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Effects of yellow fever vaccine: Reactions to Yellow Fever Vaccine


What are the risks of getting the yellow fever vaccine?

Before moving to Bolivia, freelance journalist Amy Booth had to get the yellow fever jab. She would be travelling a lot for work and knew this would protect her against the deadly infectious disease. However, getting the vaccine worried her a bit.

“I was a bit nervous about getting the vaccination. I had colleagues who’d had it and said that, as it was a live vaccine, the side effects could be quite strong. One even said that he had feverish side effects that were like being ill in their own right, so he couldn’t imagine what the actual fever was like,” Booth says.

Despite her concerns, everything went smoothly for her, and she did not experience any side effects. Her vaccination certificate now follows her everywhere when she travels, and like many people who have experienced yellow fever vaccination, she can do so with additional peace of mind.

Fighting yellow fever

Yellow fever is endemic to 47 countries in Africa and 13 countries in Latin America. It is characterised by a high fever, headache and muscle pains, but these symptoms typically disappear after a few days. However, in a number of cases, these progress to a more severe form of the disease with haemorrhagic syndrome, kidney problems, vomiting and jaundice (which is where the name ‘yellow’ comes from).

The virus at the root of the problem is transmitted to humans through the bites of Aedes and Haemagogus mosquitoes. Outbreaks in Angola in 2015 and Brazil in 2016, as well as cases in French Guiana in 2017, still mean that yellow fever is an important issue, high on the global health agenda. 200,000 cases are reported each year – 30,000 of which are fatal. 

Vaccination is the only real solution to fight the disease. “Vaccination is the only real tool that works, especially when you consider that the mosquito bites during the day. So unlike malaria where there are preventative measures you can take because the mosquito bites at night and you can sleep under a net, here there’s nothing of the sort you can really do,” says Dr Paul-Henri Consigny, head of the medical centre of Institut Pasteur, the institution which produced the first yellow vaccine in 1932.

The yellow fever vaccine offers high protection that is sustained in the long term. Getting only one shot of the vaccine in your lifetime is usually enough for most people, and it is what doctors recommend in most cases. Your pharmacist, GP or practice nurse can advise if you’re in the high-risk group of people for whom boosters may be recommended. For people who cannot get vaccinated, the only other available measures revolve around bite prevention, by using mosquito repellent and wearing clothes that cover the body.

Who should get vaccinated?

Vaccination is advised for everyone living in or going into an area where yellow fever is found and, of course, for people going to a country that requires travellers to enter with a certificate proving they have been vaccinated against yellow fever.

The vaccine should not be given to infants under 6 months of age, to those with a history of severe allergy to eggs or to any of the other components within the vaccine, and to people whose immune system has been compromised by a medical condition or disease process, medication, or inherited condition. It should be avoided where possible for pregnant or breastfeeding women.

“People over the age of 60 years are at a greater risk of adverse reactions to the yellow fever vaccine. The risk of severe, potentially life-threatening reactions must be balanced with the risk of being infected with yellow fever when making a decision whether or not to vaccinate,” says Dr Nicky Longley, consultant in Travel Medicine and Infectious Diseases at the Hospital for Tropical Diseases, London.

What are the risks of complications?

After vaccination, between 10% and 30% of people will experience mild and short-lived side effects such as muscle aches, headache, low-grade fever and a sore arm. These are not harmful and will disappear on their own with no long-lasting effects.

However, there are three very rare, but potentially life-threatening, adverse reactions that may occur with the vaccine. The most severe is yellow fever visceral disease, which occurs when the vaccination itself produces an infection like yellow fever. The risk of this happening is very low: about 1 in 250,000 doses if you are under 60. This risk increases to to around 1 in 50,000 doses once you are over 60.

“There are some circumstances when you have to think hard about whether you should get the vaccine, really looking at the pros and cons with your doctor. It is important to weigh up the risk of being infected with the disease against the risk of severe side effects. This will depend on your age, your underlying medical conditions, any medication that you are taking, where you are going within a country and outbreaks that are occurring at the time of travel,” says Longley. 

Yellow fever neurological disease occurs between 0.3 and 0.8 in 100,000 cases in the USA. It covers a range of neurological problems such as weakness, encephalitis and meningitis. Those at higher risk are, again, people over 60 as well as young babies. Finally, severe allergic reactions to the vaccine are possible.

