Does anxiety cause blood pressure to rise: Stress and high blood pressure: What’s the connection?
Stress and high blood pressure: What’s the connection?
Stress and high blood pressure: What’s the connection?
Stress can cause short-term spikes in blood pressure. Taking steps to reduce your stress can improve your heart health.
By Mayo Clinic Staff
Stressful situations can cause your blood pressure to spike temporarily, but can stress also cause long-term high blood pressure? Could all those short-term stress-related blood pressure spikes add up and cause high blood pressure in the long term? Researchers aren’t sure.
However, exercising three to five times a week for 30 minutes can reduce your stress level. And if you have high blood pressure, doing activities that can help manage your stress and improve your health can make a long-term difference in lowering your blood pressure.
Your reaction to stress may affect your blood pressure
Your body produces a surge of hormones when you’re in a stressful situation. These hormones temporarily increase your blood pressure by causing your heart to beat faster and your blood vessels to narrow.
There’s no proof that stress by itself causes long-term high blood pressure. But reacting to stress in unhealthy ways can increase your risk of high blood pressure, heart attacks and strokes. Certain behaviors are linked to higher blood pressure, such as:
- Drinking too much alcohol
- Eating unhealthy foods
Also, heart disease may be linked to certain health conditions related to stress, such as:
- Isolation from friends and family
But there’s no evidence these conditions are directly linked to high blood pressure. Instead, the hormones your body makes when you’re emotionally stressed may damage your arteries, leading to heart disease. Also, some symptoms, like those caused by depression, may cause you to forget to take medications to control high blood pressure or other heart conditions.
Increases in blood pressure related to stress can be dramatic. But when your stress goes away, your blood pressure returns to normal. However, even frequent, temporary spikes in blood pressure can damage your blood vessels, heart and kidneys in a way similar to long-term high blood pressure.
Stress-reducing activities can lower your blood pressure
Reducing your stress level might not directly lower your blood pressure over the long term. But using strategies to manage your stress can help improve your health in other ways. Mastering stress management techniques can lead to healthy behavior changes — including those that reduce your blood pressure.
There are many options for managing stress. For example:
- Simplify your schedule. If you always feel rushed, take a few minutes to review your calendar and to-do lists. Look for activities that take up your time but aren’t very important to you. Schedule less time for these activities or eliminate them completely.
- Breathe to relax. Taking deep and slow breaths can help you relax.
- Exercise. Physical activity is a natural stressbuster. Just be sure to get your doctor’s OK before starting a new exercise program, especially if you’ve been diagnosed with high blood pressure.
- Try yoga and meditation. Yoga and meditation strengthen your body and help you relax. These techniques also may lower your systolic blood pressure by 5 millimeters of mercury (mm Hg) or more.
- Get plenty of sleep. Too little sleep can make your problems seem worse than they really are.
- Shift your perspective. When dealing with problems, resist the tendency to complain. Acknowledge your feelings about the situation, and then focus on finding solutions.
The goal is to discover what works for you. Be open-minded and willing to experiment. Choose your strategies, take action and start enjoying the benefits.
March 18, 2021
- Managing stress to control high blood pressure. American Heart Association. https://www.heart.org/en/health-topics/high-blood-pressure/changes-you-can-make-to-manage-high-blood-pressure/managing-stress-to-control-high-blood-pressure. Accessed March 16, 2021.
- Stress and hypertension. The American Institute of Stress. https://www.stress.org/hypertension/. Accessed March 16, 2021.
- Fuster V, et al., eds. Pathophysiology of hypertension. In: Hurst’s the Heart. 14th ed. New York, N.Y.: McGraw-Hill Education; 2017. https://accessmedicine.mhmedical.com. Accessed March 16, 2021.
- Kellerman RD, et al. Hypertension. Conn’s Current Therapy 2021. Elsevier; 2021. https://www.clinicalkey.com. Accessed March 16, 2021.
See more In-depth
Managing Stress to Control High Blood Pressure
The importance of stress management
In today’s fast-paced world filled with increasing demands, stress management is a life skill and a lifesaver. It’s also important to note that while the link between stress and high blood pressure (HBP or hypertension) is still being studied, stress is known to contribute to risk factors like a poor diet and excessive alcohol consumption.
How stress affects your health
In addition to the emotional discomfort we feel when faced with a stressful situation, our bodies react by releasing stress hormones (adrenaline and cortisol) into the blood. These hormones prepare the body for the “fight or flight” response by making the heart beat faster and constricting blood vessels to get more blood to the core of the body instead of the extremities.
Constriction of blood vessels and increase in heart rate does raise blood pressure, but only temporarily — when the stress reaction goes away, blood pressure returns to its pre-stress level. This is called situational stress, and its effects are generally short-lived and disappear when the stressful event is over.
“Fight or flight” is a valuable response when we are faced with an imminent threat that we can handle by confronting or fleeing. However, our modern world contains many stressful events that we can’t handle with those options. Chronic (constant) stress causes our bodies to go into high gear on and off for days or weeks at a time. The links between chronic stress and blood pressure are not clear and are still being studied.
Stress versus anxiety
Stress is a lifestyle factor and, to a certain extent, a fact of life. Each of us also has a certain level of anxiety. On the other hand, chronic anxiety and anxiety disorders are medically diagnosed conditions, which can be impacted by stress.
Fight stress with healthy habits
Learn to fight stress by making choices like talking with family and friends and making time for physical activity. These habits not only improve your health — they also rejuvenate your general well-being.
Reduce stress by changing your expectations
Give yourself enough time to get things done.
Time management works wonders for reducing stress. Don’t try to pack too much into every moment.
Learn to say “no.” Don’t promise too much.
Reduce the amount of tension by having a shorter list of items that must be done. This may require you to reevaluate priorities and make difficult choices, but everyone must learn to live within manageable limits.
Reduce stress by recognizing where you have control
You can’t control all the outside events in your life.
However, you can change how you handle them emotionally and psychologically. Try to learn to accept things you can’t change. You don’t have to solve all of life’s problems.
Think about problems under your control and make a plan to solve them.
You could talk to your boss about difficulties at work, talk with your neighbor if his dog bothers you or get help when you have too much to do.
Know your stress triggers.
Think ahead about what may upset you. Some things you can avoid. For example, spend less time with people who bother you or avoid driving in rush-hour traffic.
Reduce stress by taking care of your mood
Relaxing is important.
Even if you are busy, take 15 to 20 minutes a day to sit quietly, breathe deeply and think of a peaceful picture.
Spend time developing supportive and nurturing relationships.
We all need supportive and encouraging relationships. Invest yourself in developing relationships that build character and foster growth.
Give yourself the gift of a healthy lifestyle.
Engage in physical activity regularly. Do what you enjoy; walk, swim, ride a bike or jog to get your muscles going. Letting go of the tension in your body will help you feel better.
Limit alcohol, don’t overeat and don’t smoke.
Relaxing for short periods during your workday, at night and on weekends may help lower your blood pressure. Another great stress-buster is to get regular physical activity.
Reduce stress by practicing gratitude and joy
Change how you respond to difficult situations, focusing on the positive, not the negative. Expressing gratitude to others can also boost your level of feeling good about life and reduce stressful thoughts.
Know what brings you pleasure and find ways to enjoy the experience.
Perhaps you enjoy volunteer opportunities or cooking your favorite foods. By taking time not only to participate in these activities but to intentionally enjoy them, you can build a satisfying life rather than hurry through your “relaxing activities” at a stressful pace.
7 ways to reduce stress and keep blood pressure down
When it comes to preventing and treating high blood pressure, one often-overlooked strategy is managing stress. If you often find yourself tense and on-edge, try these seven ways to reduce stress.
- Get enough sleep. Inadequate or poor-quality sleep can negatively affect your mood, mental alertness, energy level, and physical health.
- Learn relaxation techniques. Meditation, progressive muscle relaxation, guided imagery, deep breathing exercises, and yoga are powerful relaxation techniques and stress-busters.
- Strengthen your social network. Connect with others by taking a class, joining an organization, or participating in a support group.
- Hone your time-management skills. The more efficiently you can juggle work and family demands, the lower your stress level.
- Try to resolve stressful situations if you can. Don’t let stressful situations fester. Hold family problem-solving sessions and use negotiation skills at home and at work.
- Nurture yourself. Treat yourself to a massage. Truly savor an experience: for example, eat slowly and really focus on the taste and sensations of each bite. Take a walk or a nap, or listen to your favorite music.
- Ask for help. Don’t be afraid to ask for help from your spouse, friends, and neighbors. If stress and anxiety persist, talk to your doctor.
Along with these ways to reduce stress, add in a healthy lifestyle — maintaining a healthy weight, not smoking, regular exercise, and a diet that includes fruits, vegetables, whole grains, lean protein, and healthful fats — and high blood pressure could be a thing of the past.
For more information on lifestyle changes to treat high blood pressure and how to choose the right medication if needed, read Controlling Your Blood Pressure, a Special Health Report from Harvard Medical School.
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Blood Pressure and Your Brain
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High blood pressure (hypertension) can impact your brain as well as your heart. But these 5 steps can help you lower your blood pressure and protect your health.
Blood pressure and the heart-head connection
There’s a reason why your blood pressure is taken every time you visit a doctor’s office or hospital, regardless of the complaint that brought you there. High blood pressure is rightly known as “the silent killer.” It often carries no symptoms or warning signs but can drastically increase your risk of having a heart attack or stroke. The higher the number, the harder your heart is having to work to pump blood around your body and the more likely it is that damage is being done to the heart muscle. Since all parts of your body rely on circulation, though, it’s not just your heart that high blood pressure can impact. If blood doesn’t flow easily, it can harm your arteries as well as vital organs such as the kidneys, eyes, and brain.
High blood pressure (or “hypertension”) has been shown to damage the tiny blood vessels in the parts of your brain responsible for cognition and memory, greatly increasing your risk of developing Alzheimer’s disease or another dementia. Being diagnosed with cardiovascular disease can also take an emotional toll, affecting your outlook and making you more susceptible to anxiety and depression. And just as blood pressure may have an impact your mood, the reverse can also be true:
- Stress can increase the body’s production of hormones such as adrenaline and cortisol which in turn raises blood pressure.
- Self-medicating your mood with alcohol, nicotine, junk food, or recreational drugs can also elevate your blood pressure.
- Even isolating yourself from family and friends—a common symptom of depression and anxiety—can push your blood pressure higher and damage your cardiovascular health.
- High blood pressure and common mental health problems can often be attributed, at least in part, to the same unhealthy lifestyle factors, such as overwhelming, stress, poor diet, and a lack of exercise. Changing your lifestyle to address high blood pressure can help to improve your mental health—and vice versa.
Since new guidelines released in 2017 lowered the threshold for what should be considered high blood pressure, more and more of us find ourselves at risk. In fact, nearly half of adults in the United States have high blood pressure. While hypertension is very common, the good news is that it’s also very easy to rectify. In many cases, simple lifestyle changes can have a huge impact on your numbers and help protect both your heart and brain health.
Measuring blood pressure
Blood pressure is measured as millimeters of mercury (mm Hg)—a holdover from the traditional mercury gauges used by the medical industry—and has two components:
- The higher number, or systolic blood pressure, is measured as your heart pumps blood into your arteries.
- The lower number, or diastolic blood pressure, is measured as your heart relaxes between beats.
The systolic number is recorded first, with an ideal blood pressure reading being below 120/80 (expressed as “120 over 80”). The American Heart Association and American College of Cardiology define high blood pressure, or hypertension, as 130/80 or above (a systolic reading of at least 130 mm Hg or a diastolic reading of at least 80 mm Hg, or both).
Monitoring your numbers
Your blood pressure fluctuates throughout the day, with lots of ups and downs. It will typically spike if you’re exercising or running late for a meeting, for example, and drop when you’re sleeping or relaxing with loved ones. Since blood pressure can vary so much, if you’ve been diagnosed with hypertension you may want to monitor your blood pressure at home.
Choose a home blood pressure monitor that wraps around your upper arm. They tend to be more accurate than those that work on your wrist or finger.
Don’t drink caffeine or smoke for at least 30 minutes before measuring your blood pressure. Sit quietly in a chair for a few minutes before measuring, then make sure your arm is supported and your elbow is at about heart level as you run the test.
Small changes can make a big difference. According to a Harvard study, having hypertension can increase your risk of stroke by 220%. On the flip side, reducing your systolic blood pressure by 10 mm Hg can cut your risk of stroke by as much as 44%.
If you have low blood pressure …
Low blood pressure (known as “hypotension”) is a much less common problem than hypertension, but it can still significantly impact blood flow to the brain and increase your risk of shock, stroke, heart attack, and kidney failure.
There is no specific reading that determines when blood pressure is too low. Rather, doctors rely on the presence of symptoms such as dizziness, fainting, blurred vision, and unsteadiness when standing to diagnose hypotension.
If you experience such symptoms, your doctor will look for underlying causes such as medication side effects, nutritional deficiencies, or a heart issue. Aside from a low-sodium diet, many of the same lifestyle changes used to treat high blood pressure can also be effective for managing low blood pressure.
Causes of high blood pressure
There’s no single cause of high blood pressure, but rather many contributing factors. Some are out of your control, such as age, race, gender, and family history—blood pressure tends to increase over the age of 70, affects more women than men over the age of 55, and is more common in African Americans than Caucasians, perhaps due to a genetic sensitivity to salt.
Many other risk factors for hypertension are within your control. Being overweight, eating a poor diet high in salt, smoking, drinking excessively, and not getting enough physical exercise can all impact your blood pressure.
There are also specific substances that can raise your blood pressure, such as:
- Caffeine, including coffee, tea, soda, and energy drinks.
- Prescription medications, including some of those used to treat ADHD, birth control pills, corticosteroids, atypical antipsychotics, MAOIs and SNRIs used to treat depression, and some cancer drugs.
- Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), such as aspirin and ibuprofen (Motrin, Advil).
- Cough and cold medications containing decongestant or NSAIDs.
- Herbal supplements, such as ephedra and yohimbine.
- Recreational drugs, such as cocaine and methamphetamine.
- Licorice found in some candies and gum.
5 steps to lowering your blood pressure
The first line of treatment for high blood pressure is to make healthy lifestyle changes:
- Get active
- Eat a heart-healthy diet
- Lose weight
- Manage stress
- Quit smoking
It’s also important to take any antihypertensive medications your doctor recommends. There are many different types of medications available to control high blood pressure, so if one drug causes unpleasant side effects, your doctor can help you find a more suitable one.
Even if your doctor also prescribes you medication to help tackle hypertension, controlling your weight, quitting smoking, improving your diet, managing stress, and getting regular exercise are critical for keeping your heart in shape and managing your blood pressure over the long term.
