About all

Ear draining into throat: Common Ear, Nose, and Throat Complaints

Eustachian tube dysfunction: Causes, symptoms, and treatment

Infections and blockages can disrupt the eustachian tubes, leading to discomfort and hearing problems. Any of these symptoms can count as eustachian tube dysfunction (ETD).

The eustachian tube runs from the middle ear to the back of the nose and throat. It helps drain fluid from the middle ear, which is the space behind the eardrum. Infection and blockages can disrupt this process and lead to complications.

In this article, we discuss the the symptoms, causes, and treatments for ETD

There are a few different causes of ETD, and certain factors may increase a person’s likelihood of developing it.

  • The eustachian tubes help regulate ear pressure and drain excess fluid from the middle ear.
  • When they are blocked, symptoms can include pain, popping sounds in the ears, or fluid in the ears.
  • The treatment depends on the underlying cause.

A person can often easily manage ETD at home. However, persistent symptoms may require contacting a doctor for treatment.

The eustachian tubes are canals that run from the back of the nose and upper throat to the middle ear, helping keep the air pressure behind the eardrum the same as the pressure outside. They remain closed most of the time but will open as a person swallows, chews, or yawns.

Some people can have a condition that health experts refer to as patulous eustachian tube, where tubes stay open when they should be closed. This causes a person to experience autophony, which is when they can hear their own breathing and voice inside their head.

In addition, these canals are so tiny that blockages can happen for many reasons. Blocked eustachian tubes can cause discomfort and lead to hearing problems. Any of these symptoms can count as ETD.

ETD covers a variety of symptoms and has a range of potential causes. Season allergies and illnesses that create inflammation in the area, such as the flu or cold, are common causes of ETD.

Sinus infections can also trigger ETD, as a sinus infection causes the eustachian tubes to become inflamed or filled with mucus. More serious infections can cause ETD as well.

Moreover, ETD may stem from simple changes in altitude or air pressure. For instance, driving up a mountain or sitting in a plane can cause ETD. Even just riding the elevator in a tall building may be enough for some people to develop unpleasant symptoms.

It is common to experience ETD occasionally, but some people have symptoms more often than others.

Lifestyle risks

Lifestyle risks include smoking and carrying excess body weight.

Smoking can damage the delicate hairs in the throat and middle ear.

Carrying excess body weight can lead to fatty tissue deposits to form around the eustachian tubes, causing fluid buildup in the ear.

However, significant weight loss can also lead to dysfunction when fat buildup in the tubes decreases too quickly.

Engaging in certain activities may also put a person more at risk of pressure changes, which could trigger ETD symptoms. These activities include:

  • hiking at high altitudes
  • rock climbing
  • skiing or snowboarding
  • scuba diving

Medical risks

People with allergies may experience ETD more often, as allergies can cause increased mucus and congestion.

Children are also at higher risk of ETD, as their eustachian tubes are smaller and orient more horizontally than vertically. This makes the tubes more likely to become clogged by mucus or germs.

Furthermore, a child’s immune system is less able to fight off infections, as it is not fully developed. Children have more frequent colds and sinus infections, which are direct causes of ETD.

Enlarged adenoids can also cause eustachian tube obstruction and lead to bacterial growth, which can then result in ear infections.

The following medical conditions are risk factors as well:

  • Cleft palate: It commonly affects children from birth and almost always leads to ETD.
  • Trisomy 21: This is a type of Down syndrome that causes small and abnormally shaped tubes, poor muscle tone, and a decrease in the cartilage density within the tube.
  • Generalized hypotonia: Also called poor muscle tone, this condition can occur for a number of reasons. It can impair the function of a muscle in the soft palate in the mouth and lead to a eustachian tube collapse.
  • Laryngopharyngeal reflux: This condition can obstruct the eustachian tubes.

Yet another risk factor is having a ciliary disorder, such as primary ciliary dyskinesia, which is an inherited condition where the cilia in the airway do not work properly.

Symptoms of ETD can vary from mild to severe and may be different for each person.

Common symptoms include:

  • a plugged feeling in the ears
  • the ears feeling as if they are filled with water
  • tinnitus, or ringing in the ear
  • muffled hearing or partial hearing loss
  • ticking or popping sounds
  • pain and tenderness around the ear
  • a tickling or tingling sensation
  • trouble with balance

The length and severity of ETD symptoms depend on their cause. For instance, if ETD results from a change in altitude, these symptoms will often go away as the body adjusts to the pressure or reaches a lower altitude.

