In the initial stages of the disease, sense of smell and taste may disappear, catarrhal symptoms are mild, most patients note severe weakness, shortness of breath, dry cough without phlegm.Disorders of the gastrointestinal tract are common with COVID-19.

Pregnant women, the elderly and frail people, small children are at high risk of severe and complicated forms of influenza. Their disease often has a very rapid (within a few hours) development of the disease. With the new coronavirus infection COVID-19, pregnant women are also prone to severe forms, but the course of this infection in children can be very mild and asymptomatic.

It should be remembered that self-medication or late seeking specialized medical care leads to the development of severe life-threatening complications.

In the absence of timely treatment started, a pregnant woman is at risk of developing complications from the lungs, kidneys, heart and brain, premature birth, thrombosis and thromboembolism, placental abruption, preeclampsia and other obstetric complications. Intrauterine infection of the fetus with the influenza virus in the early stages can lead to developmental abnormalities or miscarriage, in later periods – to intrauterine fetal death, death of a newborn baby after birth, or the development of serious illnesses in him.The effect of the new coronavirus infection on the fetus has not yet been studied.

The Ministry of Health of the Russian Federation has developed effective regimens for the treatment of influenza and the new coronavirus infection COVID-19 in pregnant women with safe drugs that are selected individually by a doctor, so do not self-medicate!

When to see a doctor immediately:

1. Sudden onset of the disease: increased body temperature up to 38 ° C and above, muscle pain, aching joints, headache, severe weakness.

2. Cough, shortness of breath, sore throat, chest pain, runny nose. A cough with streaks of blood in the sputum is especially dangerous!

3. Nausea, vomiting, diarrhea.

4. Abdominal pain, increase or decrease in blood pressure, bleeding from the genital tract of any intensity, discharge of amniotic fluid, change in fetal movements (violent or weak).

If you get sick, you should immediately contact the registry of the territorial polyclinic or call an ambulance at home and be sure to inform your local obstetrician-gynecologist of the antenatal clinic about the disease by phone.

If you are offered hospitalization, do not refuse hospital treatment. Home treatment does not allow time to identify complications and monitor the development and condition of the fetus. In case of an acute infectious disease, you should not visit the clinic or antenatal clinic on your own – medical assistance will be organized for you by mobile teams of medical workers.

If you have had contact with a patient with influenza or a new coronavirus infection COVID-19, you should consult with your local doctor as soon as possible and inform your local obstetrician-gynecologist about this to prescribe preventive measures.

Observe preventive measures for infection with influenza and the new coronavirus infection COVID-19: stay at home in self-isolation, do not visit public places (public events, entertainment centers, shops, pharmacies, hospitals, etc.) unless absolutely necessary.

If you have sick relatives at home, especially – small children and the elderly – do not hesitate to seek medical help.Try to completely isolate from them or contact the sick person as little as possible. Wear and change individual disposable medical masks every 2 hours, often wash your hands with soap and an antiseptic, and ventilate the room. Wet cleaning of the premises is required at least 2 times a day.

Use rinsing of the nasal passages and gargling with preparations based on sea salt, use prophylactic ointments or nasal drops based on interferon 3-4 times a day.Your doctor will recommend other drugs to prevent influenza when you come into contact with someone who is sick.


Only timely access to medical help will save the life and health of mother and child

Ufa infectious disease specialist told what you need to know about the treatment of influenza, SARS and coronavirus

What you need to know about the treatment of influenza, SARS and coronavirus? The most important questions about the upcoming season of diseases are answered by the doctor of the Republican Infectious Disease Clinical Hospital Tatyana Georgievna Mayorova.

How to distinguish flu, cold and coronavirus?

The symptoms of influenza, coronavirus and ARVI are really very similar, therefore, errors are possible when making a diagnosis. But each of these diseases has its own characteristics.

Influenza is most common in autumn and winter. It starts suddenly – the temperature rises sharply, chills, body aches, headache, photophobia, pain and “scratching” in the throat, hoarseness, rough harsh cough begin.

Acute respiratory viral infections occur throughout the year.There are several types of them. Parainfluenza – gradual onset, low temperature, sore throat, hoarseness, “barking” cough. Rhinovirus infection – acute onset, nasal congestion, difficulty in nasal breathing, decreased sense of smell and taste, low temperature. Adenovirus infection – acute onset, high or moderate temperature, sore throat, possible raids in the throat, wet cough, conjunctivitis. Respiratory syncytial infection – dry paroxysmal obsessive cough. These are the most common infections, and many more are known.And each requires its own treatment.

Coronavirus infection COVID-19 – low body temperature, dry cough with little sputum, shortness of breath, fatigue, feeling of congestion in the chest, loss of smell and taste, sore throat to a lesser extent. The most severe shortness of breath develops by 6-8 days of illness. In any case, at the first symptoms of the disease, you must contact either a therapist or a pediatrician! And in no case go to work, do not take your child to kindergarten or school.At least until a clinical diagnosis is established. Firstly, carrying the disease on your feet is doubly dangerous for the body, and secondly, this way you will not infect your colleagues at work.

