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Does smoking cause depression: Stopping smoking for your mental health

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Stopping smoking for your mental health

We all know that quitting smoking improves physical health.

But it’s also proven to boost your mental health and wellbeing: it can improve mood and help relieve stress, anxiety and depression.

Smoking, anxiety and mood

Most smokers say they want to stop, but some continue because smoking seems to relieve stress and anxiety.

It’s a common belief that smoking helps you relax. But smoking actually increases anxiety and tension.

Smokers are also more likely than non-smokers to develop depression over time.

Why it feels like smoking helps us relax

Smoking cigarettes interferes with certain chemicals in the brain.

When smokers haven’t had a cigarette for a while, the craving for another one makes them feel irritable and anxious.

These feelings can be temporarily relieved when they light up a cigarette. So smokers associate the improved mood with smoking.

In fact, it’s the effects of smoking itself that’s likely to have caused the anxiety in the first place.

Cutting out smoking does improve mood and reduces anxiety.

The mental health benefits of quitting smoking

When people stop smoking, studies show:

  • anxiety, depression and stress levels are lower
  • quality of life and positive mood improve
  • the dosage of some medicines used to treat mental health problems can be reduced

Smokers with mental health problems

People with mental health problems, including anxiety, depression or schizophrenia:

  • are much more likely to smoke than the general population
  • tend to smoke more heavily
  • die on average 10 to 20 years earlier than those who don’t experience mental health problems – smoking plays a major role in this difference in life expectancy
  • need higher doses of some antipsychotic medicines and antidepressants because smoking interferes with the way these medicines work

Stopping smoking can be as effective as antidepressants

People with mental health problems are likely to feel much calmer and more positive, and have a better quality of life, after giving up smoking.

Evidence suggests the beneficial effect of stopping smoking on symptoms of anxiety and depression can equal that of taking antidepressants.

Tips to stop smoking

If you want to stop smoking, contact your local stop smoking service, which provides the best chance of stopping completely and forever.

Here are some ways to boost your chances of stopping smoking for good.

  • Use stop smoking treatments like nicotine replacement therapy (NRT) or e-cigarettes.
  • See an NHS stop smoking expert. It’s free and will increase your chances of quitting for good. You can talk about which stop smoking aids will work best for you, and they can provide additional support such as advice on coping with cravings. They can also talk to you about the two stop smoking medicines available on prescription: varenicline (Champix) and bupropion (Zyban)
  • If you’re not as successful as you want to be, you’ll still have learnt something to help you next time. The more comfortable you are using the support available, the better prepared you’ll be for stopping completely next time.
  • If you take antipsychotic medicines or antidepressants, it’s important you talk to your GP or psychiatrist before you stop smoking – the dosage of these medicines may need to be monitored and the amount you need to take could be reduced.

Find more ways to quit with 10 self-help tips to stop smoking.

Page last reviewed: 1 March 2021
Next review due: 1 March 2024

Smoking & Depression | Smokefree

Find Help 24/7

If you need help now, call a 24-hour crisis center at 1-800-273-TALK (8255) or 1-800-SUICIDE (1-800-784-2433) for free, private help or dial 911.

Sometimes people who are feeling depressed think about hurting themselves or dying. If you or someone you know is having these feelings, get help now.

The Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration (SAMHSA)—a part of the U. S. Department of Health and Human Services—runs both crisis centers. For more information visit the National Suicide Prevention Lifeline website.

Para obtener asistencia en español durante las 24 horas, llame al 1-888-628-9454.

Mood Changes

Mood changes are common after quitting smoking. Some people feel increased sadness. You might be irritable, restless, or feel down or blue. Changes in mood from quitting smoking may be part of withdrawal. Withdrawal is your body getting used to not having nicotine. Mood changes from nicotine withdrawal usually get better in a week or two. If mood changes do not get better in a couple of weeks, you should talk to your doctor. Something else, like depression, could be the reason.

Smoking may seem to help you with depression. You might feel better in the moment. But there are many problems with using cigarettes to cope with depression. There are other things you can try to lift your mood:

  • Exercise. Being physically active can help. Start small and build up over time. This can be hard to do when you’re depressed. But your efforts will pay off.
  • Structure your day. Make a plan to stay busy. Get out of the house if you can.
  • Be with other people. Many people who are depressed are cut off from other people. Being in touch or talking with others every day can help your mood.
  • Reward yourself. Do things you enjoy. Even small things add up and help you feel better.

The Association of Cigarette Smoking With Depression and Anxiety: A Systematic Review

Introduction

The high co-occurrence of smoking and mental illness is a major public health concern, and smoking accounts for much of the reduction in life expectancy associated with mental illness.1 Many studies report a positive association between smoking and mental illness, with smoking rates increasing with the severity of the disease. 2,3 Individuals with mental illness also tend to start smoking at an earlier age, smoke more heavily, and are more addicted to cigarettes than the general population. For example, a recent survey suggests that 42% of all cigarettes consumed in England are consumed by those with mental illness, although this includes substance use disorders.4 Additionally, while cigarette consumption in the general population has shown a sustained decrease over the past 20 years, consumption among smokers with mental illness has remained relatively unchanged.1 There is therefore a pressing need to understand the mechanisms underlying the high rate of smoking in people with mental illness. Here, we focus specifically on the relationship between cigarette smoking and depression and anxiety.

Currently, there are several hypotheses that have been proposed to explain the high rates of smoking in people with depression and anxiety. The self-medication hypothesis postulates that individuals turn to smoking to alleviate their symptoms5–7 and therefore suggests that symptoms of depression and anxiety may lead to smoking. An alternative hypothesis is that smoking may lead to depression or anxiety, through effects on an individual’s neurocircuitry that increases susceptibility to environmental stressors. Animal models indicate that prolonged nicotine exposure dysregulates the hypothalamic–pituitary–adrenal system, resulting in hypersecretion of cortisol and alterations in the activity of the associated monoamine neurotransmitter system, whose function is to regulate reactions to stressors,8 an effect that appears to normalize after nicotine withdrawal.9 The association between smoking and depression/anxiety may also be bidirectional, with occasional smoking initially used to alleviate symptoms, but in fact worsening them over time.10 Finally, there may in fact be no causal relationship between smoking and depression/anxiety. Instead, the association may be a product of shared risk factors (eg, common genetic influences)10,11 or confounding. Smokers may also report that cigarettes alleviate their symptoms due to the misattribution of withdrawal relief. Given the short half-life of nicotine that results in withdrawal symptoms (including mood symptoms) after a short period of abstinence, smokers may misattribute the relief of short-term withdrawal as reflecting a genuine anxiolytic effect of smoking.7 That is, withdrawal symptoms of increased anxiety and negative affect may be misattributed as reflecting genuine mood symptoms, which would lead to the impression that smoking improves mood.

We are therefore presented with multiple different hypotheses regarding whether there is a causal relationship between smoking and depression/anxiety and if so, what the direction of causality underlying this relationship is. While experimental studies are generally not possible, for both practical and ethical reasons, longitudinal studies may help inform our understanding of the causal relationship between smoking and depression/anxiety by clarifying the temporal association. Our study aimed to systematically review the literature comprising longitudinal studies of the associations between smoking and depression/anxiety and conduct meta-analyses where possible. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first systematic review of this literature.

Methods

Identification of Studies

We searched PubMed, Scopus, and Web of Science up until August 1, 2015 using the following search terms: depressi*, anxi*, smok*, tobacco, nicotine, cigarette, caus*, cohort, prospective, longitudinal. The term animal* was specified for exclusion. Two authors (MF and AT) reviewed the electronic abstracts, selecting the full-text articles to be included.

Selection Criteria

Studies were included in the review if they met the following criteria: (1) human participants, (2) smoking as the exposure variable and depression and/or anxiety as the outcome variable, or vice versa (depression and/or anxiety as the exposure variable and smoking as the outcome variable), (3) longitudinal study design, and (4) reported primary data not previously reported elsewhere. Studies involving cessation, withdrawal, suicide, or trauma, which recruited participants who were pregnant or diagnosed with a psychiatric illness other than depression or anxiety, or included participants with depression and anxiety comorbid with another psychiatric illness were excluded. Studies not utilizing a validated diagnostic test for depression or anxiety were excluded. Studies investigating the association of parental smoking on offspring outcomes were also excluded, as were all experimental studies (eg, randomized controlled trials of smoking cessation interventions). RCTs as well as secondary analyses of randomized controlled trials were excluded.