By contrast, ETD that is due to an illness or infection can last much longer. Anyone with ETD symptoms that last more than 2 weeks should seek guidance from a doctor.

Children with symptoms of ETD should receive medical help sooner, as the symptoms of ETD are similar to an ear infection.

When people experience dysfunction due to a nonviral cause, they are more likely to experience symptoms that persist for longer.

ETD can cause complications such as:

  • ear infection
  • middle ear atelectasis, which is a retraction of the eardrum
  • chronic otitis media, which is when there is persistent fluid in the ear
  • cholesteatoma, which is an abnormal skin growth in the middle ear

Any of these conditions can lead to dysfunction that causes hearing loss.

Doctors usually diagnose ETD based on a physical examination and a person’s symptoms.

A doctor may ask about hearing changes, pain in the ears, or feelings of pressure. They will also look inside the eardrum and the middle ear using an otoscope, checking for any signs of infection or blockages.

A doctor may need to look at an audiogram. This shows the results of a hearing test, or a tympanogram, which shows the function of the eardrum.

If there are cholesteatomas in the ear, or if there are concerns about skin migration into the middle ear, the doctor may order additional imaging tests.

If ETD occurs as a result of another condition, the doctor may ask questions about that as well in order to determine the correct treatment.

The symptoms of ETD will usually clear up on their own. If another condition is causing the symptoms, however, they will resolve once a person receives treatment for the underlying cause.

Home remedies

If the symptoms of ETD are bothersome, some simple home remedies may help. A person can address minor ETD symptoms, such as those due to a change in altitude or air pressure, by chewing gum or forcing a yawn.

Many people also find that the symptoms of minor ETD can go away as they swallow, so drinking a beverage or having a snack may help. These remedies help open and close the eustachian tube and relieve the pressure.

Doing the valsalva maneuver can also help. This means pinching the nose closed while closing the mouth, and blowing into the nose. This can also help relieve ear pressure on an airplane.

Children experiencing minor or temporary ETD symptoms can eat a snack or chew a piece of gum. Giving an infant a bottle or pacifier may help relieve the symptoms.

A person can relieve minor to moderate symptoms by using a saline nasal spray or irrigation system. Sometimes, dried mucus or other particles can get stuck in or near the eustachian tube and cause symptoms. Clearing the passageways can help eliminate anything clogged in the passage.

Over-the-counter medication

Depending on the cause, some over-the-counter drugs may help with ETD symptoms.

Someone who experiences ETD due to allergies may find relief using antihistamines, such as cetirizine (Zyrtec), diphenhydramine (Benadryl), or loratadine (Alavert, Claritin), or nasal steroid sprays.

Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, such as ibuprofen, may help with pain and swelling. A person should check with a doctor to make sure these medications will not interact with any other medication they are taking.

Medical treatments

If the symptoms of ETD are due to a bacterial ear infection, a doctor will likely prescribe antibiotics. This may be a topical treatment or an oral antibiotic.

In severe cases of ETD, a doctor may prescribe oral steroids as well.


Sometimes, fluids build up behind the eardrum and cannot escape through the dysfunctional eustachian tubes. In such cases, doctors may make a small cut in the eardrum to help with fluid drainage.

People who experience frequent severe ETD may need pressure equalization (PE) tubes. These are implants that balance the pressure in the ears and help reduce the likelihood of middle ear infections. It is a common procedure for children, but it can be suitable for adults as well.

Other surgical procedures include:

  • eustachian tube balloon dilation, which uses a saline-filled balloon catheter to dilate the tubes
  • transtubal application of fluids, in which a surgeon uses a nasal microendoscope to pass fluids to the middle ear and regulate ear pressure
  • eustachian tuboplasty, which uses a laser or rotary cutting tool to clear obstructions from mucous membranes or cartilage in the eustachian tube

Most often, doctors use these procedures in adults. Children usually get PE tubes and will typically not need them as they get older.

A big part of any prevention strategy for ETD involves:

  • leading a healthy lifestyle
  • maintaining good hygiene to avoid cold- or flu-causing germs
  • practicing good management of any allergies or asthma

This can help prevent common triggers that can cause the condition.