Your vaccination checklist

Research your destination

Is an epidemic currently ongoing in the area? How many cases are reported every year? Which areas of the country are particularly problematic?

Remember that even if yellow fever is not a major risk in the area you’re visiting, some countries require all visitors coming from an at risk country to have a yellow fever vaccination certificate. This may include transiting through at-risk countries. Do you need a certificate to travel to your final destination or anywhere in between?

Plan in advance

Getting the vaccine at least 10 days before departure is recommended, to make sure it has time to take effect.

Have a transparent discussion with your health professional

It is always important to go and ask about any doubts and concerns you may have. As with every medical intervention, knowing the pros and the cons, and understanding the possible side effects, are key.

“It’s always about shared decision-making with the health professional, balancing the risk of disease and the risk of the intervention,” Longley says. 

Yellow Fever Vaccine Information – Sanofi U.S.

Yellow Fever Vaccine Information

Sanofi Pasteur is pleased to announce that effective April 5, 2021, YF-VAX® (Yellow Fever Vaccine) is available for purchase in the U.S. for authorized YF-VAX providers.   

Sanofi Pasteur has remained committed to the return of YF-VAX and invested in dedicated resources to help ensure a successful re-launch in the U.S. As a result, shipments of STAMARIL® (Yellow Fever Vaccine [Live]) as part of the Expanded Access Program (EAP) will stop on May 6, 2021.  The STAMARIL EAP was implemented to help meet the continued yellow fever vaccination needs in the U.S. until YF-VAX supplies became available.

YF-VAX is a vaccine used for the prevention of yellow fever in persons 9 months of age and older in the following categories: persons living in or traveling to yellow fever endemic areas, persons traveling internationally through countries with yellow fever, and laboratory personnel who handle virulent yellow fever virus or concentrated preparations of the yellow fever vaccine virus strains. 

YF-VAX should not be given to an individual who has experienced a serious allergic reaction to eggs, egg products, or to any component of the vaccine (including gelatin). A severe allergic reaction (e.g., anaphylaxis) may occur following the use of YF-VAX, even in individuals with no prior history of hypersensitivity to the vaccine components. 

In addition, the following persons should not receive YF-VAX: infants younger than 9 months of age due to an increased risk of inflammation of the brain (encephalitis), women who are breastfeeding infants younger than 9 months of age, and individuals with a severely suppressed or compromised immune system. Rarely, the yellow fever vaccine has been associated with disease affecting multiple organs, including inflammation of the brain. These serious adverse events occur more often in individuals 60 years of age and over.  The risk of disease versus the risk of a serious adverse event should be assesses prior to vaccine administration. 

The most common side effects to YF-VAX include swelling and pain at the injection site; headache, generalized muscle aches or discomfort, and fever. Other side effects may occur.  
Vaccination with YF-VAX may not protect all individuals. 

Please see Full Prescribing Information for YF-VAX.

Please see the CDC Vaccine Information statement for Yellow Fever Vaccine.

Please see Full STAMARIL Patient Leaflet.

For more information about yellow fever vaccination, talk to your health care professional.

US Healthcare professionals seeking additional information can contact Sanofi Pasteur at 1-800-VACCINE (1-800-822-2463).

A Look at Each Vaccine: Yellow Fever Vaccine

The disease

What is yellow fever?

Yellow fever is a virus that causes hepatitis (inflammation of the liver) and hemorrhaging (severe bleeding problems). Symptoms include fever, chills, muscle pain, headache and jaundice (yellowing of the skin). Bleeding and severe liver damage caused by yellow fever virus kills 1 of every 5 people infected with the virus.

Every year there are about 200,000 cases of yellow fever causing as many as 30,000 deaths worldwide.

Where can you catch yellow fever?

Transmitted by a simple mosquito bite, yellow fever occurs mostly in Africa and South America.

The yellow fever vaccine is recommended for travel to countries with risk of yellow fever transmission. To learn more about risk of yellow fever transmission relative to your travel destination, consult the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention’s travel website.

How can you avoid yellow fever?

The best way to avoid yellow fever is to avoid being bitten by a mosquito. Between dusk and dawn, when mosquitoes most often appear to feed, you and your child should take refuge indoors. You should also:

  • Use mosquito netting over the bed
  • Wear long-sleeved shirts and long pants
  • Wear insect-repellants with DEET on exposed skin
  • Wear clothing treated with insect-repellants such as permethrin

The vaccine

How is the yellow fever vaccine made?