Data Extraction

The following information was extracted from each of the included studies, by one author (MF): type of depression/anxiety (major depression, generalized anxiety disorder, mixed major depression, and generalized anxiety disorder), method of measuring depression/anxiety (self-report via diagnostic test, clinical interview, or physician diagnosis) and scale used (continuous or categorical), smoking behavior (age of smoking onset, smoking status, heaviness of smoking, tobacco dependence, smoking trajectory), sample size, mean age of participants and sex distribution of participants, population sampled (eg, general or clinical), and length of follow up. A 100% data check was performed by the same author (MF) and a 10% data check was independently performed by another author (MG) to identify data extraction errors. Any errors identified were resolved by mutual consent.

Rationale for not Conducting Meta-analysis

A meta-analysis was not conducted as, even within the general population samples available, there was substantial heterogeneity (age, location, covariates used, time to follow up, and number of times and frequency of outcomes sampled). Additionally, the studies included were not limited to only those examining an a priori hypothesis of mental health and smoking; studies were included if they contained the desired outcome and exposure variables within their data set.

Results

Characteristics of Included Studies

Of the 6232 abstracts reviewed, 5514 were excluded on the basis of title and 404 after reviewing the abstract. In total, 314 articles were retrieved and assessed for eligibility, and 148 met inclusion criteria (). Details of included studies are provided in Supplementary Table S1 and details of excluded full-text studies in Supplementary Table S2.

Identification of independent studies for inclusion in systematic review.

Studies ranged in sample size from 59 to 90 627 participants and in length of follow up from 2 months to 36 years. Of the 148 included studies, 99 (67%) recruited male and female participants, 16 (11%) recruited only females and 7 (5%) recruited only males, while 26 (18%) did not report the sex of the participants. In addition, 101 studies (70%) sampled participants from the general population, 15 (10%) from clinical populations, and 16 (10%) from particular ethnic groups, while 16 (10%) had other selection criteria (see Supplementary Table S2).

Unless otherwise stated, the associations described refer to a positive relationship between smoking and depression/anxiety (ie, smoking is associated with increased depression/anxiety, or increased depression/anxiety is associated with increased smoking).

Smoking Categories

Studies were categorized based on the basis of the smoking behavior(s) they assessed: smoking onset, smoking status, smoking heaviness, tobacco dependence, and smoking trajectory. Studies with measures of daily or weekly cigarette use were included in the smoking heaviness category. Studies that were able to establish the onset of smoking from an initially nonsmoking population were included in the smoking onset category. Studies that measured tobacco dependence, for example, through the DSM-IV
12 or the Fagerström Test for Nicotine Dependence,13 were included in the tobacco dependence category. Studies that tracked the different paths of cigarette smoking uptake and use in a cohort were included in the smoking trajectory category, and studies that defined smokers in purely categorical terms (eg, current, former, and never) were included in the smoking status category. summarizes the directions of associations investigated within the studies in each smoking category.

Table 1.

Directions of Associations Investigated by Smoking Category

Category Depression Anxiety Comorbid depression and anxiety
MH into smoking Smoking into MH Bidirectional MH into smoking Smoking into MH Bidirectional MH into smoking Smoking into MH Bidirectional
Smoking onset 13 0 1 4 0 2 5 0 1
Smoking status 29 40 8 0 4 1 1 7 0
Smoking heaviness 9 7 2 1 1 0 0 1 0
Tobacco dependence 12 2 1 6 0 0 5 1 0
Smoking trajectory 7 2 0 1 0 0 1 1 0
Any smoking category 70 51 12 12 5 3 12 10 1

Smoking Onset

A total of 14 studies investigated the association of baseline depression with subsequent smoking onset, of which 10 (71%) found evidence to support this association,14–23 while four (29%) found no evidence of an association. 24–27 Five studies investigated the association of baseline anxiety on smoking onset, of which four (80%) found evidence to support an association with increased risk of smoking onset24,28–30 and one (20%) found no evidence of an association.21 Six studies investigated the association of comorbid depression and anxiety with later smoking onset, of which two (33%) found evidence to support this association,31,32 while one (17%) reported comorbid depression and anxiety was associated with reduced risk of smoking onset33 and three (50%) found no evidence of an association.34–36 One study investigated the association of smoking onset with later depression, finding evidence for this association.15 One study investigated the association of smoking onset with later anxiety, finding no evidence for this association.21 Additionally one study investigated the association of smoking onset with later comorbid depression and anxiety, finding no evidence for this association. 31 These findings are summarized in .

Main outcomes by smoking category.

Smoking Status

A total of 37 studies investigated the association of baseline depression with subsequent smoking status, of which 33 (89%) found evidence to support this association,21,37–66 while four (11%) found no evidence of an association.67–70 One study investigated the association of anxiety with later smoking status, finding evidence of an association.28 One study investigated the association of comorbid depression and anxiety with later smoking status, finding no evidence of an association.71

A total of 51 studies investigated the association of smoking status with later depression, of which 37 (73%) found evidence to support this association,21,25,47,57,65,70,72–102 while 14 (27%) found no evidence of this association.28,38,48,64,69,103–111 Four studies investigated the association of smoking status with later anxiety, of which two (50%) found evidence to support this association,28,112 while two (50%) found no evidence of an association. 21,103 Seven studies investigated the association of smoking status with later comorbid depression and anxiety, of which five (71%) found evidence to support this association,35,113–116 while two (29%) found no evidence of an association.117,118 These findings are summarized in .

Smoking Heaviness

A total of 11 studies investigated the association of baseline depression with subsequent heaviness of smoking, of which eight (73%) found evidence that depression was associated with heavier rates of smoking,22,119–125 while two (18%) found that depression was associated with reduced heaviness of smoking26,126 and one (09%) found no evidence of an association.127 One study investigated the association of baseline anxiety with subsequent smoking heaviness and found no evidence of an association.124 Eight studies investigated the association of heaviness of smoking with later depression, of which seven (88%) found evidence to support this association,11,82,95,102,125,127,128 while one (13%) found no evidence of an association. 129 One study investigated the association of heaviness of smoking with later anxiety and found evidence to support this association.130 One study investigated the association of heaviness of smoking with later comorbid depression and anxiety, finding no evidence of an association.117 These findings are summarized in .

Tobacco Dependence

A total of 13 studies investigated the association of baseline depression with subsequent tobacco dependence, of which 12 (92%) found evidence to support this association29,120,131–140 while one (8%) found no evidence of an association.141 Six studies investigated the association of baseline anxiety with later tobacco dependence, of which two (33%) found evidence to support this association,140,142 while four (67%) found no evidence of an association.132,137,139,143 Five studies investigated baseline comorbid depression and anxiety with subsequent tobacco dependence, of which three (60%) found evidence to support this association, 144–146 while two (40%) found no evidence of an association. 35,147 Three studies investigated the association of tobacco dependence with later depression, of which two (67%) found evidence to support this association,6,132 while one (33%) found no evidence of an association.148 Two studies investigated the association of tobacco dependence with later comorbid depression and anxiety, of which one (50%) found evidence to support this association,149 while one (50%) found no evidence of an association.147 These findings are summarized in .

Smoking Trajectory

A total of seven studies investigated the association of baseline depression with smoking trajectory, of which one (14%) reported that depressive symptoms were associated with accelerated cigarette use,150 three (43%) reported that depressive symptoms were associated with early smoking onset,17,43,151 one reported that depressive symptoms were associated with late onset smoking152 and two (29%) found no evidence of an association. 153,154. One study reported evidence of an association of baseline anxiety with early and late onset smoking patterns.155 Another study reported evidence of an association of baseline comorbid depression and anxiety with late onset smoking as opposed to experimental smoking.156 One study reported that individuals in (smoking) starter and maintaining groups were more likely to be depressed at follow up compared with nonsmoking groups.157 Finally, one study reported evidence that early onset smokers developed depression and anxiety approximately five years earlier than late onset smokers.158 These findings are summarized in .