ETD and flying

When people fly, they may experience a common sensation in their ears known as airplane ear, ear barotrauma, barotitis media, or aerotitis media. It is a sensation of pressure, sometimes also pain, in the ears as the plane ascends and descends.

The cause is a quick change in altitude and pressure. When this happens, and the eustachian tube does not ventilate properly, a dysfunction occurs.

Since flying can put a person at risk of the condition, it may help to do the following when on a plane:

  • swallowing repeatedly, for example, by drinking water, chewing gum, or eating candy as a way to help the process
  • doing the valsalva maneuver
  • yawning repeatedly to cause a popping sensation that can equalize pressure
  • wearing earplugs during take off and landing to reduce the impact of the pressure change
  • using a nasal decongestant for acute discomfort before, during, or after flying. However, a person should not use this for more than 3 days.

ETD is common, but most cases resolve with little or no help. Treating the underlying cause is the best way to treat and prevent recurring symptoms of ETD.

Children and adults who get symptoms that interfere with their daily lives, as well as those with chronic ETD symptoms, should contact a doctor to consider more thorough treatments.

Eustachian Tube Problems – ENT Doctor | Ear and Tinnitus Specialist

The cause of any ear infection is some type of blockage of the Eustachian tube. Connecting the middle ear to the rear of the nose by the soft palate, this tube is just over an inch in length in adults. Tissues in the Eustachian tube may respond to stimuli inside of the nasal cavity, as is often the case when you have a cold or allergies that affect your ears.

  • While these tubes are normally closed, a feeling of “fullness” in the ear can result if they are unable to open as needed
  • A blocked tube creates an ideal environment for bacteria, which is just one of several potential problems that may involve the Eustachian tube



Causes of Eustachian Tube Problems

E-tubes normally open to regular middle ear pressure, help with ventilation and ear fluid drainage, and prevent fluids from the throat and nose from getting into the middle ear. If these tubes aren’t functioning as expected, pressure imbalances and infections can result in symptoms that may include:

  • Temporary ringing in the ears (tinnitus)
  • Dizziness or vertigo
  • Headaches
  • Nausea or vomiting
  • Headaches
  • Popping and crackling sensations
  • Mild hearing loss

Other than an upper respiratory infection due to the common cold, tube problems may be caused by chronic sinus infections and seasonal allergies. Some individuals have tubes locked in an open position, a condition known as patulous Eustachian tube (PET). Patients with PET often report persistent ear fullness and hear echoes or their own voice in the affected ear.

Eustachian tube problems are sometimes experienced because of post-nasal drainage that flows down the back of throat to the end point of the tubes. Children with infected, inflamed, or enlarged adenoids (lymph tissues) may have clogged tubes. Some people also experience tube problems due to:

  • Damage to hair-like structures in Eustachian tubes (cilia) from smoking or secondhand smoke exposure
  • Altitude changes
  • Excessively small Eustachian tubes
  • Skull base tumors (in rare cases)

How Do Childhood Ear Infections Affect Eustachian Tubes?

Children with upper respiratory infections often have ear infections because of bacteria that transfers from the nose to the middle ear. If ear infections become chronic, mucus may accumulate in Eustachian tubes. This makes it difficult for the ear to properly drain, which may result in higher-than-normal pressure in the middle ear. Sometimes this pressure causes eardrum deformities or ruptures.


Issues involving Eustachian tubes are typically diagnosed with a physical exam and a detailed evaluation of the affected ear. Movements of the eardrum when air pressure is applied can be observed with a bulb syringe attached to an otoscope (instrument used to look inside of ears). A device called a tympanogram may be used to measure eardrum movement.

Diagnosis of Eardrum Ruptures

When there’s discharge from the affected ear, laboratory tests may be done to identify if there’s a bacterial infection in the middle ear. Diagnosis of damage to an eardrum involves examination of the ear that is done with a microscope or an otoscope. It may also involve a tuning fork evaluation to detect hearing loss. . The eardrum is sometimes further evaluated with tympanometry, a procedure involving the use of a device called a tympanometer that’s inserted into the ear canal to detect movement of the ear drum with changes in air pressure. Nearly all patients with a tympanic membrane perforation will benefit from a full audiological exam.