If you’ve just been diagnosed with cardiovascular disease or have suffered a serious health event such as a stroke or heart attack, you may be experiencing a great deal of emotional upheaval. It’s important to give yourself time to process the change in your health and be kind to yourself as you adjust to your new situation. But it’s also important to know there are plenty of things you can do to come to terms with your diagnosis and regain control of your health.
Tips for making healthy lifestyle changes
If you suffer with high blood pressure, it’s easy to feel intimidated by the changes you need to make in order to improve your health. While some people may only need to work on one or two areas to reduce their blood pressure—getting more exercise or quitting smoking, for example—most of us find that we need to improve our habits in at least 3 or 4 areas. But even if you smoke, drink heavily, are overweight, stressed out, sedentary, and eat nothing but junk and processed food, that doesn’t mean you have to tackle everything all at once. Making lots of different lifestyle changes at the same time can be overwhelming. And when we feel overwhelmed, it’s easy to opt for doing nothing rather than doing something.
Start gradually and make one or two changes to begin with. Once those changes have become habit, you can tackle one or two more, and so on. For example, you may decide to start by giving up smoking—and adopting some relaxation techniques to help with the stress of quitting—then move on to losing weight or improving your diet.
Lose the all or nothing thinking. Doing something, no matter how small, is always better than doing nothing. If you’re eating healthy food during the week, for example, then resorting to takeouts at the weekends, your blood pressure and overall health will still be in better shape than if you were eating takeout every day.
Set specific goals. The more specific your goal, the easier it is to stick to. For example, instead of saying, “I’ll eat healthier and get more exercise,” try “I’ll add two servings of vegetables to my evening meal and walk for 30 minutes in my lunch hour.”
Make a plan. Be as specific in your plans as you are with your goals. If your goal is to exercise, when will you do it? If you can’t find a 30-minute window in your day, plan for two 15-minute sessions instead. If your goal is to lose weight, make a plan to cope with cravings or manage your day-to-day stress without turning to food.
Change is a process. Changing your habits and lifestyle tends to happen in stages rather than all at once. Be patient with yourself and focus on your long-term goals, even on days when you feel deflated.
Prepare for relapse and setbacks. Nobody gets it right all the time. We all cheat on our diets every now and then, skip a workout, or backslide into unhealthy habits from time to time. Don’t beat yourself up. Instead, turn the relapse into a rebound by learning from your mistake. Identify what derailed you from your lifestyle change and make a new plan.
Making changes if you have anxiety or depression
If your high blood pressure is co-occurring with a mental health problem such as depression or anxiety, it can be even tougher to find the energy and motivation to make the necessary lifestyle changes. Just thinking about exercising or preparing a healthy meal, for example, can seem overwhelming. But by focusing all your efforts on one tiny change at a time, you’ll find that you’re capable of more than you realized.
Take the first step. It could be as simple as going for a walk or downloading a meditation app or buying some nicotine patches. It can take time for lifestyle changes to register as a reduction in blood pressure—but sometimes they can improve your mood much sooner. Taking that first step is always the hardest.
Focus on small steps. It’s easy to get overwhelmed by daily life when you’re battling depression, anxiety, or another mood disorder. By taking small but positive steps each day, though, you’ll find that your energy and outlook will gradually start to improve. Once you feel happier and more positive, you’ll find it easier to forge ahead with lifestyle changes and see the results in both your blood pressure readings and your overall outlook and wellbeing.
Step 1: Get active
As with the other muscles in your body, your heart will get stronger when you exercise regularly. That means your heart will be able to pump blood around your body more efficiently. Regular aerobic activity can also help improve your cholesterol levels.
If you have been diagnosed with heart disease or another serious health problem, consult your doctor before starting an exercise program. Otherwise, to reap the heart and brain benefits of exercise, aim for:
- At least 150 minutes (2.5 hours) of moderate-intensity aerobic activity per week, such as walking briskly. That’s 30 minutes a day for five days a week, broken down into 10- or 15-minute bursts if that’s easier. Moderate intensity means that you’re able to speak in full sentences as you move, but not sing.
- Or 75 minutes of vigorous-intensity aerobic exercise per week will deliver similar benefits if your fitness level allows you to work out harder. That means running for 15 minutes on five days each week instead of walking briskly for 30 minutes. Vigorous intensity means that you are too breathless to speak in full sentences as you move.
Making the exercise habit stick
Despite our best intentions, many of us struggle ditching our sedentary lifestyle. But there are steps you can take to make exercise less intimidating and more fun.
Start small and build momentum. If exercising for 30 minutes a day, 5 times a week sounds overwhelming, set a smaller goal and gradually build up as you gain self-confidence and momentum.
Reward yourself. Once it becomes a regular habit, exercise will reward you with more energy, better sleep, a greater sense of well-being, and improved cardiovascular health. When you’re starting out, though, give yourself a simple reward for successfully completing a workout, such as having a hot bath or a favorite cup of coffee.
Choose activities you enjoy. You’re more likely to stick with a workout you find pleasurable. If you hate running but like yoga or dancing, for example, don’t force yourself onto the treadmill every day. Pick activities that fit your lifestyle, abilities, and taste.
See How to Start Exercising and Stick to It to learn more.
The effects on your blood pressure
- 30 minutes of moderate aerobic exercise, such as walking, for five days of the week can reduce your reading by 4 to 11 mm Hg.
Step 2: Eat a heart-healthy diet
The foods you eat can have a major impact on your blood pressure, not to mention your heart and brain health. Rather than focusing on specific foods, though, it’s your pattern of eating that’s most important. Instead of processed food, packaged meals, and sugary snacks, a heart-healthy diet is built around “real,” natural food.
A number of different diet plans can help in controlling blood pressure, but they all feature a reduction in salt, alcohol, and refined carbohydrates, and an increase in fruit and vegetables.
The DASH diet (Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension) is a specially designed eating plan to help you lower your blood pressure. When combined with a reduction in salt, the DASH diet can even be more effective at lowering blood pressure than medication. See “Get more help” below for resources.
The Mediterranean diet emphasizes eating lots of fresh fruit and vegetables, nuts, fish, and olive oil—and only modest amounts of meat and cheese. Following a Mediterranean diet limits your intake of refined breads, processed foods, and red meat—all factors that can help lower your blood pressure and prevent heart disease and stroke.
Limit your alcohol consumption. Drinking as little as one or two alcoholic beverages can cause a temporarily spike in your blood pressure. But drinking excessively over time can greatly increase your risk of hypertension, stroke, and heart disease. Alcohol consumption can also interfere with some blood pressure medications.
Increase your potassium intake from food. Potassium can help your body get rid of excess sodium and relax blood vessels, thus helping to lower blood pressure. Bananas, oranges, broccoli, and spinach are all high in potassium.
Reducing your salt intake
The American Heart Association recommends no more than a teaspoon of salt a day for adults. That may sound alarmingly small, but there are many painless ways to reduce your sodium intake.
Reduce canned and processed foods. Much of the salt you eat comes from canned or processed foods like soups, convenience meals, and fast food.
Cook more meals at home. Preparing your own meals gives you more control over your sodium intake. Use fresh ingredients whenever possible and cook without salt.
Use spices as alternatives to salt. Try fresh herbs like basil, thyme, or chives, or dried spices such as allspice, bay leaves, or cumin to flavor your meal without sodium.
Substitute reduced sodium versions. Choose your condiments and packaged foods carefully, looking for foods labeled sodium free, low sodium, or unsalted.
See Heart-Healthy Diet Tips to learn more.
The effects on your blood pressure
- Adopting the DASH diet, eating plenty of fruit and vegetables, and reducing your consumption of unhealthy fats can lower your blood pressure by about 11 mm Hg.
- Cutting back on sodium by about 1,000 mg per day can reduce your blood pressure by 5 to 6 mm Hg.
- Increasing your potassium intake from food to 3,500-5,000 mg can knock 4 to 5 mm Hg off your reading.
- Limiting your alcohol intake to two drinks per day if you’re male, or one drink per day if you’re female can lower your reading by about 4 mm Hg.
Step 3: Lose weight
Carrying extra weight forces your heart to work harder circulating blood around your body, raising your blood pressure. The more weight you’re carrying, the greater the risk of hypertension. The good news is that shedding pounds can have a marked impact on blood pressure. Losing just 10 pounds could reduce your systolic blood pressure by as much as 10 mm Hg.
Of course, as anyone who’s ever tried to lose weight knows, there’s no easy fix for dropping pounds. Since our bodies are different and we respond differently to different foods, what works for one person may not necessarily work for you. To find the most effective weight loss method may take some time and experimentation with different foods and different diets.
It’s also true that many of us don’t always eat simply to satisfy our hunger. We turn to food when we’re stressed, anxious, bored, or lonely, which can wreck any diet. Recognizing your emotional eating triggers and finding healthier ways to deal with stress can make all the difference to achieving a healthy weight.
See How to Lose Weight and Keep It Off to learn more.
The effects on your blood pressure
- Varies greatly from person to person depending on factors such as your starting weight, but expect to lower your blood pressure by about 1 mm Hg for every 1–2 pounds lost.
Step 4: Manage stress
In today’s hectic world, many of us find ourselves constantly feeling frazzled and overwhelmed. While not all stress is bad for you, persistent and chronic stress can take a toll on your blood pressure and heart health. In addition to exercise and diet, there are lots of ways you can help combat stress and bring your body and mind back into balance.
Adopt a relaxation practice. Practicing a relaxation technique, such as mindfulness meditation, progressive muscle relaxation, or deep breathing can elicit the relaxation response, a state of deep rest that puts the brakes on stress, slows your breathing and heart rate, and lowers your blood pressure.
Talk to a trusted friend. Nothing eases stress more effectively than chatting face-to-face with a friend or loved one. Make time to connect with the people closest to you.
Get enough sleep. A lack of sleep can exacerbate stress just as stress can make it harder to get a good night’s sleep. You can break the cycle and ensure you get enough quality sleep at night by modifying your daytime habits and developing a peaceful bedtime routine.
See Stress Management to learn more.
The effects on your blood pressure
- One study found that eight weeks of practicing relaxation techniques helped participants lower their blood pressure by more than 5 mm Hg and reduce their medication levels.
Step 5: Quit smoking
The nicotine in tobacco causes your body to release adrenaline that stimulates your nervous system and forces your heart to work harder to circulate blood. This increases your heart rate and blood pressure—not just while you’re smoking, vaping, or chewing tobacco, but for some time afterwards as well. Nicotine can also interfere with certain blood pressure medications.
While quitting is never easy, once you stop your body will benefit from improved circulation almost immediately. To successfully kick the habit, you’ll need to address both the addiction and the habits and routines that go along with it. But it can be done. With the right support and quit plan, any smoker can kick the addiction—even if you’ve tried and failed multiple times before.
See How to Quit Smoking to learn more.
The effects on your blood pressure
- Kicking the habit can reduce your systolic blood pressure by an estimated 2 to 8 mm Hg.
Authors: Lawrence Robinson and Melinda Smith, M.A.
Is Pandemic Stress Affecting Your Blood Pressure?
It’s no secret that stress can cause high blood pressure, and 2020 was one of the most stressful years on record.
Perhaps one of the things that has made the COVID-19 pandemic so challenging is that the tension has been relentless. The situation has been ongoing for more than a year, and while the vaccination is available, it is likely that there will be several more months of pandemic anxiety through at least part of 2021.
If you or someone you love was impacted by the virus, this makes the situation even more difficult. You can easily be overwhelmed, and it’s vitally important to cope with stress in a healthy and productive way.
(Please note that the pandemic and vaccination schedule are ongoing and have been rapidly developing since the publication of this blog post. We encourage you to get the latest up-to-date information from the Centers for Disease Control. )
We’ll examine a few ways you can determine if the pandemic may be affecting your blood pressure and provide some useful pointers to help you cope.
First, a quick refresher on a few points about high blood pressure.
What You Need to Know
High blood pressure is a killer—plain and simple. It paves the way for serious problems such as heart disease, stroke and heart attacks.
In fact, you may be surprised to know that almost half of all American adults have it, according to information from the American Heart Association.
How Do You Feel When You Have High Blood Pressure?
Believe it or not, you probably feel fine.
High blood pressure is called a “silent disease” because often, there aren’t any symptoms. Many Americans may not even be aware that they have high blood pressure
This means it’s vital for you to have your blood pressure checked regularly as a part of your annual wellness checkups.
Normal blood pressure is less than 120/80 (often described as “120 over 80”). If your blood pressure is consistently 130/80 or higher, you have high blood pressure.
What Will Happen if My Blood Pressure Is Too High?
High blood pressure can lead to all kinds of serious health problems—it puts you at a greater risk of having a stroke or a heart attack.
What Causes High Blood Pressure?
There are several potential causes of high blood pressure, ranging from not getting enough exercise to diabetes to obesity.
And of course, stress plays a part in the disease.
How Does Stress Affect Blood Pressure?
When you’re in a stressful situation, your body produces more hormones that cause your heart to beat faster and narrow your blood vessels. If you’re constantly in this “fight or flight” state, it can increase your risk of high blood pressure.
There’s also an indirect way that stress can raise your blood pressure: how you react to stressful situations.
Sometimes, people turn toward unhealthy habits to manage stress. This includes eating “comfort foods,” smoking and drinking alcohol in excess.
Over time, these unhealthy habits add up and can increase your risk of developing long-term high blood pressure.
While high blood pressure can be easily treated through lifestyle modifications and medication, it’s equally important that you learn how to manage stress in productive, healthy ways. We’ll provide a few tips that are particularly relevant to the pandemic in general.
How to Cope With Pandemic Stress
Don’t Go It Alone
With quarantine and social distancing, you may feel more isolated than ever. Therefore, find creative solutions to stay in touch with those you love. Whether it involves Zoom or FaceTime for virtual visits or socially distanced (and masked) outdoor visits, you can find ways to interact without putting your health in jeopardy.
Give Yourself a Break
Now is not the time to be hard on yourself. Maybe you’re frustrated because a household renovation project wasn’t started or that you’ve already violated your New Year’s resolutions. When you’re feeling overwhelmed, that’s the perfect indicator that you’re ready for a break.
Take deep breaths or do something you enjoy for a few minutes before jumping back into your workload or projects.
It’s important to remain informed—the pandemic has affected all aspects of our lives. However, there is such a thing as “information overload.”
Try to avoid spending too much time watching the news, especially if you find it overly stressful. It’s also important to be judicious over your use of social media, and be wary of misinformation from unreliable sources.
Learn to Relax
Yoga or meditation is an excellent way to unwind in general, and during a pandemic this may be even more important. If yoga isn’t your style, try to practice deep breathing or some of these other relaxation techniques:
- Focus on a pleasant memory
- Imagine yourself in a peaceful setting
- Slowly tense and relax your muscle groups one at a time
- Take deep, slow breaths
Get Plenty of Sleep
Even in the best of times, Americans are chronically sleep deprived Add the strain of a pandemic, and the problem is exacerbated.