Bidirectional Studies

Sixteen (11%) of the 148 included studies investigated the association between smoking behavior and mental health bidirectionally (ie, both the association between baseline mental health and later smoking behavior and baseline smoking behavior and later mental health). Of these, seven (44%) reported evidence in support of a bidirectional relationship between depression and smoking15,21,47,57,65,125,132 and one (9%) reported evidence in support of a bidirectional relationship between anxiety and smoking. 28

Sex Differences

A total of eight studies (7% of all studies including both males and females) reported that the relationship between smoking and depression/anxiety differed between males and females. Two studies reported that depression was associated with subsequent smoking behavior only in males,23,64 while one study reported depression was associated with subsequent smoking only in females66 and one study reported that anxiety was associated with later smoking behavior only in females.140 Additionally, one study reported evidence that smoking status in men was associated with later depression,101 and two studies reported evidence that smoking status had a stronger association with later depression in females than males.97,157 Finally, one study reported a bidirectional relationship between smoking and depression that was only observed in females.57

Clinical Studies

Five studies investigated participants with cardiovascular problems. One study reported evidence that depression was associated with subsequent smoking behavior.44 The other four reported that smoking status was associated with later depression.80,83,87,88 Other studies of clinical populations generally reported evidence of an association between smoking and the onset of depression.

Ethnic Differences

Five studies recruited participants of East Asian descent (China, Japan, and South Korea), with two studies reporting evidence that depression was associated with later smoking behavior 41,48 and one study reporting no evidence of an association.70 Additionally, two studies reported evidence for an association between smoking status and later depression,70,99 while two studies reported no evidence that smoking status was associated with subsequent depression.48,108 Three studies recruited African American participants, with two studies reporting evidence that depression was associated with later smoking behavior,54,64 one study reporting no evidence that depression was associated with subsequent smoking onset,153 and one study reporting no evidence that smoking was associated with the onset of depression. 64 Four studies recruited both African American and Hispanic participants, with three studies reporting that depression and anxiety were associated with subsequent smoking trajectories,43,131,156 while one study reported that smoking heaviness was associated with the onset of anxiety.130 Other studies of specific ethnic groups generally reported evidence of an association between smoking and later depression and anxiety.

Additional Analyses

No clear pattern of results was apparent when studies with different lengths of follow up were considered separately (see Supplementary Table S3). Additionally, the findings did not vary substantially between studies using different tests (interview vs. self-diagnostic test) or scales (continuous vs. categorical) to diagnose depression or anxiety (see Supplementary Table S4).

Discussion

In general, the findings across the studies in our systematic review were inconsistent. Nearly half of the studies reported that baseline depression or anxiety was associated with some type of later smoking behavior, whether it be the onset of smoking itself, increased smoking heaviness, or the transition from daily smoking into dependence. These findings support a self-medication model, suggesting that individuals smoke to alleviate psychiatric symptoms.5,6 However, over a third of the studies found evidence for a relationship in the opposite direction whereby smoking exposure at baseline was associated with later depression or anxiety, supporting the alternative hypothesis that prolonged smoking increases susceptibility to depression and anxiety.8,9 Of course, these two putative causal pathways are not mutually exclusive, but interestingly there were relatively few studies reporting evidence for a bidirectional model relationship between smoking and depression and anxiety. One possible reason for this is that many studies only measured or analyzed the variables in the direction of their a priori hypothesis. For example, studies examining factors for depression in later life measured smoking as a possible factor but typically did not analyze the association of baseline depression with later smoking. Moreover, few studies reported null results; often these were only included alongside positive results relating to another outcome. Additionally, it is possible the associations observed between smoking and mental health are a result of shared genetic and environmental factors.6

There are a number of limitations that should be considered when interpreting these results. First, the studies included in this review varied substantially in population sampled, with some recruiting from the general population and others selectively recruiting by sex, ethnicity, clinical population, or some other characteristic (eg, at-risk adolescents). This introduced substantial heterogeneity into the review, thus making meta-analysis inappropriate. The substantial heterogeneity between study populations could be responsible for the inconsistent results observed, and future reviews should consider analyzing different populations individually. Second, there was also substantial variation in study designs, including the length of follow up (between 2 months and 36 years) and confounders adjusted for. Measurement of depression or anxiety was based on a wide range of different diagnostic tests, with different cutoffs for determining clinical status. Sample size also varied substantially between studies, ranging from 59 to 90 627, suggesting that some smaller studies may be inadequately powered. This may lead to an increased likelihood of false positives since, among statistically significant findings, power declines the ratio of true positives to false positives decreases.159 This is because while 5% of null associations will be falsely declared as significant (assuming a 5% alpha level), the number of true positives correctly identified will decline as power declines (eg, from 80% of true associations correctly declared as significant in high powered studies to, say, only 20% in low powered studies).159 However, it is also worth noting that very large samples may detect statistically significant associations that are unlikely to be of clinical or population health importance.

Third, we only included published studies, and while the inclusion of unpublished studies may increase the likelihood of including lower quality work that has not been peer reviewed, it may also decrease publication bias, in which studies are only published if they have positive results. By expanding our search to include non-published studies, it is possible we may have found more instances of null results. Fourth, we did not investigate whether quality of the individual studies was related to the nature of the results reported. However, this would be challenging, given the diversity of study designs among the included studies. Fifth, while we were able to categorize and investigate a range of different smoking behaviors, the same level of detail was not available for depression and anxiety. Future reviews should investigate individual symptomology (eg, negative affect, somatic features, etc.) and their relationship with smoking behavior, as previous research has indicated that specific symptoms may be differentially associated with smoking motivations and tobacco withdrawal. 160–162 However, this analysis was not possible with the data reviewed here. Sixth, we only focused on depression, anxiety, or comorbid depression and anxiety. However, several studies identified during screening included depression or anxiety subtypes (eg, post-traumatic stress disorder or social anxiety). These were excluded in order to maximize comparability among included studies. Future studies should explore whether there is a more consistent pattern of relationship between smoking behavior and other diagnostic categories. However, given the disparate results, we observed in our more focused review, it is perhaps unlikely that clear relationships will emerge.

Despite the advantages of longitudinal studies, they cannot by themselves provide strong evidence of causality. However, applying latent variable mixture modeling to establish group-based trajectories, as some studies identified did, may help to identify different patterns within the data that may have otherwise gone unnoticed. Rather than clustering individuals into simply “smokers” and “nonsmokers,” mixture modeling can identify various groups such as “experimenters,” “early onset,” “late onset,” “stable,” or “late escalating” smokers.163 This approach could provide insight into the type or critical age of smokers vulnerable to mental illness, or vice versa. It’s likely that our review did not yield more of these studies, as we did not include “trajectory” in our search terms. Future reviews should include an exhaustive search, including a variety of terms such as mixture modeling, latent class analysis, and latent trajectory analysis in addition to the term trajectory.

Additionally, future studies should therefore employ methods that enable stronger causal inference, such as Mendelian randomization (MR).164 This approach uses genetic polymorphisms that have been previously shown to be robustly associated with one of the exposures of interest; for example, the CHRNA5-A3-B4 gene cluster is associated with smoking quantity and tobacco dependence165,166 and has been used in a number of MR studies. 160 It is based on the principle that an individual inherits a random assortment of genes from their parents, and these genes should not be associated with potential confounders.10 Therefore, in theory, a robust genetic influence to a particular exposure (eg, smoking) would be comparable to a randomized trial in which individuals are assigned to a high- or low-exposure group.164 In addition, environmental factors cannot affect the genes that an individual is born with, so analyses are not subject to reverse causality or residual confounding. Two studies that have used MR have found no evidence to support a causal association between smoking and depression and anxiety,117,167 while another found evidence to suggest that smoking was associated with lower odds of depression during pregnancy.168 The results of these studies suggest that observational findings of an association of smoking status with later psychological distress may be a result of shared vulnerability, residual confounding, or reverse causality (eg, psychological distress associated with later smoking behavior). 167 However, this review yielded the most findings in the direction of psychological distress associated with later smoking behavior. This review found slightly more evidence to support a direction of psychological distress predicting later smoking behavior, which is not inconsistent with these MR studies.167,168 However, while both depression and anxiety are highly heritable,169,170 genomewide association studies have not identified genetic variants robustly and strongly associated with these outcomes.171 Therefore, it is not currently possible to use MR to examine whether depression and anxiety are associated with smoking behavior, although this is likely to change in the near future as larger genomewide association studies of depression and anxiety emerge. Until such genomewide association studies emerge, it is not possible to directly test the causal hypothesis in this direction.

In summary, we found overall inconsistent findings regarding whether smoking leads to depression and anxiety, depression and anxiety results in smoking or increased smoking behavior, or there is a bidirectional relationship between the two. This conflicting evidence suggests the need for future studies to focus on different methodologies, such as MR, which will allow us to draw stronger causal inferences.

