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Diarrhea throwing up chills: What Is Norovirus Infection? Symptoms, Contagious Period & Treatment


Is it a Stomach Virus or Food Poisoning?

By Dr. Joseph DiFranza
Family Practitioner, Reliant Medical Group

When you are vomiting every hour or going through a bad round of diarrhea, you may not care that much whether you have a stomach virus or food poisoning. However, once you recover you may wonder if you can safely return to your favorite restaurant or barbecue stand again…so it can be valuable to know the difference.

In the United States, the most common cause of a stomach virus (also known as stomach flu) is the norovirus. This is a viral infection that attacks the digestive system (and has nothing to do with the flu virus). Stomach viruses like the norovirus are very contagious and can spread quickly. We’ve all heard the stories about passengers on cruise ships suffering en masse with the norovirus. Unfortunately, people infected with a stomach virus are contagious from the moment they become ill to at least the first few days after they recover. Typical stomach viruses can be spread in a number of ways:

  • Eating food or drinking liquids that have been contaminated with the virus
  • Touching a surface that someone with the infection has touched
  • Having direct contact with someone that has the virus

Stomach viruses can be easily spread through the vomit and stool of infected people, so caretakers should be especially careful and take precautions. Although there are rapid stool tests that can be used to detect the norovirus or rotavirus, your doctor will probably make a diagnosis by asking about your symptoms. Typical symptoms of a stomach virus (also known as gastroenteritis) are:

  • Diarrhea that may be watery or bloody
  • Nausea or vomiting
  • Stomach cramps, muscle aches or weakness
  • A low-grade fever
  • Headaches, as well as light-headedness or dizziness

Food poisoning often causes similar symptoms to a stomach virus, which is why the two conditions often confused. However, food poisoning is caused by consuming food that is contaminated by bacteria, viruses, or parasites. Medical professionals often use the term gastroenteritis to describe both conditions.

The symptoms of food poisoning hit more quickly than those of a stomach virus. While symptoms of a stomach virus can take days to develop, food poisoning symptoms can appear very quickly – within six hours of eating a meal. Food poisoning is usually caused by bacteria. Salmonella and E. coli are two common types of bacteria linked to food poisoning. Usually food poisoning happens to more than one person at a time. (Everyone who eats the contaminated food becomes ill.) Salad greens, eggs, undercooked poultry, dairy products and seafood can easily cause food poisoning if they are not handled properly, whether at home or in a restaurant.

Although the symptoms are similar, there are some ways to tell the difference between the stomach flu and food poisoning.

  • Bloody diarrhea is more likely to be a symptom of food poisoning.
  • Projectile vomiting and stomach cramps are often caused by the norovirus, a type of stomach virus.
  • Stomach viruses take longer to develop but usually go away in about 24 to 28 hours after symptoms begin. Food poisoning often lasts longer.
  • Food poisoning usually affects more than one person and can often be traced to a particular source.
  • A stomach virus is more likely to cause a fever, headache and stomach pain.

Whether you have food poisoning or a stomach bug, the important thing to do is treat it properly. Here are some tips:

  • One of the most important things to do is stay hydrated. Throwing up and suffering from diarrhea means you are losing a lot of fluids. Take small sips of water or broth to stay hydrated. Fluids that contain electrolytes such as sports drinks or coconut water can also be helpful (avoid sugary drinks).
  • If you can safely keep fluids in your system, you can start to eat simple, easy-to digest foods such as toast, crackers, soup, rice and bread.
  • Get plenty of rest. It’s best to cancel any planned activities until you feel better.
  • Don’t take any anti-nausea or anti-diarrhea medication without consulting a medical provider first (some medications can make you feel worse). Adults can take ibuprofen or acetaminophen to relieve symptoms.

Be sure to call your doctor if you have a fever, can’t tolerate liquids, have bloody stools or if your diarrhea is severe or lasts more than three days. If you take a prescription medication for a pre-existing condition but can’t keep it down, you should also contact your doctor.

About Joseph DiFranza, MD

Dr. Joseph DiFranza comes to Reliant Medical Group’s department of Family Practice in Fitchburg with over 30 years of experience in caring for patients. In addition to his work as a primary care physician he is also known around the world for his research on the addictiveness of nicotine and the health dangers of smoking.

Dr. DiFranza believes that proper care is in many ways a negotiation between the doctor and the patient. “As…

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Gastroenteritis | Cedars-Sinai

Not what you’re looking for?


Gastroenteritis is commonly known as an upset stomach (also called traveler’s tummy or stomach flu). This condition is the inflammation of the lining of the stomach and the intestines. It is usually associated with nausea, vomiting, lack of appetite, diarrhea and a stomach ache.


Symptoms depend on the cause and how long the condition has been present, among other factors. The condition usually starts suddenly, sometimes with a loss of appetite, nausea, cramping and growling or rumbling sounds from gas moving through the intestines and diarrhea. If there has been too much loss of fluids, dehydration, headaches, irritability and shock may occur. Other signs include muscle aches, weakness and feeling sick.

Causes and Risk Factors

Although the cause is not always identified, some possibilities include:

  • Infections
  • Viruses
  • Intestinal parasites
  • Chemical toxins found in plants, seafood or contaminated food
  • Ingesting heavy metals (such as arsenic, lead, mercury or cadmium)
  • Drugs that alter the digestive system


To form a diagnosis, doctors will look for a cause, such as the patient’s having:

  • Eaten potentially contaminated food
  • Drunk untreated surface water
  • Recently traveled
  • Contact with people who have similar symptoms

Other tests may include:

  • Samples of stool or vomit to see if bacteria, viruses or parasites are present
  • Blood tests
  • Sigmoidoscopy to rule out other problems


Treatment includes:

  • Bed rest
  • Giving strained broth or bouillon
  • Giving bland foods (e. g., cereal, gelatin, bananas or toast)
  • Drugs may also be given to stop vomiting or diarrhea. Antibiotics may also be given if an infection is suspected.

© 2000-2021 The StayWell Company, LLC. All rights reserved. This information is not intended as a substitute for professional medical care. Always follow your healthcare professional’s instructions.

Not what you’re looking for?

Viral Diarrhea (Infant/Toddler)

Diarrhea caused by a virus is called viral gastroenteritis. Many people call it the “stomach flu,” but it has nothing to do with influenza. This virus affects the stomach and intestinal tract. It usually lasts 2 to 7 days. Diarrhea means passing loose watery stools 3 or more times a day.

