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Why Is My Skin Scaly? 9 Possible Causes of Dry, Scaly Skin

Does scaly skin have you itchy and uncomfortable? It may just be ordinary dry skin. But if over-the-counter products don’t help you heal, you could have a medical condition that requires a doctor’s care.

There are several reasons for scaly skin. Whether you have a flaky scalp from time to time or scratchy patches all the time, a dermatologist can tell you if your symptoms are due to a lack of moisture or something more serious.

Possible Causes of Scaly Skin

Normally, your body sheds about 30,000 to 40,000 skin cells each day and replaces them with new ones. You don’t feel the skin cells growing and shouldn’t see any falling, or flaking, off.

The outer layer of your skin contains a mixture of dead skin cells and natural oils, which help it hold on to water. If this layer is damaged and moisture gets out, or if your skin cell renewal process goes off the rails, you could get flaky or scaly. Aging, exposure to sunlight and harsh chemicals, some medicines, and certain diseases could also be to blame.

Eczema (Atopic Dermatitis)

If you or your child has red, scaly patches that itch a lot, it might be eczema. This common condition is often mistaken for dry, sensitive skin. Babies and children can get crusty spots on their chins and cheeks, but scaly skin can show up anywhere on the body. Hand eczema can cause the skin on your palms and fingers to get dry, thick, and cracked. The skin may burn or bleed.

Children often outgrow eczema. But adults who never had it can get it, too. Doctors don’t know what causes it. They think it’s a mix of genetics and things in your environment that your skin reacts to, like:

  • Wool
  • Soap
  • Perfume
  • Makeup
  • Chlorine
  • Cigarette smoke

You might notice these symptoms:

  • Red, irritated, or swollen skin
  • Crusting or oozing
  • Scaly patches that feel rough or leathery
  • Severe itching



Silvery white scales that cover thick red, raised patches of skin are a telltale sign of plaque psoriasis. Doctors think it results from a faulty immune system. New skin cells grow faster than normal, but old skin cells fail to fall off. The new and old cells clump together, causing thick, itchy patches, sores, and scales

There are several different types of psoriasis. Scaly skin is most common with plaque psoriasis. It can show up on your knees, scalp, elbows, palms, lower back and the soles of your feet. The condition may also cause your nails to pit, crumble, or fall off. Psoriasis can be passed down through families. Infections, stress, obesity, and smoking can increase your risk for psoriasis. It isn’t contagious.

Diaper Dermatitis

Red, irritated, or scaly skin on your baby’s bottom is likely due to diaper dermatitis — better known as diaper rash. This common condition is usually seen in infants ages 9 to 12 months. It shows up around the folds of the thighs and genitals — places covered by a diaper

Diaper rash can result from an allergy or irritated skin. It could also be a yeast infection — yeast thrives in warm, moist environments. Signs include a reddish irritated skin rash. At-home care may be fine for irritation rashes, but if your baby’s diaper rash won’t go away, see a doctor to figure out the cause and best treatment.

Seborrheic Dermatitis

This skin disorder is the most common cause of dandruff. White, oily flakes of dead skin in your hair and on your shoulders and, sometimes, an itchy scalp are signs of regular dandruff.

If you have seborrheic dermatitis, your scalp and nearby skin will feel greasy and be dotted with yellow or white crusty scales. You may even find flakes in your eyebrows. This type of dandruff can also affect the skin behind your ears and on the sides of your nose.

Actinic Keratosis

A flaky, scaly patch that comes and goes could be actinic keratosis (AK), a precancerous condition. You could get this scaly skin problem if you spend too much time in a tanning bed or unprotected in the sun. Without treatment, it can turn into squamous cell skin cancer. If you get one actinic keratosis, you usually will get another.

The main symptom is a thick, scaly, discolored patch of skin. Sometimes the area feels rough or like sandpaper but looks normal. It may be painful to touch. It can flake off, and your skin may feel normal again. However, the problem spot typically comes back with continued sun exposure

Lichen Planus

This common condition begins as shiny, reddish-purple bumps. As more grow, they create thick clumps of rough, scaly skin, usually on your ankles and shins. The bumps may also show up on your wrists, lower back, and genitals. They often itch and might blister. Lichen planus can also affect the inside of your mouth and your nails.

Middle-aged adults are most likely to get it. Doctors aren’t sure what causes lichen planus. It may be an autoimmune disorder. It’s often seen in people who have hepatitis C. If you get it, ask your doctor about screening for hepatitis.


This group of scaly skin diseases is most often passed down through families. The lifelong condition usually appears in childhood. A genetic problem causes skin cells to build up, creating thick, dry areas that look like fish scales. Certain medicines or diseases, including kidney failure, some cancers, and HIV, can trigger it. If this happens, it’s called acquired ichthyosis.

There are several forms. Ichthyosis vulgaris (fish scale disease) is common and may be mild. It can go undiagnosed if you keep your skin well-moisturized.

Pityriasis Rosea

Women or girls ages 10 to 35 are more likely to get this skin condition. The main sign is a single round, rose- or tan-colored spot (called a herald patch) in the middle of your body, arms, or legs. A cluster of scaly patches follows about a week or two later. The round spots have raised borders. There may be little or no scaly skin symptoms in children or pregnant women.

Doctors think a viral infection (like herpesvirus 6, 7, or 8) causes this scaly rash. It’s easy to mistake for ringworm. Other symptoms may include fatigue and headache.


A reddish-purple, scaly rash followed by muscle weakness are the main symptoms of this inflammatory disorder. Women are most likely get it. It can occur at any age. It is a rare disease that causes inflammation inyour muscles and skin. You may notice a rash on your eyelids, nose, cheeks, elbows, knees, knuckles, upper chest, or back. Muscle weakness typically affects areas close to the middle of your body, like your hip, back, neck, and shoulders. Muscle pain isn’t a main symptom, although some people do report muscle aches.

When to See a Doctor

If you have dry, scaly skin that doesn’t go away, jot down any other symptoms you have and when they happen. Make an appointment to see a dermatologist. Moisturizers can help soothe some types of scaly skin, but not all. Ask your doctor about treatments for your specific condition.

Discoid eczema – NHS

Discoid eczema, also known as nummular or discoid dermatitis, is a long-term (chronic) skin condition that causes skin to become itchy, swollen and cracked in circular or oval patches.

Without treatment, discoid eczema can last for weeks, months or even years. It may also keep coming back – often in the same area that was affected previously.


Coronavirus advice

Get advice about coronavirus and eczema from the National Eczema Society

Symptoms of discoid eczema

Discoid eczema causes distinctive circular or oval patches of eczema. It can affect any part of the body, although it does not usually affect the face or scalp.


The first sign of discoid eczema is usually a group of small spots or bumps on the skin. These then quickly join up to form larger patches that can range from a few millimetres to several centimetres in size.

On lighter skin these patches will be pink or red. On darker skin these patches can be a dark brown or they can be paler than the skin around them.

Initially, these patches are often swollen, blistered (covered with small fluid-filled pockets) and ooze fluid. They also tend to be very itchy, particularly at night.

Over time, the patches may become dry, crusty, cracked and flaky. The centre of the patch also sometimes clears, leaving a ring of discoloured skin that can be mistaken for ringworm.

You may just have 1 patch of discoid eczema, but most people get several patches. The skin between the patches is often dry.

Patches of discoid eczema can sometimes become infected. Signs of an infection can include:

  • the patches oozing a lot of fluid
  • a yellow crust developing over the patches
  • the skin around the patches becoming hot, swollen and tender or painful
  • feeling sick
  • feeling hot or shivery
  • feeling unwell

When to seek medical advice

See a pharmacist or GP if you think you may have discoid eczema. They can recommend a suitable treatment.

You should also seek medical advice if you think your skin may be infected. You may need to use an antibiotic cream or, in severe cases, take antibiotics as a tablet or capsule.

A GP should be able to make a diagnosis just by examining the affected areas of skin. In some cases they may also ask questions or arrange some tests to rule out other conditions.

A GP may refer you to a doctor who specialises in skin conditions (dermatologist) if they’re unsure of the diagnosis or if you need a patch test.

Causes of discoid eczema

The cause of discoid eczema is unknown, although it may happen as a result of having particularly dry skin.

When your skin is very dry it cannot provide an effective barrier against substances that come into contact with it. This could allow a previously harmless substance, such as soap, to irritate your skin.