Treatment Options

Tube problems due to a cold or changes in altitude often go away with little or no treatment. If Eustachian tube problems are due to allergies, patients may benefit from aggressive efforts to manage allergies better. Patients with chronic allergies or sinus irritations causing ear problems are sometimes referred to an allergist for further treatment.

When ear infections are causing tube issues, antibiotics delivered orally or with ear drops or ventilation tubes to improve circulation may be recommended. Decongestants and nasal corticosteroids may be a beneficial solution for some people with occasional problems. PET-related issues might be treated with a special type of estrogen nasal spray.

When Is Surgery Recommended?

Surgery may become an option if abnormalities of the Eustachian tube are contributing to persistent and serious ear issues. A common procedure is the insertion of a pressure equalization tube into the eardrum to create a better pressure balance. This is often recommended for children. With a procedure known as a myringotomy, a small slit is made in the eardrum to drain fluid and create a temporary source of ventilation. The slit will heal on its own.

Problems with Eustachian tubes can be minimized by being cautious in situations where ear pressure is likely to change, as is often the case when traveling by airplane. Yawning, chewing gum, and making swallowing motions can help keep your e-tubes open in situations like this, as can gently blowing your nose. See your doctor about any lingering or recurrent ear infections. You may be referred to an ear, nose, and throat specialist if your problems may be related to some type of deformity or abnormality, or if an infection has caused issues with parts of your middle ear.

Ear Nose Throat | Özel Bilgi Hastanesi

The ear (auris) is an anatomical structure that functions as hearing and contains the organ of balance.

Anatomically, the nose is a protruding olfactory-respiratory organ with two openings, located between the forehead and upper lip on the face. The nasal cavity opens with two openings. On the other hand, it connects to the pharynx. There is a layer of mucus in the nose, capillaries and hair.

The throat is the second unit of the digestive system after the mouth, which starts from the lower part of the skull and connects to the esophagus at the level of the cartilage of the lower part of the larynx, the walls of which are formed by muscles

strait; It opens into the back of the nasal cavities in the anterior upper part, into the oral cavity in the anterior middle part, and into the laryngeal cavity in the lower part. The tonsils are located where the throat meets the mouth.

Diseases of the throat and nose

1. Inflammation of the tonsils

Tonsils are lymph nodes. a One on each side behind your mouth. Among other things, it must also filter harmful microorganisms that enter the mouth. But when too many bacteria get in, they can’t fight back. they become inflamed and swollen. This is called tonsillitis (tonsillitis). This is very common, especially among children.


1) Sore throat, headache, fever and chills, chills

2) Painful glands in the throat and jaw

light food and drink watery food, which will relieve the throat. Gargling with warm salt water relieves pain.

2. Nasal flesh

Adenoids, pharynx, tonsils, vegetation, together with tonsils, form part of the lymphoid tissue. This is another tonsil located behind the nose. These small tonsils are not visible on examination. Protects the respiratory tract from viruses and microbes from the outside.

If the meat of the nose is often contaminated with germs, it grows in size, becomes a nest of germs and causes permanent diseases of the throat, ears and nose.

Symptoms of adenoid hypertrophy may begin in infancy. In addition to sleep disturbances, loss of appetite, snoring, and sometimes symptoms of labored breathing such as breathing through the nasal wings are observed.

3. Pharyngitis

Inflammation of the integumentary tissue of the posterior pharyngeal wall. This may be due to either a lack of irritation or a bacterial infection

Symptoms of pharyngitis Pain in the back of the throat, difficulty swallowing and fever. In addition to these symptoms, there is often malaise.

4. Throat reflux

The stomach releases acid to digest food. The valve system that exists to prevent stomach contents and fluid from escaping from the stomach tries to prevent gastric juice from leaking out of the stomach. When the valve between the stomach and esophagus (lower esophageal sphincter) does not work properly, the acidic contents of the stomach leak out into the esophagus. This is called “gastroesophageal reflux (GER)”.

When the valve (upper esophageal sphincter) between the esophagus and throat fails, the contents of the stomach reach the throat and larynx, i.e. the vocal cords, which are much more sensitive to acid, stomach contents and bile. This condition is called laryngopharyngeal reflux (LPR).

This reflux is different from the commonly known gastric reflux. Upper throat reflux is more common during the day and when standing, while gastric reflux is more common and causes discomfort when lying down. The sensory structure of the tissues of the larynx and pharynx, as well as some of the neural reflexes and movements of the esophagus, also play an important role in the development of LPR.