Your child may also have these symptoms:

The main danger from this illness is dehydration. This is the loss of too much water and minerals from the body. When this occurs, body fluids must be replaced. This can be done with oral rehydration solution. Oral rehydration solution is available at drugstores and most grocery stores. Sports drinks are not equivalent to oral rehydration solutions. Sports drinks contain too much sugar and too few electrolytes.

Antibiotics are not effective for this illness.

Home care

Follow all instructions given by your child’s healthcare provider.

If giving medicines to your child:

  • Don’t give over-the-counter diarrhea medicines unless your child’s healthcare provider tells you to.

  • You can use acetaminophen or ibuprofen to control pain and fever. Or, you can use other medicine as prescribed.

  • Don’t give aspirin to anyone under 18 years of age who has a fever. This may cause liver damage and a life-threatening condition called Reye syndrome.

Your child is considered contagious for as long as he or she has diarrhea. To prevent the spread of illness:

  • Remember that washing with soap and water and using alcohol-based sanitizer is the best way to prevent the spread of infection.

  • Wash your hands before and after caring for your sick child.

  • Clean the toilet after each use.

  • Dispose of soiled diapers in a sealed container.

  • Keep your child out of day care until he or she is cleared by the healthcare provider.

  • Wash your hands before and after preparing food.

  • Wash your hands and utensils after using cutting boards, counter-tops and knives that have been in contact with raw foods.

  • Keep uncooked meats away from cooked and ready-to-eat foods.

Giving liquids and feeding

The main goal while treating vomiting or diarrhea is to prevent dehydration. This is done by giving small amounts of liquids often. Liquids are the most important thing. Don’t be in a rush to give food to your child.

If your baby is breastfed:

  • Keep breastfeeding. Feed your child more often than usual.

  • If diarrhea is severe, give oral rehydration solution between feedings.

  • As diarrhea eases, stop giving the rehydration solution and go back to your normal breastfeeding schedule.

If your baby is bottle-fed:

  • Give small amounts of fluid at a time, especially if your child is vomiting. An ounce or two (30 to 60 mL) every 30 minutes may improve symptoms. Start with 1 teaspoon (5 mL) every 5 minutes and increase gradually as tolerated.

  • Give full-strength formula or milk. If diarrhea is severe, give oral rehydration solution between feedings.

  • If giving milk and the diarrhea is not getting better, stop giving milk. In some cases, milk can make diarrhea worse. Try soy or rice formula.

  • Don’t give apple juice, soda, or other sweetened drinks. Drinks with sugar can make diarrhea worse.

  • If your child is doing well after 24 hours, resume a regular diet and feeding schedule.

  • If they start doing worse with food, go back to clear liquids.

If your child is on solid food:

  • Keep in mind that liquids are more important than food right now. Don’t be in a rush to give food.

  • Don’t force your child to eat, especially if he or she is having stomach pain, cramping, vomiting, or diarrhea.

  • Don’t feed your child large amounts at a time, even if your child is hungry. This can make your child feel worse. You can give your child more food over time if he or she can tolerate it.

  • Give small amounts at a time, especially if the child is having stomach cramps or vomiting.

  • If you are giving milk to your child and the diarrhea is not going away, stop the milk. In some cases, milk can make diarrhea worse. If that happens, use oral rehydration solution instead. This sensitivity to milk usually resolves as the intestine heals.

  • If diarrhea is severe, give oral rehydration solution between feedings.

  • If your child is doing well after 24 hours, try giving solid foods. These can include cereal, oatmeal, bread, noodles, mashed carrots, mashed bananas, mashed potatoes, applesauce, dry toast, crackers, soups with rice noodles, and cooked vegetables.

  • For a baby over 4 months, as he or she feels better, you may give cereal, mashed potatoes, applesauce, mashed bananas, or strained carrots, during this time. A baby over 1 year may have crackers, white bread, rice, and other complex starches, lean meats, yogurt, fruits, and vegetables. Low fat diets are easier to digest than high fat diets.

  • If your child starts doing worse with food, go back to clear liquids.

  • You can resume your child’s normal diet over time as he or she feels better. If the diarrhea or cramping gets worse again, go back to a simple diet or clear liquids.

Follow-up care

Follow up with your child’s healthcare provider, or as advised. If a stool sample was taken or cultures were done, call the healthcare provider for the results as instructed.

Call 911

Call 911 if your child has any of these symptoms:

When to seek medical advice

Call your child’s healthcare provider right away if any of these occur:

  • More than 8 diarrhea stools within 8 hours

  • Continued severe diarrhea for more than 24 hours

  • Blood in stool

  • Refusal to drink or feed

  • Dark urine or no urine for  or dry diaper for 4 to 6 hours, no tears when crying, sunken eyes, or dry mouth

  • Fussiness or crying that can’t be soothed

  • Unusual drowsiness

  • New rash

  • Diarrhea lasts more than 1 week on antibiotics

  • Fever (see Fever and children, below)

Fever and children

Always use a digital thermometer to check your child’s temperature. Never use a mercury thermometer.

For infants and toddlers, be sure to use a rectal thermometer correctly. A rectal thermometer may accidentally poke a hole in (perforate) the rectum. It may also pass on germs from the stool. Always follow the product maker’s directions for proper use. If you don’t feel comfortable taking a rectal temperature, use another method. When you talk to your child’s healthcare provider, tell him or her which method you used to take your child’s temperature.

Here are guidelines for fever temperature. Ear temperatures aren’t accurate before 6 months of age. Don’t take an oral temperature until your child is at least 4 years old.

Infant under 3 months old:

  • Ask your child’s healthcare provider how you should take the temperature.

  • Rectal or forehead (temporal artery) temperature of 100.4°F (38°C) or higher, or as directed by the provider

  • Armpit temperature of 99°F (37.2°C) or higher, or as directed by the provider

Child age 3 to 36 months:

  • Rectal, forehead (temporal artery), or ear temperature of 102°F (38. 9°C) or higher, or as directed by the provider

  • Armpit temperature of 101°F (38.3°C) or higher, or as directed by the provider

Child of any age:

  • Repeated temperature of 104°F (40°C) or higher, or as directed by the provider

  • Fever that lasts more than 24 hours in a child under 2 years old. Or a fever that lasts for 3 days in a child 2 years or older.

What Is Gastroenteritis? Symptoms, Causes, Diagnosis, Treatment, and Prevention

Gastroenteritis will usually run its course and go away on its own. There’s no specific medical treatment for viral gastroenteritis.

If you have a bacterial infection, your doctor might prescribe antibiotics. (1,2)

Physicians usually don’t suggest that you take antidiarrheal treatments because they can prolong the infection, especially in children. But these medicines may be beneficial in some cases. (1)

When Should You See a Doctor for Gastroenteritis?

