Diet controlled type 2 diabetes: The prevention and control the type-2 diabetes by changing lifestyle and dietary pattern
The prevention and control the type-2 diabetes by changing lifestyle and dietary pattern
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Controlling type 2 diabetes: With and without medication
Many people may wonder how to control type 2 diabetes without medications. A healthy diet and lifestyle could help people manage type 2 diabetes and other aspects of their health.
To help people keep blood sugar — blood glucose — within a healthy range, the American Heart Association (AHA) recommends:
- engaging in weight management
- eating a nutritious diet
- getting regular exercise
- stopping smoking
- reducing stress
If making dietary and lifestyle changes do not help maintain a healthy blood sugar level, doctors may advise a person to take medications. However, if someone receives a diabetes diagnosis as an older adult and their blood sugar is only mildly elevated, medications may not be necessary.
In this article, we examine how to control type 2 diabetes without medication. We also look at the causes of type 2 diabetes and when people may need medication to manage their condition.
A 2020 study reports that healthy lifestyle practices could benefit people with type 2 diabetes or risk factors for the condition. Such measures may delay or prevent its development, as well as treat or potentially put it into remission. This method of controlling blood sugar can be so effective that the study’s authors call it lifestyle medicine.
The following healthy lifestyle practices may help reduce blood sugar levels:
1. Pursue weight management
In people with overweight or obesity, significant weight loss may reduce blood sugar from the diabetic to the nondiabetic range.
Two ways to manage weight are eating a healthy, balanced diet and engaging in regular exercise. The key to weight loss involves consuming fewer calories than the body uses for activities and physiological processes.
2. Eat a healthy diet
A healthy diet consists of eating nutritious foods in appropriate portion sizes while avoiding or limiting non-nutritious foods.
Foods for people to eat may include:
- whole grains, such as oatmeal, brown rice, and whole grain bread
- fruits and vegetables
- non-fried fish that is high in omega-3 fatty acids, such as salmon and lake trout
- lean meat, such as sirloin and white meat from chicken or turkey
- nontropical vegetable oils, such as olive oil
- unsalted nuts and seeds
- legumes, such as beans and peas
- low fat dairy products
Foods and ingredients for people to limit may include:
- sugary foods and beverages, such as candy, cakes, jelly, honey, sodas, sweet tea, fruit drinks, and concentrated fruit juices
- sweet food additives, such as high fructose corn syrup, dextrose, maltose, fructose, and sucrose
- processed and fatty meats, such as bacon, hot dogs, and fatty cuts of beef and pork
- salty foods
- partially hydrogenated and trans fat foods, such as shortening, hard margarine, microwave popcorn, frozen pizzas, desserts, and coffee creamer
- saturated fat, such as foods containing palm oil or coconut oil
The American Diabetes Association (ADA) recommends a diet similar to the Mediterranean diet, which focuses on:
- whole grains
- olive oil
- fatty fish
A 2020 review notes that following this eating plan improves blood sugar control.
3. Get regular exercise
Exercise promotes blood sugar management and burns calories, which contributes to weight loss. Physical activity also increases insulin sensitivity, which helps blood sugar to enter the cells from the bloodstream.
People should aim to get 30 minutes of moderate physical activity per day on most days, totaling at least 150 minutes each week. Experts classify a brisk walk as moderate exercise. Alternatively, 75 minutes per week of vigorous aerobic activity is equally beneficial.
4. Stop smoking
Doctors advise people to stop smoking to help blood sugar control for several reasons. Smokers have a 30–40% higher risk of developing diabetes than nonsmokers. Smoking also makes exercise more challenging.
Smoking also raises blood sugar temporarily, which poses an additional challenge in maintaining nondiabetic blood sugar levels. This increases the likelihood of a person developing complications of diabetes, such as kidney disease and nerve damage.
5. Manage stress
Research in 2019 suggests that although stress does not cause type 2 diabetes, it can worsen it. Stress stimulates the release of hormones that interfere with the body’s blood sugar regulation. It also makes a person more likely to engage in practices that make it harder to manage blood sugar, such as overeating and smoking.
One way to reduce stress involves taking a break from electronics and spending time in nature.
According to 2020 research, a person only needs medication if lifestyle practices do not put blood sugar levels in the nondiabetic range.