Smoking and Depression – Depression Center

If you have depression, there is a good chance you smoke, too. Studies have shown that depression and smoking often go hand in hand. People with depression are not only more likely to smoke, but may also find it harder to quit smoking than those who are not depressed.

Researchers have long recognized that there is a link between smoking cigarettes and depression. It is still not entirely clear exactly how smoking and depression are related, but several theories may explain the link:

  • Depression leads to smoking. It may be that people who are depressed turn to smoking, hoping to make themselves feel better and alleviate their depression symptoms.
  • Smoking causes depression. Recent research suggests that an increased risk of depression is among the many negative effects of smoking, possibly because nicotine damages certain pathways in the brain that regulate mood. As a result, nicotine may trigger mood swings.
  • A vicious cycle is at play. Other studies have suggested that smoking makes people more depressed and depression makes people turn to smoking — smoking and depression may actually perpetuate each other.
  • There may be shared genetic triggers. It has also been proposed that certain genetic predispositions may increase both the risk of smoking and depression in some people.

Secondhand Smoke and Depression

People who don’t smoke, but who spend a lot of time around people who do, are at increased risk of smoking-related death and disease. This is significant, since so many people are exposed to secondhand smoke.

Now studies have shown that secondhand smoke exposure may also be linked to depression. One found that those who never smoked or smoked fewer than 100 cigarettes in their lifetime but lived with or worked around smokers were more likely to have major depression than non-smokers not exposed to secondhand smoke.

What This Means for You

If you have depression, smoking or exposure to secondhand smoke could make your symptoms worse. Likewise, if you’re a smoker, an increased risk of depression is one more reason you should try to stop smoking and avoid secondhand smoke exposure.

As most smokers know, however, quitting is easier said than done. For people already managing depression, giving up cigarettes can be even trickier, since stopping smoking can also trigger worsening symptoms of depression. Even so, these symptoms eventually pass and the health benefits of quitting clearly outweigh any downside. To get the help you need to quit smoking, don’t be afraid to tell your doctor and ask for suggestions.

Remember that it is completely natural to feel irritable and sad in the first days and weeks after you stop smoking. Also keep in mind that many smokers who have depression experience more severe nicotine withdrawal symptoms than those who don’t. But sticking with your plan and staying away from cigarettes is worth it — it will help you feel better in the long run and, ultimately, proud that you have conquered the challenging task of quitting smoking.

Most people feel better within a month after they stop smoking. If your feelings of sadness and depression are overwhelming or if your depression continues for more than a month, be sure to talk to your doctor.

How Tobacco Affects Your Mental Health and How to Quit Using It

‌If you use tobacco, you know it can be challenging to quit. Years of experiencing the temporary good feelings brought on by tobacco have likely trained your brain to want it even more.

However, there are a lot of good reasons to explore quitting. Tobacco use has been shown to shorten life expectancy. It can also have a number of effects on your mental health.

Effects of Tobacco on Your Mental Health

Smoking tobacco can affect your mental health. How much it can affect you depends on how much and how frequently you smoke. Some possible effects may include:

Addiction. When a person smokes tobacco, nicotine reaches the brain within 10 seconds. For some people, nicotine improves mood and helps with relaxation. However, regular use can lead to addiction.

Regular doses of tobacco may lead to changes in the brain. When the nicotine supply drops, this causes withdrawal symptoms. This increases the habit. Most smokers become dependent because of this cycle.

Stress. While some people smoke to reduce stress, research shows that smoking actually increases tension. Tobacco can provide an immediate sense of relaxation, leading you to believe that it reduces anxiety.

However, this feeling of relaxation is temporary. It may cause you to develop an increased craving for tobacco and start experiencing unpleasant withdrawal symptoms. Smoking may reduce withdrawal symptoms, but it doesn’t reduce anxiety. 

Depression. A person with depression is twice as likely to smoke than someone not suffering from depression. However, it is important to note that many people begin smoking without showing signs of depression.

Tobacco causes the release of a chemical – dopamine – in the brain. Dopamine triggers positive feelings. People with depression often have low levels of dopamine, so they may then use tobacco to experience pleasure.

In the long run, smoking will actually encourage the brain to slow its own dopamine production. This reduction will eventually cause you to want to smoke more.

If you are experiencing depression, look for support when you start to quit smoking. You may be affected more severely by withdrawal symptoms, and you don’t have to go through it alone.

Schizophrenia. People with schizophrenia are three times more likely to smoke than those without. They are also more likely to smoke heavily. This is because smoking may seem to manage some of the symptoms connected with the illness or the side effects of medication used in treatment. Research also shows that smoking may increase the risk of developing schizophrenia.

Tips to Quit Using Tobacco

There are a few things to consider when you are ready to quit smoking. You are most likely to succeed if you have a plan and support. If you’re undergoing a crisis or experiencing significant changes in your life, this will be even more important.

If you are taking medications like antidepressants or antipsychotics, talk to your doctor before you stop smoking. 

The following tips can help you in your efforts to quit:

  • Prepare for change: Try to think about your relationship with smoking. Write down what you’d achieve by quitting smoking. Some reasons to stop smoking may include better physical health, fresh breath, improved concentration, and more money to spend on other things.
  • Get support from family and friends: Quitting smoking can be easier with support from friends and relatives. If you’re living among smokers, try convincing them to quit with you. If other family members smoke, ask them not to smoke around you. You can also ask them to keep their cigarettes or cigarette accessories where you can’t see them.
  • Find another way to deal with stress: If you are smoking tobacco to reduce stress, try to find other ways of dealing with it. Breathing exercises, meditation, regular exercise, and a well-balanced diet can help. Talking to a supportive friend, family member, or spiritual leader may also help to reduce smoking.
  • Try to quit again even if you slip up: Many people who quit smoking will at some point relapse. Don’t be discouraged from making an effort again. Use this as an opportunity to review what might have gone wrong. Study yourself, and figure out what will help you quit for good in the future.

In Conclusion

While smoking might seem to reduce feelings of stress or depression, it actually makes things worse in the long run.

Talk to your doctor about any mental health difficulties. Find people who will support you. It’s okay to slip up, but don’t let it set you back. 

Does Smoking Cause Depression? | Science Times

(Photo : pexels)

If you are suffering from depression, there is a chance that you smoke too. Studies have shown that depression and smoking are connected. People who suffer from depression are not only more likely to smoke, but they may also find it harder to quit smoking than those who are not suffering from depression. 

Researchers have recognized for years that there is a connection between smoking cigarettes and depression. It is still not entirely clear exactly how depression and smoking are related, but numerous theories may explain the connection. 

Depression often leads to smoking. It may be that people who are depressed turn to smoking, hoping to make themselves feel better and hoping to alleviate their depression symptoms. 

Recent research suggests that smoking can cause depression. The research showed that one of the numerous negative effects of smoking is an increased risk of having depression. This could be because nicotine damages certain pathways in the brain that help regulate mood. As a result of this, nicotine may trigger mood swings. 

A vicious cycle is at play as other studies have suggested that smoking can make people feel more depressed and depression makes people smoke. Depression and smoking may perpetuate each other. There may even be shared genetic triggers. It has also been stated that certain genetic predispositions may increase both the risk of depression and the risk of smoking in some people. 

Secondhand Smoke and Depression

People who do not smoke, but who spend a lot of time around smokers are at risk of smoking-related death and disease. This is very significant since so many people are exposed to secondhand smoke. 

Now numerous studies have shown that secondhand smoke exposure may also be connected to depression. One found that those who never smoked or smoked fewer than 100 cigarettes in their life but lived with or even worked around smokers were more likely to have depression than non-smokers who are not exposed to secondhand smoke. 

What this means for you

If you are suffering from depression, smoking or even exposure to secondhand smoke could make your symptoms worse. Likewise, if you are a smoker, an increased risk of depression is one more reason why you should try to stop smoking and avoid secondhand smoke exposure. 

As most smokers know, quitting is not that easy. For people who are already managing depression, giving up cigarettes can be even harder, since stopping smoking can also trigger worsening symptoms of depression.

Even so, these symptoms eventually pass and the health benefits of quitting outweigh any downside. To get the proper help that you need in order to quit smoking, do not be afraid to tell your doctor and ask for suggestions. 