Determining when you should see a doctor for your gastroenteritis depends on your age.

For adults, you should see a doctor if you:

  • Have a fever higher than 104 degrees F
  • Can’t keep liquids down for 24 hours
  • Have been vomiting blood or have been vomiting for more than two days
  • Have bloody bowel movements
  • Have signs of dehydration, such as decreased urination, dark-colored urine, dry skin, thirst, or dizziness (2)

For babies and children, you should see a doctor if your child:

  • Has a fever of 102 degrees F or higher
  • Seems to be in pain or discomfort
  • Has bloody or severe diarrhea
  • Has signs of dehydration, such as dry diapers, lack of tears when crying, dry mouth, drowsiness, or a sunken fontanel
  • Has vomiting that lasts more than several hours
  • Is unusually irritable, lethargic, or unresponsive (2)

Self-Care for Gastroenteritis

Certain steps can help improve symptoms of gastroenteritis and prevent dehydration. You might want to try:

Letting Your Stomach Settle Taking a break from eating solid foods for a few hours at a time may alleviate your stomach troubles.

Avoiding Certain Foods and Substances Stay away from caffeine; alcohol; dairy products; and fatty, sugary, or spicy foods until you start to feel better.

Eating Bland Foods Plain foods are less likely to irritate your digestive system. Crackers, toast, bananas, gelatin, rice, potatoes, and chicken are some good choices.

Staying Hydrated Try to drink plenty of liquids. You might want to suck on ice chips or take small sips of water. Clear sodas, broths, and noncaffeinated sports drinks can keep you hydrated. Children might need an oral rehydration solution, which is available at most pharmacies, according to American Family Physician. (7) If you’re breastfeeding or formula-feeding a baby, continue to feed the child as usual.

Getting Lots of Rest Gastroenteritis can zap your energy. Be sure to rest when you can and get a good night’s sleep. (2)

Prevention of Gastroenteritis

Certain precautions may lower your chances of getting gastroenteritis. These include the following:

Wash your hands often. Proper hygiene, which consists of frequent hand-washing, is one of the best ways to avoid catching a virus. Wash your hands for at least 20 seconds with soap and water after you go to the bathroom and before you eat or prepare food. Be sure to wash around your cuticles, under your fingernails, and in the creases of your hands. Also, teach your kids to wash their hands after using the toilet.

Sanitize. Use an alcohol-based hand sanitizer or wipe if you can’t wash your hands.

Keep areas clean. If someone you’re living with has gastroenteritis, be sure to disinfect all surfaces with a bleach-based cleanser. Try using a ratio of 2 cups of bleach to 1 gallon of water.

Avoid contaminated foods or water. Don’t eat or drink any foods that may make you sick, such as raw or undercooked meats. Consume only pasteurized dairy products and apple juice. Rinse all produce well before preparing or eating it.

Don’t share personal items. Avoid drinking from the same glass, can, or bottle as others and sharing utensils or towels.

Stay away from others. If people you know are sick, try to keep your distance from them. If you’re sick, stay away from people, and don’t prepare food for anyone while you’re sick or for two days afterward.

Vaccinate children. A vaccine is available in some countries, such as the United States, to protect babies from rotavirus. It’s typically administered during a baby’s first year of life.

Examine your child’s day care facility. Make sure the center has separate diaper-changing and eating areas. There should also be a sink to wash hands near the changing table. (2,5)

Tips to Prevent Gastroenteritis While Traveling

Many people develop gastroenteritis when they visit other countries. This usually happens because they drink unclean water or eat contaminated foods. This is commonly called traveler’s diarrhea.

When you’re traveling, use sealed, bottled water to drink and brush your teeth. Avoid ice cubes, as they can contain contaminated water.

Be sure to wash or sanitize your hands often while you’re out and about.

Also, play it safe when it comes to the foods you eat. It’s a good idea to avoid raw foods, such as veggies, peeled fruits, and salads. Steer clear of undercooked meat and fish, too. (2)

When to go to Urgent Care for Vomiting: Ross Bridge Medical Center: Internal Medicine

When you feel nauseous and are vomiting, the last thing you may want to do is leave home and go to the doctor. However, sometimes vomiting can be a sign of a health condition that needs medical care. 

And sometimes, vomiting can lead to dehydration, which can also become a serious issue. The fact is, a lot of things can cause vomiting, including the following:

So, how do you know when to go to an urgent care clinic? Here’s what Madhav Devani, MD, of Ross Bridge Medical Center in Hoover, Alabama, wants you to know.

How to treat vomiting at home

You may not feel like eating or drinking anything, but sipping water every so often is important to keep you hydrated. You should also try to drink clear liquids, such as broth and sports drinks to replenish your electrolytes. If you’re hungry, nibble on some dry salty crackers or plain toast.

It’s also important to get plenty of rest. If food or other odors in your home make you nauseous, rest in a quiet room and crack the window for some fresh air. Mint or ginger tea can also help soothe an upset stomach.

When to go to urgent care for vomiting

If you’ve been vomiting for more than two days (48 hours), it may be time to seek medical help, especially if you have any of these additional symptoms:

  • Blood or what looks like coffee grounds in your vomit
  • A high fever
  • Stiff neck
  • Confusion
  • Severe headache
  • Bad abdominal pain
  • Unable to keep down any liquids
  • Dehydration
  • Uncontrolled diarrhea
  • Nonstop vomiting for more than four hours

Watch for these signs of dehydration, too:

  • Dark-colored urine
  • Lightheadedness or dizziness
  • Peeing less than normal
  • Thirst

Young children and the elderly can be more susceptible to getting dehydrated from vomiting, so keep a close eye on them.

When to seek emergency care for vomiting

If the vomiting comes on suddenly or is very intense, this could be a sign that you need emergency medical attention. Sudden or intense vomiting could indicate that you have a serious condition, such as an intestinal blockage.

In general, emergency rooms treat life-threatening conditions. Urgent-care clinics treat serious conditions that aren’t life-threatening. If you’re not sure if you should go to our urgent care clinic or go to an emergency room, call us and we can help you decide.

If you or a family member has been vomiting, and it doesn’t seem like it’s getting better, it may be time to come into our urgent care facility. Book an appointment online or over the phone with Ross Bridge Medical Center today. We’re also available for walk-in visits.

What is Gastroenteritis?

Gastroenteritis refers to an infection of the stomach and the intestine. The most common symptoms of gastroenteritis are vomiting and frequent episodes of diarrhea that occur three or four times every 24 hours.