The yellow fever vaccine is made by growing yellow fever virus in mouse embryo cells and in chick embryo cells. The final preparation of the vaccine is made in eggs. Growing yellow fever virus in mouse and chick cells over and over again weakened it. Therefore, when this “live, weakened” virus is injected, a protective immune response develops without causing illness.

Who should not receive the yellow fever vaccine?

The following groups of people should not receive the yellow fever vaccine:

  • Pregnant women
  • Anyone with a weakened immune system (such as people with AIDS, or those receiving chemotherapy)
  • Infants younger than 6 months of age
  • Anyone with severe egg allergies

Does the yellow fever vaccine have side effects?

Minor side effects occur in fewer than 1 in 20 people and can include mild headaches, muscle aches or low-grade fevers. Severe side effects, specifically severe allergic reactions (hives, difficulty breathing, or low blood pressure) are extremely rare, occurring in less than 1 per 1 million people.

About 1 of every million people who receive the yellow fever vaccine can develop a disease that resembles yellow fever (called viscerotropic disease). This adverse reaction, which is occasionally fatal, occurs primarily in adults more than 65 years of age. However, when traveling to a country where yellow fever is common, the benefits of the yellow fever still outweigh this severe risk.

Other questions you might have

What is the youngest age that a child could receive the yellow fever vaccine?

The yellow fever vaccine is recommended for anyone older than 9 months of age. However, the vaccine can be given to those as young as 6 months if travel will occur in rural areas, small towns or villages with a high incidence of yellow fever infections.

Relative risks and benefits

Do the benefits of the yellow fever vaccine outweigh its risks?

Every year thousands of people in the world catch yellow fever and about one of every five die from the disease. Travelers from the United States to countries where yellow fever occurs can and do get yellow fever, and there are no specific agents to treat it. On the other hand, the yellow fever vaccine does not have serious side effects. Therefore, for those traveling to countries where yellow fever is common, the benefits of the yellow fever vaccine outweigh its risks.

Also, remember that the vaccine is not required for entry to some countries where the disease is common. The decision to get the vaccine should be based on whether you are traveling to a country where the disease is common, and not on whether the vaccine is required! (See special consideration for travelers to find a list of websites that contain the most recent information on vaccines for travel).

Disease risks

  • Hepatitis (inflammation of the liver) 
  • Hemorrhaging (severe bleeding)
  • Fever, chills, muscle pain, headache and jaundice (yellowing of the skin)
  • Fatalities occur from severe bleeding and liver damage (1 of 5 people)

Vaccine risks

  • Mild headaches, muscle aches or low-grade fevers (1 in 20 people)
  • Severe allergic reaction (1 in 1 million people)
  • Severe disease resembling yellow fever (viscerotropic disease) (1 in 1 million people)


Plotkin SA, Orenstein W, Offit PA, and Edwards KM. Yellow Fever Vaccine in Vaccines, 7th Edition. 2017,1181-1265.

Yellow Fever Vaccine. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Accessed March 1, 2019.

Yellow fever – Vaccination – NHS

There’s a very effective vaccine that can stop you getting yellow fever if you’re travelling to an area where the infection is found.

It’s given as an injection into your upper arm.

But even if you have been vaccinated, it’s important to prevent insect bites as mosquitoes can also spread other serious illnesses.

Who should have the yellow fever vaccine

The yellow fever vaccine is recommended for people from 9 months of age who are travelling to:

  • an area where yellow fever is found, including parts of sub-Saharan Africa, South America, Central America and Trinidad in the Caribbean
  • a country that requires you to have a certificate proving you have been vaccinated against yellow fever

You should be vaccinated at least 10 days before you travel to allow enough time for the vaccine to work.

If you or your child has had the MMR vaccine, you or they need to wait at least 4 weeks before having the yellow fever vaccine.

If it is not possible to leave a 4-week gap, the yellow fever vaccine should be given but an additional dose of MMR should be considered at a later date. Re-vaccination with the yellow fever vaccine can also be considered on an individual basis for those at on-going risk.

Yellow fever vaccination certificate

Some countries require a certificate showing you have been vaccinated before you’re allowed entry.

This is known as an International Certificate of Vaccination or Prophylaxis (ICVP).