A doctor’s recommendation for medication for someone with type 2 diabetes may depend partly on their age when they receive a diagnosis. While many older adults with the condition have slightly higher blood sugar levels, this rarely causes problems.
On the other hand, doctors may prescribe medications to people who receive a diagnosis by the age 40 or 50. Even slightly elevated blood sugar levels can eventually lead to health problems, such as damage to nerves or blood vessels. Such damage may result in complications, such as kidney disease. The purpose of medications is to delay or prevent the harmful effects of diabetes.
According to the ADA, type 2 diabetes is progressive, making it more difficult to manage over time. Improvements in medical care enable people with the condition to live longer. However, despite the advancements, type 2 diabetes may reduce life expectancy by up to 10 years.
The effects of lifestyle practices alone on type 2 diabetes have not undergone extensive research, limiting statistics on the results of such interventions. However, a 2018 clinical trial examined the outcomes of a weight management program on 306 individuals with type 2 diabetes. After 12 months, the authors found about half the individuals who participated in the program went into remission.
Researchers cannot quantify the exact improvement that each healthy lifestyle practice may bring at this point in research. However, the outlook for people with type 2 diabetes who have a healthy lifestyle is better than those who do not.
Type 2 diabetes is a condition that involves high blood glucose or blood sugar.
The pancreas makes insulin, a hormone that enables cells to take glucose from the bloodstream for energy. In type 2 diabetes, the cells do not respond normally to insulin, called insulin resistance. As a result, the pancreas makes more insulin in an attempt to get glucose inside the cells.
After some time, the pancreas cannot keep up, and blood sugar increases, which leads to prediabetes and diabetes.
Symptoms frequently develop over several years, including:
- increased thirst and urination
- blurry vision
- increased hunger
- slow healing of sores
- numbness or tingling in hands or feet
- weight loss without trying
- dry skin
- more infections than usual
Experts advise people interested in learning how to control type 2 diabetes without medications to adopt a healthy lifestyle.
Significant weight loss can help control blood sugar levels in some people. Two ways to pursue weight management involve people eating a healthy, balanced diet and getting regular exercise.
Good nutrition is vital for a person with type 2 diabetes. Some evidence suggests that a nutritious eating plan, such as the Mediterranean diet, may help control blood sugar in ways other than weight loss.
Type 2 Diabetes Diet: Do’s and Don’ts
November 14 is World Diabetes Day. One of the important points in the treatment of diabetes is diet. We tell you which foods are allowed for type 2 diabetes, and which ones are better to forget about.
A person diagnosed with type 2 diabetes manages to maintain normal blood glucose levels only with the help of a special diet. But in order to achieve excellent results in compensating for the disease, it is important to know what should not be eaten with diabetes, which foods should be limited as much as possible, and which can be consumed without restrictions. It is helpful for people with diabetes to keep a food diary to help control their diet.
What you can eat:
- Animal and vegetable proteins (meat, poultry, fish, eggs, cheese, cottage cheese, legumes).
- Fats of animal and vegetable origin (butter, sour cream and cottage cheese with a high fat content, vegetable oils, nuts).
- Only slow carbohydrates (cereals, vegetables, greens).
- Spices, spices, herbs.
What not to eat:
Products that aggravate carbohydrate metabolism disorders. These include:
- Foods with a high glycemic index (flour, sugar, chocolate, white rice, potatoes, cooked beets, carrots, etc.). Carbohydrates in them are quickly broken down and cause sharp jumps in blood glucose.
- Products containing lactose. It is recommended to limit the consumption of milk and liquid dairy products to 100 ml per day.
- Fructose reduces the sensitivity of cells to insulin, which is already reduced in type 2 diabetes. Therefore, fruits, dried fruits, honey should be limited in the diet (15 g of fructose per day). For example, very sweet fruits (bananas, pears, grapes) should be excluded. It is better to give preference to berries. And use this group of products as a dessert, do not use it as an independent dish. Many snack on fruit – this is wrong.