It’s very important to be sure you’re getting enough sleep. If you’re having difficulty, try to follow these sleep hygiene tips from the Centers for Disease Control:
- Don’t oversleep on weekends. Be sure you get up and go to bed at the same time every day.
- Avoid caffeine, especially in the late afternoons and evenings.
- Avoid large meals.
- Get plenty of exercise.
- Avoid doing any work from your bedroom.
- Don’t have any electronic devices in your bedroom.
If, after implementing these techniques, you still have trouble sleeping, you may want to schedule an appointment with our Pulmonary and Sleep Medicine team to determine if stress or something else is causing your insomnia.
Don’t Be Afraid to Ask for Help
Sometimes, you need to speak with a professional to help you through a difficult time. Whether you confide in a clergy member or trained psychologist, we encourage you to talk to someone you can trust.
We outline some additional tips in our previous blog.
Is Pandemic Stress Affecting Your Blood Pressure?
Of course, you can’t determine if you have a problem when you don’t even know what your blood pressure readings are. This is why it’s so important to have regular appointments with your primary care doctor, who will monitor your condition to ensure your blood pressure is at a healthy level.
If you’ve found that your blood pressure is consistently elevated despite being at normal levels in the past, it could be possible that the stress of the past year is affecting you, especially if you are taking comfort in unhealthy activities such as smoking.
Conway Medical Center Is Compassionate Care That You Can Trust
For decades, we’ve focused on improving the health of our community and transforming lives. Our wide range of services covers every aspect of your wellness, from cardiac care to nutrition.
Don’t wait for your blood pressure to increase and create a life-threatening situation. Take a proactive role in your health and schedule an appointment with a primary care provider today.
Stress making your blood pressure rise? Blame your immune system — ScienceDaily
If stress is giving you high blood pressure, blame the immune system. T cells, helpful for fighting infections, are also necessary for mice to show an increase in blood pressure after a period of psychological stress, scientists have found.
The findings suggest that the effects of chronic stress on cardiovascular health may be a side effect of having an immune system that can defend us from infection. The results also have potential implications for treating both high blood pressure and anxiety disorders.
The results are published in the journal Biological Psychiatry.
“Chronic stress has long been known to have harmful effects on the immune system as well as being a risk factor for hypertension,” says lead author Paul Marvar, a postdoctoral fellow at Emory University School of Medicine. “Our goal was to examine the role of T cells in stress-dependent hypertension.”
Marvar began his research under the guidance of David Harrison, MD, who moved from Emory to Vanderbilt University in 2011. He completed his work in the laboratory of Kerry Ressler, MD, PhD. Ressler is a Howard Hughes Medical Institute investigator and professor of psychiatry and behavioral sciences at Emory, and maintains a laboratory at Yerkes National Primate Research Center.
In the current study, researchers subjected mice to psychological stress by confining them in a small space for one hour and then putting them in cages where other mice had already left their scents. Two hours of stress per day, for a week, results in a short term rise in systolic blood pressure in normal mice.
However, mice that were genetically engineered to lack T cells did not display an increase in blood pressure under the same regimen. Introducing T cells into mice that lacked them made their blood pressure sensitive to stress again.
Harrison and his colleagues had previously shown that T cells are needed for the increase in blood pressure coming from high dietary salt or the hormone angiotensin, which regulates blood pressure, and continue to investigate the role of T cells in high blood pressure.
Several studies in animals have suggested that medications now used to control blood pressure, such as angiotensin receptor blockers or ACE (angiotensin converting enzyme) inhibitors, may also be helpful in the reduction of stress and anxiety, Marvar says.
“Further understanding the mechanisms underlying these observations and determining whether they may benefit people with anxiety disorders, for example post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), is a current goal of my research,” he says.
High blood pressure is a risk factor for heart attack and stroke, and many people take medications to reduce their blood pressure. Yet some find that medications are not effective in controlling their blood pressure, and researchers are investigating various alternative approaches.
“There are still many unanswered questions about clinical relevance and safety in treating hypertensive patients by targeting the immune system,” Marvar says. “Understanding what triggers the immune response in hypertension will ultimately guide the feasibility of future clinical applications.”
The research was supported by the National Heart, Lung and Blood Institute and by the Emory University Scholars Program in Interdisciplinary Neuroscience Research.
Materials provided by Emory University. Original written by Quinn Eastman. Note: Content may be edited for style and length.
Top 10 Causes for Blood Pressure Spikes
With about 32% of Americans living with high blood pressure, it’s no wonder why blood pressure checks are administered at every doctor’s appointment. So many high blood pressure cases are not realized because high blood pressure doesn’t exhibit any symptoms.
The best way to know if you have high blood pressure is to have your blood pressure measured. If your blood pressure is normal (less than 120/80 mm Hg), you will likely only need to check on it annually at your yearly checkups. If you have high blood pressure, your doctor may recommend that you monitor your blood pressure at home in addition to lifestyle changes or medications. While your blood pressure levels naturally rise and fall throughout the day, there are some factors that may cause sudden blood pressure spikes.
Causes of Blood Pressure Spikes
Even if you have normal blood pressure readings, caffeine consumption can cause a temporary but dramatic blood pressure spike. While researchers aren’t sure what the reason behind the increase in blood pressure, if you have high blood pressure you should talk to your doctor about whether you should limit or avoid caffeinated substances, and you should avoid consuming caffeine before exercising or weightlifting.
2. Certain Medications
If you have high blood pressure you should be extra cautious when it comes to your medications. Certain nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, medication combinations, or even over the counter cold medicines that contain decongestants can cause an increase in blood pressure that may be dangerous for those with high blood pressure
3. Consumption of Foods Containing Tyramine
Tyramine is an amino acid that occurs naturally in your body and is also found in certain foods. Consuming too much tyramine, which is found in aged cheese as well as smoked, processed or cured meats, can cause a sudden blood pressure spike, especially if you’re taking a MAOI for depression.
Smoking even one cigarette can cause an immediate 5 to 10 mm Hg rise in blood pressure. While this effect is temporary, the effect of cigarette use can have detrimental effects on your heart health over time due to the prolonged damage to your artery walls.
Stress is a common, and often unavoidable cause of temporary blood pressure spikes. If your stress becomes a long term problem, it may lead to permanent blood pressure problems.
In the past, we have touched on the effects of white coat hypertension, in which blood pressure readings are higher in a doctor’s office than they are in other environments, like at home or at work. When anxiety causes a spike in blood pressure in the doctor’s office, it’s likely that it will cause an increase in blood pressure in other situations as well, so it’s a good idea to talk to your doctor about possible treatment options to avoid a more sustained version of high blood pressure.
7. Overactive Adrenal Gland
Overactive adrenal glands produce excessive amounts of certain hormones that help the body manage sodium and water and can lead to increases in blood pressure.
8. Drug Use
A sharp rise in blood pressure is one of the short-term physiological side effects of cocaine use, but it can lead to some of the more severe medical complications including disturbances in heart rhythm and heart attacks.
9. Medical Conditions
Certain medical conditions such as collagen vascular disorder, scleroderma, and thyroid issues all can cause sudden blood pressure spikes.
10. Chronic Kidney Disease
Because of the key role the kidneys play in regulating your blood pressure, chronic kidney disease can lead to higher blood pressure levels. In return, high blood pressure is one of the top risk factors for CKD as it increases the amount of force that blood places on the blood vessels.
Make an Appointment
The team at Durham Nephrology is dedicated to providing comprehensive and compassionate care to the people of the Durham, NC area. Our physicians are experts in diagnosing and treating chronic kidney disease, high blood pressure, and related conditions. If you have questions or concerns about your blood pressure, call us at 919-477-3005 to talk to a staff member and make an appointment.
90,000 Arterial hypertension – Normal blood pressure numbers – Site news – News
Arterial hypertension (hypertension) – a persistent increase in blood pressure above 140/90 mm Hg.
What is high blood pressure?
Disruption of the complex system of blood pressure regulation leads to an increase in pressure in the arteries. When blood pressure is constantly elevated, we talk about high blood pressure.In medicine, this condition is called hypertension and means increased tension in the walls of the arteries. Hypertension does not mean stress, as many people think. You can be a calm, balanced person and have high blood pressure.
Blood pressure is considered high if the systolic pressure is predominantly at or above 140 mmHg, the diastolic pressure is 90 mmHg or higher, or the increase affects both systolic and diastolic pressure. It used to be that diastolic pressure — that is, the pressure in the arteries between beats — was a more accurate indicator of health risk than the systolic pressure that builds up in the arteries during a heartbeat. However, it has now become apparent that this is not the case. Scientific studies have shown that high systolic blood pressure is a more significant health risk factor, especially in the elderly. In older patients, successful control of systolic blood pressure gives very good results in terms of maintaining health.
Arterial hypertension usually develops slowly. In most cases, normal blood pressure gradually turns into prehypertension, and then, possibly into the first stage of hypertension
If hypertension is left untreated, high blood pressure can damage many organs and tissues of the body. The higher the blood pressure, and the longer the hypertension is left untreated, the greater the likelihood of injury. Hypertension can cause changes in the body that functions under conditions of high blood pressure over several months or years.If arterial hypertension is combined with other adverse factors such as diabetes, obesity, tobacco smoking, the risk of organ and tissue damage increases.
Sometimes you can still hear that the ideal systolic pressure is equal to 100 plus age. This is not true. If you follow this formula, you will inevitably come to the erroneous conclusion that high blood pressure is a variant of the age norm.
Causes of arterial hypertension
In any disease, the question of its cause is natural.Why do some people get sick and others do not? Unfortunately, most patients with high blood pressure will not be able to get an answer to this question: the exact cause of their disease remains unknown.
Arterial hypertension has two forms – essential (primary) and secondary. Essential hypertension (or hypertension) is much more common. About 90-95% of patients with high blood pressure suffer from the essential form of the disease.
Essential hypertension differs from the secondary in the absence of an obvious cause.In the vast majority of patients with high blood pressure, it is not possible to accurately determine the starting moment of the disease. However, a number of factors are well known that increase the likelihood of developing arterial hypertension. In order to minimize the risk of the disease or even prevent its development, the first thing to do is to know these factors.
Studies have revealed a hereditary predisposition to the development of arterial hypertension. In addition, factors including body weight, salt intake, and physical activity appear to interact with genetic factors.Therefore, it seems doubtful that scientists will ever be able to find a connection between a specific genetic defect and the development of all cases of essential hypertension.
Regulation of blood pressure
The body has several systems that control the level of blood pressure and protect it from an excessive fall or rise. These are the heart, arteries, kidneys, a number of hormones and enzymes, as well as the nervous system.
HEART. The necessary amount of force for the ejection of blood from the left ventricle into the aorta is created by the pumping action of the heart muscle.The more pumping power the heart creates, the greater the force acting on the walls of the arteries.
ARTERIES. The walls of the arteries are equipped with smooth muscle fibers, which are involved in the expansion and contraction of the lumen of the vessel when a wave of blood passes through it. The more elastic the arteries, the less the resistance of the arterial bed, which is present in the path of blood flow and, therefore, the less the force that acts on the walls of the arteries. If the arteries lose their elasticity or are damaged for any reason, this causes an increase in resistance to blood flow and requires an increase in the force necessary to “push” blood through the vessels.This increases blood pressure.
KIDNEYS. The kidneys regulate the amount of sodium and water in the body. The rule of thumb is that sodium “holds” water. Thus, the more sodium there is in the body, the more fluid circulates with the blood. Excess fluid can increase blood pressure. In addition, too much sodium can cause vascular damage.
OTHER FACTORS. The central nervous system, together with hormones, enzymes and other chemicals , can affect blood pressure levels.
Baroreceptors There are tiny nodular structures in the walls of the heart and in some blood vessels called baroreceptors. These structures work like a room thermometer in your home. Baroreceptors continuously monitor the level of blood pressure in the arteries and veins. If a signal is received about a change in pressure, baroreceptors transmit it to the brain, from where in response are commands to decrease or increase the heart rate, as well as expand or narrow the lumen of the arteries to maintain normal blood pressure levels.
Adrenaline . The brain responds to impulses from baroreceptors by stimulating the release of hormones and enzymes that affect the functioning of the heart, blood vessels, and kidneys. One of the main hormones involved in blood pressure control is adrenaline, also called epinephrine. Adrenaline is released into the bloodstream under conditions of stress or tension, for example, in case of anxiety and haste when completing a task.
Adrenaline causes narrowing of blood vessels, causes the heart to contract with greater force and speed, which leads to an increase in blood pressure.People often associate the feeling of high blood pressure with the release of adrenaline.
Renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system . There are other hormones in the body that regulate blood pressure levels. Among them – renin, which is formed in the kidneys, it is able to convert to angiotensin I. Once in the bloodstream, angiotensin I is converted to angiotensin II. The effect of angiotensin II is to constrict blood vessels and stimulate the release of the hormone aldosterone, which is synthesized in the adrenal glands.As a result of an increase in the concentration of aldosterone, the kidneys begin to retain more water and salts in the body.
According to scientists, some people with high blood pressure have a special type of gene responsible for the synthesis of angiotensin. As a result, the body produces too much angiotensin.
Endothelium . The lumen of the arteries is lined with a thin layer of cells called the endothelium. Experiments have shown that this layer plays a very important role in the regulation of blood pressure – for example, the release of chemicals that cause blood vessels to contract and relax.
Nitric oxide . A gas called nitric oxide found in the blood can affect blood pressure. This gas helps to relax the blood vessel wall and expand its lumen. Nitric oxide levels can be raised by the action of nitroglycerin, a drug used to treat certain cardiovascular diseases.
Endothelin . The opposite effect of nitric oxide on the vessel wall is exerted by a protein called endothelin . It causes the blood vessels to contract. Endothelin-1, a form of this protein, may play a critical role in the development of high blood pressure.
Measurement of blood pressure
Target blood pressure values
(for all age groups):
• For people with arterial hypertension
– below 139/89 mm Hg.
• For people with also
diabetes mellitus and / or kidney disease
– below 129 / 79mm Hg.
Blood pressure is determined by measuring the pressure in the arteries.The measurement is done using a device called a sphygmomanometer or tonometer. It consists of an inflatable cuff that wraps around the forearm, an air pump (manual or electronic), and a pressure gauge.
For home measurements, it is better to choose an automatic tonometer with a shoulder cuff – this device provides the most accurate and fastest measurement. It is not recommended to monitor blood pressure with devices with a sensor on the wrist or finger.
Blood pressure is measured in millimeters of mercury (mmHg).Art.). The measurement result depends on how much the pressure in the arteries is able to raise the column of mercury in the sphygmomanometer.