All vaccination certificates are now valid for life, including older ones with an expiry date on them. You’ll be given a certificate when you’re vaccinated at a yellow fever vaccination centre.

Check the country information on the TravelHealthPro website or with a yellow fever vaccination centre to see if you need a certificate for the area you’re visiting.

A certificate is not needed for entry into the UK.

Keep your certificate safe and make a copy for your records.

If you lose your certificate, you may be able to get another one reissued if you have a copy showing full details of the vaccination batch number and the date you had the vaccination.

Where to get the yellow fever vaccine

The yellow fever vaccine and vaccination certificates are only available from registered yellow fever vaccination centres.

Find a yellow fever vaccination centre near you

How much the yellow fever vaccine costs

The yellow fever vaccine is not available for free on the NHS, so you’ll have to pay for it.

It typically costs around £60 to £85.

How long the yellow fever vaccine lasts

The yellow fever vaccine provides lifelong protection for most people.

A further dose of vaccine is recommended for a small number of travellers who are visiting yellow fever risk areas, including those who were previously vaccinated when they were:

Rarely, a further dose of vaccine may also be advised if there’s a concern about the traveller’s risk of yellow fever, for example, if they’re working or living for some time in a high-risk area.

Contact a yellow fever vaccination centre for advice if you’re not sure if you need another dose before travelling.

Who cannot have the yellow fever vaccine

There are some people who cannot have the yellow fever vaccine when it’s recommended.

People who cannot have the vaccine include:

  • babies under 6 months old
  • people with a weakened immune system, such as those with leukaemia or lymphoma
  • people whose immune system is weakened by treatment, such as steroids and chemotherapy
  • people who are allergic to any of the ingredients in the vaccine, including people with an egg allergy
  • people who’ve had a severe reaction to a previous dose of yellow fever vaccine
  • people with a thymus gland disorder or who’ve had their thymus gland removed
  • people over the age of 60 who are travelling to areas where yellow fever vaccine is not generally recommended
  • people who have a close relative who has had a severe reaction to the vaccine causing damage to the brain or other organs

If you need a vaccination certificate for the country you’re visiting but you’re not able to have the vaccine, contact a yellow fever vaccination centre.

They may provide you with an exemption letter, which may be accepted by officials in countries that usually require a vaccination certificate.

Who may be able to have the vaccine in some circumstances

If you’re not sure whether you can have the yellow fever vaccine, ask a travel health specialist at the vaccination centre. They’ll do a full risk assessment based on your or your child’s medical history and where you’re travelling to.

People who may be able to have the vaccine include:

  • those aged 60 and over – only when travel to a high-risk area is unavoidable
  • those who are pregnant – if travel to a high-risk area is unavoidable
  • those who are breastfeeding – expert advice is needed for women who are breastfeeding babies under 9 months
  • those with long-term (chronic) inflammatory conditions, such as rheumatoid arthritis – if on low-dose steroid therapy
  • babies from 6 months to under 9 months of age – if travel is unavoidable and risk is high, expert advice is needed
  • those living with HIV – only after specialist advice

Take extra care to prevent insect bites while travelling if you have not been vaccinated.

Side effects of the yellow fever vaccine

The yellow fever vaccine can cause some side effects, but the risk of not being vaccinated usually outweighs the risk of having side effects.

After having the vaccine, up to 1 in every 3 people gets:

  • a headache
  • muscle pain
  • a raised temperature
  • soreness at the injection site

These side effects usually pass within 2 weeks.

Rarely, a person can get more serious side effects, including an allergic reaction to one of the ingredients in the vaccine.

A very rare side effect of the vaccine can cause problems with the brain or other organs, which can be fatal. This is more likely to affect:

  • people aged 60 or older
  • people with weakened immune systems
  • anyone who’s had their thymus gland removed or has a thymus gland disorder

Get medical advice if you feel very unwell within a few days or weeks of having the yellow fever vaccine.

Page last reviewed: 22 May 2020
Next review due: 22 May 2023

Yellow Fever Vaccine – an overview

YF Vaccine-Associated Viscerotropic Disease

YF vaccine-associated viscerotropic disease (YEL-AVD), a syndrome of fever, jaundice, and multiple organ system failure following YF vaccine, was reported in 10 patients worldwide, ranging in age from 5 to 79 years, from 1996 to 2001 (Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 2001, 2002b). In 2002, two additional suspected cases of viscerotropic disease and four of neurologic disease were reported in the US recipients of YFV, and two fatal cases, both in young women, were reported in 2005 and 2007 (Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 2002b). As of 2010, more than 50 cases were reported from 14 countries (Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 2002). Though identified first in 1996, characterization of a YF virus strain as vaccine-derived – from what was thought initially to be a fatal case of YF in Brazil in 1975 – suggests that this syndrome has been present for at least several decades.