Type 2 Diabetes Food Chart
Type of permitted product
Limited: apricots, cherry plums, grapefruits, oranges,
Cucumbers, broccoli, green peas, cauliflower,
Low-fat milk, cottage cheese, fermented milk products,
Soybeans, beans, peas, lentils, buckwheat, oatmeal,
Meat and fish
Lean beef, turkey, chicken, rabbit, white
Special diabetic products only
Unsweetened tea, coffee, compotes, herbal decoctions
Whole wheat bread
Eggs, vegetable oils
Weekly menu for type 2 diabetes mellitus
This is what an approximate diet for a type 2 diabetic looks like. Doctors recommend not to make a menu on your own, but to seek advice from nutritionists.
Breakfast: buckwheat porridge
Lunch: beef stew with vegetables
Snack: baked apple with cottage cheese
Dinner: pink salmon on vegetable pillow
Breakfast: barley porridge
Lunch: onion soup or beef with vegetables
Snack: cabbage salad with apple
Dinner: lean fish
Breakfast: millet porridge with pumpkin
Lunch: chicken fillets and cereals to choose from allowed
Snack: cottage cheese with berries
Dinner: lean fish or turkey with stewed vegetables
Breakfast: scrambled eggs (no more than two eggs per serving)
Lunch: chicken with grits
Afternoon snack: cheesecakes
Dinner: lean beef and vegetables
Lunch: white fish fillets in oven with ovo shami
Snack: cabbage salad
Breakfast: any porridge from the list of allowed
Lunch: mashed vegetable soup in a slow cooker
Snack: kiwi smoothie
Dinner: chicken or turkey with vegetables 9 0003
Lunch: chicken soup
Afternoon snack: salad with celery and walnuts
Dinner: lean fish fillet with vegetables
Results of diet 9 0003
Proper nutrition for type 2 diabetes helps to lose weight, and thus thereby reduce the insulin resistance of cells, in other words, susceptibility to insulin.
Dieting for Type 2 Diabetes may seem tedious at first, but it will eventually become a way of life.
Diabetes is incurable, but it can be controlled and lead a full life. In patients who follow the rules and recommendations, blood sugar normalizes, the general condition of the body improves and immunity increases. A person can also get rid of extra pounds and all sorts of problems associated with diabetes.
You need to remember the main rule – food should be varied. It is important that with food a person receives vitamins and other useful substances necessary for the life of the body.
Natalya Belyaeva, dietitian:
“Type 2 diabetes belongs to the NCD group of diseases – non-communicable diseases characterized by a long duration and slow progression. By the way, in addition to type 2 diabetes, this group also includes cardiovascular diseases, oncological diseases and chronic respiratory diseases.
Nutrition as a component of a proper lifestyle in type 2 diabetes mellitus, of course, must be organized in accordance with the existing metabolic disorders – be complete, contain all macro- and micronutrients. It is important with nutrition not only to correct the disturbed carbohydrate metabolism in such patients, but also to prevent the formation of other problems “ .
According to the site “HEALTHY EATING” (https://healthy-food.rf)
menu for a week, what you can and cannot eat, reviews of nutritionists 9 0001
Benefits of diet for diabetes
Diabetes mellitus is an endocrine disease in which carbohydrate metabolism is disturbed. The pancreas produces the hormone insulin, which is responsible for lowering blood sugar levels. A lack of insulin causes a state of hyperglycemia – an increased concentration of glucose in the blood.
The most common form of the disease is type 2 diabetes , which most often occurs in people over forty years of age, mainly in women. The development of the disease contributes to reduced physical activity, obesity, genetic predisposition, menopause and subsequent hormonal disorders. Cells do not respond to insulin and do not absorb glucose from the blood, although the amount of the hormone is still normal. The concentration of sugar rises, in response to insulin, even more is produced. Cells react even weaker to an increased dose of the hormone, insulin resistance occurs.
Since cells do not receive enough glucose, despite a large amount of it in the blood, patients often experience hunger and weakness, eat even more carbohydrates, which aggravates the situation and leads to obesity. Such conditions are well corrected by proper nutrition, that is, a decrease in the amount of carbohydrates consumed in order to reduce the load on the pancreas and not cause a rise in blood sugar.
Type 1 diabetes occurs in children and young adults and is caused by a pathological condition of the pancreas that produces little or no insulin. Such patients are forced to artificially introduce this hormone for life.
There is also gestational diabetes in pregnant women . Hormones released during childbearing block insulin, as a result of which sugar rises. Usually, after childbirth, the condition returns to normal on its own.