It’s important to look carefully at all the chemicals in cosmetics and toiletries that may have come into contact with your skin. Contact dermatitis, a type of eczema caused by coming into contact with a particular irritant, may have a role in discoid eczema.

Some people with discoid eczema also have a history of atopic eczema, which often happens in people who are prone to asthma and hay fever. However, unlike atopic eczema, discoid eczema does not seem to run in families.

Other possible triggers 

An outbreak of discoid eczema may sometimes be triggered by a minor skin injury, such as an insect bite or a burn.

Some medicines may also be associated with discoid eczema, as patches of eczema can appear in people taking:

  • interferon and ribavirin – when they’re used together to treat hepatitis C
  • tumour necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) blockers – used to treat some types of arthritis
  • statins (cholesterol-lowering medicine) – which can cause dry skin and rashes

Dry environments and cold climates can make discoid eczema worse, and sunny or damp (humid) environments may make your symptoms better.

Treating discoid eczema

Discoid eczema is usually a long-term problem, but medicines are available to help relieve the symptoms and keep the condition under control.

Treatments include:

  • emollients – moisturisers applied to the skin to stop it becoming dry
  • topical corticosteroids – ointments and creams containing a steroid that are applied to the skin and may relieve severe symptoms
  • antihistamines – medicines that can reduce itching

There are also things you can do yourself to help, such as avoiding all the irritating chemicals in soaps, detergents, bubble baths and shower gels.

Additional medicine can be prescribed if your eczema is infected or particularly severe.

Occasionally, areas of skin affected by discoid eczema can be left permanently discoloured after the condition has cleared up.

Find out more about treating discoid eczema.

Other types of eczema 

Eczema is the name for a group of skin conditions that cause dry, irritated skin. Other types of eczema include:

  • atopic eczema (also called atopic dermatitis) – the most common type of eczema, it often runs in families and is linked to other conditions such as asthma and hay fever
  • contact dermatitis – a type of eczema that happens when the skin comes into contact with a particular substance
  • varicose eczema – a type of eczema that usually affects the lower legs and is caused by problems with the flow of blood through the leg veins

Page last reviewed: 30 October 2019
Next review due: 30 October 2022

Bowen’s disease – Better Health Channel

Bowen’s disease is an early form of skin cancer that appears as a persistent, slow-growing, red and scaly skin patch. In Bowen’s disease, the skin cancer is located only in the epidermis, the uppermost layer of the skin.

Rarely, the skin cancer can invade into the dermis and then it is called an invasive squamous cell carcinoma. Only invasive squamous cell carcinoma can metastasise to other parts of the body and become a life-threatening skin cancer.

Bowen’s disease can occur on any part of the body, although the lower legs are most commonly affected. It is easily mistaken for psoriasis, another skin complaint characterised by red scaly patches.

Fair skin and exposure to sunlight are the main risk factors for Bowen’s disease. Women are more susceptible than men and most cases occur in people over 40 years. The condition isn’t contagious and treatment is usually successful.

Signs of Bowen’s disease

The signs of Bowen’s disease include:

  • Flat, scaly, red and slightly raised patches appear and persist for months to years.
  • A single patch or a number of patches may be present.
  • The edges of each patch are irregular, but distinct from the surrounding skin.
  • Each patch grows very slowly.
  • Bowen’s is asymptomatic (has no symptoms) and therefore is easily overlooked.
  • Bowen’s can affect any part of the body, but commonly occurs on the lower leg.
  • Only rarely are the patches sore or irritated.

Bowen’s disease may become invasive

In most cases, Bowen’s disease remains confined to the upper layer of the skin (epidermis). However, if left untreated, the affected cells may migrate deeper into the skin layers. If a patch of Bowen’s disease becomes raised, tender or is bleeding, then it will need immediate medical attention.

Risk factors for Bowen’s disease

The cause of Bowen’s disease is often unknown, but known risk factors include:

  • Gender – the condition is more common in women.
  • Age – the condition is more common in people over 40 years. Elderly women are particularly prone.
  • Sun exposure – Bowen’s disease is more common in sunny countries. Bowen’s is most common on parts of the body exposed to direct sunlight.
  • Arsenic – people who are exposed to arsenic are at increased risk.
  • Systemic immunosuppression – this is required by organ transplant recipients to prevent organ rejection.
  • Viral infection – infections with certain subtypes of the human papilloma virus (wart virus) can predispose to Bowen’s disease. This is especially relevant for genital Bowen’s disease.

Diagnosis of Bowen’s disease

Bowen’s disease produces persistent red scaly patches on the skin that are not sore or itchy.Bowen’s disease is easily overlooked. It is not unusual for Bowen’s disease to be diagnosed during a routine skin examination.

Diagnosis methods include:

  • physical examination
  • medical history
  • biopsy of the lesion, including laboratory examination of the tissue sample.

Treatment for Bowen’s disease

Treatment options include:

  • Cryosurgery – the lesion is destroyed with intense cold. This type of treatment has a success rate of around 90 per cent when conducted by specialists.
  • Curettage – the lesion is scraped off the skin with a curette and the base of the wound is treated with cauterisation, where the skin is lightly burnt with an electric current. It has a success rate of around 90 per cent when performed by dermatologists.
  • Photodynamic therapy (PDT) – a special type of light is used to destroy the lesion. Success rates are in the order of 60-80 per cent with a specialist.
  • Topical creams – these are applied to the lesion to kill its cells. They include 5-fluorouracil cream and Imiquimod cream. Success rates are similar to PDT.
  • Surgery – the lesion is cut out and the wound is sutured closed. This treatment has a near 100 per cent success rate, but will leave a surgical scar.
  • Radiation therapy – is rarely used now.

Where to get help

Scaly Skin – Symptoms, Causes, Treatments

Scaly skin can be caused by a variety of natural processes or environments, as well as certain washing habits. You may be able to avoid or reduce scaly skin by simple changes in your lifestyle and environment. Some of these steps include drinking plenty of water, choosing gentle soaps, applying moisturizers frequently, using a humidifier, especially with indoor heating in the winter, and keeping the duration of showers and baths short.

Natural causes of scaly skin

Scaly skin may be caused by natural processes or environments including:

  • Dry climates
  • Indoor heating
  • Normal aging

Habitual causes of scaly skin

Scaly skin can also be caused by certain hygiene or lifestyle habits including:

  • Bathing or showering too frequently
  • Bathing or showering in hot water
  • Excessive use of soap while bathing or showering
  • Ingredients in soaps and personal care products
  • Insufficient fluid intake
  • Irritating fabrics in clothes

Inflammatory causes of scaly skin

Dermatitis, or skin inflammation, has numerous causes including:

  • Atopic dermatitis
  • Contact dermatitis
  • Eczema
  • Psoriasis
  • Seborrheic dermatitis (dandruff or cradle cap)

Infectious causes of scaly skin

In some cases, infections of the skin can produce a rash or patches of scaly skin. Examples include:

Genetic causes of scaly skin

Ichthyosis is an inherited condition that results in skin that is dry, thickened, rough and scaly. This condition is sometimes associated with other inborn (congenital) abnormalities.

Serious or life-threatening causes of scaly skin

In some cases, scaly skin may be a symptom of a serious or life-threatening condition that should be evaluated immediately in an emergency setting. These include rashes with high fever, enlargement of lymph nodes, and signs of deeper or widespread infection.

Questions for diagnosing the cause of scaly skin

To diagnose your condition, your doctor or licensed health care practitioner will ask you several questions related to your scaly skin including:

  • How long have you had dry or scaly skin?
  • Where do you experience the scaly skin?
  • Do you have any other symptoms?
  • What do you do to relieve your symptoms?
  • What are your normal washing habits?
  • Are you drinking the recommended amount of water each day?

What are the potential complications of scaly skin?

Scaly skin is generally caused by natural processes or environments or by hygiene and lifestyle habits and rarely has serious potential complications. However, left untreated, chronic scaly skin may result in serious complications, such as the development of eczema. Once the underlying cause is diagnosed, it is important for you to follow the treatment plan that you and your health care professional design specifically for you to reduce the risk of potential complications including:

  • Cosmetic disfigurement
  • Open wounds or sores from scratching
  • Scarring
  • Spread of infection

Common Causes and Ways to Treat Scaly Skin | Rough and Bumpy

What is scaly skin?