The symptoms of gastroenteritis usually begin within 24 to 48 hours of infection and may include:

  • Vomiting
  • Nausea or feeling ill
  • Metallic taste in the mouth
  • Three or more episodes of diarrhea every 24 hours
  • Stool may contain blood and mucus
  • Fever
  • Chills, shivering and fever
  • Muscle and body ache
  • Stomach cramps
  • Headache


Gastroenteritis may be caused by viruses, bacteria or parasites. In England, the majority of adult gastroenteritis is caused by norovirus and food poisoning. The infection interferes with the absorption of water from the contents of the intestine, which leads to dehydration and the passing of watery stools.

Gastroenteritis is highly infectious and is mainly spread from person to person via the fecal–oral route, usually as a result of people touching objects after using the toilet without washing their hands. If another person touches their mouth after touching the contaminated object or uses the object to prepare or eat food, they may become infected with the virus.

Diagnosis and treatment

Gastroenteritis often does not require a diagnosis because the symptoms usually clear up without treatment. If symptoms persist, however, a stool sample may sent for analysis to help determine the pathogen that has caused the infection. While viral diarrhea usually resolves with rest and plenty of clear fluids, bacterial diarrhea needs to be treated using antibiotics. In some cases, blood and urine tests may also be recommended to rule out other conditions if an individual is particularly ill or symptoms last for longer than would usually be expected with gastroenteritis.

The majority of people who suffer form gastroenteritis only experience mild symptoms that pass after a few days. However, if patients are severely ill or vulnerable due to older age or another condition, then treatment may be recommended to prevent dehydration which can be fatal.

Dehydration leads to an excess loss of fluid and electrolytes from the body. An oral rehydration solution can be used to treat these individuals. The solution contains a carefully balanced mixture of salt, sugar and essential electrolytes such as sodium and potassium to help replace fluid that has been lost.

Further Reading

What you must know about stomach flu in winter amid pandemic

COVID-19 presents itself with various symptoms like fever, dry cough, and headache. But these symptoms are also common in people who have stomach flu, or any gastrointestinal issues (GI) like nausea, vomiting, and diarrhea. So, how does one determine the difference? Indianexpress.com reached out to medical experts to understand more about stomach flu, which is also known as gastroenteritis and the precautions and treatment for the same.

What is gastroenteritis?

Viral gastroenteritis can be termed as an intestinal infection accompanied by watery diarrhea, abdominal cramps, nausea, fever, and vomiting. “This infection can be a matter of concern during winters. You will also be shocked to know that it can be life-threatening for infants, older adults, and people with a compromised immune system. Hence, it is essential to keep stomach flu at bay by adhering to vital tips like hand washing and avoiding cross-contamination of food,” said Dr Suresh Birajdar, consultant paediatrician and neonatologist, Motherhood Hospital, Kharghar, Mumbai.

What are the causes?

Stomach flu is caused by norovirus, which is also known as the winter vomiting bug. “It can be caused due to coming in contact with an infected person or by eating contaminated food and water. One may experience chills, fever, nausea, vomiting, diarrhoea, aches, and even pains,” he said.

“It may spread to people in confined spaces; which means that transmission from one-person-to-other is also possible. Another cause can be rotavirus. Adults who are infected with rotavirus will not showcase symptoms but still may pass it on to others,” added Dr Birajdar.

How is stomach flu different from COVID-19?

Here’s what to know about stomach flu. (Source: Getty Images/Thinkstock)

Almost 20 per cent of COVID-infected patients are reporting GI symptoms like diarrhoea with no apparent lung issues, said Dr Monika Jain, chief of gastroenterology and hepatology, Sri Balaji Action Medical Institute. Agreed Dr Sukrit Singh Sethi, consultant, gastroenterology and hepatology, Narayana Hospital Gurugram, who shared that a recent study published in the American Journal of Gastroenterology noted how diarrhoea commonly occurs in people with COVID-19, with 19.4 per cent of the subjects experiencing diarrhoea as their first symptom. Additionally, researchers at Stanford University found that up to 30 per cent of patients with mild COVID-19 had symptoms affecting the digestive system.

“If the patient comes with COVID symptoms in the form of cough, sore throat etc., followed by GI symptoms, then COVID is likely to be present and it is easy to detect. But the challenge lies in detecting COVID in cases where GI symptoms are apparent but respiratory symptoms are lacking,” said Dr Jain, adding that symptoms like nausea, vomiting, pain abdomen, loss of appetite are also commonly reported in COVID patients. It is, therefore, imperative to be tested and treated for the same.

Following are the conditions when a patient has to be admitted to the hospital without delay:

*Persistent severe diarrhoea
*Abdominal pain
*Decreased urine output or altered sensorium


Many Indian households rely on home remedies, which may be detrimental, said Dr Sethi. Although stomach flu is curable if treated early, in some cases repeated episodes of vomiting restrict eating and also taking oral medicines. “If diarrhea remains for a longer time and the patient is unable to take adequate fluid, then this condition can affect the kidney as well. The treatment may also involve medicines and therapies, mentioned Dr Birajdar.


*Amid pandemic and COVID related restrictions, following required precautions, and maintaining hygiene is the key.
*Keep washing your hands; don’t touch edibles with unwashed hands.
*Ensure hydration. Drink adequate filtered or RO water
*If repeated consumption of medicines doesn’t cure the symptoms, then one should seek expert help.
*Avoid eating out, or unhygienic and unhealthy food.
*Do not share any personal items with others. You will have to use separate towels, napkins, plates, utensils, and bedding.
*Make sure you clean and disinfect door, knobs, and other surfaces on a weekly basis.
*Opt for ginger or peppermint tea that can help you deal with symptoms of nausea and vomiting. Eating bananas and even rice can be a good option. Give up on spicy, oily, and dairy products.
*Motivate children to stay hydrated by drinking a lot of water, and rest as much as they can. Likewise, older people may have high chances of dehydration so tackle it by fueling the body with water.

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Urology: Diseases and Symptoms | Paracelsus


It is characterized by pain in the lumbar region, with attacks of renal colic, sharp, cramping, often radiating to the lower abdomen, groin, scrotum. When the stone moves, nausea, vomiting, diarrhea are possible, which is often confused with food poisoning. If the outflow of urine is disturbed, the temperature joins, sometimes with chills.

Diagnostics – Ultrasound, general urine analysis, kidney x-ray. The most reliable and informative way to diagnose stones today is computed tomography of the kidneys.Self-medication is fraught with the development of purulent pyelonephritis, which leads to the death of the kidney and the development of urosepsis.

Pyelonephritis (acute, chronic)

Inflammatory kidney disease often accompanies urolithiasis and vice versa – the presence of pyelonephritis is the basis for the occurrence of kidney stones. The main complaints are lower back pain, the presence of edema, increased blood pressure, general weakness, increased fatigue, increased body temperature, especially in the evening.