The main problem in any type of diabetes is a pathologically high level of glucose in the blood and carbohydrate starvation of cells that receive less sugar. To reduce sudden spikes in sugar, insulin and reduce the load on the pancreas, reduce the amount of carbohydrates consumed, focusing on “slow carbohydrates” that give a feeling of satiety. Fatty foods are also excluded, since they increase the secretion of pancreatic enzymes and lead to the same increased load on the organ.
Disadvantages of the diet for diabetes mellitus
The main disadvantage is dietary restrictions. A large number of products are excluded, the method of their preparation becomes as sparing and dietary as possible, which may seem tasteless to those who are accustomed to otherwise. Also, fractional frequent meals for a uniform intake of carbohydrates cause certain difficulties during the day, when it is difficult to find the right snack that does not contain sugars.
In severe diabetes, the glycemic index of each food item should be monitored, excluding anything where the sugar concentration is too high.
Many artificial sweeteners to create a sweet taste without raising blood glucose levels are harmful to the body. Natural substitutes are recommended, for example, stevia extract, erythritol. However, natural preparations can also cause sugar rises. According to numerous studies, fructose also contributes to obesity, although to a lesser extent than sucrose. Before and after meals, sugar is usually measured with special devices.
Diabetes Food Chart
Modern approaches to therapy include reducing the carbohydrate load in the diet to 5-7%, and increasing the consumption of vegetable fats. As a result of such a correction, the body receives a full range of useful micro and macro elements, without a large amount of carbohydrates, thereby reducing the carbohydrate load and the need for insulin preparations. Of course, in type 1 diabetes, it is impossible to completely give up insulin, but the development of type 2 diabetes can be halted and even reversed.
Patients are prescribed Diet No. 9 or its variations. The amount of carbohydrates is adjusted by the doctor depending on the degree of the disease, the weight of the patient.
In the past, diabetics were advised to completely eliminate easily digestible, fast carbohydrates. But today, WHO prioritizes such a concept as the quality of human life, so doctors are gradually abandoning radical formulations such as “this is strictly forbidden to you”, “forget about sweets”, etc.
Studies have shown that such restrictions are stressful for a person, and stress can lead to breakdowns, depression, so that life with continuous “no” will not be a joy. In addition, we still need sugar, because carbohydrates are energy for life. You cannot replace them with proteins and fats.
Therefore, the diet for diabetics is based on the glycemic index of all products. In fact, this index reflects the rate at which sugar from them is absorbed into the blood. In foods with a high index – jam, cookies, cakes – the absorption rate is high. Products with a low index – cereals, fruits – are lower. The slower the rate of absorption, the easier it is for the pancreas to cope with the load. So, foods with a GI of up to 55 are broken down gradually and almost do not cause an increase in sugar.
The essence of the diet is to consume more foods with a low glycemic index during the day and to dose meals.
— Both white bread and black bread are carbohydrates. The use of both increases blood sugar levels, the difference is only in speed. The first has a little more, and the second has a little less, so we say that black bread is preferable for diabetics, ”endocrinologists explain.
What you can eat
Cooking increases the GI of food, so it is desirable to eat a lot of food raw or not boil food.
|Type of permitted product||Products|
|Fruit||grapefruits, oranges, lingonberries, cranberries, peaches, apples, plums, sea buckthorn, red currants, cherries, gooseberries|
|Vegetables||Cucumbers, broccoli, green peas, cauliflower, lettuce, herbs, zucchini, green peppers, mushrooms|
|Dairy products||Low-fat milk, cottage cheese, fermented milk products, some low-fat cheese|
|Cereals||Soybeans, beans, peas, lentils, buckwheat, oatmeal, barley, occasionally pasta|
|Meat and fish||Lean beef, turkey, chicken, rabbit, white fish|
|Sweet||Only special diabetic products and extremely limited|
|Drinking||Unsweetened tea, coffee, compotes, herbal decoctions|
|Bakery products||Whole wheat bread|
|Miscellaneous||Eggs, vegetable oils|
What not to eat
Doctors are now trying not to operate with such formulations. Firstly, with type 1 diabetes, you can eat almost everything, but you have to count bread units and inject insulin. Secondly, even with type 2 diabetes, in which diet plays a role, you can eat varied, but you should try to limit fast carbohydrates, fatty foods and other foods from the table below.