Dry scaly skin is often the result of a combination of factors, and may be associated with a compromised skin barrier that allows moisture to escape. When the skin’s natural renewal process is disrupted, a buildup of dead cells may lead to scaly skin.2The natural aging process, climate, prolonged submersion in water, and external irritants can lead to patches of dry or scaly skin as well. 3

Skin conditions that cause scaly skin

Eczema: This scaly skin condition causes itchy, red, rough patches, commonly inside the elbows and behind the knees, although it can appear anywhere on the body. Eczema is a chronic condition that often begins in childhood, and it is usually triggered by specific environmental factors.4

Psoriasis: Another chronic scaly skin condition, psoriasis, leads to inflamed patches of red skin covered with thick, silvery-white scales. Usually seen on the knees, elbows, lower back, palms and soles of the feet, this condition requires ongoing treatment to help relieve dry scaly skin patches and prevent them from returning.5

Seborrheic dermatitis: Flaky, scaly skin on the scalp, eyebrows, sides of the nose and behind the ears can be due to this form of eczema, which can also present as dandruff.6

Actinic keratosis: Individual scaly patches on skin with a history of sun exposure can be caused by actinic keratosis. These dark, thickened spots can lead to skin cancer if left untreated.7

Ichthyosis vulgaris: This common genetic skin condition prevents dead skin cells from shedding naturally, in turn causing accumulation that resembles fish scales. Mild cases can usually be controlled with regular moisturizer use.8

If you suspect your dry or scaly skin may be caused by one of these skin conditions, it’s best to see a dermatologist who can offer the most effective treatment options.

Scaly skin causes by location

Face: Dry scaly skin patches on the scalp, sides of the nose, behind the ears and on the scalp are usually caused by seborrheic dermatitis.9 If patches are covered in silvery-white scales, this may be a sign of psoriasis.5

Hands: Scaly skin on hands can be due to dry skin, eczema, psoriasis or several other skin conditions. Over-washing and harsh soaps are common culprits for dry, scaly skin on the hands. 1

Legs: The most common causes of scaly skin on other areas of the body can affect the legs as well. However, scaly skin on legs that doesn’t improve with moisturizer can be a sign of a more serious issue.

Feet: In addition to dry skin, eczema and other skin conditions, athlete’s foot is a common cause of scaly feet.10

If you experience dry, rough areas of skin that do not improve with moisturizer use, it’s best to see a doctor who can diagnose the cause.

Improving dry, scaly skin

In addition to making minor changes to your usual routine that can help minimize dry skin, hydrating skincare products such as moisturizer and body wash can help with dry, scaly skin. Ceramides are a beneficial ingredient to look for in order to help restore the skin’s barrier, which helps the skin hold on to hydration.Hyaluronic acid is another useful ingredient as it is able to draw moisture from the environment and hold up to 1,000 times its weight in water. 12 Gentle exfoliation with ingredients like salicylic acid and lactic acid can also help smooth the look and feel of dry, scaly skin.13,14

If over-the-counter skincare products don’t help improve the appearance of scaly skin, it’s best to seek the help of a dermatologist who can diagnose the cause and suggest additional treatment options.

Skin cancer facts | Seattle Cancer Care Alliance

Basal cell carcinoma signs and symptoms

This type of cancer is usually found on sun-exposed areas of the skin like the scalp, forehead, face, nose, neck and back.

Basal cell carcinomas may bleed after a minor injury but then scab and heal. This can happen over and over for months or years with no visible growth, making it easy to mistake them for wounds or sores. They rarely cause pain in their earliest stages.


In addition to the bleeding and healing, these are other possible signs of a basal cell cancer:

  • A persistent open sore that does not heal and bleeds, crusts or oozes.
  • A reddish patch or irritated area that may crust or itch.
  • A shiny bump or nodule that is pearly or translucent and often pink, red or white. It can also be tan, black or brown, especially in dark-haired people, and easy to confuse with a mole.
  • A pink growth with a slightly elevated, rolled border and a crusted indentation in the center. Tiny blood vessels may appear on the surface as the growth enlarges.
  • A scar-like lesion in an area that you have not injured. It may be white, yellow or waxy, often with poorly defined borders. The skin seems shiny and tight; sometimes this can be a sign of an aggressive tumor.

Squamous cell carcinoma signs and symptoms

Generally found on the ears, face and mouth, squamous cell carcinoma can be more aggressive than basal cell. Untreated, it may push through the skin layers to the lymphatic system, bloodstream and nerve routes, where it can cause pain and symptoms of serious illness.


Squamous cell cancer often starts as a precancerous lesion known as actinic keratosis (described below). When it becomes cancerous, the lesion appears raised above the normal skin surface and is firmer to the touch. Sometimes the spot shows only a slight change from normal skin. 

Other signs include:

  • Any change, such as crusting or bleeding, in an existing wart, mole, scar or other skin lesion
  • A wart-like growth that crusts and sometimes bleeds
  • A scaly, persistent reddish patch with irregular borders, which may crust or bleed
  • A persistent open sore that does not heal and bleeds, crusts or oozes
  • A raised growth with a depression in the center that occasionally bleeds and may rapidly increase in size

Actinic keratosis signs and symptoms

Many people have actinic keratosis (AK), also called solar keratosis, on their skin. It shows that you’ve had enough sun to develop skin cancer, and it is considered a precursor of cancer, or a precancerous condition.

Usually AK shows up on the parts of your body that have received the most lifetime sun exposure, like the face, ears, scalp, neck, backs of the hands, forearms, shoulders and lips.

Some of the same treatments used for nonmelanoma skin cancers are used for AK to ensure it does not develop into a cancerous lesion.


This abnormality develops slowly. The lesions are usually small, about an eighth of an inch to a quarter of an inch in size. You may see a few at a time. They can disappear and later return.

  •  AK is a scaly or crusty bump on the skin’s surface and is usually dry and rough. It can be flat. An actinic keratosis is often noticed more by touch than sight. 
  • It may be the same color as your skin, or it may be light, dark, tan, pink, red or a combination of colors. 
  • It can itch or produce a prickling or tender sensation. 
  • These skin abnormalities can become inflamed and be encircled with redness. Rarely, they bleed.

Melanoma signs and symptoms

Melanoma skin cancer is much more serious than basal cell carcinoma and squamous cell carcinoma. It can spread quickly to other organs and causes the vast majority of skin cancer deaths in the United States. Usually melanomas develop in or around an existing mole. 


Signs and symptoms of melanoma vary depending on the exact type and may include:

  • A flat or slightly raised, discolored patch with irregular borders and possible areas of tan, brown, black, red, blue or white (superficial spreading melanoma)
  • A firm bump, often black but occasionally blue, gray, white, brown, tan, red or your usual skin tone (nodular melanoma)
  • A flat or slightly raised mottled tan, brown or dark brown discoloration (lentigo maligna)
  • A black or brown discoloration, usually under the nails, on the palms or on the soles of the feet (acral lentiginous melanoma) 

See more pictures and get details about different types of melanoma in our dedicated melanoma section.

Merkel cell carcinoma signs and symptoms

Read about signs and symptoms of Merkel cell carcinoma, a rare type of skin cancer, in our dedicated Merkel cell section.

Self-exams to detect skin cancer

You may notice changes to your skin casually during your daily routine, such as when you put on lotion, look in the mirror or take a shower. Doing a thorough monthly exam is also important.

Learn how to examine your skin and the general warning signs to look for:

Learn More

Scaly skin conditions | DermNet NZ


Scaly disorder



Scarlet fever,

Kawasaki syndrome,

Exfoliative dermatitis,

Pityriasis rosea,

Acute guttate psoriasis,

Pityriasiform drug eruption,

Lichenoid drug eruption,

Seborrhoeic dermatitis,

Localised psoriasis,

Discoid lupus erythematosus,

Pityriasis versicolor,

Keratosis pilaris,

Annular erythema,

Palmoplantar keratoderma,

Crusted scabies,

Tinea corporis,


Chronic plaque psoriasis,

Lichen planus,

Pityriasis lichenoides,

Pityriasis rubra pilaris,

Cutaneous T-cell lymphoma,

Dermatitis neglecta,

Scaly lesions,

Scaly scalp,

Scaly patches of the face,

Scaly patches of the limbs,

Scaly skin folds,

Scaly patches on the trunk,

Scaly palms and soles,

Scaly patches anywhere/everywhere


B35, A38, M30.3, L26, L42, L40.4, L43.2, L21, L40.9, L93.0, B36.0, L85.8, L53.1, L82.8, L85.1, B86, B35.4, Q80, L85.0, L40.0, L43, L46.1, L41.0, L44.0, C84.A0


1F28.Z, 1B50, 4A44.5, EB10, EA10, EA90.1, EH6Y, EH62, EA81.Z, EA90.Z, EB51.0, 1F20.0, ED56, EB11, ED55.Z, 1G04.1, 1F28.Y, ED50.0, EC20.Y, EA90.0, EA91.Z, EA93, EA94, 2B0Z, ME66.Y


47382004, 30242009, 75053002, 399992009, 77252004, 402312004, 238989000, 109254000, 50563003, 4014002, 200938002, 56454009, 5132005, 200920000, 706885006, 128870005, 84849002, 782957005, 402310007, 4776004, 200983001, 3755001, 400122007, 275887009, 271761007

90,000 Skin Cancer: Disease Treatment | Clinic Rassvet

Fast passage

Skin cancer is a group of malignant tumors of the epithelium of the skin and its appendages, sebaceous and sweat glands.