Remember that it is natural to feel irritable and sad during the first few days and even weeks after you stop smoking. It is also important that you keep in mind that a lot of smokers who have depression experience more severe nicotine withdrawal symptoms that those who do not. But sticking with your plan and staying away from cigarettes is worth it as it will help you feel better in the long run and it can help make you feel proud that you have conquered the challenging task of quitting smoking.  

Most people feel better within a month after they stopped smoking. If your feelings of depression are too overwhelming or if your depression continues for more than a month, make sure that you talk to your doctor about it.  

ALSO READ: Tobacco Epidemic Continues As WHO Strengthens Anti-Smoking Measures

Depression After Quitting Smoking a Growing Concern

By Jonathan Strum

Jonathan Strum graduated from the University of Nebraska Omaha with a… read more

Editor Rob Alston

Rob Alston has traveled around Australia, Japan, Europe, and America as a writer and editor for… read more

Updated on 11/10/21

People may be more likely to develop depression or abuse substances after quitting smoking. A recent study shows that marijuana and alcohol use increased after people gave up cigarettes. Some participants also showed symptoms of depression.

Nicotine, a chemical found in cigarettes, is an addictive substance. When people have a nicotine addiction and stop using the substance, they typically undergo withdrawal symptoms than can cause anxiety and depression. In addition, people may pick up other habits to distract themselves from the urge to smoke.

Article at a Glance:

  • Nicotine affects the brain’s reward centers and increases dopamine.
  • Symptoms of quitting nicotine include depression, irritability, and problems with attention and sleeping.
  • People who quit smoking are at a heightened risk of depression, binge drinking, and marijuana use.
  • The feelings of depression after quitting smoking usually start on the first day of quitting and may last for up to a month.

Why Is Anxiety and Depression Common After Quitting Smoking?

Nicotine affects the reward centers in a person’s brain and increases dopamine levels. Dopamine reinforces behavior, so people want to continue using nicotine to feel the same rewarding effects. As they continue smoking, the brain begins to rely on nicotine to produce dopamine.

When someone stops smoking, they usually experience withdrawal symptoms. These symptoms occur because the brain is no longer receiving a chemical that it has become dependent on. Theses symptoms typically include:

  • Irritability
  • Attention problems
  • Sleeping problems
  • Increased appetite and weight gain
  • Tobacco cravings
  • Anxiety
  • Depression

Anxiety, depression and poor sleep are all interrelated. Because these conditions affect one another, it can create a vicious cycle where sleep deprivation leads to heightened anxiety and depression symptoms. In addition, high anxiety can cause someone to be unable to sleep, which can cause depression.

Statistics on Depression After Quitting Smoking

The previously mentioned study looked at former smokers, ages 18 or older, tracking changes that occurred from 2002 to 2016. It found that marijuana use, binge drinking and major depression rates all increased. The statistics show:

  • Heightened risk of binge drinking: From 2002 to 2016, past-month binge drinking increased from 17. 22% to 22.33%.
  • Heightened risk of marijuana use: From 2002 to 2016, past-month marijuana use increased from 5.35% to 10.09%.
  • Heightened risk of major depression: From 2005 to 2016, cases of major depression increased from 4.88% to 6.04%.

How Long Does Depression After Quitting Smoking Last?

People can begin feeling depressed on the first day of quitting smoking. These feelings only continue for a few weeks and usually resolve within a month. However, people who have a history of depression may experience more severe symptoms of depression. Those who have no history of depression are unlikely to develop major depression.

  • Sources

    Cheslack-Postava, Keely; et al. “Increasing Depression and Substance Use Among Former Smokers in the United States, 2002–2016.” American Journal of Preventive Medicine, October 2019. Accessed September 27, 2019.

    National Institute on Drug Abuse. “Cigarettes and Other Tobacco Products. ” September 2019. Accessed September 27, 2019.

    National Cancer Institute. “How To Handle Withdrawal Symptoms and Triggers When You Decide To Quit Smoking.” October 29, 2010. Accessed September 27, 2019.

    Harvard Health Publishing. “Sleep and Mental Health.” March 18, 2019. Accessed September 27, 2019.

  • Medical Disclaimer

    The Recovery Village aims to improve the quality of life for people struggling with a substance use or mental health disorder with fact-based content about the nature of behavioral health conditions, treatment options and their related outcomes. We publish material that is researched, cited, edited and reviewed by licensed medical professionals. The information we provide is not intended to be a substitute for professional medical advice, diagnosis or treatment. It should not be used in place of the advice of your physician or other qualified healthcare provider.

    View our editorial policy or view our research.

90,000 Cigarettes and madness. Scientists have discovered a new danger of smoking

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Cigarettes and madness. Scientists have discovered a new danger of smoking

Cigarettes and insanity. Scientists have discovered a new danger of smoking – RIA Novosti, 09.03.2021

Cigarettes and madness. Scientists have discovered a new danger of smoking

In early January, Israeli researchers found that cigarette drinkers are three times more likely to suffer from depression than non-smokers.Earlier, to similar conclusions … RIA Novosti, 09.03.2021

2020-01-14T08: 00

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MOSCOW, 14 Jan – RIA Novosti, Alfiya Enikeeva In early January, Israeli researchers found that cigarette drinkers were three times more likely to suffer from depression than non-smokers. Earlier, several scientific teams from different countries came to similar conclusions. In addition to depression, smokers have a higher risk of schizophrenia and anxiety. The nicotine contained in tobacco contributes to the development of mental illness, scientists believe.A Dangerous Habit According to British experts, up to a quarter of adults suffer from mental disorders to some extent. Moreover, the majority of mentally unstable people are, as a rule, heavy smokers. Scientists at King’s College London, analyzing information about 15 thousand cigarette lovers and 273 thousand nonsmokers, calculated: 57 percent of the study participants with psychoses already smoked when they had their first attack. Moreover, in people who use tobacco, the disease, as a rule, made itself felt a year earlier.At the same time, a 2015 survey of six and a half thousand people over 40 years old, conducted in 2015, showed that almost 20 percent of smokers often become depressed and experience increased anxiety. Israeli scientists have confirmed this. Two thousand students from the Universities of Belgrade and Pristina, at their request, completed questionnaires assessing physical and mental health. It was found that signs of clinical depression are two to three times more common in smokers. Thus, similar conditions were recorded in 19 percent of young Belgrade people who use tobacco, versus 11 percent of their non-smoking peers.In Pristina, these figures were 14 and four percent, respectively. In addition, cigarette lovers were more likely to complain of lack of energy and had problems communicating with others. As the authors of the work note, their results prove that smoking harms not only physical but also mental health. However, which physiological mechanisms are involved in this is not yet clear. How smoking drives you crazy At the end of last year, British geneticists tried to explain the causal relationship between smoking and mental disorders – in particular, schizophrenia and depression.We analyzed the genomes of half a million people, collected data on their health and lifestyle. Then they identified gene variants that may be responsible for the development of depression and schizophrenia, and DNA regions associated with the duration of smoking and attempts to get rid of a bad habit. It turned out that tobacco lovers have a 2.27 times higher risk of developing schizophrenia. Also, smokers are twice as likely to suffer from chronic depression. As for patients who already have a psychiatric diagnosis, they become heavy smokers much more often than healthy ones and can no longer give up cigarettes.The authors of the study suggest that nicotine stimulates the release of the neurotransmitters serotonin and dopamine in the brain, and a violation of their synthesis in the body may be associated with schizophrenia and depression. This hypothesis is confirmed by scientists at University College London. They found that even non-smokers with high levels of nicotine in their blood (called passive smokers) had a 50 percent higher risk of mental illness. Everyone Suffers According to the work of Korean researchers, cigarettes not only affect mental health, but can also provoke a behavioral disorder in the smoker’s children in the future.We are talking about ADHD – attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, which affects up to three percent of humanity. It is believed that this disease occurs due to abnormalities in the synthesis of serotonin and dopamine. But why this happens is not completely clear. There are many options – from the stress of the mother during pregnancy to the Internet addiction of the child himself. Scientists at Kenbuk National University studied data on 23.5 thousand children and adolescents under the age of 18 with ADHD. In addition to the actual medical information, the researchers gained access to information about the health and lifestyle of parents and their socioeconomic status. It has been found that the risk of developing attention deficit disorder is almost 60 percent higher in those children whose parents smoke more than 15 cigarettes a day. And this does not depend on whether the family smokes at home. In addition, adolescents whose father or mother suffered from depression are at risk.