However, even here there are nuances. Take at least the same fatty foods. It is high in calories, and obesity often goes hand in hand with type 2 diabetes, so the number of calories for such people needs to be reduced. But at the same time, according to doctors, fats limit the absorption of sugar, so mashed potatoes on water will raise sugar levels faster than fried potatoes in oil.
And, of course, the degree of restriction of certain products depends on human activity. If you play sports, you need more carbohydrates than knowledge workers.
|Sweet||ice cream, syrups|
|Vegetables||Severely restrict potatoes, carrots and beets|
|Cereals||Corn, semolina, rice|
|Bakery products||Fresh pastries from fine flour|
|Meat and fish||Lamb, fatty roast meat, fatty red fish|
|Drinks||Juices, sodas, alcohol ready meals, sausages, dumplings, french fries, etc.|
|Fruit||Grapes, watermelon, melon, sweet and canned fruit|
|Miscellaneous||Pickles, marinades, spicy 049|
Weekly menu for diabetes diet
The main goal is to prevent large fluctuations in blood glucose. For this, it is assumed that all food is divided into small parts that are consumed all day. At least 5 meals. As snacks, you can use cottage cheese, kefir, low-fat cheese, nuts.
In the nutrition menu for diabetics, the amount of carbohydrates should be evenly distributed, which is determined by the doctor for each patient separately. In type 1 diabetes, when the patient is dependent on artificial insulin administration, a low-carbohydrate diet may reduce the dose of the required drug, since blood sugar will be lower.
Reducing the amount of carbohydrates in the diet, which increase blood sugar, reduces the need for medication. The use of the same dosages as before the transition to a low-carbohydrate diet can cause hypoglycemia. It is necessary to regularly measure blood sugar during the beginning of this diet and adjust the dosage of medications accordingly. This must be done under medical supervision! Specific products, their quantity, dependence on taking drugs, are chosen only by the doctor for each patient separately. This menu for a week with diabetes can be considered as a guide and an example of a patient’s diet.
By deliberately reducing sugar and starch in the diet, blood glucose stabilizes and the level of insulin, the hormone that controls body fat, decreases. This speeds up fat burning and increases the feeling of satiety after eating.
Breakfast: Omlet with vegetables (tomatoes, cucumbers, herbs)
Lunch: vegetable oil, boiled chicken breast and avocado
Dinner: chicken and broccoli casserole
Breakfast: 2 boiled eggs, boiled asparagus
Lunch: fish grilled or baked with vegetables, lettuce
90 262 Dinner: beef steak with baked mushrooms
Breakfast: whole wheat spaghetti with zucchini
Lunch: turkey in cream sauce with vegetables, leaf lettuce
Dinner: avocado salad before, bacon and cheese
Breakfast: bulgur porridge with blueberries and lemon zest
Lunch: cod with vegetables, stewed lentils
Dinner: chicken in garlic sauce, crumbly buckwheat
Breakfast: boiled eggs, toasted whole grain bread
Lunch: bean stew, diet beef
Dinner: vegetable salad with herbs, cheese slice
Breakfast: low-fat cottage cheese
Lunch: salad with vegetables, egg and tuna
Dinner : braised rabbit or white fish, boiled cauliflower
9 0541 Breakfast: barley porridge with diluted milk
Lunch: Steamed beef patties, Diet mushroom soup
Dinner : Baked fish with pesto and vegetables
Controlled intake of sugar reduces insulin resistance. Fractional nutrition allows you to avoid sharp jumps in sugar: both lowering and increasing, harmful to the pancreas and the body as a whole. In insulin-dependent diabetes, diet is necessary to match the dose of the drug and approximately the same amount of carbohydrates. If they are deficient, the dose of insulin may be too high and hypoglycemia will occur, and vice versa.
— Proper, balanced nutrition is of paramount importance in type 1 and type 2 diabetes, but to call it a diet, in the narrow sense of the word, would not be correct. Although reducing carbohydrates and fats in the diet contributes to weight loss, excess of which often affects type 2 diabetics. It is important to change the lifestyle itself, food habits. Since the main problem in both type 1 and type 2 diabetes is due to the fact that the body does not properly use the glucose that comes with food, the main focus of a properly designed nutrition plan should be on foods that include starch and simple sugars – their should be avoided.