These tumors are the most common cancer in the world. More than 89 thousand cases of skin cancer were registered in the Russian Federation in 2017.

What are the causes of skin cancer?

The most common cause of skin cancer is exposure to ultraviolet rays from sunlight.

About 90% of skin cancers, excluding melanoma, are associated with exposure to ultraviolet radiation from the sun.

Therefore, most often exposed areas of the skin are affected, which are exposed to greater insolation. The prevalence is greatest among outdoor workers, athletes and sunbathers and is inversely related to the melanin content of the skin. So patients with fair skin are most at risk.

Skin cancer is characterized by development against the background of various pathological conditions. Skin cancer often occurs against the background of burns, rough scars, in places of chronic injury. Malignant skin tumors can also develop years after radiation therapy. Patients who are taking immunosuppressive therapies and certain types of targeted therapies also have an increased risk of developing the disease.

It should be noted that the risk of skin cancer increases with age.

Types of skin cancer

The most common are basal cell (about 80%) and squamous (about 4%) skin cancers. In third place is skin melanoma (about 4%). Melanoma of the skin has a number of specific features of the course of the disease and treatment, therefore, it is considered separately. Also, Bowen’s disease should be distinguished separately – superficial squamous cell carcinoma and keratoacanthoma, which is referred to as a highly differentiated form of squamous cell carcinoma.

More rare types of skin cancer include Merkel carcinoma, cancer of the sweat or sebaceous glands, Paget’s disease, Kaposi’s sarcoma, and T-cell lymphoma of the skin (fungal mycosis).

How to detect a tumor at an early stage?

To detect early forms of skin cancer, everyone is advised to have a head-to-toe skin examination once a month.

The technique for self-examination of the skin can be found here (.docx, 104 Kb).

To improve the effectiveness of this procedure at the Rassvet clinic, we will help you to conduct a skin examination. The doctor will do a full body exam to make sure any spots, freckles, or moles that are present are normal and do not require treatment. If necessary, the doctor will conduct a dermatoscopy, check the skin with a special instrument under magnification, which makes it possible to identify tumor processes that are invisible to the naked eye. If there are indications, a treatment program will be drawn up for you or a follow-up period will be determined.

After the first few attempts, the self-check should take no more than 10 minutes – a small investment in what can be a lifesaver!

Important: Skin cancer is easily treatable in its early stages. The larger the tumor, the more voluminous the treatment is. Although skin cancers rarely spread to vital organs, they can cause severe deformities and sometimes injure nerves or muscles. Some rare, aggressive forms can be fatal if not addressed early.

How to conduct a self-examination and what to look for?

Below we list the symptoms that are common in skin cancer. Most often, two or more symptoms are present with a malignant tumor.

  1. Non-healing wound. An open wound that bleeds, sows, or crusts without healing for more than 2 weeks despite treatment. A wound that heals and then bleeds again. A non-healing wound is a very common symptom of skin cancer.
  2. Presence of a persistent reddish spot or local irritation , which is more common on the face, chest, shoulders, arms, or legs. Sometimes the stain is crusted. Also, the stain may itch or hurt, or be present without discomfort.
  3. The appearance of a tubercle or knot. The color is often pearlescent or light, often with a pink, red tint. The bump can also be brown, black, especially in the dark-haired population, and can be confused with a common nevus (birthmark).
  4. Formation of pink color with a slightly raised, undermined border and a depression in the center. As it grows slowly, tiny blood vessels may appear on the surface.
  5. A scar-like area, white, yellow, or waxy, often poorly defined. The skin itself looks shiny and firm. This warning sign may indicate the presence of infiltrative growth in the surrounding tissue when the true size of the tumor is larger than the visible border.

If you find any of these signs or other alarming changes in your skin, be sure to see your doctor!

Important: Remember that sometimes early skin cancer resembles non-cancerous skin conditions such as psoriasis or eczema. Only a doctor with specialized knowledge of skin diseases and the necessary equipment can make the correct diagnosis.

Diagnosis of skin cancer

Diagnosis of skin cancer, in addition to the standard examination of the skin and the lesion, if necessary with a dermatoscopy, consists of the following procedures:

  • Cytological examination of smears, prints or scrapings from the neoplasm.
  • In the absence of convincing clinical and cytological data, a biopsy of the tumor is performed (removal of part of the tumor or complete removal for examination).
  • Palpation of the skin in the area of ​​tumor localization, palpation of regional lymph nodes. Ultrasound examination of regional lymph nodes.
  • In the presence of enlarged regional lymph nodes, a fine-needle puncture (aspiration) biopsy is performed.
  • For large tumors, radiation diagnostic methods are used – (CT or MRI of the affected area with intravenous contrast to assess the prevalence of the process).
  • In some cases, if a widespread tumor process is suspected, additional examination of the thoracic and abdominal organs with the use of ultrasound, CT and MRI techniques may be required.

Skin cancer treatment

Treatment is carried out taking into account the stage of the process, the localization of the tumor, its histological structure.Radiation, surgical, medicinal methods are used alone or in the form of combined and complex treatment.

In the surgical treatment of small skin tumors, scars are usually cosmetically acceptable. If the tumors are very large, a skin graft or flap is used for repair to achieve the best cosmetic result and facilitate healing.

Radiation therapy and surgery are alternative treatments for stage I skin cancer.This takes into account contraindications to surgery, a high degree of operational risk and tumor localization.

Recommendations of the oncologist at the Rassvet clinic for skin cancer

In the Oncology Department of the Rassvet Clinic, the entire spectrum of diagnostics of tumor lesions of the skin is carried out, including biopsy and modern pathomorphological diagnostics. In the surgical department of minor oncology, it is possible to carry out surgical treatment with the use of various types of plastic defect replacement.

We also work in partnership with a radiation therapy center, which allows us to carry out modern radiation therapy techniques.

With a widespread process, it is possible to carry out modern chemotherapy and targeted therapy. Treatment can be carried out even for very debilitated patients, and our team of specialists provides all the necessary accompanying therapy.

Additional recommendations of the doctor of the clinic Dawn for the prevention of skin cancer

Since many forms of skin cancer are associated with exposure to ultraviolet radiation, a number of measures are recommended to reduce it:

  • Use sunscreen.Ultraviolet radiation is a proven human carcinogen. Regular daily use of SPF 15 or higher sunscreen reduces the risk of skin cancer by about 40%.
  • Use sunscreens with a wide range of UVA / UVB protection and should be applied as directed (30 minutes before sun exposure, reapply every 2 hours after swimming or sweating).
  • Wear protective clothing: long-sleeved shirts, trousers and wide-brimmed hats.
  • Avoid visiting the solarium. Those who have ever sunbathed indoors have a 67% higher risk of squamous cell carcinoma and 29% higher risk of basal cell skin cancer.


90,000 Treatment of flat warts on the face

The skin protects the internal organs.

But sometimes this barrier from mechanical damage itself turns into a threat. At least some parts of it.

Neoplasms often grow on the skin.

Many of them are harmless, others are harmful, but both can be a problem.

For example, you are unlikely to find a person who will be delighted with the appearance of flat warts on his face. This is the name for slightly raised, smooth growths. Flesh-colored or tan.

These tumors are no bigger than a power button on a television remote control. They often appear in only a few places:

  • Back of palm
  • Face
  • Legs

But warts usually build a whole city on the skin – from tens or even hundreds of growths.

Flat neoplasms are not always called that way. Doctors call them youthful. Simply because they are found mainly in children and adolescents.

Is it necessary to remove flat warts on the face?

In some cases.