Diagnostics – general urine analysis, urine analysis according to Nechiporenko, urine culture, general blood analysis, blood biochemistry, ultrasound of the kidneys, x-ray of the kidneys.


Inflammation of the bladder. It can also be acute and chronic. More common in women. Complaints with cystitis are frequent painful urination in small portions, sometimes blood in the urine, increased body temperature.

Diagnostics – general urine analysis, urine culture, ultrasound of the bladder, cystoscopy.


Inflammation of the prostate gland, acute or chronic. Complaints of pain, discomfort in the perineum (the doctor, as if a stake interferes), frequent difficulty urinating, nocturnal urge to urinate, impaired sexual function in the form of accelerated, painful ejaculation, in the presence of a purulent focus – purulent discharge from the canal.

Diagnostics – digital rectal examination, urine analysis after massage of the prostate, examination of the secretion of the prostate gland (microscopy, bacterial culture), blood PSA, ultrasound / TRUS of the prostate

90 000 we read the instructions for the vaccine against COVID-19 • Reading • Sibdepo

Yesterday, on September 21, the first batch of the coronavirus vaccine was supposed to arrive in the Kemerovo region. The arrival of the new medicine at a press briefing was announced by the First Deputy Minister of Health of Kuzbass Elena Zelenina .

“We do not know exactly how many doses of the vaccine will be delivered to us. First of all, health workers will be vaccinated. The issue of giving priority to vaccination for teachers is also being resolved, ”said the Deputy Minister.

Meanwhile, today, September 22, a source in one of the Kuzbass hospitals handed over to the editor a presentation of a new drug, which the management of the medical institution distributed among doctors. We are talking about a vaccine against the coronavirus “Gam-COVID-Vac”, better known as “Sputnik V”.The development of the drug is carried out by the Center. N.F. Gamalei together with the subordinate institute of the Ministry of Defense. We do not pretend to be some kind of expert analysis, but only summarize what we have read.

Is it safe?

A whole block is devoted to the issue of safety in the presentation. The creators of the vaccine write that they have been producing vaccines based on adenovirus vectors since the 1980s. The vector is a defective particle of the adenovirus, lacking the gene for reproduction and therefore does not pose a danger of infection to the body.

“Center named after N.F. Gamalei used adenoviral vectors to develop vaccines against influenza A and Middle East respiratory syndrome (MERS). Both vaccines are currently in the final stages of clinical trials, ”reads the text of the presentation.

It is reported that about 3 thousand people took part in clinical trials of drugs based on adenoviral vectors developed by the Center.

It is important to note here that not the entire medical community was enthusiastic about the above arguments.So, on August 10, the Russian Association of Clinical Research Organizations (AOIC) called on the Ministry of Health to postpone the registration of the drug.

“This is a new vaccine, it has not yet completed testing with even hundreds of people, not to mention several thousand participants in the study accepted in phase III,” – quote from an open letter from AOIC.

The main argument of pharmacists is that the platform on which the coronavirus vaccine is being developed has not yet been studied and is itself at the research stage.

“From our point of view, another unregistered vaccine on which data is still being collected cannot be considered a reason for accelerated registration of a new vaccine, and, therefore, there is still no reason to conclude about its effectiveness,” the pharmacists write.

But, despite the warnings, the day after the publication of the open letter, August 11, the vaccine was registered.

What about side effects?

Complications are divided into general and local.

The general ones include : hypothermia, arthralgia, myalgia, asthenia, high or low blood pressure, decreased appetite, abnormalities in laboratory parameters and immunological status. Less commonly, the subjects had headache, palpitations, diarrhea, pain in the oropharynx, nasal congestion, sore throat, rhinorrhea, urticaria (1 volunteer), abnormalities in the general analysis of urine.

Local : most often the volunteers experienced pain and swelling at the vaccination site after the first injection, hyperemia and hyperthermia after the second injection.Less commonly – induration at the vaccination site, itching.

All of the above was observed in patients 1-2 days after vaccination, the severity of complications was mostly mild, but there were also moderate complications. There are no serious or serious complications. All symptoms disappeared spontaneously or with the help of symptomatic means within 3 days.

Can the vaccine be given to everyone?

Actually no – the vaccine is not for everyone. Only adults from 18 to 60 years old are allowed to give the vaccine.Traditionally, an injection should not be given to people with intolerance to certain components or allergies, as well as to pregnant and lactating mothers.

If a person has already had an acute infectious / non-infectious disease or had an exacerbation of a chronic illness, then the vaccination can be done no earlier than 2-4 weeks after recovery or remission. For mild colds, vaccination can be carried out after the temperature has returned to normal.

With caution

“In chronic liver and kidney diseases, severe disorders of the endocrine system (diabetes mellitus), severe diseases of the hematopoietic system, epilepsy, strokes and other diseases of the central nervous system, diseases of the cardiovascular system (myocardial infarction in history , myocarditis, endocarditis, pericarditis, coronary heart disease), primary and secondary immunodeficiencies, autoimmune diseases, lung diseases, asthma and COPD, in patients with diabetes and metabolic syndrome, with allergic reactions, atopy, eczema (vaccination is advisable due to the high risk diseases and subject to additional medical supervision and prescription of medications) ”, – an extract from the presentation.

Who else can be vaccinated?

The creators write that the following categories of patients are at greater risk without the vaccine than with it:

  • Persons with immunodeficiency;
  • Autoimmune diseases;
  • Diseases of the liver and kidneys;
  • Lung diseases, asthma and COPD;
  • Heart disease, stroke or other cardiovascular disease;
  • Patients with diabetes and metabolic syndrome.

Assessment of the benefits and risks of cancer patients is carried out individually. Vaccination of allergy sufferers is allowed after premedication with antihistamines.

One shot and you’re free?

No again – vaccination will be carried out in two stages. First, a person is given the first injection into the muscle, and after 21 days, the second.

“On the day of administration of each dose of vaccine, the patient must be examined by a doctor: a general examination and measurement of body temperature are mandatory. If the temperature exceeds 37 ° C, vaccination is not carried out.After the introduction, it is recommended to rest for 10-15 minutes. After the vaccine is administered, the patient should be monitored by a healthcare professional for 30-60 minutes It is recommended to refrain from intensive physical education and contact sports, as well as drinking alcohol, 24 hours before and after each vaccination, visiting the bathhouse – 2-3 days. You can take a shower and a bath as usual, ”the authors write.

The exact date of the start of vaccination against coronavirus in Kuzbass is still not known.The full text of the presentation can be found here.