YEL-AVD, initially called febrile multiple organ system failure, ranges in severity from moderate disease with focal organ dysfunction to severe multisystem failure and death and may include neurologic disease. The syndrome resembles severe wild-type YF, and laboratory evidence indicates overwhelming infection with vaccine strain YF virus. It has occurred only in first-time nonimmune vaccine recipients. Symptoms begin 2–5 days after immunization and include fever, elevated hepatocellular enzymes, respiratory failure, blood dyscrasias, and in some cases renal failure. Incidence of YEL-AVD is estimated to be 0.4 per 100 000 doses distributed (Gershman and Staples, 2012).

A study of reports submitted to the Vaccine Adverse Event Reporting System in the United States identified advanced age as a risk factor for adverse events associated with YF immunization, though cases have occurred in younger individuals (Martin et al., 2001). The U.S. CDC VIS states incidence as 1:250 000 doses for all first-time vaccine recipients; rates may be higher for those aged 60 years or older. A report on advanced age as a risk factor for serious adverse events to YF vaccine was published in 2005, affirming the increased risk and documenting a reporting rate ratio of 5.9 (95% CI 1.6–22.2) in first-time vaccine recipients aged 60 years and older (Khromava et al., 2005). Disease of the thymus gland has been identified as another risk factor for developing severe reactions after YF vaccine. Fifteen percent of 26 individuals with YEL-AVD described in a 2004 paper had a history of thymus disease, including thymoma and myasthenia gravis (Barwick, 2004). In 2014, a fatal case of YEL-AVD was reported in an individual with undiagnosed thymoma (DeSilva et al., 2015). The CDC’s Health Information for International Travel lists thymus disorder associated with abnormal immune-cell function as a contraindication to YF vaccine (Gershman and Staples, 2012).

YEL-AVD is characterized by a widespread inflammatory response with exuberant viral replication. Antibody levels are significantly higher than expected. Examination of tissues from fatal cases of YEL-AVD reveals widespread dissemination of YF vaccine strain virus and active viral replication in multiple organs; sequencing studies do not identify mutations in vaccine virus to explain these adverse events (Monath, 2004). The occurrence of two cases in one family in Brazil supports the hypothesis that host genetic factors may be associated with a predisposition to YF vaccine adverse events (Monath, 2004).

Yellow fever: Symptoms, causes, and prevention

Yellow fever is a hemorrhagic condition that can lead to a high fever, bleeding into the skin, and cell death in the liver and kidneys. If enough liver cells die, liver damage occurs, leading to jaundice, a condition in which the skin takes on a yellowish color.

It is an acute, systemic disease, meaning that it starts suddenly, and it affects the whole body. The Flavivirus causes yellow fever.

The virus is transmitted by mosquitos, mainly the Aedes and Haemogogus species.

It is most likely to occur in tropical and subtropical parts of South America, parts of the Caribbean, and Africa. It rarely affects American travelers.

The World Health Organization (WHO) estimate that in 2013, there were between 84,000 severe cases of yellow fever and between 29,000 and 60,000 fatalities. About 90 percent of all cases occur in Africa.

An outbreak is currently underway in Brazil, and the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) has in place a level 2 alert for travelers.

Mosquitoes spread yellow fever. It can affect monkeys and humans.

If a mosquito bites a monkey that has the fever, they can pass it to humans. This can lead to outbreaks.

After having it once, a person is generally immune, meaning that they are unlikely to have it again.

Yellow fever can occur in settlements close to the jungle, where infected monkeys and mosquitoes live, and it can spread from there.

Most people with yellow fever do not develop symptoms, or the symptoms are very mild.

Yellow fever has an incubation period of between 3 and 6 days, so it takes from 3 to 6 days for signs and symptoms to appear after a person is infected.

The disease cannot spread among humans. Only infection-carrying mosquitoes spread the disease to humans.

The main symptoms of yellow fever are a high temperature, a slow pulse, albuminuria, jaundice, congestion of the face, and hemorrhage, or bleeding.