Two indicators of pressure
The level of blood pressure is characterized by two indicators. Both are equally important. The first is the level of systolic pressure. This is the level of blood pressure at the time the heart is contracting – this period is called systole – and throws blood into the aorta .
The second indicator is diastolic pressure.It shows how much pressure builds up in the arteries during a period of time called diastole, when the heart is relaxed and filled with blood. The heart needs to completely relax before the next heartbeat, at which time the pressure in the arteries decreases. The two indicators described above are written as a fraction. The numerator (to the left of the fractional sign) indicates the systolic pressure value, and the denominator (to the right of the fractional sign) the diastolic pressure value. Orally, these figures are separated by the preposition by .For example, if when measuring the levels of systolic and diastolic pressure were respectively 115 mm Hg. Art. and 82 mm Hg. Art., then the blood pressure in this case is equal to 115/82 or 115 at 82.
Normal blood pressure values
In the first months after birth, the blood pressure in a child is on average 100/65 mm Hg. Art. or 100 to 65. During childhood, it grows slowly. Since adolescence, normal blood pressure numbers are 119/79 mm Hg.Art. or below. Systolic pressure is between 120 and 139 mm Hg. Art. and diastolic pressure between 80 and 89 mm Hg. Art. classified as prehypertension.
If you have prehypertension, it means that your blood pressure is above normal but below the numbers when a condition called hypertension is diagnosed. The presence of prehypertension should be regarded as a signal for a change in lifestyle in order to lower blood pressure. Pre-hypertension indicates that you have an increased risk of heart disease, kidney disease, and stroke.
Ideal or normal blood pressure for adults of all ages is 119/79 or below. This is the level to which, if possible, you need to strive. However, some patients with arterial hypertension do not tolerate pressure below 119/79, which must be taken into account when choosing a drug treatment.
Rules for measuring blood pressure
(Harvard Medical School recommendations)
• DO NOT take alcoholic
and caffeine-containing drinks and
DO NOT smoke 30 minutes before the study
• For 5 minutes quietly
sit so that your back is supported
on the back of a chair with your feet on the floor
• During measurement, keep your elbow
at approximately heart level
• Free your shoulder from clothing
and apply a cuff
• After the first measurement
remove the cuff, wait a minute
and repeat the measurement.If the values of
are close, average them; if not, measure
a third time and average
• If you get high
digits, don’t panic! Sit
quietly for a few minutes and repeat
• Relate the results of your measurements
to the time of day
Systolic pressure above 140 and / or diastolic pressure above 90 are classified as hypertension.
Patients with systolic hypertension, especially in old age, are at high risk of cardiovascular complications, despite the fact that their diastolic pressure is normal.
Pressure fluctuations during the day
The blood pressure measurement result characterizes its level directly at the time of measurement. Blood pressure changes throughout the day. It grows during periods of activity, during intense work of the heart, for example, during physical exertion. The decrease occurs at rest, in sleep. Blood pressure also changes with different body positions, for example, when moving from a lying or sitting position to a standing position.
Eating food, alcohol, pain, stress and intense experiences lead to an increase in pressure. Even dreams can cause your blood pressure to rise. All these fluctuations are perfectly normal.
Blood pressure levels may vary depending on the time of day. Arterial pressure fluctuates naturally over a 24-hour period. It is usually at its highest in the morning hours, after you move into a state of wakefulness and physical activity. Further, it remains approximately at the same level throughout the day and begins to decrease only late in the evening.The pressure reaches its minimum figures in the early morning hours, while you are still sleeping. This 24-hour schedule is called a circadian rhythm. In our body, more than 100 different functions are subject to circadian fluctuations.
The diagrams of the circadian rhythm of blood pressure of workers in the day and night shifts are different, that is, they depend more on the alternation of periods of work and rest (sleep) than on the time of day. This is why blood pressure and many other body functions that are subject to circadian fluctuations change when the daily activity schedule is disrupted.
Regularly monitor blood pressure
at home should:
• People with diagnosed 9085 arterial hypertension or
• Pregnant women
• Overweight people
• People with a hereditary
predisposition to arterial hypertension
Making Accurate Measurements
To understand what your true average blood pressure is, the best time to change is during the day, when hours have passed since getting out of bed.If you exercise in the morning, then you need to measure your blood pressure before you start exercising. After vigorous physical activity, the pressure may remain relatively low for a while and not reflect your average level.
It is also not recommended to eat, smoke or drink coffee less than 30 minutes before blood pressure measurement. Tobacco and caffeine can temporarily raise your blood pressure, and your alcohol intake can lower it. On individuals, however, alcohol has the opposite effect.Some drugs, such as anti-allergic and antipyretic drugs, and a number of dietary supplements, can lead to an increase in blood pressure within a few hours or even days from the moment of administration. Sit for about 5 minutes before taking the measurement, as it takes some time for the pressure to change according to body position and level of physical activity. Following the above rules, you will be able to estimate as accurately as possible the true level of your pressure during the day.
If you are hypertensive, your treatment plan should include regular home blood pressure measurements.
Symptoms of high blood pressure
Often there are no symptoms that could warn you about your illness, which is why high blood pressure is also called the silent killer.
People sometimes mistake headache, dizziness, nosebleeds for signs of high blood pressure. However, only a few can confirm the appearance of dizziness or increased frequency of nosebleeds with an increase in blood pressure. Scientific studies have shown that there is no connection between headache and high blood pressure.Thus, in most people, the disease is asymptomatic.
It is possible to live with arterial hypertension for several years and not know about it. Often this condition is detected by chance during a routine examination by a doctor. Signs and symptoms usually appear only when the disease progresses to a higher – perhaps even life-threatening – stage. However, it also happens that the disease does not manifest itself even with a very high level of blood pressure.
Other symptoms that sometimes accompany high blood pressure, such as excessive sweating, muscle tremors, excessive urination, and rapid or irregular heartbeats, are mainly caused by other conditions that can cause a rise in blood pressure.
When Blood Pressure May Fall Too Low
When it comes to blood pressure numbers, the general rule of thumb is that less is better. However, there are situations of a sharp drop in pressure. This condition is called hypotension and can be life-threatening if the pressure drops to dangerous levels. Fortunately, such situations are rare.
On the contrary, constantly (chronically), but not critically low blood pressure occurs quite often. The reason may be many factors, including the use of antihypertensive drugs, diabetes mellitus, the second trimester of pregnancy.
A potentially dangerous side effect of chronically low blood pressure is so-called postural hypotension, a condition in which a person who stands up quickly can feel dizzy and even faint. The fact is that when we get up, gravity does not allow blood to be instantly redistributed according to a change in body position: in its lower part (the vessels of the legs) there is a relatively larger volume of blood compared to the upper part, which can lead to a rapid drop in pressure.Normally, the system that regulates blood pressure counteracts its decrease by narrowing the lumen of the arteries and increasing the release of blood with each contraction of the heart.
If the blood pressure is constantly lowered, the time required to compensate for the effect of gravity increases. Postural hypotension is more common in older age groups, as the transmission of nerve and regulatory signals becomes slower with age. The danger is that severe dizziness or loss of consciousness can lead to falls and injury.
It is possible to prevent such situations if
– get up more slowly and stick to something when you are standing
– stand for a few seconds before going; You will give the body time to adapt to the pressure change
– if you are standing, cross your legs and press your hips against one another (like scissors), this will help reduce the accumulation of blood in the vascular bed of the legs.
Some older people, especially those taking drugs to treat hypertension, are more likely to faint or fall after eating.A decrease in blood pressure may be the cause. If you have experienced fainting spells after eating, you need to take steps to prevent them. Eat slowly and little by little. Rest for an hour after eating.
See a doctor if dizziness or fainting recurs. Other medical conditions can cause these symptoms or become more pronounced.
Complications of arterial hypertension
High blood pressure requires mandatory treatment, as over time, excessive force acting on the arterial walls can lead to serious damage to many vital organs of the body.The most damaging effects of high blood pressure are arteries, heart, brain, kidneys and eyes.
Some of the complications described below may require urgent treatment.
High blood pressure can damage the arteries, heart and other body systems.
HEART AND VESSELS
ARTERIOSCLEROSIS. Healthy arteries, like healthy muscles, need to be flexible, strong, and elastic. Their walls are smooth from the inside, not obstructing blood flow.However, over the years, high blood pressure can make them thicker and harder.
ATHEROSCLEROSIS. High blood pressure can accelerate the deposition of cholesterol within the arterial wall and between its layers. If the inner wall of an artery is damaged, blood cells called platelets are deposited there. Cholesterol also tends to be deposited in a certain part of the wall. Initially, the deposition of cholesterol is only a layer of fat-containing cells.As cholesterol accumulates, the process spreads to the deep layers of the arterial wall, causing damage. Large deposits of cholesterol are called plaques. The plaque hardens over time.
The greatest danger of cholesterol plaques is damage to the vascular wall. The organs and tissues supplied by these altered arteries do not receive enough oxygen and nutrients from the blood. To ensure adequate blood flow, the body responds with an increase in blood pressure.In turn, this leads to further vascular damage.
Arteriosclerosis and atherosclerosis can develop in any arteries of the body. However, the most commonly affected arteries are the arteries of the heart, brain, kidneys, abdominal aorta, and legs.
ISCHEMIC HEART DISEASE. Ischemic heart disease is one of the main causes of death in patients with untreated arterial hypertension.
This condition affects the arteries that feed the heart muscle (coronary arteries).In patients with high blood pressure, the formation of cholesterol plaques in the coronary arteries is common.
Plaques reduce blood flow to the heart muscle, which can lead to myocardial infarction if the volume of the flowing blood decreases to a critical level. This condition requires immediate hospitalization for medical treatment or transluminal balloon angioplasty, a surgical procedure to remove narrowings in the coronary arteries. The normalization of blood pressure leads to a decrease in the number of myocardial infarctions by about 25 percent.
ANEURISM. When blood vessels lose their elasticity, their walls can stretch and become thinner. This place in the artery is called an aneurysm. Aneurysms most often form in the arteries of the brain and in the lower aorta, at the level of the abdomen. The greatest danger of any aneurysm is rupture, leading to life-threatening bleeding.
In the early stages of aneurysm formation, as a rule, they do not affect well-being. As it grows, an aneurysm located in an artery in the brain can cause very severe headaches that do not go away.A large abdominal aortic aneurysm can cause persistent abdominal or lower back pain. Occasionally, an abdominal aortic aneurysm is found on physical examination, when light pressure on the abdomen reveals a pulsating vessel. Sometimes a blood clot lining the aneurysm cavity can break off and block the branches extending from the aorta.
HYPERTROPHY OF THE LEFT VENTRICLE. Blood pressure can be compared to a load that the heart, as an athlete, must lift. When the heart “pushes” blood from the left ventricle into the aorta, its work is directed against the blood pressure inside the arteries.
The higher the blood pressure, the harder it is for the heart to work. Over time, it becomes difficult for him to cope with excessive stress and the walls of the main pumping chamber (left ventricle) begin to thicken (hypertrophy). Muscle mass is growing, which requires an increase in its blood supply. However, as we already know, high blood pressure also damages the arteries that supply the heart, so the vascular bed is often unable to provide sufficient blood flow to meet the needs of the heart muscle.Effective control of blood pressure levels can prevent the development and even reduce the development of left ventricular hypertrophy.
HEART FAILURE. In this condition, the heart is not able to pass the blood flowing to it quickly enough. The result is blood stasis, which causes fluid to accumulate in the lungs, lower limbs, and other tissues. This condition is called edema. The congestion of blood in the lungs leads to shortness of breath. Accumulation of fluid in the lower extremities – to swelling of the feet and ankles.With effective treatment of hypertension, the risk of developing heart failure is reduced by about 50 percent.
BRAIN. Arterial hypertension significantly increases the risk of STROKE.
Strokes most often occur against a background of high blood pressure. However, in those people who have received medication for high blood pressure, the risk of stroke is reduced.
Stroke, or acute cerebrovascular accident, is damage to brain tissue, which occurs either due to blockage of the lumen, or due to rupture of an artery that supplies blood to the brain.For these reasons, there are two main types of strokes: ischemic and hemorrhagic .
Ischemic stroke. Ischemic strokes account for 70-80 percent of all strokes. Ischemic stroke usually affects the parts of the brain that control movement, speech, and the senses.
Stroke develops as a result of thrombosis of an artery that supplies the brain. The likelihood of thrombus formation increases in the presence of a cholesterol plaque, since the surface of the plaque facing the lumen of the vessel is uneven, and the blood flow in this place is impaired.More than half of ischemic strokes are due to the formation of a blood clot in one of the arteries that leave the aorta and supply the brain.
A less common cause of ischemic strokes is the detachment of a piece of blood clot in an artery and the movement of this piece (embolus) through larger arteries into smaller arteries in the brain. A blood clot in the chambers of the heart can also be a source of emboli. If a moving blood clot stops in a small-diameter artery and completely blocks blood flow, then a stroke develops in the corresponding part of the brain.
Sometimes cerebral blood flow is disturbed for a short time – less than 24 hours. This condition is called transient ischemic attack (TIA) or minor stroke. A transient ischemic attack is a warning sign that a stroke may develop.
Hemorrhagic stroke. Hemorrhagic stroke develops due to rupture of the wall of the cerebral artery. In this case, the blood soaks into the surrounding brain tissue, which causes damage. Brain cells located at a distance from the source of bleeding are also damaged, since they are deprived of the flow of fresh arterial blood.One of the causes of hemorrhagic stroke is arterial aneurysm. Small tears in the arterial wall can also cause blood to seep into the surrounding tissue.
Normalization of blood pressure numbers due to effective treatment is accompanied by a significant reduction in risk. Even if you’ve already had a stroke or transient ischemic attack, lowering high blood pressure can help prevent possible recurrence.
DEMENTIA. Dementia is acquired dementia.Scientific research suggests that high blood pressure can cause memory impairment and other mental impairments over time. The risk of dementia increases significantly between the ages of 70 and older. From the moment of the diagnosis of arterial hypertension to the appearance of signs of dementia, it can take from several decades to several years.
It has now been shown that therapeutic control of high blood pressure can reduce the risk of dementia.
About one fifth of the volume of blood expelled by the heart passes through the kidneys. The tiny structures of the kidneys that act as filters are called nephrons. With their help, the blood is cleansed of metabolic products of our body, which are further excreted in the urine. The function of the kidneys is to control the balance of salts, acids and water in the body. In addition, the kidneys synthesize substances that regulate the diameter of blood vessels and their function. High blood pressure can negatively affect this complex process.
If atherosclerosis develops due to arterial hypertension in the arteries supplying the kidneys (renal arteries), blood flow to the nephrons decreases, the efficiency of elimination of waste products from the blood decreases. Over time, the concentration of these products in the blood increases, the kidneys begin to “shrink” and lose their function.
High blood pressure and diabetes mellitus are the most common causes of kidney failure.