These growths are benign and rarely cause discomfort. So when they appear, we do not recommend running to the nearest beauty salon with the speed of a hungry cheetah.

However, sometimes they are not immediately detected.

Flat warts only slightly raised above the skin. Sometimes it’s hard to spot them. They are oval or round in shape and up to three millimeters in diameter. Carriers of neoplasms often notice them only when dozens of tumors settle on the skin.

So we discussed warts. Now let’s talk about where they come from.

Causes of the appearance of warts

These neoplasms always grow on the body for one reason – the human papillomavirus or HPV.This is the name of a whole family of viruses, consisting of 150 types.

Flat warts causes HPV types 3, 10, 28 and 49.

A few words about the process itself.

Human papillomavirus enters the skin through touch or through general hygiene items. For example, you can get infected from a towel.

HPV is difficult to penetrate the entire skin. Therefore, most often he sneaks in through scratches, wounds and other injuries. There are usually many warts near them.

Normal skin grows at a normal rate and does not grow excessively. Infected cells do not limit themselves. HPV causes the skin to mutate and grow uncontrollably until it turns into a wart.

Where do they appear?

Flat warts mainly affect adolescents between the ages of 12 and 16. They rarely attack adults.

Children are often infected for several reasons:

  • Have a lot of contact with other children

Touching other people’s neoplasms increases the risk of their own growths.

  • Often skin damage

Scratches and abrasions are frequent companions of active children. It is through these vulnerabilities that the virus enters the body.

  • Carelessness while shaving

During adolescence, boys and girls first begin to shave their face or legs. They are still inexperienced. So cuts are often left on the body, allowing HPV to invade the skin.

The likelihood of infection also increases due to the weakening of the immune system.

In this case, the main causes of flat warts on the face are:

  • Heart disease
  • Drug use
  • Chemotherapy

How dangerous are neoplasms?

Flat warts on the face of an adult or child are benign growths that do not transform into cancerous tumors. It is not necessary to treat them.

However, you still need to go to the doctor.

If not for removal of neoplasms, then at least for their diagnosis, because the type of tumor can not always be determined at a glance.

So let’s talk about checking the build-up next.

How to identify neoplasms. Diagnosis of warts

We have previously described the main signs of flat warts. In many cases, they can be used to distinguish some growths from others. But sometimes the tumors are masked.

Not on purpose, of course.

It’s just that sometimes warts look like other neoplasms and examination does not help to recognize them.

So we need a doctor’s help.

A dermatologist is not only better versed in the characteristics of growths, but can also conduct additional research.For example, he will cut off part of the tumor for analysis. Examining the sample under a microscope will help identify the type of wart.

However, a doctor’s examination is useful for other reasons.

Ominous repainting. Discoloration of the wart

Some growths turn red or darken. Such transformations rarely happen just like that.

Darkening and drying of the wart sometimes indicates that it is gradually dying off and will soon fall off. However, this is not an accurate forecast.

Therefore, we recommend monitoring any changes in neoplasms. If they turn red and the new color lasts for several days, then show the tumor to a dermatologist.

Perhaps the changes are harmless. But even unlikely malignant transformations are better to identify in advance.

How to avoid great discomfort. Wart size

In many cases, flat neoplasms pop up on the skin in tens or hundreds. But then they can unite. Neighboring growths merge, which is why the patient is embarrassed to show them and less often communicates with people.

Still, it is easy to tolerate small warts.

But large tumors:

  • Highly visible on the skin
  • More likely to rub against clothing
  • Deliver cosmetic discomfort

Therefore, we recommend that you make an appointment with a dermatologist right away if you have large neoplasms. The help of a specialist will also come in handy with an increase in small growths.

Rapid growth of warts

Common flat neoplasms rarely grow.Especially fast.

So the rapid increase in warts is an alarming sign that you need to tell your doctor as soon as possible.

Even a harmless large growth often interferes, and a malignant tumor is also dangerous to health.

Make an appointment with a dermatologist. He will find out why the wart is growing rapidly and whether it needs to be removed. Especially if she jumped out where she is constantly striking.

Area of ​​occurrence of a wart

Some neoplasms grow on the arms or legs.Sometimes they are hard to spot.

But warts on the face do not suffer from shyness and bathe in the rays of other people’s attention. However, their carriers do not like this.

Facial growths can cause psychological discomfort. They will make the person shy. Insecure.

So we advise that such warts be checked by a doctor, and if possible, removed.

Fortunately, there are various methods available against them now.

Methods for the treatment of flat warts on the face

Skin neoplasms should be removed by a specialist in skin diseases – a dermatologist.

Yes, to delete it.

So far, doctors do not know how to cure warts.

Remember – growths are caused by a virus. Therefore, for a complete victory over them, it is necessary to eliminate the cause of the appearance of neoplasms.

Many patients use special creams that contain chemicals that destroy warts. Unfortunately, such funds are ineffective.

They eliminate neoplasms in layers. So therapy often lasts several weeks, and a positive result is not guaranteed.

Then doctors prescribe radical methods:

The dermatologist freezes the water in the tissues of the growths with liquid nitrogen. Warts die off slowly.

  • Surgical excision

The doctor cuts off the tumor. To do this, he uses a scalpel or other surgical instrument. The doctor also removes a small layer of healthy skin around the growth. This reduces the risk of relapse.

  • Laser therapy

The dermatologist cuts off the apex of the growth with a beam of light.Then it burns out the roots of the wart. In its place, a small wound remains, which is covered with a protective crust and heals in about three weeks.

None of the methods for removing flat warts on the face removes the growths permanently. The risk of relapse remains.

Therefore, it is sometimes easier to wait until the neoplasms disappear on their own.

However, sometimes you cannot do without an operation. This applies when tumors are:

  • It hurts
  • Bleed
  • Deliver cosmetic discomfort
  • Cling to clothes
  • Damaged

With flat warts, this rarely happens, but if you encounter such a problem, then contact a dermatologist as soon as possible.

Best of all – to a reliable medical center.

Laser removal of flat warts on the face in the clinic “Lazersvit”

The elimination of neoplasms with a laser has been carried out for several years, although this method remains one of the newest. In terms of efficiency, it does not differ much from other operations.

However, in some cases, it is more convenient to remove warts with a laser.

For example, when they grow on the face.

Surgical excision often leaves behind noticeable scars and scars, but laser therapy does not have this drawback.

Therefore, we advise you to remove neoplasms on the face in this way.

Best of all – in the clinic “Lazersvit”.

Our laser procedure has many advantages:

We remove small growths in just a minute. So, if necessary, we can eliminate several dozen warts in one session.

  • Painlessness

The laser beam destroys growths with short pulses.Patients do not have time to feel pain. We use local anesthesia to eliminate large tumors.

  • Easy healing

The wound disappears after the procedure in three weeks. With proper care for her, the neoplasm disappears without a trace – no scars or scars.

  • No bleeding

The ray of light not only destroys the wart, but also bakes the adjacent vessels. No blood flows from the wound.

The laser destroys bacteria near the build-up. This prevents blood poisoning when a neoplasm is destroyed.

Of course, laser removal of flat facial warts is not ideal yet. Sometimes the wound heals for a long time. In other cases, a new tumor soon grows in its place.

The problem is not the method.

Just along with the removal of the build-up, you need to strengthen the immune system, which will deal with the virus in the skin. Then new unpleasant surprises will not appear.

In the Lazersvit clinic, operations are performed by dermatologists of the first and highest categories.We have been removing neoplasms for several years. Some of our specialists have been treating skin diseases for over 14 years and during this time have examined more than 50,000 patients.

Therefore, we can easily identify dangerous warts, and if the examination is not enough, we use the Delta 20 T dermatoscope. It magnifies the image of tumors 16 times. So even the slightest signs of malignancy do not elude us.

Come to “Lazersvit” and eliminate flat warts and other growths on the skin – without scars, pain and long recovery.

Examination and removal will be carried out by the country’s leading dermatologists

They completed training abroad and examined more than 50,000 patients

Ladygina Evgeniya Igorevna

Doctor dermatologist

Has specialties of dermatologist and dermatovenerologist.

Work experience:
3 years

Graduated from V.N.Karazin Kharkiv National University in 2018.

Disease Treatment:
Dermatoscopy. Diagnosis of skin neoplasms. Laser removal of moles, warts, warts and papillomas.Elimination of tattoos, age spots.

Belskaya Elena Alexandrovna

Chief physician. Dermatologist

General medicine.