Signs and symptoms are categorized into two stages:

In the early, acute stage, the individual may experience:

  • aching muscles, particularly the back and knees
  • a high fever
  • dizziness
  • a headache
  • loss of appetite
  • nausea
  • shivers, or chills
  • vomiting

These symptoms usually disappear within 7 to 10 days.

These symptoms usually improve after a few days, but around 15 percent of people enter a second stage, or toxic stage. The symptoms are more severe, and they may be life-threatening.

These include:

  • recurring fever
  • abdominal pain
  • vomiting, sometimes with blood
  • tiredness, sluggishness, lethargy
  • jaundice, which gives the skin and whites of the eyes a yellow tinge
  • kidney failure
  • liver failure
  • hemorrhage
  • delirium, seizures, and sometimes coma
  • arrhythmias, or irregular heartbeats
  • bleeding from the nose, mouth, and eyes

Between 20 percent and 50 percent of people who develop toxic stage symptoms die within two weeks.

Within 7 to 10 days, yellow fever is fatal in around half of all people who enter the toxic phase.

Those who recover do not generally have any organ damage and are immune for life.

A flavivirus causes yellow fever.

It is transmitted by mosquito bite, usually the Aedes aegypti mosquito. The mosquito becomes infected by biting an infected human or a monkey. An infected mosquito is a source of infection for the rest of its life.

Share on PinterestMosquitos can pick up yellow fever from the monkeys that inhabit the jungle canopy, or from infected humans.

Apart from mosquitoes, the only other known hosts of the virus are primates and humans.

The flavivirus is believed to be endemic among monkeys that live in the tree tops of the jungle, known as the jungle canopy, in many parts of Africa and the Americas.

If the infected mosquito passes the flavivirus on to a person who is in the jungle, that person may become a source of infection when they return to their community. They can go on to infect other people.

Anybody who travels to an area where the yellow fever virus is present is at risk of becoming infected.

These areas include parts of Africa, especially sub-Saharan Africa, tropical South America, and some parts of the Caribbean.

Travelers should check if the area they are visiting requires a vaccination. A yellow fever vaccine taken 10 to 14 days before traveling provides effective protection from the disease.

Diagnosis will be confirmed after the doctor detects the signs and symptoms and carries out a blood test.

A blood test is necessary because other diseases have similar signs and symptoms.

These include:

A blood test may reveal the virus, or it may detect antibodies that the body produces when the virus enters the body. A blood test may also reveal a drop in white blood cells, or leucopenia, another sign of infection.

The blood tests used are an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and polymerase chain reaction (PCR).

Test results may take several days.

There is no effective antiviral medication to treat yellow fever, so treatment consists of supportive care in a hospital.

This includes providing fluids, oxygen, making sure blood pressure is adequate, replacing lost blood, kidney dialysis if there is kidney failure, and treating any secondary infections.

Some patients may be given plasma transfusion to replace proteins that help with clotting.

The patient should be kept away from mosquitoes. If a mosquito bites the patient, they will become infected and then pass the disease on to other people.

They should not use aspirin and non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) because of the risk of bleeding.

In 2014, a study published in the journal PLOS Neglected Tropical Diseases reported that changes in white blood cells could signal an early sign of fatal yellow fever. This, say the scientists, could lead to better diagnosis and treatment.

In the past, yellow fever devastated communities, including those in the United States (U.S.) and Europe. In the middle of the 20th century, scientists developed a safe and effective vaccine that prevents yellow fever.


Share on PinterestThe yellow fever vaccine protects against yellow fever for at least 10 years and should be administered before visiting a region for the first time in which someone can catch the disease.

Anyone traveling to an area where yellow fever is known to exist should find out about having the vaccine at least 10 to 14 days before departure.

Some countries may insist on a valid immunization certificate before a person can enter.

A single vaccine dose provides at least 10 years’ protection, and the person may be protected for life.

Side effects may include:

  • headaches
  • low-grade fevers
  • muscle pain
  • tiredness
  • soreness at the injection site
  • in very rare cases, infants and older people may develop more serious reactions, such as encephalitis

The vaccine is deemed to be safe for patients aged between 9 months and 60 years.