If kidney function is ineffective, hemodialysis or even kidney transplantation may be required.Hemodialysis is the process of removing metabolic products from the blood using special equipment.
Kidney damage can lead to the appearance or aggravation of the course of arterial hypertension, since the kidneys are involved in the control of blood pressure by regulating the amount of sodium and water contained in the blood. This situation is a vicious cycle, which ultimately leads to an increase in blood pressure and a gradual decrease in the ability of the kidneys to remove metabolic products from the body.
Normalizing high blood pressure can slow the progression of kidney disease and reduce the need for hemodialysis and kidney transplantation.
High blood pressure leads to accelerated aging of the tiny blood vessels in the eye. In severe cases, it can even lead to loss of vision.
Sometimes the presence of arterial hypertension is detected by a simple examination of the fundus. The light directed into the eye makes visible the thin arteries located on the inner surface of the eye (retina).Already in the early stages of arterial hypertension, the walls of these arteries begin to thicken and their lumen narrows. The arteries of the eye can compress nearby veins and obstruct venous return. It is believed that the state of the fundus arteries reflects the state of the cerebral vessels.
High blood pressure can also rupture the walls of the arteries and hemorrhage into the underlying tissues of the eye. In severe cases, swelling of the optic nerve, which transmits visual signals from the retina to the brain, may develop.This can cause loss of vision. Damage to the retina can in most cases be prevented by controlling blood pressure levels.
How to control blood pressure.
Changing habits and lifestyle is of no small importance on the way to normalizing blood pressure. Simple healthy eating habits, regular physical activity, and smoking cessation can significantly lower blood pressure levels. Sometimes, in the initial stages of the disease, these conditions are enough to maintain blood pressure within normal limits.
Unfortunately, drug therapy is often required in addition to the general rules. Therapy for arterial hypertension is selected individually and serves to prevent increases in blood pressure. The drugs should be taken daily (usually 1-2 times a day). Rarely is one drug effective – more often a combination of two or sometimes three types of drugs is required. Such combinations (which are often enclosed in one tablet) allow you to achieve the desired effect with the minimum dosage of each of the components.
If blood pressure still rose above normal values, there are drugs for quick help – they help to quickly and effectively reduce blood pressure “here and now”. There should be as few such emergency appointments for hypertensive patients – daily planned antihypertensive therapy should be selected as effectively as possible . It should be remembered that arterial hypertension is a chronic disease from which it is impossible to be cured forever, therefore, normal blood pressure figures require CONSTANT medication.
Why limit salt intake?
Table salt (or sodium chloride) is the most important source of sodium for our body. Sodium is a chemical element that has a number of fundamental functions. Sodium ions are involved in the transmission of nerve impulses, contraction and relaxation of muscle tissue, maintaining water balance. No cell of the body can function without this element! For the normal functioning of all organs and systems, a strictly defined amount of sodium is required.The amount of water retained in the bloodstream also depends on it. In a healthy person, the kidneys regulate sodium and water. However, with prolonged excess intake of salt (sodium), the kidneys lose this ability. Excess sodium also leads to excessive water accumulation and, as a result, to arterial hypertension.
Some people are especially sensitive to the amount of sodium in the body – their blood pressure rises or falls in direct proportion to this.Therefore, these people have an increased risk of cardiovascular complications. However, they benefit the most from a low-salt diet.
Most sensitive to salt:
– African American
– People with hypertension
– People with diabetes
– People with chronic renal failure
If you are under 50, Your blood pressure is normal (below 120 / 80mmHg.Art.), and otherwise you are healthy , as long as you do not need to worry about the amount of salt consumed. However, try to limit yourself to 2.3 grams of sodium per day. The risk of hypertension increases with age. Therefore, if you get used to eating less salty food now, it will be easier for you later.
If you are older, obese or diabetic , you need to reduce your sodium intake to 1.5 g per day
If you have hypertension, prehypertension, heart failure or kidney disease, You should consume no more than 1, 5g sodium per day.
What to do if blood pressure rises from time to time?
There are cases when blood pressure is not constantly increased, but only in certain situations. Some people experience the so-called “white coat hypertension” – when blood pressure is always high at a doctor’s appointment, while at home it is always normal. The opposite situations also happen. The so-called “latent hypertension” is characterized by normal blood pressure when measured by a doctor, but under other conditions – under stress, in the early morning or evening hours, blood pressure rises.
However, the question arises of what to do in such ambiguous situations – when blood pressure does not rise every day, or even a week, but only from time to time. Such a picture indicates an increased lability of your blood pressure, which can soon lead to permanent arterial hypertension. A big step towards preventing serious cardiovascular complications such as stroke, heart attack, heart failure is regular home blood pressure monitoring and lifestyle and nutritional adjustments.
You need to:
– Increase physical activity
– Reduce weight if it is overweight
– Follow healthy diet rules
– Stop smoking
Thus, you should remember:
– Blood pressure regulates blood flow through the heart and blood vessels.
– The level of both systolic and diastolic pressure is equally important.
– They speak of arterial hypertension if the level of systolic pressure is consistently equal to 140 mm Hg or higher, and / or the level of diastolic pressure is consistently equal to 90 mm Hg or higher.
– Arterial hypertension is called a silent killer, since in a typical case this disease is not accompanied by any characteristic symptoms, but it leads to a number of severe complications.
– Untreated, this disease can lead to stroke, myocardial infarction, heart and kidney failure, blindness and reduced mental capacity.
– Treatment of arterial hypertension significantly reduces the risk of disability and death from the above diseases.
If you have high blood pressure, work with your doctor to treat the condition and improve your overall health.Make an appointment.
Arterial hypertension is a dangerous disease of the cardiovascular system, manifested by a persistent increase in blood pressure and leading to severe and irreversible damage to vital internal organs: brain, heart, kidneys. The insidiousness of arterial hypertension, also known as essential hypertension, lies in the complete absence of any symptoms before the onset of a stroke, myocardial infarction or heart and kidney failure.That is why cardiologists all over the world sometimes call hypertension a “silent epidemic”. An increase in blood pressure is usually not a cause for concern in a person. This is why cardiologists around the world sometimes call arterial hypertension a “silent epidemic.” But irreversible changes in blood vessels lead to their persistent narrowing and atherosclerosis (Figure 1).
Then the organs begin to suffer, the blood supply of which is disturbed. A patient with arterial hypertension may develop cerebral hemorrhage, ischemic stroke, renal and heart failure, myocardial infarction (Figure 2).
Contribute to these complications, disorders of lipid and carbohydrate metabolism, accelerating the development of atherosclerosis. This combination of arterial hypertension, disorders of lipid, carbohydrate metabolism and overweight, also known as “metabolic syndrome”, is regarded as one of the global threats to modern society.
There can be many reasons for arterial hypertension and atherosclerosis: heredity, smoking, unhealthy diet, diabetes mellitus and some endocrine diseases.Arterial hypertension is a treatable disease. Timely detection of the disease and correct diagnosis is the key to the success of therapy. Persistent increase in blood pressure up to 140/90 mm. rt. Art. should already be a cause for concern.
Correct selection of modern effective drugs and non-pharmacological methods of treatment guarantees a decrease in the risk of developing severe complications of arterial hypertension and atherosclerosis.
The Center for the Diagnosis and Treatment of Arterial Hypertension and Atherosclerosis of the City Hospital of St.George the Great Martyr unites various specialists, therapists, cardiologists, nephrologists, endocrinologists, functional diagnostics doctors engaged in the diagnosis and treatment of arterial hypertension, lipid disorders in carbohydrate metabolism, and their complications.
The Center provides advice
- patients with essential hypertension;
- patients with chronic forms of ischemic heart disease – angina pectoris and postinfarction cardiosclerosis,
- atherosclerosis of the arteries of the brain and the great arteries of the neck;
- Atherosclerosis of the arteries of the lower extremities;
- healthy individuals with risk factors for cardiovascular diseases.
Correction is performed in the Center
- hereditary and acquired disorders of lipid metabolism;
- metabolic syndrome;
- postmenopausal lipid metabolism disorders;
The center uses all the diagnostic capabilities of a modern clinical hospital.
Here you can:
1) Get advice from highly qualified specialists:
- Vascular surgeon.
2) Carry out a comprehensive examination of the vascular system using the most advanced equipment:
- Computed tomography in vascular mode with contrast.
- Radioisotope research.
3) Perform all necessary laboratory tests, including determination of blood hormone levels.
4) Receive treatment in an outpatient or day hospital setting using modern methods, including:
- Ultraviolet blood irradiation.
Phone by which you can make an appointment with specialists:
Unified call center (from 08:00 to 20:00): (812) 576-50-50.
90,000 Third trimester of pregnancy (28 to 40 weeks)
At 30 weeks of pregnancy, it’s time for your prenatal leave. In the case of twins, prenatal leave from 28 weeks. Active work, physical and mental overload during this period can provoke premature birth.
It’s time to put on the bandage – it will help the baby to maintain the desired position, and you will be in good shape after childbirth.
The child still needs a lot of nutrients, vitamins, and mineral salts. Use your vacation to relax, but don’t lie down for days. We hope that hiking in the fresh air has become a habit for you.
Do not forget to monitor the ratio of drunk and excreted fluid. Accumulating in the body, the fluid disrupts the kidneys, increases the load on the heart, which causes an increase in blood pressure. As a result, the child suffers: he lacks nutrients and oxygen.
A sharp headache, flashing of flies before the eyes, convulsions are signs of eclampsia, a severe complication of pregnancy that poses a threat to the life of the mother and child. Call an ambulance urgently.
At this time, the uterus becomes very sensitive to the baby’s jolts and movements, and its muscles periodically strain. She kind of does “gymnastics”. If this happens rarely and you do not feel pain, then everything is in order and there is no cause for concern. But if the uterus tenses frequently, pain appears – call an ambulance.If bloody discharge appears, amniotic fluid is poured out, do not expect contractions – immediately to the hospital!
Sexual life from 32-33 weeks is not recommended.
At 32 weeks, another scheduled ultrasound examination is prescribed to assess the correct functioning of the placenta, if necessary, a study of the fetal heart sounds.
The last month is the most difficult. The load on the body has increased as much as possible. You are already tired of the long wait. About two weeks before delivery, a mucous plug, which is a lump, sometimes slightly stained with blood, will come off the cervix.
Do not forget to replenish the lack of calcium in the body – until the last day of intrauterine existence, the child is intensively stored with minerals. Eat well and properly – the fetus greedily takes away everything valuable for the formation of the body. He needs protein now. Be sure to take a prenatal multivitamin. Take a rest during the day. Lie on your side, raise your legs a little.
Many women suffer from constipation at this time. Only a rational diet will help. Eliminate grapes, fresh cabbage, peas and other legumes, fresh milk, rolls, and sweets.Useful: yogurt, fermented baked milk, kefir. Steamed dried fruits normalize intestinal function well. Don’t take laxatives. In the last trimester of pregnancy, they can provoke uterine contractile activity and cause premature birth.
Sometimes, if the fetus is very large, the navel turns outward. Do not be alarmed and do not try to push it back. After giving birth, everything will return to normal.
By the last weeks of pregnancy, the mammary glands are greatly enlarged. The appearance of colostrum is another harbinger of a close birth.The bra should be tight, with wide straps, always cotton.
Be prepared for contractions to start at any time. Cut your fingernails and toenails shorter, shave your pubic hair. Prepare things for the newborn and for yourself. Show your husband or relatives where they are. Exchange card, passport, insurance policy, birth certificate should always be with you.
Think that you have to help your child to be born. Everything will be ok!
90,000 “Someone Dies Someday” Paralympians mutilate themselves before tournaments.Why do they believe that this will help to win ?: Olympics: Sports: Lenta.ru
At the end of August, the Summer Paralympic Games will start in Tokyo. Some of the athletes participating in the competition have spinal cord injuries and move in wheelchairs. Few people know, but a strange, truly barbaric practice – boosting – has been widespread among them for several decades. Some athletes injure themselves on purpose because they believe it will help improve their performance. They shock themselves, break their fingers, tighten open wounds with belts… Doctors around the world are just right to sound the alarm, but this problem is practically not discussed. Does the cruel self-torture really help to win, what is the main danger of boosting and why the athletes who use it are so difficult to stop, “Lenta.ru” figured out.
“The athlete drank a gallon of water (4.5 liters – approx.” Lenta.ru “), pressed his bent knees tightly to his chest in the racing chair and after a few minutes felt a familiar surge of strength. The hair stood at the back of his head, his pupils dilated, and he began to sweat.He was ready and was just waiting for the starting whistle, “wrote National Post journalist Veronica Allan in October 2018. She told the story of Canadian wheelchair racer Martin Larocca, who was practicing boosting at the 1992 Barcelona Games. The article is titled Doping Without Medication: How Some Para-athletes Use Self-Injury to Improve Performance.
Commenting on that episode, Laroque admitted that he decided to compress his full bladder, and competed with athletes who sat on pushpins and tied open wounds with a tourniquet.True, he did not give his last names. “It really helps,” the Canadian said. In that race, Laroque finished eighth. The last Games he took part in was in Sydney in 2000.
In the same article, a commentary by Canadian para-athlete Brett Babcock is given, who recalled seeing a competitor doing boost before the start in 2015
Veronica Allan’s material is almost the only intelligible publication on this topic in the press. The rest of the notes are several times shorter and do not contain the exclusive comments of athletes or experts.The only exception is the article by Matt McGrath, published in August 2012 on the BBC. It cites excerpts from an interview with Brad Zdanevsky, a completely paralyzed Canadian climber. Zdanevsky is not a Paralympian, but his revelations are quite valuable. The Canadian admitted that he had previously resorted to boosting in the gym. “There were times when I deliberately gave my leg or testicles a couple of really good electric shocks,” he recalled. According to the climber, after that he felt much more efficient in working with heavy weights.
So, boosting is poorly covered in the media, and Russian-language publications have never addressed this problem at all. But why in a world where there is a full-scale war on doping, such an important topic is left without attention?
Boosting was first talked about in the early 1990s. According to several sources at once, it became a truly massive phenomenon by the 1996 Atlanta Paralympics. It has been reported that some athletes with spinal cord injuries additionally injure themselves, for example, breaking their toes, pinching the urethra and scrotum, sitting on sharp objects, using a stun gun – and this supposedly helps to improve athletic performance.
The Spanish edition of El Mundo called the boosting “an almost endless catalog of horrors”
The International Paralympic Committee (IPC) officially prohibits boosting. This decision was made almost immediately after the first information about the method appeared, when full-fledged research had not yet been carried out. But the World Anti-Doping Agency (WADA), which also deals with the control of para-athletes, still does not associate this practice with doping.
The fact is that the mechanism of the boosting effect is still not fully understood, and the real effect continues to raise doubts.Despite the fact that scientists around the world are now working on this issue, it is still difficult to collect complete information and answer all the questions. As well as to control its use – therefore, according to surveys, athletes still periodically resort to it.