Work experience:
17 years.

Kharkov State Medical University 2003

Disease Treatment:
D Treats chronic skin diseases: psoriasis, atopic dermatitis, eczema. Fights skin infections – pyoderma, fungal diseases.Removes permanent makeup, tattoos. Reveals and treats skin neoplasms: warts, condylomas, hemangiomas, moles.

Krasiy Irina Nikolaevna

First category dermatologist.

General medicine.

Work experience:
17 years.

Kharkiv State Medical University 2003

Disease Treatment:
Diagnostics, treatment and removal of skin neoplasms (warts, papillomas, condylomas, moles, contagious molluscs, hemangiomas, vascular networks, pigmentation), treatment of chronic skin diseases (psoriasis, eczema, atopic dermatitis), skin infections (pyoderma, fungal diseases), removal tattoos, permanent make-up.

Bidnichenko Natalia Levonovna

Doctor dermatologist of the highest category


Work experience:
15 years.

Odessa State Medical University 2003

Disease Treatment:
Treats skin diseases – psoriasis, dermatitis and eczema. Helps get rid of pyoderma and other skin infections. Identifies dangerous neoplasms and removes them. Checks papillomas, moles, hemangiomas, keratomas, fibromas, condylomas, spider webs.

Biyukova-Polshakova Irina Lazarevna

Second category dermatologist

Dermatology, Trichology, Clinical Psychology.

Work experience:
11 years.

Bukovina Medical University 2007
Odessa National Medical University 2012

Disease Treatment:
Specializes in the elimination of psoriasis, eczema and dermatitis.Diagnoses and treats skin infections such as pyoderma. Identifies dangerous neoplasms and selects methods for their removal.

Surgery for nurses (necrosis)


Bedsores (decubitus) – dystrophic or ulcerative-necrotic changes in soft tissues that develop as a result of trophic disorders and circulatory disorders.They arise in patients who lie for a long time, weakened in places, subjected to systematic pressure.

Most often, bedsores are localized in the region of the sacrum, shoulder blades, occiput, greater trochanters, femurs, and heels.

The formation of pressure ulcers occurs imperceptibly, at first there is pallor of the tissues, then redness appears on the skin, followed by a transition to cyanosis. Puffiness develops with a detachment of the epidermis. A lot of bubbles with hemorrhagic fluid appear on the skin.There is a malnutrition of skin cells, they die, tissue necrosis develops with rejection and the formation of deep purulent wounds, in the center of which the adjacent bone is determined. Very often, the process does not go from top to bottom, but on the contrary – from bottom to top.


  1. Multiple turning of the patient on an absolutely flat hard surface using a special anti-decubitus mattress.
  2. Daily treatment of the skin of the sacrum, coccyx, shoulder blades, heel area, external occipital protuberance, ankle area, condyles of the greater and lesser trochanters with camphor alcohol.
  3. Hyperemic areas are treated with 5% dioxidine ointment, polyvinylpyrrolidone iodine, polyvidone iodine, moxofloxacin solution.
  4. Wound treatment with proteolytic enzymes (iruksol, trypsin), use of hypertonic solutions (10% sodium chloride solution, hydrophilic ointment).
  5. After rejection of necrotic masses and cleaning the wound, drugs are prescribed that improve regenerative processes – dressings with solcoseryl, 10% methyluracil, syntomycin and erythromycin ointments.
  6. After general strengthening therapy, wound plasty is indicated.
  7. Application of physiotherapy exercises, UHF, ultraviolet irradiation, sollux lamps.


An ulcer (ulkus) is a defect of the skin, mucous membrane and deep-lying tissues that develops as a result of their necrosis, when regeneration processes are absent or weak.

Ulcers can develop as a result of the following reasons:

  1. Varicose veins; violation of lymphatic drainage (extensive edema, elephantiasis).
  2. Primary lesion of large arterial trunks, for example – obliterating endarteritis and atherosclerosis, thrombosis, embolism, or ligation of the main arteries; as well as lesions of small capillaries – diabetic, hypertensive.
  3. Congenital and post-traumatic arteriovenous fistulas.
  4. Post-traumatic non-healing wounds.
  5. Infectious, mycotic and parasitic lesion.
  6. Internal diseases of the body, anemia, diseases of the liver, spleen, portal hypertension, vitamin deficiencies, alimentary dystrophy.
  7. For injuries and diseases of the spinal cord and brain; a break in the peripheral nerve trunk or contusion; due to constant irritation of the peripheral nerve trunk.
  8. In case of benign, primary malignant neoplasms, and on the basis of oleogranulomas (chronic ulcers).

Ulcer is a necrotic focus with decay of cells, microbes, and purulent-necrotic discharge. It is surrounded by granulation belts, gradually turning into a layer of dense connective tissue.There is nonspecific inflammation around the ulcer. The ulcer can be round, oval, or irregular.
Localization, type, shape, features of the edges and bottom of the ulcer are of great importance for the diagnosis.

The edges of the ulcer can be even and uneven, chopped off and undermined, soft, dense and calcified, in color – pale, red, cyanotic. The bottom of the ulcer is deepened or raised, it can be covered with granulations or necrotic areas.
Ulcers with flaccid granulation, bordered by connective tissue, are called callous.More often there are superficial varicose, post-traumatic, cicatricial and post-burn, as well as ulcers of the gastrointestinal tract. Ulcers can range in size from pinpoint to 30 or more centimeters in diameter.

The formation of ulcers in varicose veins of the lower extremities and trophic disorders leads to the failure of the veins. Violation of microcirculation, phlebohypertension, inflammation, thrombosis of small vessels sharply disrupt nutrition and tissue oxygenation, which leads to the formation of varicose ulcers.The ulcers enlarge rapidly, are very painful, with copious purulent discharge. The bottom of the ulcer can reach the aponeurosis. A wide zone of induration and hyperpigmentation of the skin is located around the ulcer. Ulcers often last for years and are replaced by a rough scar with thinned skin over it. A chronic ulcer can develop malignantly. The causes of recurrence of varicose ulcers are hard work, overwork, injury or long walking.

Thrombosis or deep vein thrombophlebitis of the lower extremities and pelvis can lead to ulceration.Scars that form after conservative treatment of deep wounds and burns often ulcerate. In this respect, scars of the popliteal fossa are typical. These ulcers either heal or reopen. They can be complicated by bleeding, malignant.
For diagnostics, bacteriological and pathohistological studies are performed.

Treatment is complex, including the elimination of the underlying disease or etiological factor.
Conservative and surgical methods of treatment are used.Treatment should be local and general.
General treatment:
1. Transfusion of blood components.
2. Vitamin therapy.
3. Ultraviolet, laser blood irradiation.

Local treatment:
1. Creation of favorable conditions for the outflow of wound contents and cleansing of the ulcer in the stage of hydration – hypertonic solutions and ointments on a water-soluble basis are used.
2. Strict adherence to the rules of asepsis and antiseptics during dressings.
3. Elevated position and immobilization of the affected limb to create a better outflow of blood and lymph and limitation of active movements.
In the stage of dehydration, indifferent or biostimulating ointments are prescribed.
5. Surgical treatment of superficial ulcers – removal of pathologically altered granulations and scar tissue. To close the resulting defect, skin grafting is used. For varicose ulcers, phlebectomy with vein ligation is performed.


Fistula is a pathological canal lined with granulations or epithelium that opens on the surface of the body and connects hollow organs, cavities, deep-lying tissues with the external environment or hollow organs among themselves.The causes of the development of fistulas can be inflammatory processes, trauma, tumors, malformations, and foreign bodies.
The nature of the fistula to be separated is different: organ secret, mucus, pus, tissue decay products, contents of a hollow organ – intestines, urine or bile.

I. By origin, fistulas can be congenital and acquired. Congenital fistulas are formed in connection with malformations, more often – median and lateral fistulas of the neck and fistulas of the navel.
Acquired fistulas are divided into:
1.Caused by a pathological process.
2. Surgically created – artificial fistulas (bladder, intestine, stomach).
II. In relation to the external environment, there are:
1. External fistulas of hollow organs, cavities, tissues (intestinal, duodenal, bronchothoracic, pararectal).
2. External fistulas of soft tissues and bones connecting the focus of infection with the external environment.
3. Internal fistulas between two hollow organs and a pathological focus (gastrointestinal, utero-cystic, etc.).
III. Fistulas are distinguished by their structure:
1. Granulating – the walls of which are covered with granulations.
2. Epithelialized – with the walls of the fistulous canal covered with epithelium.
3. Lip-like, in which the epithelium of the mucous membrane of the hollow organ goes directly to the skin. There is an opening of a hollow organ into the external environment without a fistulous canal.
IV. By the nature of the discharge, fistulas are distinguished – purulent, mucous, urinary, salivary, fecal, cerebrospinal fluid, etc.