5. Sinusitis

Sinusitis means infection of the sinus cavities. For sinusitis to occur, the sinuses must not perform their normal functions, and bacteria must settle in the sinuses.

Occlusion of the channels connecting the sinuses with the nasal cavity is one of the main factors in the formation of infection. Due to a simple cold or allergic disease, the mucous membrane lining the ducts and sinus cavities swells. As a result, air is prevented from entering the sinuses and mucus from the sinuses from entering the nose. Decreased oxygen in the sinuses impairs cell function. Infection begins with the growth of bacteria that are excreted from the sinuses.

Although sinusitis can be treated quite effectively, serious, although rare, complications can be observed. The fact that the sinuses are adjacent to the eye and brain causes infections that cause problems in these organs. These problems are associated with infections of the brain and eye tissues.

6. Hay fever

Hay fever or allergic rhinitis is an immune system disorder that begins with an antigen-antibody reaction in susceptible individuals. In other words, the sensitive person recognizes the allergen as a foreign body and creates similar antibodies against foreign organisms (eg bacteria) against that allergen. This predisposition is inherited in the form of IgE and a tendency to form antibodies (atopy). Despite the fact that it is genetically transmitted, the newborn does not have an allergy.

It is believed that the delayed onset of allergy is due to the activation of this gene during a viral infection. In whatever period of life this activation occurs, after this moment a person develops an allergy. Hay fever is typical of an allergy, and the reaction results from a histamine reaction to an inhaled allergen. As a result of the formation of antigen-specific IgE and antibodies and their combination with the antigen, histamine is released. Histamine causes an inflammatory process in the nasal mucosa and causes mucosal swelling, itching, irritation, and excessive mucus production. In parallel with the growth of urbanization, industrialization and air pollution, the incidence of allergic rhinitis has increased worldwide over the past century.

7. Nasal congestion

Stuffy nose, shortness of breath is one of the oldest human complaints. Even if for some it is not very important, others experience great difficulties because of these complaints.

Doctors examine the causes of nasal congestion in four sections, and sometimes there may be similar points between them. These common points are exacerbated, especially in patients whose complaints are due to several causes.

8. Nosebleed

Nosebleeds are often annoying. But sometimes it is frightening and life-threatening. Experts divide nosebleeds into two groups.

1) Anterior nosebleeds come from the front of the nose. It manifests itself in the form of bleeding from the nostrils in a standing or sitting person.

2) Posterior bleeding: bleeding from the back of the nose. Bleeding goes towards the nose. Bleeding towards the throat, even when sitting or standing. When the patient is lying on their back, bleeding can occur in both directions, even if there is bleeding from the front.

9. Snoring

At least 45% of normal adults snore from time to time. 25% snore constantly. The problem of snoring is most common in obese men and increases with age.

USA More than 300 companies have developed anti-snoring devices. Chin and neck straps, lanyards, and intraoral devices were of no benefit. Electronic devices have been found that work with the sound of snoring and wake the patient up. All this was considered the patient’s practice of sleeping without snoring. Unfortunately, snoring is a problem beyond the control of the individual, and all these devices are only designed to put the patient to sleep.

10. Inflammation of the middle ear

Inflammation of the middle ear occurs when viruses reach the middle ear through the Eustachian tube from the nose or throat during upper respiratory infections. The function of the Eustachian tube is disrupted by colds, allergies, sinus or throat infections, and a malfunctioning Eustachian tube passes the infection to the middle ear.

Infection in the middle ear causes pain in the ear, redness of the eardrum, accumulation of mucus or pus in the middle ear. An inflamed eardrum sometimes perforates at its weakest point and oozes pus from it. Because in most cases the Eustachian tube swells, the pus cannot drain into the nasal cavity and remains in the middle ear. If ventilation of the middle ear is not possible and a vacuum has formed in the cavity, fluid or mucus accumulates in the middle ear, this situation is called serous otitis media. This condition often becomes chronic. In other words, it can last weeks, months, or even years after the acute and painful period of inflammation has passed.