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Pristina, Israel, South Korea, Great Britain, discoveries – RIA Science, University College London, health, Belgrade (district), depression, smoking, dna, genome, schizophrenia

MOSCOW, 14 Jan – RIA Novosti, Alfiya Enikeeva. In early January, Israeli researchers found that cigarette drinkers were three times more likely to suffer from depression than non-smokers. Earlier, several scientific teams from different countries came to similar conclusions. In addition to depression, smokers have a higher risk of schizophrenia and anxiety. The nicotine contained in tobacco contributes to the development of mental illness, scientists believe.

A dangerous habit

According to British experts, up to a quarter of adults suffer from mental disorders to some extent. Moreover, the majority of mentally unstable people are, as a rule, heavy smokers.Scientists at King’s College London, analyzing information about 15 thousand cigarette lovers and 273 thousand nonsmokers, calculated: 57 percent of the study participants with psychoses already smoked when they had their first attack. Moreover, in people who use tobacco, the disease, as a rule, made itself felt a year earlier.

At the same time, a 2015 survey of six and a half thousand people over 40 years old showed that almost 20 percent of smokers often become depressed and experience increased anxiety.

Israeli scientists have confirmed this. Two thousand students from the Universities of Belgrade and Pristina, at their request, completed questionnaires assessing physical and mental health. It was found that signs of clinical depression are two to three times more common in smokers. Thus, similar conditions were recorded in 19 percent of young Belgrade people who use tobacco, versus 11 percent of their non-smoking peers. In Pristina, these figures were 14 and four percent, respectively. In addition, cigarette lovers were more likely to complain of lack of energy and had problems communicating with others.As the authors of the work note, their results prove that smoking harms not only physical but also mental health. However, which physiological mechanisms are involved in this is not yet clear. February 18, 2019, 15:46We analyzed the genomes of half a million people, collected data on their health and lifestyle. Then they identified gene variants that may be responsible for the development of depression and schizophrenia, and DNA regions associated with the duration of smoking and attempts to get rid of a bad habit.

It turned out that tobacco lovers have a 2.27 times higher risk of developing schizophrenia. Also, smokers are twice as likely to suffer from chronic depression. As for patients who already have a psychiatric diagnosis, they become heavy smokers much more often than healthy ones and can no longer give up cigarettes.

October 5, 2018, 16:15

This hypothesis is confirmed by scientists at University College London. They found that even non-smokers with high levels of nicotine in their blood (called passive smokers) had a 50 percent higher risk of mental illness.

Everyone suffers

According to the work of Korean researchers, cigarettes not only affect mental health, but can also provoke a behavioral disorder in the smoker’s children in the future. We are talking about ADHD – attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, which affects up to three percent of humanity.

It is believed that this disease occurs due to abnormalities in the synthesis of serotonin and dopamine. But why this happens is not completely clear. There are many options – from the stress of the mother during pregnancy to the Internet addiction of the child himself.

September 5, 2019, 19:06 In addition to the actual medical information, the researchers gained access to information about the health and lifestyle of parents and their socioeconomic status.

It has been found that the risk of developing attention deficit disorder is almost 60 percent higher in those children whose parents smoke more than 15 cigarettes a day.And this does not depend on whether the family smokes at home. In addition, adolescents whose father or mother suffered from depression are at risk.

Scientists have figured out how smoking and depression are related

Smoking can lead to depression, Israeli scientists say. Smokers are much more likely to experience depressive symptoms, while quitting the addiction improves mental health.

Smoking is not only harmful to physical health, but also associated with mental disorders, researchers from the Hebrew University of Jerusalem have found. The study was published in the journal PLOS ONE .

Smoking, including passive smoking, is one of the main risk factors for morbidity and mortality worldwide, the authors of the work note. Almost 90% of smokers acquire this habit before the age of majority, 98% – before the age of 26.

Earlier studies have shown that people with depression and other mental disorders are more likely to start smoking than mentally healthy people. In particular, many studies have noted that smokers have a much lower quality of life and more pronounced symptoms of anxiety and depression.

More recent data have shown that there may be an inverse relationship – smoking becomes a predisposing factor for mental problems, and quitting is associated with a decrease in depressive symptoms.

Together with colleagues from Serbia, the authors of the work interviewed more than 2000 students from Serbian universities.

As it turned out, students who smoke were several times more likely to suffer from depression than their non-smoking peers.

In particular, at the University of Pristina, depression was observed in 14% of smoking students and only 4% of nonsmokers, and at the University of Belgrade – in 19% of smokers and 11% of nonsmokers.More often women suffered from depressive symptoms.

In addition, regardless of economic or social status, smokers were also more likely to complain of depression and lower mental health scores (energy, social functioning) than nonsmokers.

“Our study confirms existing evidence that smoking and depression are closely related,” says Professor Hagai Levin. – It’s too early to say that smoking causes depression.But tobacco seems to have a negative effect on our mental health. ”

The Israeli government is actively fighting smoking – since 2020, cigarettes have been banned from display in stores, the size of warning labels on packs has been increased to 65% of the size of the pack, and all tobacco products and e-cigarettes must be sold in a single package, without logos and brand display manufacturer.

Levin would like to see the mental health effects of smoking taken into account when taking such measures.

“I encourage universities to advocate for the health of their students by creating cigarette-free campuses that not only ban smoking but also tobacco advertising,” he says. “When combined with policies to prevent, screen and treat mental illness, these steps will go a long way toward tackling the harmful effects of smoking on our physical and mental health.”

Researchers suggest that it is all about the effect of nicotine on the activity of neurotransmitters.

In addition, other chemicals in cigarette smoke indirectly stimulate the release of dopamine associated with feelings of satisfaction, which ultimately leads to mood swings.

Students generally have more mental health problems compared to their non-college peers, the researchers note. This is likely due to the stress of rigorous academic requirements. The authors of the work suggest that depression can push them to smoke, and that, in turn, only aggravate their condition. The researchers hope that smoking cessation will allow students to improve mental health, but this remains to be tested.

Earlier, British geneticists drew attention to the fact that

Smoking can provoke not only depression, but also schizophrenia.

Since the prevalence of smoking among people with depression and schizophrenia is generally higher than among the rest of the population, they decided to find out if the disease predisposes a person to smoking, or vice versa.

After analyzing the genomes of almost half a million Britons and comparing them with data on their diseases and lifestyle, they found out that a genetic predisposition to depression is associated with an increased likelihood that a person will start smoking. However, no such association was found for schizophrenia. At the same time, smokers, even without a genetic predisposition, were more prone to depression and schizophrenia.

90,000 A relationship was found between smoking, depression and schizophrenia – Science

TASS, November 6.DNA analysis of more than half a million Britons has helped scientists prove that smoking contributes to the development of schizophrenia and depression, almost doubling the risk of developing these mental disorders. Geneticists who have published an article in the journal Psychological Medicine write about this.

“Doctors often ignore carriers of mental illness when fighting smoking and other bad habits. Our research shows that quitting tobacco should improve not only physical, but also mental health in all categories of people, including those with schizophrenia and depression,” – said one of the authors of the study, Robin Wootton from the University of Bristol (UK).

According to modern estimates of scientists, about 21 million inhabitants of the planet suffer from schizophrenia, and half of them do not receive assistance from the state and medical services. A significant proportion of these patients are young people aged 15 to 35 years.

So far, neurophysiologists cannot say for sure how such disorders arise and how they should be treated. In recent years, scientists have found several dozen genes that are relatively weakly associated with schizophrenia, but experts could not say how mutations in these DNA regions cause schizophrenia and how the consequences of their appearance can be suppressed.

Wootton and her colleagues have been trying for many years not only to uncover the roots of mutations associated with various diseases, but also to understand what changes they cause in the work of the brain and other human organs. For example, they recently showed that gene variations that contribute to obesity also increase the likelihood of their owner becoming a smoker and using a large number of cigarettes per day.

Studying the collected data, geneticists drew attention to an interesting pattern – schizophrenics and depression sufferers smoked noticeably more often than other participants in genetic studies.This prompted them to conduct a similar analysis, comparing the mutations associated with the development of this bad habit, with the chance of getting these mental disorders and vice versa.

“Self-medication” with tobacco

In this study, scientists relied on a simple consideration: if we know how often certain mutations that help the development of smoking occur, then we can use this data to very accurately assess how this bad habit affects other aspects of a person’s life, and find out what is cause and effect here.