The clinical picture is characterized by significant violations of the general condition.
With purulent fistulas, intoxication is noted, aggravated by obstruction of the outflow. Violations of the general condition of the patient can also develop with secondary infection through a fistula, which is possible not only with granulating, but also with congenital, epithelizing fistulas.
With fistulas of the stomach and small intestine, due to the loss of digestive juices, a sharp violation of water-electrolyte and protein metabolism and death of the patient may occur.
With fistulas of hollow organs, accompanied by leakage into the organ of a secret that is not characteristic of it (food in the bronchus, intestinal contents in the bladder), the function of the organs is disrupted.
Epithelial and labial fistulas do not heal spontaneously, but granulating fistulas can heal on their own if the body copes with the microflora, and sequesters or foreign bodies are released from the focus.
Fistulas of a hollow organ can close on their own with a decrease in the release of the contents of this organ through it (intestinal contents, bile, urine).
With an external fistula, the diagnosis is made with characteristic complaints, anamnesis, the type of wound and the amount of discharge.
Diagnosis of internal fistulas is difficult and is most often a finding when examining a patient.To determine the direction of the fistulous course, its length, the number and nature of the branches, the connection with the pathological focus, probing is used, radiography – fistulography with the introduction of a contrast agent into the fistula (urotrast, verografin).
The introduction of methylene blue into the pleural cavity with suspected bronchopleural fistula allows to establish staining of sputum, the same with rectal fistulas.


  1. Care of the fistula canal and surrounding skin, use of drainage or special receivers.The skin around is thoroughly cleansed, lubricated with zinc ointment, petroleum jelly or Lassar paste.
  2. Elimination of the focus of inflammation in granulating fistulas. Physiotherapy, cauterization of granulations, surgical intervention are used.
  3. Elimination of the focus, removal of the epithelial cover of the fistulous course of epithelial fistulas, often with partial resection of these organs.
  4. Radical operation for labial fistulas – mobilization and suturing of the wall of a hollow organ with the elimination of the fistulous canal.Artificial fistulas are applied for therapeutic purposes to restore the function of the organ, reduce the suffering of the patient, provide nutrition or drain the contents or secretions of the organ.
  5. They are temporary or permanent. Temporary (granulating) fistulas are applied with the expectation of self-healing, permanent (lip-shaped) fistulas – for a long period. The operation, as a result of which the cavity of this or that organ began to communicate through the outer covers with the external environment, is called “stomy”.The word “stomy” (Greek stoma – hole) is added to the name of the organ: gastrostomy, cholecystostomy. Artificially imposed interorgan fistulas are called anastomoses. For example, interorgan anastomoses: gastroenteroanastomosis, enteroanastomosis.


– infectious zooanthroponous diseases with characteristic skin lesions and
its derivatives caused by pathogenic dermatophyte fungi. Among
animals are most widespread:

trichophytia (Trichophytia) – an infectious disease of animals and humans,
characterized by the appearance on the skin of sharply limited, flaky
areas with broken hair at the base or the development of pronounced
inflammation of the skin, with the release of exudate and the formation of a thick crust,
microsporia ((Microsporosis) – an infectious disease characterized by
superficial inflammation of the skin and its derivatives,

in rare cases – scab (favus) – an infectious disease,
characterized by the formation of rounded spots covered with thick
grayish-yellow crusts – scutules, gradually acquiring
saucer or flap shape with raised edges.

Microsporia and trichophytosis are combined under one common name “ringworm”.

Mushrooms have a filamentous, unbranched body and form a large number of
dispute, which contributes to their widespread distribution. They possess
significant resistance to heat and disinfectants,
persist for a long time in the external environment: on the litter, in the soil, on wooden
Epizootological data . The disease is registered everywhere in
any time of the year.Cattle, horses, cats, dogs are more often sick with trichophytosis. TO
microsporia are susceptible to horses, cats, dogs, fur-bearing animals,
laboratory animals.

The carriers of pathogenic fungi are mice, rats and other rodents.

Infection occurs through contact with sick animals, as well as through care items, bedding.

A particular danger to humans is posed by stray infected dogs and cats.

The disease most often affects young animals (up to 1 year old).Promotes
the spread of infection, violation of the zoo-hygienic rules of maintenance and
feeding animals (crowding, disturbance of the normal macroclimate and

The source of infection is a sick animal transmitting the pathogen
with direct or indirect (through care items, bedding, brushes, harnesses,
collars, etc.) contact. Most often, infection occurs through
damaged skin (abrasions, scratches, etc.).

Pathogenesis . The pathogen, getting on the surface of the skin, secretes
toxins and keratolytic enzymes that cause local
superficial inflammation and loosening of the stratum corneum.Then
the pathogen penetrates into the mouths of the hair follicles, into the hair necks,
gradually destroying their structure, which leads to hair loss. At
this, numerous scales and crusts are formed on the surface of the skin
dried purulent exudate.

Symptoms of the disease :

Microsporia. The incubation period is 22 to 47 days. Celebrate
superficial, deep (follicular) and erased (atypical) form
disease. In animals with high resistance, superficial or
atypical form of the disease.In young animals and weakened animals –
follicular. In the absence of proper treatment, the superficial form can
go into a deep chronic course of the disease.

The surface form is characterized by loss and (or) breaking off
affected hair with the formation in their place of local, sharply
limited, hairless, scaly areas of the skin. The latter are usually
dry, without signs of exudation (serous or purulent effusion on the skin).
Affected foci can be solitary or located on different
areas of the animal’s body.

With the follicular form, the deeper layers of the skin are affected, on the skin
crusts of dried exudate are formed, which are a favorable environment
for the development of secondary microflora.

The latent form is characterized by the presence of hairless areas or spots with
sparse hair. Affected hair is not detected during examination;
detect only by the luminescent method. Pronounced local
inflammation is absent. Such areas of the skin often have the appearance of scuffs.
or abrasions that make it difficult to make a clinical diagnosis.

Trichophytosis. The incubation period lasts from 5 to 30 days. More
the follicular form of the disease is characteristic. In this case, the skin is formed
sharply limited hairless areas of the skin. In places of defeat
there are inflammatory processes with the release of exudate, which,
drying, turns into thick crusts. Due to deep lesions
hair follicles on the skin of animals after healing usually remain
hairless or depigmented spots.

Favus (scab) in dogs and cats is relatively rare and
characterized by lesions of the skin, hair, claws, sometimes parenchymal
organs.The lesions are noted mainly on the scalp, ear
shells, paws near the claws and in other places. The causative agent of the favus
often penetrates deep into the dermis, subcutaneous tissue and bone tissue.
Sometimes it is even found in the brain of an animal. Characteristic
the clinical manifestation of favus in animals is the formation on the skin
scabs resembling a calyx with a depression in the center. In this case, the hair in
scab lesions fall out, but do not break off, as in
microsporia and trichophytosis.

The duration of the illness ranges from 3-9 weeks to 12 months.

Diagnosis is established on the basis of clinical and epizootic
data, results of microscopy of pathological material, isolation
mushroom cultures on nutrient media.

For differential diagnosis of microsporia, the method is used
fluorescent diagnostics using a Wood lamp. Wherein
the affected areas give a bright green, emerald glow in
ultraviolet rays (black hair does not always give the specified glow
even with severe defeat).

Dermatophytosis is differentiated from scabies, eczema, dermatitis of non-infectious etiology.

Treatment . Sick animals are isolated.

As specific treatments for dogs and cats use
various mono- and polyvalent vaccines (Vakderm, Polivak-TM, Microderm and
etc.) in therapeutic doses.

The hair is cut at the site of the lesion and 1-2 cm around it. Easily
detachable crusts are removed, and the affected areas of the skin, capturing
partially healthy, treated with one of the following drugs: spray
Zoomikol, Clotrimazole, Nitrofungin, ASD – antiseptic stimulant
Dorogova, 3rd fraction (for external use), suspension
griseofulvin, 5-10% salicylic ointment, iodoform, “Yam” ointment
(according to the instructions for their use).

Systemic drugs are used: griseofulvin, nizoral.