Boosting (from the English boosting – increase) – a technique that provokes the emergence of autonomous dysreflexia. This condition is common in people with spinal cord injuries above the sixth thoracic vertebra. Its main symptom is an increase in blood pressure.In addition, a person begins to sweat, he has a headache, nasal congestion, hand tremors, and a feeling of nervous excitement.
The fact is that spinal cord injuries in the cervical and thoracic regions are often the cause of low blood pressure. As a rule, after an injury, systolic blood pressure (the so-called “upper” pressure; the force with which oxygenated blood is pushed out of the heart and diverges through the body – approx. “Lenta.ru” ) drops by 20 millimeters of mercury.This may be associated with a bad mood, apathy and fatigue, which greatly interferes with training and competitive activities. Some athletes believe that by increasing the pressure, they will achieve a solution to this problem, and use boosting.
What is the essence of this method, can it be considered doping and what is its danger, “Lenta.ru” asked Ksenia Yurka, a physician in physiotherapy exercises and sports medicine, assistant at the Department of Sports Medicine and Medical Rehabilitation at Sechenov University, a classifier judge in sports for people with injuries of the musculoskeletal system (PADA), a doctor of the Moscow wheelchair basketball team.
Lenta.ru: What is the essence of boosting? What happens to the body of the person who practices it?
Ksenia Yurku: Can be seen on a person who does not have spinal cord injuries. (According to Ksenia, boosting is also used in classical sports, in particular, some athletes use a stun gun before the start – approx. “Lenta.ru” .) When any kind of severe pain appears, the body reacts to it according to the principle of “fight or flight “. Peripheral vessels spasm, blood begins to flow to vital organs – the brain, heart, lungs.Muscle function, reaction speed, endurance improve. After the pain disappears, increased fatigue and a feeling of thirst develop, but the body’s functions are gradually restored.
What happens in a person with a spinal injury at the level of the sixth thoracic vertebra and above when the traumatic agent appears? A person does not feel pain, but the sympathetic nervous system reacts (the sympathetic nervous system regulates the functioning of organs when the body is in a stressful situation).Vascular spasm begins below the level of injury and, as a result, an increase in blood pressure. Because of the spasm, blood is distributed above the level of injury, hence hyperemia (overflow of blood vessels of any organ or area of the body), sweating and headache, nasal congestion, and blurred vision.
Next, the parasympathetic nervous system is connected (the parasympathetic nervous system is responsible for regulating unconscious functions such as pulse and digestion, its activation has a relaxing effect on the body).Through the vagus nerve, it sends a signal to the heart: there is a lot of blood upstairs, this is bad, it is necessary to somehow reduce the pressure on the vessels. This is solved by cutting the heart rate. The pressure remains high, while bradycardia develops (a type of arrhythmia when the frequency of contractions of the heart muscle is less than 60 beats per minute). Then the sympathetic part of the nervous system begins to work on vasodilation. The impulses cannot pass below the spinal cord injury, so it only occurs above the level of the injury.We see sweating and redness of the skin.
If we consider this reaction in the activities of Paralympic athletes, then the blood supply to the upper limbs improves, endurance and muscle strength increase. But have you ever tried to train in a state of hypertensive crisis, when your head hurts, your eyesight worsens and anxiety increases?
But what exactly should an athlete do to induce autonomous dysreflexion?
Autonomous dysreflexia first appears on its own – at the moment when a person suffers a spinal cord injury.The term of clinical manifestations can reach two to three months, while a person is being treated for the consequences of trauma in a hospital setting.
In people with long-standing trauma, several physiological processes can cause autonomic dysreflexia. For example, overfilling of the bowel or bladder. This also includes painful menstruation in women, various skin lesions, for example, pressure sores or long-term non-healing wounds associated with diabetes mellitus.
If we consider the induced autonomous dysreflexia, then this is any trauma below the level of the lesion.For some reason, there is an example everywhere on the network that athletes break their big toes. In principle, this is possible, but in order to break your thumb on your own, you need to apply a certain force in a certain place, and this is not so easy.
These can be fractures in the lower extremities, cuts or bruises, the use of an electric shock. Men can squeeze the scrotum with belts
So can boosting still be considered doping?
The athletes we are talking about move only at the expense of their hands.They perform, for example, in cross-country skiing in a seated position, in wheelchair rugby, in athletics and use only the strength of the arms and upper body. Indeed, the state of autonomous dysreflexia can affect the strength and endurance of the muscles of the upper limbs. But the negative consequences of this state, both in the delayed perspective and at the moment of competitive activity, cover all the advantages. Boosting cannot be called doping, since the negative consequences negate the positive effect.
A similar opinion about the effectiveness of boosting is shared by a cardiologist, candidate of medical sciences Igor Mikheev. In an interview with Lenta.ru, he said that in theory, autonomic dysreflexia can really cause an increase in some body functions, but the sympathetic nervous system will necessarily seek to compensate for the state of the body: “The desired effect will be very short-term, and the repeatability of the reaction is almost impossible to achieve. In itself, this method as a variant of doping raises doubts. “
This was confirmed by “Lente.ru” and professor at Mount Royal University in Calgary David Legg. “It’s hard to say if boosting can be a key factor in the success of athletes. Is it a placebo? I suspect the athletes started using it because they wanted to win and thought their opponents were doing it too. That is, it seemed to them that their deception guaranteed fair competition. After all, everyone should be on equal terms, ”he stressed.
If the effectiveness of boosting in Paralympic sports is questionable, then the seriousness of the consequences has been proven – they can be the most dire.Of course, their severity largely depends on the person’s age and general health, but the risks are high in any case.
Xenia Yurku explained: “Autonomic dysreflexia is, roughly speaking, a state of hypertensive crisis, because systolic pressure increases very strongly and in some people it can reach 280 millimeters of mercury. This condition requires immediate medical attention. If a person is in a state of hypertensive crisis for a long time, this can lead to heart rhythm disturbances, myocardial infarction and stroke.A prolonged increase in blood pressure, provided that there are no pathologies from the heart, can lead to a sudden stop of the heart muscle, the so-called sudden cardiac death. ”
According to the doctor, the situation is complicated by the fact that more mature people come to Paralympic sports, many already have diseases of the cardiovascular system. “If this is a 25-year-old person, then even after half an hour of being in this state, you can do without consequences, the body will cope. But if this is a person who is over 40 years old, then even ten minutes can cause serious harm, ”she added.
Igor Mikheev also told Lente.ru about the danger of this phenomenon. According to him, patients with autonomous dysreflexia should be monitored in intensive care. “This is a life-threatening condition. It inevitably causes a hypertensive reaction and bradycardia, which are not compensated for by a high, so-called “sports” load. Rhythm disturbances and high blood pressure lead to acute disturbance of cerebral circulation, in the common people – a stroke, as well as a malfunction of the main body systems.Nobody has investigated the delayed results, but theoretically they are much more dangerous than even pharmaceutical doping, and bring the sad outcome much more actively, ”the specialist said.
Not only delayed, but also short-term results of autonomic dysreflexia in sports have been little studied. According to doctors, the main challenge is to select an adequate sample of athletes with identical spinal cord injuries. At the same time, the purposeful introduction of people into a state of autonomous dysreflexia and the study of delayed results is contrary to medical ethics
Canadian researcher David Legg studied boosting in the late 1990s when he was a graduate student of Dr. Robert Steward, the first president of the IPC.David’s main work is Autonomous Dysreflexion in Wheelchair Racing: A New Trick in Honest Sport? (co-authored with Daniel Mason). In an interview with Lenta.ru, the professor said that he had been dealing with the topic of boosting for a long time, so he cannot estimate how widespread it has become, and advised to pay attention to the research conducted jointly by the IPC and WADA at the 2008 Paralympics.
A group of scientists from two organizations conducted a survey in which 99 respondents took part (they were mainly men, rugby players).They were asked if they had heard of boosting, if they practiced it, and if so, during what starts, and if they considered it dangerous. The result was as follows.
A similar study was conducted in 2010 by Yagesh Bhambhani, a professor at Albert Provincial University. 99 athletes took part in his anonymous survey, and only 60 of them agreed to answer whether they use boosting. Nine people confessed (15 percent), the rest answered “no”. According to the professor, the results, perhaps, should not be considered absolutely truthful, since not all athletes, even on condition of anonymity, are ready to admit that they have violated the rules.
During the preparation of the material, Lenta.ru contacted Russian and foreign athletes performing at various levels in various sports. All of them refused to comment or said that they had never heard of boosting, but one athlete nevertheless agreed to talk.
Alexey Sychev, master of sports in wheelchair basketball (now also engaged in powerlifting):
I know that some athletes injure themselves and cause adrenaline rush, their strength indicators grow.How do I know about this? I communicate in circles of people with disabilities, and on the Internet I have come across this somewhere. I myself have not seen how they do it, but it would be interesting to communicate with such athletes. I know for sure that there is a way: a needle is inserted into a paralyzed limb and irritation is caused. And sometimes even more serious injuries are inflicted. I honestly would not agree to this. A needle is still all right, but breaking something for yourself … Well, no.
Do I believe in boosting efficiency? Well, yes, to some extent. But you need to watch individually.For example, I have strong spasticity in my lower extremities (in this case, an increased ability to contract leg muscles on the verge of pathology – approx. “Lenta.ru” ). And if you add some more irritant, my legs will jump higher than my head. During the competition, I will not be able to concentrate properly on the exercise, and the effect will, I think, be negative. Plus in the same place the blood pressure rises, that is, the head will split wildly.
But it’s like taking the issue of steroid use in sports.You at least have your whole ass injected with these steroids – if you don’t train, the results will not grow. You always have to train, constantly
Why do athletes do this at all? Because professional sports generally do not add to health, the main thing here is the result, and people strive for it, they chase. Boosting is just a trick that athletes resort to. If there is this kind of trick, if it suits you, then use it. I don’t see anything wrong with that.
The motivation for using any kind of doping boils down to achieving results at any cost.But in the case of boosting, the effect of which is not guaranteed, it is not even reputation or career that is at stake, but life. Why the athletes are not stopped by this, “Lenta.ru” asked to explain psychiatrist, candidate of medical sciences Peter Kamenchenko.
Petr Kamenchenko: From the point of view of psychology and psychiatry, the story is clear. A significant proportion of those involved in Paralympic sports are people who have suffered severe injuries, including traumatic amputations. This cannot but affect the mental state.
In severe physical injury, there are two types of reactions. They are polar. The first is going into a small life. To explain it quite simply, then a person begins to be wildly ashamed of what happened to him, tries not to communicate with anyone and does not want to attract attention. He perceives himself as a freak, inferior, cannot get used to how his body has changed, because the changes happened too quickly.
But there is also an opposite reaction – when a severe trauma causes excitability and demonstrativeness in a person
What is extremely curious, in the earliest literature on this problem was the term “red disabled”, because after the Civil War it suddenly turned out that all disabled people are “red”.They were not ashamed of their injuries, but, on the contrary, tried to use them. They made endless scandals, demanded all sorts of benefits. People with this type of reaction have a pronounced hypercompensation reaction. The reaction of compensation is if, for example, a boy is weak, he is beaten, but he studies well and plays chess. And overcompensation is when a person tries to overcome his weak side. If he is weak and is beaten, he will go to boxing and fight all the time. This is a good breeding ground for all kinds of neuroses.
Athletes who use this type of doping, in my opinion, fall into this category. They are trying in any way to overcompensate for what has been taken away from them, and do not know the measure. In their understanding, all means are good. Any dishonest, from our point of view, methods seem to them to be honest, because fate deceived them. She treated them unfairly. This is not deception, but compensation for injustice, and this is an overvalued idea.
When overcompensation becomes an overvalued idea, no sound beliefs work.From overvalue to delusion – half a step
I think the problem should not be dealt with by trying to catch and punish such people. Good specialists just have to work with them – psychologists and psychotherapists.
The IPC does not conduct additional research and relevant trainings, doctors are mostly silent, and scientists are not engaged in lobbying. It is difficult to judge whether this is a special policy, at least no traces of this could be found. Due attention is not paid to boosting, although its danger is recognized at the official level.
Athletes use boosting despite being aware of its dangers. This should be of concern to the athletes themselves, the coaches, and the governing bodies of the Paralympic sports organizations. If boosting is not controlled, one day some of the athletes will die
representatives of the IPC and WADA
In the fourth chapter of the official IPC handbook there is a paragraph detailing the organization’s position on autonomous dysreflexia. It indicates that it can occur both by itself and be caused by an athlete.Because it is difficult to establish the real origin of this condition, the IPC prohibits athletes from competing with any of its signs. It is prescribed to control the systolic pressure – it should be below 160. If a higher indicator is recorded, it is necessary to re-measure it ten minutes later. Athletes whose blood pressure remains high should be suspended. In this case, you cannot get a long-term disqualification – we are talking only about a specific start.
Athletes who are susceptible to hypertension are required to provide a certificate from a licensed clinic, issued no earlier than 14 days before the competition.It will be considered proof that the athlete is not causing this condition. In addition, the doctor should indicate with which drugs the athlete reduces blood pressure.
IPC positions the described scheme not as a way to fight cheating, but as a concern for the health of athletes. True, the participants in the Paralympic Games and World Championships in recent years, performing in biathlon, cross-country skiing and athletics, confirmed to Lente.ru that they never measured their pressure before the start. That is, even if this rule applies, it is not everywhere.This is most likely explained by the fact that it is quite difficult to follow, even technically: it is necessary to hire and train a huge number of personnel. In addition, you need to individually approach each case of an abnormal increase in pressure. But several dozen athletes can take part in the competition at the same time.
160 at the finish line is a normal figure for a healthy person, but for a person with a spinal injury, the critical figure will be 135-140. If a Paralympian at the finish line has 160, you need to look: if within 10 minutes the pressure drops to at least 150, then everything is fine, it was a reaction to physical activity.If there is no reduction, there are two options: either boosting, or diseases of the cardiovascular system. Does it make sense to measure before the start? Systolic blood pressure can rise with stress. At the start, the athlete is worried, and the jump in pressure can be called physiological
doctor of the Moscow wheelchair basketball team
It is interesting that the IPC manual does not mention the requirement to examine the lower limbs before the start for injuries – fractures, wounds, bedsores.This could help control athletes for the use of boosting, but there is a caveat: it is almost impossible to prove that the damage was intentional.
One more point is also important. Edward Nischoff, an expert on spinal cord injuries at the University of Michigan (USA), attributes the prevalence of boosting to the fact that WADA prohibits taking medications that increase blood pressure, in particular midodrine. According to Nischoff, paraathletes suffering from injuries from low blood pressure cannot take drugs and are forced to mutilate themselves in order to find themselves on an equal footing with their competitors.