Diarrhea – ProMedicine Ufa

Diarrhea (diarrhea) – frequent, frequent loose stools. Diarrhea is usually accompanied by pain, rumbling in the abdomen, and flatulence. Diarrhea is a symptom of many infectious diseases and inflammatory bowel processes, dysbiosis, neurogenic disorders. Therefore, the diagnosis and treatment of the underlying disease plays an important role in the prevention of complications. Loss of large amounts of fluid in sudden diarrhea leads to a water-salt imbalance and can lead to heart and kidney failure.

Causes and symptoms of the disease

There is acute and chronic forms of diarrhea. Acute diarrhea is associated with intestinal infection and has a viral, bacterial and parasitic nature lasting up to 4 weeks. Chronic diarrhea is associated with diseases of the digestive system and lasts more than 4 weeks.

Acute diarrhea is transmitted by the fecal-oral route, through the consumption of food and water contaminated with microorganisms. The causative agents of diarrhea are: bacteria (E. coli, salmonella, dysentery bacteria, cholera vibrio), viruses (rotaviruses, adenoviruses, enteroviruses) and protozoa (lamblia, dysentery amoeba).

Acute intestinal infection caused by Escherichia coli proceeds with moderate symptoms of general intoxication: chills, weakness, decreased appetite, fever up to 38 C, paroxysmal pain in the lower abdomen, false urge to defecate, loose stools up to 10 times a day. Symptoms last no more than a week.

Diarrhea caused by salmonella, dysentery bacteria is severe. Frequent watery stools up to 10-30 times a day, mixed with blood and pus.Abdominal pain, false urge to defecate. During and after defecation, tenesmus occurs – a pulling nature of pain in the rectal area, the temperature rises to 40 C. Due to dehydration of the body, tachycardia occurs, a decrease in blood pressure, dry skin, and weakness.

Diarrhea caused by parasitic pathogens (amoeba, lamblia) develops gradually and manifests itself as bloody diarrhea, constant abdominal pain.


To make a diagnosis, it is necessary to conduct a bacteriological examination of feces, an analysis of feces for eggs of worms, an analysis of feces for occult blood, a study of feces for dysbiosis.

Coprocytogram – will help to identify the inflammatory process in the intestine, and the degree of food digestion. A general blood test is necessary to determine the signs of acute or chronic inflammation, the presence of anemia. In chronic diarrhea, colonoscopy is performed, sigmoidoscopy – to exclude pathology of the colon.

To assess the motor function of the intestine, to detect organic changes in the intestine, an X-ray examination is performed, and the doctor may also prescribe an ultrasound of the abdominal cavity and small pelvis.


When treating diarrheal syndrome, diet must be followed. Food is fractional, all dishes are steamed or boiled, spicy, salty, fried, smoked food, alcoholic beverages, canned food, carbonated drinks, coffee, chocolate are excluded. It is recommended to take slimy soups, rice porridge, crackers, baked potatoes, boiled eggs.

In case of diarrhea, they take enveloping agents, adsorbents that adsorb and remove viruses, pathogenic bacteria, toxins, intestinal gases from the body.

Pyelonephritis: symptoms and cost of treatment

Inflammation and infection of one or both of the kidneys with bacteria is called pyelonephritis. It is necessary to distinguish between primary and secondary pyelonephritis. Secondary pyelonephritis always develops as a result of impaired outflow of urine from the kidney, due to various reasons (most often a kidney stone). In the primary form of pyelonephritis, the outflow of urine from the upper urinary tract is not disturbed.

The kidneys function and remove waste products from the body in the form of urine.Urine from the kidneys enters the bladder, from where it is excreted through the urethra. The kidneys in their healthy state are sterile, that is, they are not contaminated with bacteria. However, as a result of various reasons (more often as a result of inflammatory processes, anatomical features), bacteria, penetrating the urethra and climbing the walls into the bladder, enter the ureters, and from there directly into the kidneys.

Very often, this variant of kidney infection is possible in women during acute cystitis. Cystitis is very common among women and affects 3 percent of adult women every year.Fortunately for the latter, bladder infections do not always lead to pyelonephritis (about 2 patients in 30 cases of urinary tract infections). The risk of pyelonephritis increases during pregnancy, with urinary obstruction (kidney stones), people with changes in the urinary system (eg, bladder diverticulum), diabetes, and a weakened immune system.

What are the symptoms of pyelonephritis?

The main manifestations of pyelonephritis are pain in the lumbar region or hypochondrium with high fever, chills, usually with frequent, urgent and / or painful urination.Many people experience nausea, diarrhea, and vomiting. Less common symptoms are blurred consciousness or loss of consciousness in the event of sepsis or shock (if bacteria enter the bloodstream from an infected kidney) in patients with severe pyelonephritis.

It is very important to understand that such a disease is serious and even life-threatening, and in the event of such symptoms, you should immediately seek medical help!

There are many other abdominal conditions that can present with similar symptoms.For example, appendicitis, cholecystitis, perforated stomach ulcer. Thus, one of the first steps of the attending physician towards a diagnosis, in addition to collecting complaints, is to determine if the urine is contaminated!

How to treat pyelonephritis?

The main drugs in the case of pyelonephritis are broad-spectrum antibiotics, anti-inflammatory and detoxification drugs! It is necessary to know and remember that the prescription of antibiotics is prohibited until the outflow of urine from the infected kidney is restored! Oral antibiotics are often sufficient, but with severe infection and / or nausea and vomiting, intravenous antibiotics may be required until the patient is fully recovered.A long course of treatment is given to clear the infection and prevent recurrence of the disease, usually a total of 2 to 4 weeks.

They resort to surgical intervention in the presence of purulent-destructive changes in the kidney!

Frequently Asked Questions:

What tests are needed to confirm pyelonephritis?
If you suspect pyelonephritis, first of all, it is necessary to conduct an ultrasound examination of the kidneys and bladder, blood and urine tests with a culture to determine the microflora and sensitivity to antibiotics.The most accurate method for determining the cause and location of the obstruction is computed tomography or multislice computed tomography.

What are the consequences of the transferred pyelonephritis?
With proper and timely treatment, the prognosis is favorable! In the case of a severe form of pyelonephritis with complications, a transition to a chronic form with the appearance of renal failure, arterial hypertension and even kidney death is possible.

What antibiotics should I take?
The bacteria that cause pyelonephritis may be resistant to some antibiotics.In this regard, bacteriological studies of blood and urine are carried out before antibiotics are prescribed, which as a result can help change therapy based on the sensitivity of bacteria to various antibiotics.