Is it true that a person can get the flu only if they have symptoms?

No, that’s not true. A sick person begins to secrete influenza viruses on the last day of incubation, that is, even before the first signs of the disease appear.

What to do if someone in the family is sick?

Ideal option – to isolate a person in a separate room, to allocate individual dishes, towels.Be sure to ventilate the room and carry out wet cleaning. If there is a suspicion of a new coronavirus infection, then the whole family must be in self-isolation for 14 days.

Which tablets are the best to drink for treatment?

On the Internet you can find “recipes for the treatment” of coronavirus and influenza. But you cannot use them – in each case, the drugs and their dosage are individual. If you start drinking the wrong pills in the wrong doses, you will only make yourself and your loved ones worse.This is especially dangerous for children and the elderly.

Only a doctor can and should prescribe a treatment regimen!

The only thing: at a temperature you can drink antipyretic. In the early days of the disease, it is advisable not to lower the temperature to 38 degrees, since the body produces its own anti-inflammatory cells to suppress the infection. There are exceptions – if there were convulsions, then it is necessary to lower the temperature after 37.3 degrees. But liquids can and should be drunk as much as necessary.I recommend a warm drink with a lot of vitamins, especially C and P: it is better to drink compote, green tea, rosehip infusion, fruit drinks. A lot of liquid to reduce intoxication, for the proper functioning of vital organs, moreover, in case of illness, especially at high temperatures, a person “loses” fluid with sweat, breathing. And of course, be sure to stay in bed.

Is it true that for prevention you need to eat onions, garlic and ginger?

Onions and garlic are traditional medicines.When added to food in small portions, they can be anti-inflammatory and help fight bacteria, viruses and fungi. Ginger has a tonic effect. It contains substances that are useful for the immune system, so the spice is often used in the season of colds and flu. The antibacterial and anti-inflammatory properties of ginger help get rid of pathogenic microflora and parasites. But these are all preventive measures and full-fledged treatment, they will not replace.

What should be done in order not to get sick?

The least infections are people who care about their immunity and health – those who temper, lead a healthy lifestyle, go in for sports, eat healthy food, walk a lot in the fresh air.During epidemics, avoid crowded places – large events, shopping centers. In shops and public transport, observe the mask regime, change the mask every two hours. Be sure to wash your hands several times a day (especially after outside and before eating), use a disinfectant. And. if you don’t want to get the flu, it’s best to get vaccinated.

Is it too late to get the flu shot?

On the contrary, now is the time. The flu vaccine helps the immune system make antibodies to attack the flu virus.Two weeks after the injection, you will begin to develop immunity, in a month it will work in full force and will last up to a year. That is why the vaccination is recommended to be done annually and no later than the beginning of November.

Why are people over 65 at risk and need to stay at home?

Persons over 65 are more likely to have chronic diseases: cardiovascular, bronchopulmonary, endocrine, kidney diseases, including cancer, which can complicate the course of influenza and other viral infections.Because of this, severe infections, complications, especially severe pneumonia, often occur. Therefore, during the period of epidemics, and especially pandemics, it is better for them to observe the self-isolation regime as much as possible.

Who is eligible for the free vaccination?

– Children from 6 months

– Schoolchildren, students of colleges and universities

– Employees of medical and educational organizations, transport, utilities

– Pregnant women

– People over 60 years old

– Conscripts

– Persons with chronic diseases, including lung diseases, cardiovascular diseases, metabolic disorders and obesity.

You need to contact your local polyclinic.

90,000 When should you call an ambulance and think about hospitalization?

1. Shortness of breath with little physical exertion or at rest. Usually, with COVID, shortness of breath may appear between 4 and 8 days. If it is moderate, does not interfere with the conversation and allows you to climb, for example, 2 flights of stairs, then in young people without chronic diseases this hardly indicates a problem. If shortness of breath appears 2-3 days after the first onset of symptoms (fever, cough), limits physical activity or occurs at rest, this is always serious.

2. Symptoms of dehydration: dizziness, dry mouth, palpitations, rare urination

3. Constantly high temperature above 38.

4. Lethargy, drowsiness, apathy, confusion of thoughts

People at high risk of COVID complications need to be especially careful and for them the early onset of shortness of breath and its intensification should be a clear signal to call an ambulance.

Who is at high risk:

1.Age over 65 90 355

2. People in hospitals, nursing homes, sanatoriums (where they live crowded)

3. Diabetes

4. Obesity

5. Heart disease, including hypertension

6. Chronic lung diseases and severe asthma

7. Chronic kidney disease

8. Liver diseases


10. Chronic smoking

When you DO NOT need to call an ambulance:

1. Temperature up to 38 degrees. I remind you that the NORMAL HUMAN BODY TEMPERATURE is 37.5 when measured under the arm and 38 when measured rectally.