11. Ringing in the ears

Sometimes ringing in the ear is not normal. These sounds in the head are commonly referred to as tinnitus and are very common. You may experience tinnitus from time to time, or you may hear the sound all the time. It can be very thick or very thin and can be heard in one or both ears. A constant ringtone can cause discomfort in a person. In fact, this discomfort can reach a level that affects the normal life of people

12. Head and neck cancer

Head and neck cancer occurs in 5-7% of all cancer cases. Laryngeal cancer accounts for approximately 25% of head and neck cancers. This is followed by tongue cancer (13%), lip cancer (11%), esophageal cancer (10%). Most of them can be cured if detected early.

The early signs of most head and neck cancers make them more successful than other cancers. Let’s not forget that early diagnosis contributes to the successful treatment of head and neck cancer. Cancer that starts in the head and neck usually spreads to the lymph nodes without spreading to other parts of the body.

If you have swelling in your neck that lasts more than two weeks, see your doctor as soon as possible. Of course, not all tumors are cancer. But a swelling or lump on the neck; This may be the first sign of oral, breast, laryngeal, thyroid, lymphoma, or blood cancer. These types of bumps are painless and prone to enlargement.

13. Difficulties in swallowing

Dysphagia occurs in all age groups, especially in the elderly. The term dysphagia refers to the difficulty in passing food and liquids from the mouth to the stomach. This condition can be caused by a variety of factors, most of which are harmless and temporary. Difficulty swallowing rarely indicates a more serious condition, such as a tumor or a progressive neurological disease. If the difficulty in swallowing does not go away on its own in a short time, it should be examined by an otolaryngologist.

Otitis media

Do people often have earaches?
Inflammation of the middle ear – acute otitis media (AOM) already in the first year of life is suffered by up to 62% of children!!! During the first five years of life in the US and Western Europe, more than 90% of children suffer at least once NCA, which means we need to know how to help ourselves and our children with the development of such a frequent and unpleasant disease.

What is the reason?
None of the doctors will tell you with certainty what the cause of otitis media is. It is believed that this is more often an infectious disease that can be caused by a virus, bacterium or fungus. It can also be a manifestation of an allergic reaction and occur for other reasons. Otitis is a frequent companion of acute respiratory infections, especially with a severe cold. Snot, flowing down the back wall of the pharynx, transfers the infection to the auditory tubes, and through them it enters the middle ear. This is how inflammation occurs.

Is your ear inflated?
It is widely believed that the ear can get sick if it is inflated! Can’t inflate into the ear. Otitis is not a contagious disease, and does not occur from wind and cold. It cannot be prevented by regularly wearing a hat or covering the ear. The middle ear is completely isolated from the external environment by the tympanic membrane, which does not allow air or bacteria to pass through. The infection enters the middle ear from the nasopharynx, since the middle ear is connected to the nasal cavity by a hollow cartilaginous tube – the Eustachian tube.

Miscellaneous otitis media: AOM or EOM?

Normally, the Eustachian tube opens when swallowing, and through it the mucus from the inner ear flows into the nasopharynx (have you heard how it clicks in the ears when swallowed? – the tube opens!). When there is inflammation in the nose, the mucous membrane of this tube swells and clogs the exit of mucus from the middle ear, the ear bursts with accumulated mucus and there are sharp pains, dizziness, vomiting, high (up to 40) temperature and even hearing loss. But this is not yet acute otitis media, it is called acute exudative otitis media (ESO), sometimes such otitis media is called tubootitis or eustacheitis. It lasts, on average, 48 hours. It can go away on its own, or it can be complicated by acute otitis media when infected with accumulated mucus.

Do we eat antibiotics?
Otitis media is one of the leading reasons for prescribing antibiotics, often unjustified. In France, more than 3 million, and in the United States about 30 million, antibiotic prescriptions for acute otitis media are written each year.

But is it necessary to take antibiotics if otitis occurs?
Not always. There are publications that antibiotics generally do not have any effect on recovery from otitis media. And why, you ask, to poison the body? But in a real situation, it is necessary to take into account the likelihood of developing complications of otitis media, and these complications are as follows: perforation (that is, a hole) of the eardrum, adhesion (gluing) of the auditory ossicles or their destruction, brain abscess, meningitis. That is why it is impossible to unambiguously refuse antibiotics for otitis media.