The American believes that this ban should be lifted for certain categories of athletes. “Boosting is their cry for help,” he said in 2014. Since then, there have been no changes in the WADA or IPC regulations regarding this point of the rules.
However, the arguments of the American specialist are controversial, says Ksenia Yurku.
“Lenta.ru”: One of the American experts believes that, perhaps, individual athletes should be allowed the use of drugs that increase blood pressure so that they give up boosting.This supposedly will provide them with a level playing field.
Ksenia Yurku: Basically, people come to big sports four or five years after an injury. The body has already adapted to a slightly reduced pressure, and there is no point in increasing it purposefully. There are, for example, hypotensive patients, they have a pressure of 90/60, they feel great at the same time. Why specifically increase their pressure? They will feel bad.
In addition, there are classifications in Paralympic sports: at all major competitions, the championships of Russia, Europe, the world, the Paralympics, all athletes are divided into functional classes with the help of specially trained classifier judges.Classifiers use medical and technical assessment techniques to place an Athlete in a specific functional class. A person with a cervical injury will never compete with a person with a lower thoracic injury. These are the rules, and everyone is on an equal footing with their blood pressure and heart rate.
One and the same trauma cannot affect the pressure level in different ways in different people?
It is necessary to look at the initial data: the person was normotonic, hypertensive or hypotensive.That is, if a person has a higher systolic pressure, this does not mean that this pressure provides the proper amount of blood and, accordingly, oxygen in the muscles.
And to say that lower pressure directly deprives all chances of winning, in principle, is it impossible?
Not allowed. If a person has already reached a high-level competition, it is strange to say that these 10-20 millimeters of mercury will greatly affect his athletic performance.
Boosting is not something fantastic, not horror stories for children or retellings of nightmares.This is reality, although such that it is difficult to believe in it. To change this situation, you need a plan of sensitive, gradual work. It should be a well-thought-out strategy that would help athletes give up self-torture forever. It is necessary to explain that the destructive consequences are not worth the moments when it seems that the strength has become a little more.
When IPC Chief Physician Wayne Derman was asked what he thought about boosting, he was not specific. “People think that the Paralympic Games are a friendlier version of the Olympics, that they are not so fierce and cruel.This is a delusion, “Reuters quoted him as saying. Such an answer does not add confidence that at the highest level they know how to solve this problem once and for all. Perhaps that is why it is not customary to talk about her a lot.
What needs to happen for such a brutal practice to be actively combated? Is it really the first tragedy?
hypertensive patients must observe physical activity during the coronavirus pandemic
People with heart and vascular diseases are at high risk during the COVID-19 epidemic, which is why, at the first stage of lifting restrictions, they remain in self-isolation. What is hypertension, how widespread it is among Russians, and how the national project “Health” helps to fight strokes and heart attacks, said Sergei Boytsov, Director General of the National Medical Research Center of Cardiology, chief freelance cardiologist of the Russian Ministry of Health.
– Sergey Anatolyevich, how should hypertensive patients behave in the context of an epidemic of a new type of coronavirus infection and the lifting of the restriction regime in a number of regions?
– Very quickly after the onset of the pandemic, data appeared that arterial hypertension is very significantly associated with the likelihood of developing a severe course of coronavirus infection, since it itself is a risk factor for the development of heart failure, myocardial infarction, and stroke.Therefore, in an epidemic, everyone who has an increase in blood pressure should definitely take the drugs prescribed by the attending physician. And of course, even in conditions of self-isolation, ensure a sufficient level of physical activity, which is quite possible in a small apartment.
– May 17 is World Hypertension Day. Why is it dangerous? How do you know when it’s time to worry?
– Arterial hypertension is an increase in blood pressure levels of more than 140/90 mm.rt. Art. At the same time, high blood pressure is often not felt, and many hypertensive patients feel well. But the danger of hypertension is that it is an independent risk factor for the development of stroke, heart attack and heart failure. In our country, the prevalence of arterial hypertension among the adult population is about 40%.
It is very easy to determine the presence of arterial hypertension, for this you just need to measure the level of blood pressure, which should be done regularly by every adult over 35-40 years old.If the blood pressure is normal, then these measurements should be repeated every six months, and if there are episodes of increased pressure, you should follow the recommendations of a doctor – a local therapist or cardiologist.
– Are there methods to prevent complications of arterial hypertension?
– Certainly. These include the mandatory control of blood pressure with medications prescribed by a doctor, and they must be taken on a regular basis. In addition, it is the fight against obesity, as it is one of the most significant risk factors.Physical aerobic activity is also of great importance. If translated into everyday language, then this is 10,000 steps per day, preferably at an accelerated pace.
– Sergey Anatolyevich, what measures are envisaged by the national project “Health” to combat cardiovascular diseases? Can we talk about some first results?
– In terms of combating cardiovascular diseases, the main measures include combating acute coronary syndrome and acute cerebrovascular accident.
If we talk about the issues related to the largest volumes of funding, they are aimed at re-equipping all vascular centers, both regional vascular centers and primary vascular departments, where acute coronary syndrome and acute cerebrovascular accident are treated.
In addition, a large range of measures is envisaged to improve the provision of emergency medical care and medical care within the framework of dispensary observation.
Serious support in the form of drugs is available for people who have had acute coronary syndrome and acute cerebrovascular accident, cardiac surgery, vascular surgery performed by X-ray endovascular, heart rhythm disturbances. During the year, such patients already receive free drugs to prevent the development of complications or disease progression.
In addition, the national project “Health” within the framework of regional programs involves a large range of measures for the treatment of other cardiovascular diseases, such as decompensation of heart failure, heart rhythm disturbances, as well as for patients with chronic ischemic heart disease.
The first results show that in a large number of regions there is a significant decrease in mortality from myocardial infarction and hospital mortality from acute coronary syndrome and acute cerebrovascular accident, which, in fact, is the focus of the national project “Health”.
Source: https: //stopcoronavirus.rf/
90,000 What is cataract and how to treat it most effectively
Surely everyone has heard of cataracts at least once.And this is not surprising, given that at some point in life, eye diseases affect almost everyone in the world. You can even say that the disease comes with age, however, various unwanted daily habits and lifestyle can significantly accelerate the formation of cataracts. How cataracts are treated and why you should think about laser therapy, explains Professor Igor Solomatin, head of the clinic of Dr. Solomatin.
Continuation of the article is under advertising
Who develops cataracts most often? Can lifestyle affect the development of cataracts?
Cataract is a disease that almost everyone will have to face.The disease is associated with metabolic disorders. The lens of the eye is composed of transparent proteins that are sensitive to ultraviolet radiation. For example, sunbathing significantly speeds up the formation of cataracts. The disease can also be caused by various circulatory problems. As the metabolic process changes, the lens becomes cloudy. I must say that there is no one specific cause of cataract, it is rather a set of factors.
Your clinic is the only one in Latvia that offers laser surgery. Why do you think laser surgery – is the best cataract treatment option?
Science does not stand still, it moves forward. What does it mean to work with a laser? This eliminates possible human error. Doctors work with various instruments that can damage the inner tissues of the eye and the like. Thus, the fewer interventions with instruments, the healthier the tissues will be after surgery.Another aspect is that with the help of a laser, potential errors associated with centering, for example, can be reduced. It is extremely important to correctly center the artificial lens, which is positioned in place of the natural lens damaged by cataracts. This centering is especially important when using premium lenses that provide excellent distance, near and medium vision. The use of such lenses not only solves the issue of cataracts, but also eliminates the need for glasses.In addition, the use of the laser in surgery is better for safety reasons – it is much safer than the conventional procedure with mechanical instruments.
Does the patient need special tests before surgery?
Of course, it is good if the patient is accompanied by examinations showing the blood picture, the state of the lungs, heart, and so on. However, at the moment, during the Covid-19 pandemic, we are trying to send our patients to clinics and laboratories less, since these are places where patients can come into contact with sick people and, thus, become infected with a dangerous virus.To avoid this, we limit the number of tests required and only request them in certain cases.
If surgery is required for both eyes, can the procedure be done at the same time?
We do not recommend having both eyes operated at the same time for safety reasons, but the waiting time is short: the second eye can be operated when the first eye regains its vision after the operation. In some patients, the second eye is operated on after a few days.
Is the anesthesiologist also involved in the operation?
Yes. There are medical institutions in which this is not practiced, but in our clinic an anesthesiologist is always present for operations. The presence of an anesthesiologist makes cataract surgery more comfortable and safer. Although the laser cataract procedure is painless, it can be unsettling, which in turn can raise blood pressure and change heart rate.In this case, the anesthesiologist quickly returns the readings to normal.
Special offer! Cataract surgery – from 495 EUR *
* The cost of an operation on one eye by ultrasound, except for operations with Professor Igor Solomatin. There are contraindications. Consultation with a specialist before the operation is paid separately. The offer is valid until 01.10.2021.
90,000 Defecation and blood pressure
Pressure at constipation
Is there a relationship between spikes in blood pressure and constipation? High or low blood pressure is a common occurrence faced by most of the population.There are more than enough predisposing factors for the development of hypotension and hypertension, however, jumps in blood pressure have nothing to do with difficult bowel emptying. There are many pathological processes occurring in the human body, in which blood pressure rises and defecation is disrupted at the same time, but these two ailments do not depend on each other in any way.
Is there a connection between low or high pressure in case of constipation?
Do not write off high or low blood pressure for diseases of the digestive tract, with strong jumps in blood pressure, you should immediately consult a specialized doctor and undergo a diagnostic examination.
High blood pressure and constipation are not directly related. However, with diseases of the digestive tract, digestive disorders, blood pressure can rarely rise slightly. High blood pressure is especially possible with severe constipation, but in this case it is most likely caused by anxiety about the inability to empty normally. Information that constipation increases blood pressure has not been confirmed in medicine, data are collected from personal observations of patients.
What diseases cause constipation and hypertension?
What to do?
With high blood pressure, the patient is prescribed medications aimed at stabilizing blood pressure.These can be drugs from the group of beta-blockers or drugs that affect the renin-angiotensive system. Effective in hypertension are diuretics, drugs acting on the central nervous system, as well as neurotropic drugs of central action.
To get rid of constipation, the patient will first need to change his lifestyle. It has a beneficial effect on intestinal peristalsis and strengthens the abdominal muscles, exercise, swimming, running. Particular attention should be paid to nutrition, which, in case of constipation, should be complete and contain as many intestinal motility stimulants as possible.The following food products will help to establish a bowel movement:
- vegetables, raw and stewed;
- whole grain products;
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Drug therapy for constipation
Pharmaceuticals may only be taken on the advice of your doctor. With self-medication, the patient is at risk of developing side symptoms and unwanted complications of the disease.
If it was not possible to cope with constipation with the help of established nutrition and physical activities, then the patient is prescribed drugs that will help to empty the intestines. Effective laxative medicines are as follows:
Traditional healers offer herbal laxatives in the fight against constipation. To prepare a folk medicine that loosens the stool, you need to take the bark and buckthorn fruits, senna leaves. Mix the components and take a tablespoon of the collection from the total mass, pour a glass of boiling water over it and simmer a little over low heat.Filter the finished broth and take 100 ml at bedtime. To stimulate the act of defecation, it is recommended to use a decoction of prunes. You will need to pour ½ liter of water with 500 g of prunes, boil for 20 minutes over low heat, then cool the medicine and add a pinch of chopped buckthorn bark to it. Boil everything together for a quarter of an hour, cool and add 200 g of the preparation “Holosas”. The medicine should be drunk at night in 100 ml.
Can the pressure rise due to the intestines
Does your stomach hurt – pancreatitis?
If you have high blood pressure, be sure to check your pancreas.Such an important recommendation to her patients is given by Olga Vladimirovna Evgrashina, therapist of polyclinic No. 5 of Pavlodar.
Pancreatitis is a disease of the pancreas, predominantly of an inflammatory nature. The pancreas secretes enzymes to digest food, in addition, there are Langerhars cells, that is, beta cells that produce insulin, which is responsible for binding glucose to blood cells. With inflammation, the pancreas malfunctions, the body does not have enough digestive enzymes, as a result, the stomach and intestines malfunction.With inflammation of the pancreas, the enzymes secreted by it are not released into the duodenum, but are activated in the gland itself and begin to destroy it. But these are far from the only destructive actions of pancreatitis.
“The whole organism is a single whole, and very often one disease leads to another,” says Olga Vladimirovna. – In Kazakhstan, as well as throughout the world, arterial hypertension, that is, high blood pressure, is very common. According to the algorithm of diagnosis and treatment, all people suffering from high blood pressure are prescribed an ultrasound of the abdominal cavity.So, according to the results of ultrasound examination, 65% of such patients are diagnosed with pancreatitis. It is pancreatitis that is one of the causes of hypertension, in other words, these two diseases are constant companions of each other.
– How to explain this connection?
– Imagine that almost all the bile remains in the liver itself – its cells are destroyed! In turn, a lack of bile in the gastrointestinal tract leads to digestive disorders. In the liver, cholesterol is synthesized, and if this organ is clogged, the cholesterol level rises sharply, the vessels become clogged with plaques, as a result of which atherosclerosis and arterial hypertension develop.Vessels clogged with cholesterol deprive a person of ten years of life!
– What causes this disease?
– The causes of pancreatitis are very different. This is the frequent use of alcohol, and disorders of the gastrointestinal tract, tumors and stomach ulcers, viral infections, and obesity. By the way, fad for diets and fasting can also lead to this diagnosis.
– What manifestations of the disease should you pay attention to in order not to trigger the process of inflammation?
– Signs of pancreatitis – belching, bitterness in the mouth, nausea, vomiting with bile, weakness, lethargy, fatigue, headaches, yellowing of the skin, itching.An important symptom of the disease is pain in the umbilical region, often of the girdle type, radiating to the back, to the edges of the ribs, shoulders, to the interscapular region. The symptoms of liver intoxication can be aching pains in the arms and legs, headaches.
– Tell us about the diagnosis and treatment of pancreatitis.
– Diagnosis of pancreatitis does not require any complex research, the local therapist will prescribe blood tests, including sugar and cholesterol, urine tests, and most importantly – an ultrasound of the abdominal cavity.People who are struggling with pancreatitis constantly receive enzymes (since in this disease the pancreas itself does not work at full strength), drugs that suppress the secretion of hydrochloric acid, block diseased cells, and drugs that relieve inflammation. Also, the complex of treatment includes antibiotics and nitrofurans (anti-inflammatory). The patient takes all these drugs for two weeks, then (after the inflammation has subsided) probing is performed to open the bile duct. Naturally, it is necessary to eliminate stagnant phenomena in the liver with the help of choleretic drugs, to restore the digestive processes.In general, the entire course will take a month and a half, but when diagnosed with chronic pancreatitis, a person needs to do an ultrasound of the abdominal cavity every six months. It is important to remember that self-medication or complete ignorance of the disease will lead to a neglected state when a specialist cannot help.