Guided by this idea, the scientists compared how similar variations in DNA were associated with the development of schizophrenia among smokers and non-smokers in the Biobank project. Within its framework, the medical and social services of the UK comprehensively studied the genomes and vicissitudes of the lives of more than half a million Britons, including how much they smoked and whether they suffered from mental problems.

This analysis showed that smoking did dramatically increase the likelihood of getting both diseases.In particular, British smokers were about 2.27 times more likely to become schizophrenic and almost twice as likely to develop chronic depression than non-smokers in the study.

How exactly this relationship works, scientists cannot yet say. They speculate that this may be due to the fact that nicotine disrupts the work of serotonin and dopamine, two of the most important signaling molecules in the brain directly associated with the development of schizophrenia and depression. Regardless of the reasons, as Wootton emphasizes, it is precisely that smoking contributes to the development of these diseases, and not a simple statistical relationship.

At the same time, British geneticists found that schizophrenic sufferers were much more likely to become heavy smokers and less likely to quit this bad habit. Scientists suggest that this may be due to the fact that schizophrenics often try to “self-medicate” by suppressing the symptoms of the disease with the help of the most readily available psychoactive drug – tobacco.

Scientists hope that further observations and experiments will help them clarify all these questions and understand how nicotine and other components of tobacco change the work of the brain, contributing to the development of mental illness.

90,000 Is it beneficial for people with mental illness to quit smoking and are they able to do so?

Is it useful for people with mental illness to quit smoking and are they able to do it?

June 8th, 2017

KEY POINTS: Smoking cessation improves mental health. People with mental health problems are as motivated and able to quit smoking as other people who smoke.Promoting and supporting smoking cessation should be a high priority in treating patients with mental disorders as it helps to improve their physical and mental health.

WHAT IS THE ESSENCE OF THIS QUESTION?

Over the years, it has been argued that smoking can be beneficial for people with mental illness, that they are unwilling or unable to quit smoking, and that working in this direction is not a priority.

WHAT IS THE FACTS ABOUT THE TOPICALITY OF THIS ISSUE?

  • Smoking rates are high among people with mental disorders, especially in the most severe cases and in people with schizophrenia or post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). In one survey of studies on smoking and schizophrenia in 20 countries, including 12 countries in the WHO European Region, smoking prevalence among people with schizophrenia was 62%.In another review, the estimated smoking rates among people with clinical PTSD were 40-86%.
  • Smoking rates are also high among people with depression, bipolar disorder, anxiety disorders, stress, ADHD, and Alzheimer’s disease.
  • Medical staff in mental health services often do not prioritize smoking smoking. This is largely due to common misconceptions about smoking and mental illness, including the following:
  • Many doctors and other healthcare professionals believe that smoking and mental illness are inextricably linked and that it is difficult to achieve the goal of smoking cessation among people with mental health problems. or impossible at all;
  • Some people believe that smoking is a useful or necessary form of self-medication for people with mental illness;
  • Some people believe that people with mental illness do not want to quit smoking, that they cannot do so, or that quitting smoking will complicate treatment for a mental illness;
  • Some people believe that the implementation of a smoking ban in psychiatric institutions will pose significant difficulties and create additional problems.

WHAT IS THE REALITY?

  • Smoking is a major reason why the life expectancy of people with conditions such as depression, bipolar disorder, schizophrenia and other serious mental disorders is 10-15 years shorter than that of the general population.
  • Smoking has a negative impact on human mental health. Stress, irritability, and depressed mood levels in smokers are often higher than in nonsmokers.In addition, smoking has a negative impact on mental health conditions such as anxiety and depression. Smoking is also associated with more severe symptoms and suicidal ideation or attempted suicide in people with bipolar disorder.
  • Smoking can be a causative factor in the development of mental illnesses such as severe depression and Alzheimer’s disease.
  • While mental health professionals are ideally positioned to help their patients quit smoking, many are reluctant to tackle the issue either in terms of treatment or advocacy to promote healthy lifestyles in their patients.
  • The activities of the tobacco industry are an important reason why misconceptions about smoking and mental health persist. In particular, tobacco companies have funded research to support the self-medication hypothesis of smoking and the claims that smoking can reduce stress or symptoms of Alzheimer’s. Many of these studies were poorly designed and therefore more reliable studies not funded by the tobacco companies produced different results.
  • To promote their products, tobacco companies strive to make people with mental disorders their customers. In particular, they provided financial donations and free cigarettes to mental health services and opposed smoking bans in psychiatric hospitals, arguing that the practice was “inhuman or even inhuman”.
  • Smoking cessation has a positive effect on a person’s mental health.Quitting this habit is associated with lower levels of depression, anxiety and stress and improved mood and quality of life compared to continuing to smoke, and may reduce symptoms of disorders such as attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD).
  • In patients taking certain medications, smoking cessation can also reduce the dosage. In particular, after smoking cessation, the dosage of some antipsychotic drugs can be reduced, sometimes by up to 25%, which in turn reduces the side effects and long-term risks associated with the use of these drugs.
  • There is also strong evidence that when people with mental illness quit smoking, it does not lead to new mental health problems.
  • Although some smokers with mental health problems experience more severe nicotine withdrawal symptoms than other smokers, the problem can be easily addressed by prescribing nicotine replacement therapy (NRT), varenicline and bupropion, counseling services to support smoking cessation, and also undertaking other evidence-based activities.
  • Mental health smokers often want to quit and with the right amount of encouragement and support, they are able to do so.
  • When restrictions and bans on smoking in mental health facilities are carefully designed and implemented with adequate patient support, there are no predicted negative outcomes and the overall effect is very positive. For example, in the United Kingdom, the following positives were noted: improved sleep and wake cycles among patients, reduced risk of self-harm when using lighters, and the conversion of former smoking areas to new recreational facilities.

FUNDAMENTALS

  • Taking action to reduce smoking among people with mental illness should be a high priority for both the healthcare system and clinicians. This practice will make a huge contribution to narrowing the gap in life expectancy between people with mental disorders and the general population.
  • High smoking rates among people with mental illness have enormous negative consequences for their mental and physical well-being and are a major cause of significantly lower life expectancy in this already disadvantaged population.
  • Like other smokers, people with mental health problems want to quit, and with the right amount of encouragement and support, they can do so.
  • When properly planned and implemented, bans on smoking in mental health facilities are effective and do not have predictable negative consequences.
  • Taking action to reduce smoking in people with mental illness should be a top priority in international instruments such as the WHO Framework Convention on Tobacco Control and human rights treaties, including the Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities and the Universal Declaration of Human Rights, in which states that everyone has the right to health without discrimination.

Show References

Information sources are available as of May 29th, 2017.

Modified} and Revision 90,000 How smoking affects human mental health – RT in Russian

Smoking can affect human mental health … The head of the department of endocrinological psychiatry at the Research Institute of Psychiatry and Neurology named after V.M. Bekhtereva Galina Mazo. According to her, modern research shows that the risk of mental abnormalities in smokers is 1.9-2.3 times higher than that of nonsmokers.The risk of such disorders depends on the age. For example, those who started smoking before the age of 13 have a higher risk of developing mental illness in the future than those who smoke after 14. However, Mazo notes, “bidirectional connections” can also work here: clinically expressed symptoms of mental illness, such as fear, anxiety, nervous tension, in turn, lead to the use of tobacco.

Recent studies have shown that people with mental illness smoke more often, start smoking at an earlier age, have more pronounced nicotine dependence and use tobacco in their case leads to more serious health consequences.Also, despite widespread public campaigns against smoking, it is most difficult to reduce the consumption of tobacco products in this category of the population. The head of the department of endocrinological psychiatry at the Research Institute of Psychiatry and Neurology named after V.M. Bekhtereva Galina Mazo.

All this gave scientists reason to believe that nicotine plays a role in the development of mental illness.

“Modern research shows that the risk of mental illness in smokers is 1.9-2.3 times higher than in the nonsmoking population,” said Mazo.

She explained that we are talking about a wide range of mental disorders, including diseases of the affective (depression, bipolar disorder) and schizophrenic (schizophrenia, schizotypal personality disorder) spectra.

“Bidirectional communications”

However, as noted by Galina Mazo, “depending on mental disorders and smoking, we are talking about bidirectional communications.”