2. Body aches, muscle pain, headache, sore throat, runny nose, loss of smell

3. Cough without shortness of breath

Remember: going to a hospital for treatment automatically today means getting into an aggressive environment of an infectious diseases hospital with colossal risks of nosocomial infections not only with the virus, but also with many other bacteria.They just “go to the hospital”, not “sit down” or “stand”. For recumbent and recumbent patients only. Don’t take the place of someone who really needs it! There is no cure for coronavirus. They are also not in hospitals. Therefore, people with a severe course of the disease go there. We cannot cure the virus, but we can manage complications: give oxygen, treat systemic thrombosis, prevent cytokine storms, treat bacterial complications. A mild and medium-mild course of the disease can be treated at home.How? Yes, in grandma’s ways: bed, plenty of drink, fruits, broths, fresh air (airing rooms), antipyretics (paracetamol) as needed, patience and a positive attitude.

Source: http://involokolamsk.ru/novosti/neravnodushnyy_vzglyad/covid-19-kogda-nado-vyzyvat-skoruyu-i-dumat-o-gospitalizacii

90,000 Prevention of respiratory infections

Influenza, caused by a constantly changing virus, proceeds as a respiratory disease, transmitted from person to person mainly by airborne droplets, as well as through the hands with which we cover our nose and mouth during sneezing and coughing.

Most of the people in the world who are infected with the virus have mild to moderately severe illness, but severe fatalities have also been reported.

What are the symptoms of the disease?

Flu symptoms: fever, cough, sore throat, body aches, headache, chills and fatigue, occasionally vomiting and diarrhea.

Features of the course of influenza In adults, the disease, as a rule, begins suddenly with a sharp rise in temperature, headache, muscle and joint pain.

In children, the flu proceeds in different ways: some become lethargic, sleep a lot, others – restless, irritable, the temperature rises to 37 – 38 degrees, difficulty breathing is noted.

Children under 5 years of age are more likely to develop a serious illness, including pneumonia, than older children. There is a tendency for children with chronic illnesses to develop more severe flu.

The flu virus is contagious! It is known that a person with the flu can be contagious from 1 day before the first symptoms of the disease appear and up to 7 days after the onset of the disease.

To prevent the spread of the influenza virus, you must:

– Get vaccinated against influenza, as the vaccine is the most effective preventive measure.

– Carry out wet cleaning of premises using disinfectants.

– Ventilate the room regularly.

– Teach children to wash their hands often with soap and water for 20 seconds. Parents should also follow this procedure, which will serve as a good example for the children.

– Teach children to cough and sneeze into a tissue or hand. Parents should also follow this procedure, which will serve as a good example for the children. Teach children not to approach patients closer than one and a half to two meters.

– Sick children should stay at home (do not attend preschool and educational institutions).

– Refrain from visiting crowded places.

Observe the rules of fighting the influenza virus, demand that others follow them.By doing this, you will contribute to the fastest elimination of the outbreak of influenza!

REMEMBER! The most effective remedy against the flu virus is vaccination!

Only vaccination will help to avoid a severe course of the disease and death.

You can get a flu shot at your local health center.

Observe the rules of fighting the flu, demand that others follow them.

90,000 How to recognize a mild form of coronavirus – Search


Everyone is afraid of the coronavirus, but the majority of those infected – more than 80 percent – carry the disease easily. Knowing the symptoms is very important, however, as you can become a carrier. Moreover, asymptomaticity is the main reason for the rapid spread of the virus, scientists say. So the main question for today is how to recognize the disease?

So, the symptoms of coronavirus are as follows – fever, cough (usually dry or with a little phlegm), shortness of breath, a feeling of tightness in the chest.Sometimes there may be signs of an acute sinus infection or a general feeling of illness without fever. With a mild form of the disease, the symptoms disappear after a week or two; in severe cases, they may persist for six or more weeks. There are also unusual signs, doctors say. For example, about two-thirds of the patients reported impairment of smell and taste. Diarrhea was noted in 30 percent of cases, RIA Novosti writes.

In a mild form, COVID-19 manifests itself with a slight fever, a headache may be a little, a person gets tired quickly, feels sore throat, coughing, muscle aches, mild symptoms of a cold, pallor, chills.There may be a runny nose.

Advice on how not to confuse COVID-19 with SARS or colds: with SARS and colds, unlike COVID-19, the cough is wet, not dry, and there is always nasal congestion and a runny nose. Similar symptoms include a slight fever and mild to moderate headache.

How not to confuse COVID-19 with influenza: COVID-19 and influenza have similar parameters: “both cause respiratory illness with a wide range of options – from asymptomatic or mild to severe illness and death.”But with the flu, there is no shortness of breath or other breathing problems, and the temperature is almost always high, unlike COVID-19.

The recommendations of the Ministry of Health for medical workers indicate: any clinical manifestations of ARVI, bronchitis or pneumonia in combination with an epidemiological history are considered suspicious symptoms. They can be called:

– visiting 14 days before the first signs of infection in epidemiologically unfavorable countries and regions for COVID-19;

– close contacts in the last 14 days with persons who have fallen ill with COVID-19, or those who have laboratory confirmed this diagnosis;

– close contacts over the past 14 days with persons under observation in connection with the novel SARS-CoV-2 coronavirus.

In any of these cases, if even mild symptoms of a cold appear, the infection should be called a doctor at home and not self-medicate.



Andrey Gorbachev