But you need to know that:
Antibiotics are indicated only for AOM, but should not be used for EOM (tubootitis), that is, in the first 48 hours after the onset of the disease, if a person has a viral disease, i.e. SARS, then antibiotics are even harmful, they will weaken the immune system and cause allergization.
The diagnosis of AOM requires confirmation of the presence of effusion in the middle ear, that is, if during examination by an ENT doctor, a hyperemic and protruding tympanic membrane is noticed, in combination with acute local manifestations (sharp pain) and general symptoms (dizziness, vomiting, temperature), then this is really acute otitis media and here you need to drink antibiotics (not from otitis media, but from probable complications!)

We treat ourselves
How can we help ourselves or our child with acute pain in the ear, when otitis has suddenly begun?
Firstly, it is necessary to provide the child with bed rest and rest, especially if he has a temperature. It is necessary to put the child with the sore ear up and drip there (if there was no perforation of the eardrum before!) A few drops of Otipax, give the child an anesthetic (panadol, efferalgan or nurofen in syrup for children, at a dose corresponding to the age and body weight of the child (according to instructions), drip a few drops of a diluted solution of “dolphin” or aqua-maris into the nose (previously fashionable vasoconstrictor drops give a temporary and not radical effect, and after they often have the effect of “recoil” – the nose is even more blocked, so it is better not to use these remedies without the urgent recommendations of a doctor!) and give the child to chew on the children’s orbit. Yes, yes, give chewing gum! Let him chew it 4-6 times a day during the entire time of otitis media. This will lead to the opening and cleansing of the auditory tubes, possibly and to a quick recovery. Chewing gum is so useful for a runny nose and otitis media that talk about an alternative to antibiotics is possible! xylitol (xylitol), a natural 5-alcohol found in chewing gum, inhibits the growth of Streptococcus mutans and S. pneumoniae bacteria in vitro. Chewing gum (5 times a day) with xylitol reduces the incidence of acute otitis media in children by 1/3!
And of course, the child must be shown to the ENT doctor. After all, it is he who, upon direct examination, can determine what kind of otitis media the patient has – exudative or already average ?! And better, sooner. If a doctor is not available, Otipax drops should be instilled every 15 minutes 3 times, and then every 2-3 hours, and then less often, 3 times a day. These measures often save you from otitis media in 1-2 days than a long wait when the doctor comes or you get to see him.
It is also useful to have a blue glass lamp at home (an ordinary 60-75 W blue light bulb) and screwing it into a table lamp instead of the usual one, heat the child’s sore ear 1-2 times a day from a distance of 15-20 cm for 5 minutes 7-8 days in a row.
If the measures in this booklet do not help within 48 hours after the onset of acute pain, the doctor must definitely see the child! He will probably still have to eat an antibiotic or perform some kind of medical manipulation.

How not to get sick with otitis media?
In order not to get sick with otitis at all, one must not get sick with a runny nose! Neither the removal of enlarged adenoids (proven by research), nor antibiotic prophylaxis saves from otitis media. Most often, otitis occurs from improper blowing your nose!

How to blow your nose correctly?
How to blow your nose is not correct: they pressed the nose of the child with a handkerchief and said: “Blow!”. He will blow, but only the whole infection will fly into the ears through the Eustachian tube. How to blow your nose correctly: do not pinch your child’s nostrils! No need to press the wings of the nose! Let him blow his nose once or twice like this (and only hold a handkerchief next to your nose, don’t touch your nose at all, nothing that can get smeared a little, wipe it gently, use baby cream for irritation under your nose with a prolonged runny nose), and then you can blow your nose like this: one nostril was pressed, the child took in air with his mouth and blew his nose into a free nostril, then change the nostril. And if you pinch the nostril right away or even press the wings of the nose, as many parents like to do when the child blows his nose, then he will probably get otitis media.

Excursion to psychology
The human body, like a finely tuned musical instrument, sensitively reacts with every cell to changes in the psychological atmosphere around it. Especially children with all their nature experience stressful moments of life. And there is an opinion that in those families where the child hears what he does not want to hear (swearing and screams of parents, extremely emotional disputes of relatives, insults and insults, even as a “joke” inflicted on him or his mother, obscene expressions, abuse), children suffer from ear diseases more often and more severely. Take care of children, watch your speech and what the child is offered to hear. Do not wrap the child, harden him, physically develop him, teach him to keep his mouth closed, learn how to rinse his nose at home, and use antibiotics only as a last resort when it is really necessary.