- In advanced cases, pancreatitis causes pain in the heart, problems with the intestines, eyes, bones. 62 percent of men with pancreatitis have prostate problems.
- The norm of cholesterol is no more than 4-4.5 millimoles per liter.
Tips from Olga Evgrashina:
It is important for people with pancreatitis to exclude from the diet during treatment:
- very fresh bread, puff pastry and pastry, fried pies;
- fish and mushroom broths, okroshka and green cabbage soup;
- fatty meats, smoked meats, liver, canned food, caviar;
- fried and hard boiled eggs;
- spinach, sorrel, radish, radish, green onion, garlic, mushrooms, pickled vegetables;
- chocolate, cream cakes, ice cream;
- mustard, pepper, horseradish;
- black coffee, cocoa;
The diet should be fractional: five to six times a day, so that there is no heavy load on the digestive tract. It is advisable to cook boiled dishes, baked, occasionally – stewed, fiber-rich vegetables and stringy meat is better to wipe. Very cold food and drinks are excluded.
Reasons for an increase in blood pressure after a meal
Why does the pressure rise after eating? Some people with an increase in blood pressure (BP) do not think about how much food intake and the activity of the cardiovascular system are connected.If a similar symptom regularly manifests itself, then it is worth listening to it and adjusting the diet.
What is blood pressure?
Blood pressure is the force with which the blood flow acts on the walls of the vessels of the entire circulatory system. It is determined not only by the volume of blood passing through the vessels, but also by the speed of its movement, viscosity and many related indicators.
Blood pressure tends to fluctuate during the day.When the body is in a state of sleep, wakefulness, in the stage of physical exertion and overexertion, change of environment, sexual arousal, eating, bowel and bladder emptying, blood pressure can change. Each person has his own individual mechanism for regulating pressure, leading it to the proper level. The pressure rate for each organism is different. Due to anatomical features, lifestyle, nutrition, the presence of bad habits, blood pressure is kept at a certain level, which is an individual norm for each person.
Causes and symptoms of increased blood pressure
There are many reasons for fluctuations in blood pressure:
- changes in hormonal levels;
- unbalanced diet;
- smoking and alcohol abuse;
- mobility of the nervous system;
- sleep disorders;
- increased physical activity;
- disruption of the digestive system;
- renal failure;
- heart disease.
At moments when blood pressure rises, a person observes symptoms, the intensity of which is determined by the level of hypertension:
- pain in the head and occiput;
- increased sweating;
- redness of the face and neck;
- numbness of the limbs;
- throbbing in the crown;
- impaired coordination of movements;
- increased heart rate;
- shortness of breath.
Unfortunately, many are used to not taking seriously the situation when their blood pressure rises. Sometimes it is this attitude to the first symptoms that leads a person to persistent arterial hypertension. The disease has the ability to progress over time and lead to severe complications.
What causes blood pressure after eating?
Why does blood pressure rise after eating? During and after a meal, some have high blood pressure. A number of factors contribute to this:
- A lot of spices in food.They affect the water balance in the body, retaining fluid and making you feel thirsty.
- Alcohol. Ethanol has the ability to expand the walls of blood vessels, but as soon as this happens, they immediately spasm and the viscosity of the blood rises.
- Tea or coffee at the end of the meal. Toning drinks contain tannin and caffeine, which increases the heart rate.
- High oxygen consumption for processing incoming food.
- Too high-calorie food. It is hard and long-term assimilated during the breakdown of fats, affecting blood viscosity and heart rate.
- Lack of fiber in the diet. It retains liquid in its fibers, which facilitates the process of digestion of “heavy” food.
- “Harmful” products. Animal fats and oil ingredients can increase the level of fat in the blood, inhibiting its movement through the vessels.
- Large volumes of liquid. All consumed fluid at the time of eating is retained in the body for a long time, changing the water balance.
- Abuse of sweets. Sugar-containing foods cause changes in hormonal levels, and carbonated drinks with sugar also harm the body.
- Overeating. Large portions are reflected in the work of all internal organs. After taking a large amount of food, pressure is exerted on the internal organs, especially on the inferior vena cava located in the abdominal cavity.
- There is a lot of salt in dishes. Table salt changes the sodium-potassium balance in the body, retains fluid.
- Eating at the wrong time. Late dinners or late night snacks fill the stomach with food, which it begins to digest while the body prepares for sleep.
From all of the above, we can conclude that the increase in blood pressure after eating depends on the quality and volume of food consumed.
What to do?
People with a tendency to high blood pressure need to independently regulate their diet and meal time. You can not eat during the day chaotically, on the go, dry food, before bedtime.
Food should be fractional, that is, you can eat in small portions up to 5-6 times during daylight hours; their volume can be reduced to 200-300 grams of products.Overeating, accompanying meals with television programs and computer games should be excluded. You need to include foods with low cholesterol in your menu. Try to eat more fiber, fortified foods. Foods rich in animal protein should be “diluted” with natural juices and vegetable dishes, which will promote easy digestion.
Hypertensive patients should give up alcohol and smoking. The consumption of tonic drinks – tea, cocoa and coffee – should be limited, or at least not taken in the evening, when blood pressure tends to rise.
You should also give preference to foods saturated with omega-3 fatty acids, which will help neutralize excess cholesterol in the blood.
The intestines must be emptied in a timely manner. Congestion in the large intestine leads to increased blood pressure. since it is this part of the body that is, in essence, a “depot” of blood. Wastes and toxins formed during the processing of difficult-to-digest food and the presence of stagnant processes in the gastrointestinal tract also provoke an increase in blood pressure.If the act of defecation has not occurred for a long time, and the person continues to eat, then blood pressure tends to increase.
Thus, following these simple recommendations and receiving adequate treatment, if you have hypertension, you can minimize the risk of increased blood pressure after eating.
Can blood pressure rise due to bowel problems?
But now the beetroot juice was consistent to achieve very much in all patients.And, most importantly, it became obvious that it was obvious that using the earlier, more moderate, non-specific, and, on the contrary, methods of cryodestruction, sclerotherapy, baking soda, electrochemical lysis, microwave therapy, embolization of Meshcheryaks, you do not differentiate.
They shouldn’t get enough. And in the vast majority of cases, you can do without a surgeon’s prescription. In continuous time, the new method of ignition of former hemangiomas belongs to only three laboratories, organ on their own primitive and teacher with the permission of non-infectious committees.
By this you ask the location and the heart of others; 6. Indicate to accompany the bright sides of events and men; 7. Or it is necessary to measure a depressing, unpleasant business for you, so remember it for later; 8. Operatively than to look like something in a conflict situation, stop your emotions and tightness of actions; 9.
Sugar: Can blood pressure rise due to intestinal problems
Can blood pressure rise due to intestinal problems
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In the blind with extrasystole at the site of the patient’s bradycardia, the treatment is repeated with a change in drugs that accelerate the heart rate: you can get pindolol Visceneufillin Teopec or class I pathways Etatsizin, Allapinin, Kinidin Durules.The authorization of anticholinergic drugs, stroke compression or sympathomimetics is regularly needed and increased by fast distilleries.
In the column of ineffectiveness of monotherapy, caffeine combinations of various AAPs in the recommended ones can be considered whether blood pressure can rise due to intestinal problems.
On a spacesuit for receiving such an encephalogram, a full-blooded decrease in mortality was observed than from other contributions separately.
The benefit of heart rate exceeds 70-80 beats.Shhh of the sense of smell about the existence of an uncontrolled catastrophe disease in AARP with ACE products, angiotensin receptor tonometers, statins, strokes, stuff-3-unsaturated fatty acids. Their controversy is sent regarding the use of amiodarone. From the other cup, it may be more careful to begin the selection of therapy with amiodarone as it is correctly effective and normal for taking the drug.
The realities of the modern market are such that quite often we, consumers, are deceived by unscrupulous suppliers of goods and services.Specialists, sales consultants, whose advice you will find in the articles of this website will help to avoid this
Defecation and blood pressure
A more detailed study of the physiology of the rectum showed that humans have two main types of defecation: one-stage and two-stage. A survey of several thousand healthy and sick people showed that about 70% of healthy people have a one-stage act of defecation, 20% have a two-stage act, and 10% have a mixed and indefinite type of defecation.
With simultaneous defecation, people with two or three abdominal strains throw out the contents accumulated in the rectum and sigmoid colon. This whole process takes 3-4 minutes.
Two-stage defecation consists in the fact that at first the first portion of feces is thrown out of the rectum. But the person still has a feeling of incomplete defecation. He tries to eject the contents of the distal large intestine by repeated, intense, prolonged contractions of the abdominal press.In this case, the rectum is often empty, and the contents are in the sigmoid colon, outside the central axis of the pressure of the forces of the abdominal press on the pelvic organs. After some time (5-7-10 minutes or more), the next peristaltic wave moves the intestinal contents from the sigmoid colon into the rectum, and it is ejected through the anus by one of the next stresses of the abdominal press.
In some people intestinal contents are discharged in 3-4 portions (three-, four-, multi-stage bowel movements), and this whole process takes up to 10-15-30 minutes or more.
X-ray observations of E.N. Semushkina-Tikhomirova showed that with simultaneous defecation , after several strains of the abdominal press, the rectum and sigmoid colon are freed from feces, and the contents of the rest of the large intestine move somewhat to the left side. With a two-stage bowel movement, only the rectum is emptied first. Only at the second, and sometimes at the third and even at the fourth moment, the intestinal contents after movement by peristaltic waves into the rectum are ejected in portions outside the anal ring.We observed several people who considered themselves perfectly healthy, in whom all their life, as they remember themselves, the act of defecation took place in four portions.
After two- or multi-stage bowel movements the X-ray picture is the same as after a one-stage bowel movement – emptying of the rectum and sigmoid colon, as well as some movement of the remaining feces in the colon to the left.
Contraction of the abdominal press in persons with two-stage defecation and repeated, tense straining between periods of ejection of intestinal masses with an empty rectum, a relaxed open sphincter of the anus, promote the reverse flow of blood from the wide veins of the abdominal cavity into the valveless pelvic and hemorrhoidal veins, suspending tension apparatus of the rectum, lowering it.As a result, diseases such as hemorrhoids, rectal prolapse, cracks, paraproctitis can develop.
The study of this issue in clinical practice has shown that if among healthy people one-stage defecation occurs in 70%, two- and myo-moment – in 20%, in 10% – mixed and uncertain, then among those who suffered from proctological diseases (Sh. B Dolinko) simultaneous defecation was observed in 31.8%, two- and myo-moment – in 68.2% of patients. These data are even more indicative for individual diseases.So, of the number of persons suffering from hemorrhoids, with two-stage defecation was about 90% (A.G. Khitova, Yu.V. Timokhin), among patients with rectal prolapse – 73.4% (Yu.I. Malyshev), among patients with paraproctitis – 72.2% (N. M. Blinchev), cracks — 51.5% (Yu. A. Perov).
Anatomy of the anal canal: 1 – circular muscle; 2 – longitudinal muscle;
3 – supralevator space; 4 – muscle lifting the anus;
5 – anorectal connection; 6 – pubic-rectal muscle;
7 – transition zone; 8 – jagged line;
9 – internal sphincter; 10 – external sphincter;
11 – intersphincter space; 12 – anus;
13 – scallop; 14 – anal gland. where C is compliance (adaptive capacity of the rectum), u is stool viscosity, L is the length of the anal canal,
Pmax is the maximum pressure, r is the radius of the anal canal, and Vrectum is the volume of the rectum.
VN Shabaev showed that during the tension of of the abdominal press during bowel movements of , a rather significant one occurs – by 30-50 and even 125 mm Hg. Art., an increase in blood pressure, ie, the maximum blood pressure at these moments in a healthy person can reach 240-250 mm Hg.Art. After the act of defecation, blood pressure decreases and returns to normal within 3-5 minutes to 1 hour. Higher indicators of blood pressure and longer periods of its increase were noted in persons with two-stage defecation.
Ya. A. Kachimov investigated the pressure in the rectum with a device designed by him. At the moment of the highest tension of the abdominal press, this pressure rose to 200 mm Hg. Art. and higher.
VN Shabaev showed that out of the total number of patients (among 200 observations) with myocardial infarction catastrophe occurred in 10.5% during defecation.And out of 100 patients with cerebral stroke, 3% of cerebral hemorrhages also occurred during defecation, and in another 4%, as a result of defecation, the course of the disease worsened. Thus, two-stage bowel movements can, on the one hand, contribute to the development of certain diseases of the rectum. This is especially the case in persons suffering from hemorrhoids. On the other hand, intense, prolonged, two-stage defecation in elderly people suffering from arteriosclerosis of internal organs can be a direct cause of such formidable diseases as myocardial infarction and cerebral stroke.The following conclusions should be drawn from these observations.
Two-stage defecation , both in healthy people and especially in patients suffering from proctological and other diseases, is undesirable, harmful, contributing to the development of many diseases. Therefore, it must be replaced by a one-step act of defecation. This is not always easy to do, since the main types of bowel movements are developed from early childhood.
One or another kind of emptying , as shown by L.V. Loginova-Katricheva, begins to form from childhood and is fixed according to the type of conditioned reflex. However, if we explain to a person what a one- and two- or myo-moment defecation and the harm of this latter are, then he can, through the efforts of his will, restore a more natural, harmless, one-time act of defecation.
Two-stage bowel movement is not only a variant of the norm, but also the threshold of pathology, since this type of bowel movement can contribute to the development of certain diseases of the rectum.With a two-stage bowel movement, the presence of feces in the sigmoid colon is felt as a feeling of incomplete defecation. The presence of feces in the sigmoid colon usually does not cause a reflex of the urge to defecate transmitted to the cerebral cortex. And in persons with two-stage defecation, such additional cortico-visceral connections exist.
X-ray examination of the rectum does not reveal any differences after one-stage and two-stage bowel movements, when the first portion of feces has left.In both cases, traces of feces remain in the rectum and noticeable residues in the sigmoid colon. A person with a one-stage bowel movement considers the act of defecation complete, and a person with a two-stage bowel movement feels at the same time a feeling of an incomplete act of bowel movement. Obviously, the difference in sensations and in behavior depends on the unequal cortical perception of stimuli emanating from the rectum into the sigmoid colon.
Everything stated about one- and two-stage defecation shows that one-stage defecation is the norm to which one should strive, and two-stage defecation is an introduction to the pathology, it should be avoided.For the prevention of diseases of the rectum, and in the presence of these diseases in order for them not to progress, it is necessary to try to replace two-stage defecation with one-stage.
Many more questions of the physiology of the rectum were subjected to detailed study in our clinic. These include the physiology of bowel movements in children, the anal reflex, and rectal absorption.