“It is known that smoking is more common in the population of schizophrenic patients than in the general population.But it cannot be ruled out that clinically expressed symptoms of mental illness, such as fear, anxiety, nervous tension, in turn, lead to the use of tobacco, ”the specialist explained.

At the same time, many smokers are sure that a cigarette calms, gives an opportunity to concentrate and relieves stress, and smoking is almost a method of self-medication.

According to Galina Mazo, to a certain extent, all this may take place, but only in the early stages of smoking.Over time, the hypothetical positive impact is lost. Increased smoking intensity also has a negative effect. Experienced smokers may have cognitive decline and mood deterioration. At the same time, as shown by recent studies, after smoking cessation, anxiety and stress, on the contrary, noticeably decrease.

“It can be assumed that this is a vicious circle: if at the initial stages smoking brings relief, then later certain biological mechanisms are switched on, which lead to a deterioration in both mental and somatic state,” Galina Mazo explained the nature of this phenomenon.

Age dependence

According to studies, the effect of nicotine on the fetus during pregnancy increases the chances of developing mental illness in the offspring, said Galina Mazo.

“This means that smoking can affect the development of the fetal brain, making it more vulnerable to mental disorders,” she said.

Also on the topic


“Permanent damage to the lungs”: an American surgeon on the dangers of vaping and related diseases

The widespread use of vaping has led to an epidemic of lung disease and a string of deaths in the United States.This was stated in an interview with RT …

The age at which a person becomes addicted to a bad habit also matters. The earlier a person starts smoking, the higher the risk of developing mental pathology, Mazo explained.

“According to a prospective study, adolescents who smoked more than ten cigarettes a day had a higher risk of developing mental illness compared to non-smoking peers. In addition, those who started smoking before the age of 13 have a higher risk of developing mental illness in the future compared to those who started smoking every day after the age of 14, ”said V.M. Bekhtereva.

Middle-aged and elderly people are no less vulnerable – in their case, nicotine contributes to the development of cognitive impairments.

Smoking has an effect on the body and at the genetic level, scientists say. It affects the rate of change in the length of telomeres (the end sections of chromosomes, consisting of a certain combination of nucleotides and protecting the DNA molecule from damage). The shortening of telomeres, which are considered the biological clock of a person, to a certain value leads to cell aging.

90,000 Scientists have reported the risk of developing schizophrenia and depression when smoking – RBC

Society ,

06 Nov 2019, 07:57
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Smoking almost doubles the risk of developing schizophrenia and depression, according to a British study published in the journal Psychological Medicine.

Specialists analyzed medical data of more than 460 thousand people. It turned out that depression and schizophrenia were almost twice as likely to occur in smokers as in nonsmokers.

Scientists suggest that the development of these diseases may be caused by the special effects of nicotine, which stimulates the release of neurotransmitters such as dopamine and serotonin. Violation of their synthesis in the body affects, among other things, the development of schizophrenia and depression.

The Ministry of Health reported on the results of the fight against passive smoking

Earlier, Deputy Minister of Health Oleg Salagay said that secondhand smoke causes pathological changes in the eyesight in children: due to exposure to tobacco smoke, the choroid becomes thinner.He noted that smoking parents with children affects the eyes of the latter as negatively as the constant use of gadgets.

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Recently I caught myself on the fact that I became very nervous and because of this I began to smoke more. I ordered myself Amanita Microdosing on the advice of a friend. Everything is fine, the mushroom coped with its task, after a couple of weeks it simply did not go to smoke anymore, alcohol also disappeared))

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With a daily intake of Microdosing, mental and physical activity increases, it becomes easier to process large amounts of information, sleep becomes sound and healthy, fatigue accumulated over many years goes away.Also, the craving for bad habits (alcohol, smoking, etc.) decreases, there is a need for healthy food, in general, the attitude becomes positive. Amanita microdosing is not addictive and does not require a break between courses.

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Customer Reviews:

Alena

The first impression from the Amanita Microdosing capsules is positive. I take about a week. I didn’t feel like drinking. I had this problem. Not to say that hard drinking. Just a must on Friday night. On Saturday, Sunday in the morning to catch up with beer. On a remote home for a beer, maybe brandy. Now there is no desire. Earlier on Friday there was no physical desire to drink, just something clicked in my head – why not drink? Now he doesn’t click or I’m wondering – what for? I guess why there is no desire to buy alcohol.There is an understanding in my head that there is no point in this. Desire is blocked at this level.

Elena

Recently I caught myself on the fact that I became very nervous and because of this I began to smoke more. I ordered myself Amanita Microdosing on the advice of a friend. Everything is fine, the mushroom coped with its task, after a couple of weeks it simply did not go to smoke anymore, alcohol also disappeared))

Amanita muscaria in capsules – ideal for microdosing. If you have been struggling with anxiety, stress, depression for a long time, then you need Amanita Microdosing! Where to Buy Depressant Cigarettes? With the daily intake of Microdosing, mental and physical activity increases, it becomes easier to process large amounts of information, sleep becomes sound and healthy, the fatigue accumulated over many years goes away.Also, the craving for bad habits (alcohol, smoking, etc.) decreases, there is a need for healthy food, in general, the attitude becomes positive. Amanita microdosing is not addictive and does not require a break between courses.

Can a cigarette improve your mood, or vice versa? People who are addicted to cigarettes often cite smoking as their treatment for depression. Interestingly, modern. Depression was considered a disease of the 21st century, but New Zealand scientists have made a startling discovery, now everyone knows why depression, the cause of bad moods and even suicidal thoughts, is common from smoking.The cigarette is a poor stress reliever. Smoking disrupts metabolism, including the secretion of hormones. In the process of smoking, the so-called “happiness hormone” – dopamine is released. Therefore, as soon as a person. According to most scientists, concepts such as depression and smoking have a fairly close relationship. First, it has been found that people who have this addiction are more prone to manifestations of the depressive. All cigarette smokers are familiar with the feeling of irritability.Depression as a consequence of smoking. All cigarette smokers are familiar with the feeling of irritability, apathy, depression firsthand. 1 day without cigarettes was wonderful – great mood, pride and incredible joy from the fact that for the first time in almost 20 years I do not smoke! Does the cigarette help relieve stress? The effect of nicotine on the nervous system. Are cigarettes soothing? Despite the understanding of all the harm that a cigarette is fraught with, heavy smokers continue to use tobacco.

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Recently I caught myself on the fact that I became very nervous and because of this I began to smoke more.I ordered myself Amanita Microdosing on the advice of a friend. Everything is fine, the mushroom coped with its task, after a couple of weeks it simply did not go to smoke anymore, the alcohol also disappeared))

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Amanita microdosing helps in combating stress, has a positive effect on the process of brain activity, improves memory, concentration, and helps in assimilating more information.

Fly agaric microdosing Dark Micro ™ is a new potent product based on the panther fly agaric aimed at radical correction of borderline psychological states and.Let’s figure out together with the experts what fly agaric microdosing is. Illustration: Yuri Orlov / Network of city portals. Share. In addition, microdosing of the panther fly agaric has an extensive medicinal effect on the human body (see. Purpose). Source: Jan Markuszewski. Amanita microdosing. What he thinks about it. By itself, microdosing involves the use of something in ultra-low or microscopic dosages. Naturally, this also applies to mushrooms. Fly agaric microdosing – the way to delicate berserking? The other day, one of my regular readers shared a wonderful thing: they say, she saw in the tape how people praise the use of fly agarics c.Amanita microdosing is the use of dried mushrooms in an extra small. Is microdosing of fly agarics useful? Alas, science is not so optimistic. There is not so much qualitative research on microdosing. Amanita microdosing. Narcological clinic Health resort. What is microdosing? Microdosing is a systematic practice. And all these positive or negative emotions are offered in Amanita microdosing tablets! I decided to go to their website here and read the reviews, a pun with Pavel Volya are resting nearby, one of the examples.A review of the literature (with references to sources) devoted to microdosing, fly agaric and microdosing amanita. Theoretical calculations and a little. Amanita microdosing. Amanita – These mushrooms cause involuntary. Amanita microdosing is recommended to be taken in the morning, since a capsule with mushroom powder acts as an excellent stimulant and many others. After microdosing the red fly agaric (two capsules a day for a month), I felt a sharp surge of strength (at the beginning), subsequently I gave up beer drinks completely and do not drink them to this day, I gave up cigarettes, etc.