For accelerated restoration of hair follicles and coat
the animal is recommended to take daily sulfur preparations and multivitamins
with trace elements during the entire course of treatment.

Prevention . As a specific prophylaxis, use
the above-mentioned vaccines ((Vakderm, Polivak-TM, Microderm, etc.), which
administered in prophylactic doses according to the instructions for their use.

90,000 description, signs, treatment, prevention and diagnosis on the site ›Diseases› DoktorPiter.ru

Ichthyosis is a hereditary skin disease in which the process of keratinization of the skin is disrupted. There are several forms of ichthyosis. Among them there are forms that appear insignificantly, and there are also incompatible with life.


The most common form is simple or vulgar ichthyosis . In most cases, it manifests itself already in the first year of a child’s life, but it can begin even three years after birth.These children have dry, flaky skin, especially on the legs. At the same time, the skin on the face and in the area where the baby’s body is in contact with the diapers is normal. On the palms and soles of these children, the skin is folded.

Many people get better skin as they get older, but wrinkles on the palms and feet remain for life.

There are several types of simple ichthyosis:

  • xeroderma, which is manifested by dryness and slight roughness of the skin on the folds of the hands, year, fingers;
  • simple ichthyosis, in which the entire surface of the skin is affected;
  • brilliant ichthyosis, in which mainly the arms and legs are affected, and the transparent scales are located in the form of a mosaic;
  • white ichthyosis, in which the scales are small, white, and the skin seems to be sprinkled with flour;
  • bullous ichthyosis, in which blisters form on the skin;
  • lichenoid ichthyosis, in which the lesions are small, scattered throughout the body and resemble lichen;
  • horny ichthyosis, in which dense horny scales are formed on the skin, towering above the skin;
  • serpentine ichthyosis, in which horny shields form on the skin of an ichthyosis sufferer – dense horny formations separated from each other by grooves.

X-linked ichthyosis Only boys are affected. It manifests itself at the age of several months. Large brown scales are formed on the child’s skin, tightly adhering to the skin. In appearance, they resemble dried mud. The feet and palms of these children are normal. The condition of those suffering from X-linked ichthyosis worsens with age. And in the cold season, exacerbations of the disease occur.

With spiky ichthyosis , warty layers in the form of pointed thorns are formed on the skin.

Ichthyosis of the fetus , which is also called the fetus of Harlequin is a disease that develops in a child in the womb, at about 4-5 months of pregnancy. By the time of birth, the skin of such a child is dry, it is covered with a shell of horny gray-black plates. His mouth, nose, ears are deformed, his eyelids are twisted. The skin on the palms and feet is keratinized, the arms and legs have an irregular structure. Most children suffering from fetal ichthyosis are born dead, the rest die in the first weeks of life.

Broca’s ichthyosymorphic erythroderma doctors consider a form of congenital ichthyosis.

In sufferers lamellar ichthyosis the whole body is covered with a yellowish-brown film from birth. This form is also called lamellar desquamation of newborns.

Linear bending ichthyosis is a condition in which erythema forms on the skin surrounded by raised, pale pink scaly ridges.

Epidermolytic ichthyosis also appears immediately after birth. The baby’s skin is bright red, in places the epidermis peels off, forming blisters and erosion. On the palms and soles of such children, the skin is whitish, thickened. By 3-4 years of age in such children on the extensor surfaces of the joints, keratinized areas of the skin form concentric combs. In severe cases, this form of ichthyosis is fatal.


The main cause of ichthyosis is a gene mutation.This mutation is passed down from generation to generation. Moreover, in some cases, it is associated with the X chromosome (female). In this case, women are just carriers of the altered gene, but men with such a chromosome suffer from ichthyosis.

As a result of the mutation, too much keratin (protein of skin, nails, hair) is synthesized in the body, but keratin is not complete, but with a changed structure. Because of this, the process of keratinization of the skin is disrupted. In addition, in those suffering from ichthyosis, the metabolism of amino acids and fats is disturbed, because of this, amino acids and cholesterol accumulate in their blood.Their metabolism is slowed down, thermoregulation, skin respiration and sweating are impaired, so they easily overheat. But, according to those suffering from ichthyosis, small cuts and scratches heal on them in a matter of hours.

Often, those suffering from ichthyosis have decreased functions of the thyroid gland, adrenal glands and sex hormones and weakened immunity. The latter often becomes the cause of the development of various infectious diseases.

There are several classifications of this disease.First, taking into account the genetic factor, they are divided into:

  • hereditary ichthyosis;
  • hereditary syndromes, which are characterized by ichthyosis;
  • ichthyosiform acquired conditions (vitamin A deficiency, malignant neoplasms of the skin).

According to the severity of the disease, all ichthyosis is divided into:

  • severe, in which the child is born prematurely and dies in the first days of life;
  • medium-heavy, compatible with life;
  • late, in which the disease begins to appear in the third month of the child’s life or even later.


If you suspect ichthyosis, you need to contact a dermatovenerologist, pass general and biochemical blood tests, general urine analysis and skin scraping for histological examination. Diagnosis is based on characteristic symptoms and test results.

Prenatal diagnosis is carried out if one of the family members of the parents suffers from ichthyosis. In this case, a biopsy of the fetal skin is taken between the 19th and 21st weeks.Thus, the “Harlequin fetus” can be diagnosed.

Differentiate this disease with psoriasis and seborrhea.


Ichthyosis is incurable. However, you can reduce the severity of symptoms and reduce the frequency of exacerbations. For this, vitamin A is prescribed in courses of 2-3 months, vitamins E, PP, C and group B. In some cases, corticosteroid hormones are prescribed.

A person suffering from ichthyosis must take good care of the skin.You need to moisturize it very much, as it is prone to dryness. Moreover, a moisturizer must necessarily contain vitamin A. For adults, doctors recommend using salicylic ointment and ointment with urea to soften keratinized skin areas.

Those suffering from ichthyosis are shown balneotherapy – baths with starch, urea, vinyline, carbon dioxide baths. They stimulate tissue metabolism and improve skin condition. Mud wrapping is also useful.


Ichthyosis is an inherited disease.The only way of prevention is medical genetic counseling and prenatal diagnostics if there is a risk of having a child suffering from ichthyosis.

© Dr. Peter


People are used to noticing the elements of beauty only in comfort. The laws of life are such that beauty is hidden where there is no comfort. By placing their body in the sun, each tanner cherishes the hope of becoming more attractive.But an excess of ultraviolet light only accelerates the extinction of the skin and makes it look older. Only cold can give it youth, freshness and a healthy look. No wonder there is an opinion that our women are the most beautiful, because we have a longer period of cold weather in comparison with tropical countries. Ever since the days of Russia, it has been established after a hot bathhouse to plunge into a cold ice hole. This cryotherapy gives a person the feeling of a new birth. After such a procedure, the skin becomes like satin, and the mood is elated, and a cheerful mood accompanies the whole week.

Scientists have already proven that the best effect on the body comes only from folk methods. Therefore, all novelties in cosmetology should be based on the principle of forgotten old methods of improving the body. Cryotherapy is the best confirmation of this. When exposed to cold on a patient, the cosmetologist gives him a second youth. Even Hippocrates practiced such healing procedures. A little later, the Japanese became interested in this method of recovery. Nowadays, most of the modern world practices cryomassage and cryosauna, in other words, they give life to such a direction as cryotherapy.


Specialists of SPA-salons confirm that one cryosauna procedure can save a client from 1000-3000 kcal. Anyone who is contraindicated in thermal procedures (baths, saunas, etc.) – this is an irreplaceable option. Due to the low temperatures of liquid nitrogen, there is a powerful release of happiness hormones into the body, accompanied by a surge of strength. After such procedures, the skin is smoothed, blood circulation improves. Unlike classic and traditional treatments such as douche, dry cold does not cause a runny nose or increase in body temperature.In the words of cryotherapy lovers, the Arctic bath does not allow diseases to arise.

Cryotherapy is indispensable for cellulite. The effect of dry cold on the body contributes to a sharp narrowing of blood vessels and their expansion: fat is then intensively burned, and weak skin areas are strengthened, rejuvenated and smoothed. Those who wish to lose weight during cryotherapy will have to refuse to eat food for several hours after the procedures.

The cryosauna should be visited as undressed as possible, but you still need to wear socks with mittens.Nitrogen vapors should not be inhaled during procedures – it is dangerous! In time, this is a fairly quick and short procedure, only some 2-3 minutes.