What can I do to avoid pyelonephritis?
Since pyelonephritis is detected in women 5 times more often than in men, women must observe certain hygiene rules.
It is necessary to wipe from front to back after using the toilet, as this will help prevent bacteria from entering the anus, which can cause cystitis.Urination after intercourse can help flush out any bacteria introduced into the urethra. Do not use diaphragms and gels that destroy sperm cells, which can cause urinary tract infections.

What if I’m pregnant?
Urinary tract infections during pregnancy are dangerous for both mother and baby and must be treated immediately! There are antibiotics that are safe to use even during pregnancy.

90,000 Pediatricians told about the main symptoms of coronavirus in children | News | OTP

Fever, diarrhea and vomiting are the main symptoms of coronavirus in children.RBC writes about this with reference to a study by a group of pediatricians, which was conducted in four hospitals in Western China.

It was found that fever or fever occurs in 76% of infected children. A severe cough was recorded in 62%, another 12% had diarrhea and vomiting.

According to a study, lung problems in minors appear in the later stages of the disease.

It is specified that during the study, from January 27 to February 23, 34 children aged from one month to 12 years were examined.Minor patients suffered from COVID-19 in mild (18%) or moderate (82%) form.

On the eve of RIA Novosti published the story of two-year-old Maria Parshikova, who died in the Morozov hospital in Moscow. The girl died due to a new disease caused by the coronavirus. This was revealed only after the autopsy. The doctors were unable to make a correct diagnosis at first and then help the child.

According to Anna Parshikova, Masha’s mother, at first her daughter’s temperature rose under 40.

“Two days later, Marusya started running and jumping as usual. But I fell ill: weakness, chills, but low temperature. After the same symptoms appeared in my husband, ” – she said.

Three weeks after she recovered, the girl’s temperature rose again.

“On the third day, my daughter had a severely swollen lymph node in her neck. The doctor from the clinic said: it looks like mononucleosis. Then I saw a rash on the girl’s legs and threw the photo to a friend, a pediatrician, ” – recalls Marusya’s mother.

A familiar doctor advised to urgently call an ambulance, suspecting Kawasaki syndrome in the child.

According to the head of the department of pediatrics at the RUDN University Medical Institute and consultant pulmonologist at the Morozov hospital Dmitry Ovsyannikov, a new childhood ailment was discovered in early spring – a multisystem inflammatory syndrome associated with COVID-19. Another name is Kawasaki-like disease.

He clarified that this syndrome has no prevention, it develops one to six weeks after suffering a coronavirus infection.

It is urgent to go to the hospital if parents observe symptoms such as fever, changes in the mucous membranes (red lips, strawberry or raspberry tongue), swelling of the palms and feet, conjunctivitis, swollen lymph nodes, especially cervical, as well as various rashes in their child …

Stool disorder | Directory of the Kuntsevo treatment and rehabilitation center

What is a stool disorder

A stool disorder is considered to be the malfunction of the digestive tract, intestines or biliary system, in which diarrhea and constipation alternate.


First of all, stool disorder is associated with unhealthy diet and overeating. It is on the food that the consistency and the amount of released masses depend.
Often, a specialist at the Kuntsevo Treatment and Rehabilitation Center records a stool disorder due to an inactive lifestyle. Due to the low activity, the intestinal muscles stagnate.
Other reasons are as follows:

  • parasitic and infectious infection,
  • inflammatory process of the colon or small intestine,
  • lack of enzymes produced by the pancreas,
  • drug abuse,
  • neoplasms that affect the motility of the digestive tract.

If we consider stool disorder as a symptom, then most often it signals dysbiosis, enteritis, giardiasis, biliary dyskinesia, gastrointestinal ulcer, enterocolitis.


Stool disorder is expressed in different ways: diarrhea occurs, constipation appears, or these two disorders alternate. Feces change in color and smell, various impurities appear in the form of blood, mucus, undigested food debris. In addition, the symptoms are as follows:

  • dull, cramping, aching abdominal pain worsens,
  • intestinal cramps respond to flatulence (gurgling, rumbling, bubbling, gas formation),
  • the stomach growls, swells, there is a feeling of fullness and heaviness in the stomach.
  • The clinical picture may be supplemented by lethargy, chills, muscle weakness, fever in case of infection, as well as nausea and vomiting in case of poisoning.

Which doctor treats stool disorder

If signs of a stool disorder are observed for more than two days, you need to consult a gastroenterologist. You can get an appointment with a specialist by making an appointment with a doctor, choose any method:

  • call by the clinic phone +7 (495) 103-99-55,
  • request a call back,
  • leave a request for an appointment, through a convenient form on the website:

Prolonged stool disorder is the most important gastroenterological symptom that should not be ignored.

IMPORTANT! It is likely that, in addition to stool disturbance, a person also feels other manifestations that indicate the pathology of the gastrointestinal tract – bloating, soreness in different parts of the intestine, impaired appetite and other signs.

Self-medication for violation of the stool is not worth it, because a symptom can appear with the development of many different pathologies of the gastrointestinal tract. Make an appointment with an experienced and qualified gastroenterologist at the Kuntsevo Treatment and Rehabilitation Center to get rid of your stool disorder!


Treatment methods

Based on the results of tests and ultrasound, the doctor prescribes medication.Based on the clinical case, stool disorders are treated with antibiotics, sorbents, prebiotics, plant-based laxatives, and detoxification agents. diarrhea is eliminated by rehydration, constipation – with an enema. With severe pain syndrome, antispasmodics are prescribed. The specialist individually selects the drug and its dosage for each patient.
When a serious stool disorder is detected against the background of inflammatory diseases of the gastrointestinal tract, then after stopping the acute period, the gastroenterologist prescribes a course of exercise therapy and physiotherapy.

Rehabilitation and Lifestyle Recovery

It is impossible to normalize stool without correcting nutrition and drinking regimen. Be sure to eat fractionally and refuse heavy food. You need to move more, lead an active lifestyle.

Why it is necessary to treat stool disorder with us

Often, a stool disorder is a symptom of a disease, and only an experienced gastroenterologist can identify the pathology. It is not easy to find a qualified specialist in Moscow. In the Kuntsevo treatment and rehabilitation center, located near the Molodezhnaya metro station, a gastroenterologist with ten years of experience is received.Our clinic provides a full range of services, so the patient does not need to think about where to undergo examination, treatment and rehabilitation.

Malaria prevention – Disease prevention and healthy lifestyle – Budgetary institution of the Khanty-Mansiysk Autonomous Okrug – Ugra

Prevention of malaria

(Instruction for the population)

With the onset of summer, the flow of tourists to countries with a tropical climate increases.

So that your holiday abroad is not overshadowed by illness, you should be aware of preventive measures for the most common exotic diseases. With the primary symptoms of the disease, they should be recognized in time. It’s about malaria.

Beware of the bloodsucking!

Malaria is a parasitic disease with an acute and sometimes protracted course, characterized by the presence of febrile attacks, enlarged liver, spleen, and the development of anemia. The causative agents of malaria belong to the genus Plasmodium.P.vivax. The causative agent of three-day malaria is widespread in Asia, Oceania, South and Central America. P.ovale (ovale malaria) – the causative agent of three-day malaria; its range is mainly limited to Equatorial Africa, with isolated cases reported on the islands of Oceania and Thailand. P.malariae – the causative agent of four-day malaria and P.falciparum – the causative agent of tropical malaria are widespread in aquatorial Africa, as well as in some countries of Asia, Oceania, South and Central America.

Infection with malaria occurs when a person is bitten by a mosquito of the genus Anopheles, which is the carrier of the pathogen. The mosquito itself becomes infected by feeding on the blood of a patient with malaria or a carrier of the genital forms of Plasmodium malaria.

Awesome chills!

Malaria is characterized by a period of acute attacks of fever (primary attack) followed by a febrile period. In some untreated or insufficiently treated patients, fever resumes 7-14 or more days within 2-3 months after the termination of the primary attack (early relapses).After an incubation period of varying duration (from 1 to 6 weeks, depending on the type of pathogen), non-immune patients have characteristic chills, headache, low-grade fever, malaise, muscle pain, and sometimes diarrhea (in tropical malaria).

Malarial attack (paroxysm) proceeds with a change of phases: tremendous chills, fever, sweat. In the chill phase, the skin is pale, cold, rough (“goose”) with a cyanotic tinge. The chill lasts from 10-15 minutes to 2-3 hours and is accompanied by a very rapid rise in temperature (up to 39-40 ° C and above).After a few hours, the fever is replaced by profuse sweating. In general, malarial paroxysm lasts 6-12 hours, and in tropical malaria – up to a day or more. After an attack, a period of temperature normalization begins. It lasts 48 hours for three days of malaria and 72 hours for four days.

Patients are treated in an infectious diseases hospital with special antimalarial drugs. The success of malaria treatment is largely determined by the timeliness and correct choice of the drug.


When staying in areas where malaria is common, the following precautions should be taken:

– sleep in rooms where windows and doors are covered with a net or mesh canopy, preferably impregnated with an insecticide;

– from dusk to dawn to dress so as not to leave arms and legs open;

– treat open areas of the body with a repellent, especially while staying outdoors in the evening and at night;
– prophylactic antimalarial drugs are recommended for people traveling to areas of medium and high endemicity.

WHO estimates that about 3 billion people live at risk of contracting malaria, almost half of them live in underdeveloped countries in Africa, Southeast Asia and Latin America, where the risk of infection is high.

Annually in the world up to 200 million cases of malaria are registered, of which about 660 thousand are fatal.

Strengthening malaria control measures, primarily preventive measures (use of permethrin-impregnated canopies that protect against mosquito bites, preventive treatment of children and pregnant women) helps to reduce the burden of the disease.They have reduced malaria deaths globally by 25% since 2000 and by 33% in the African Region.

The main factors contributing to the spread of malaria in the world are: intensive migration of the population (tourists, seasonal workers, merchants), global climate change (increased air temperature and increased rainfall), resistance of malaria mosquitoes to insecticides and malaria plasmodia to drugs.

As part of the implementation of the decree of the Chief State Sanitary Doctor of the Russian Federation of December 25, 2007 “On strengthening measures to prevent parasitic diseases and elimination of malaria in the Russian Federation” cases of three-day malaria, phenological observation and mosquito control measures, improving the quality of laboratory diagnostics of malaria and preventing deaths from tropical malaria.

As a result of the measures taken, the incidence of malaria in the Russian Federation over the past six years has decreased from 201 cases. (in 2005) up to 87cl. (in 2012). No local transmission cases were reported in 2012.

The import of malaria was registered from a number of African countries (Ghana, Guinea, Kenya, Cameroon, Cote d’Ivoire, Liberia, Mozambique, Nigeria, Senegal, Sudan, Sierra Leone, South Africa, Equatorial Guinea), from the countries of South America (Brazil, Guyana), from India, Pakistan, Afghanistan.

The importation of malaria from neighboring countries (Tajikistan, Azerbaijan, Uzbekistan) has practically stopped due to intensive anti-epidemic and preventive measures carried out in these countries under the leadership and support of the World Health Organization.

Malaria is a tropical parasitic disease characterized by attacks of fever, anemia and enlarged spleen. There are 4 types of malaria: tropical, three-day, four-day, and oval malaria.The most difficult is tropical. Malaria is transmitted from a sick person to a healthy person when female mosquitoes suck blood. There are two more ways of infection – through blood transfusion and intrauterine, when a woman with malaria infects her unborn child. The parasites that got into the human body during the bite of malaria mosquitoes circulate in the blood, and then are brought into the liver, in the cells of which they develop.

The incubation (latent) period of development of parasites ranges from seven days to three years.This amplitude depends on the type of malaria; in tropical malaria, the incubation period is short. The disease begins with symptoms of general intoxication (weakness, weakness, severe headache, chills). Then there are repeated attacks of fever, the body temperature rises to 40 degrees and above, lasts for several hours and is accompanied by chills and heavy sweating at the end of the attack. If there is a clear recurrence of such attacks after a certain time – every day (every other day or two days), you should think about the possible illness of malaria and immediately seek medical help.

Tropical malaria is the most severe form of malaria. The incubation period ranges from 8 to 16 days. Headache, fatigue, nausea, and decreased appetite may occur 3-4 days before the development of clinical symptoms. The initial manifestations are characterized by severe chills, a feeling of heat, and severe headache. In some cases, attacks of malaria occur without chills. Fever at the onset of the disease can be constant without severe attacks, which makes diagnosis difficult. If diagnosed late and treatment is delayed, tropical malaria will take on a “malignant course.”The risk of developing “malignant” malaria is especially increased if treatment is delayed for more than 6 days from the onset of the disease. Mortality in tropical malaria ranges from 10 to 40%, depending on the time of initiation of treatment, the correct selection of antimalarial drugs and the equipment of the clinic. Children, pregnant women, and non-immune adults are more likely to develop severe tropical malaria. Cerebral malaria is the most common complication of tropical malaria, with convulsions, rigidity, and retinal hemorrhages.

Malaria parasites are found in the blood of a sick person and can only be detected by examining the blood under a microscope.