The following groups of people should not have the vaccination:

  • children aged under 9 months in the United States (U.S.), unless the risk of yellow fever is unavoidable
  • pregnant women, unless the risk is unavoidable
  • breastfeeding mothers
  • people who are allergic to eggs
  • people with weakened immune systems, unless the risk of yellow fever is unavoidable, including those with HIV, or people receiving chemotherapy and radiotherapy

Any patient over 60 years of age should discuss whether to have the vaccine with a doctor.

It is important for travelers to have the vaccination, to increase their protection and avoid spreading the disease to others. Some immigration authorities will not allow travelers to enter a country without a valid vaccination certificate.

After 30 days, 99 percent who receive the vaccination have complete protection.

Protection from mosquitos

To reduce exposure to mosquitos, experts advise:

  • Where possible, avoid outdoor activities during dawn, dusk and early evening, when mosquitoes are most prevalent.
  • Cover the skin as much as possible, by wearing long-sleeved shirts and long pants in areas where there are mosquitoes.
  • Stay indoors in places that have air-conditioning and good screening, such as window nets
  • Apply mosquito repellent containing permethrin to clothing, shoes, camping equipment, and bed netting, but not directly on the skin

Skin repellents containing DEET or picaridin provide protection from mosquitoes for a longer time than other products.

The higher the concentration, the longer it will last.

Do not use DEET on young children’s hands or infants aged under 2 months. Instead, cover their stroller with mosquito netting when outdoors.

The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) says that oil of lemon eucalyptus offers the same protection as DEET when used in the same concentrations.

However, it is not suitable for children under 3 years of age.


Most people do not develop symptoms, but those who do may experience weakness and tiredness for several months.

Among those who develop severe symptoms, the fatality rate is between 20 and 50 percent.

Yellow Fever Vaccine | Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center

This information from Lexicomp® explains what you need to know about this medication, including what it’s used for, how to take it, its side effects, and when to call your healthcare provider.

Brand Names: US


Brand Names: Canada


What is this drug used for?

  • It is used to prevent yellow fever.

What do I need to tell my doctor BEFORE I take this drug?

For all patients taking this drug:

  • If you are allergic to this drug; any part of this drug; or any other drugs, foods, or substances. Tell your doctor about the allergy and what signs you had.
  • If you are allergic to eggs, talk with the doctor.
  • If you have a weak immune system or a disease that may cause a weak immune system like HIV.
  • If you are taking any drugs to suppress your immune system. This may be certain doses of steroids like prednisone. There are many drugs that can suppress your immune system. Ask your doctor or pharmacist if you are not sure.
  • If you are getting radiation.
  • If you are breast-feeding an infant younger than 9 months of age. Do not breast-feed an infant younger than 9 months of age if you get this drug.


  • If your child is younger than 9 months of age. Do not give this vaccine to a child younger than 9 months of age.

This is not a list of all drugs or health problems that interact with this drug.

Tell your doctor and pharmacist about all of your drugs (prescription or OTC, natural products, vitamins) and health problems. You must check to make sure that it is safe for you to take this drug with all of your drugs and health problems. Do not start, stop, or change the dose of any drug without checking with your doctor.

What are some things I need to know or do while I take this drug?

  • Tell all of your health care providers that you take this drug. This includes your doctors, nurses, pharmacists, and dentists.
  • This drug may not protect all people who use it. Talk with the doctor.
  • If you get this drug before you travel, you may need to take along proof that you have had this vaccine. Talk with your doctor.
  • Tell your doctor if you have recently had a vaccine or before getting any other vaccine.
  • If you are 60 or older, use this drug with care. You could have more side effects.
  • Tell your doctor if you are pregnant, plan on getting pregnant, or are breast-feeding. You will need to talk about the benefits and risks to you and the baby.

What are some side effects that I need to call my doctor about right away?

WARNING/CAUTION: Even though it may be rare, some people may have very bad and sometimes deadly side effects when taking a drug. Tell your doctor or get medical help right away if you have any of the following signs or symptoms that may be related to a very bad side effect:

  • Signs of an allergic reaction, like rash; hives; itching; red, swollen, blistered, or peeling skin with or without fever; wheezing; tightness in the chest or throat; trouble breathing, swallowing, or talking; unusual hoarseness; or swelling of the mouth, face, lips, tongue, or throat.
  • Feeling confused.
  • Not able to move face muscles as much.
  • A burning, numbness, or tingling feeling that is not normal.
  • Trouble controlling body movements.
  • Very bad dizziness or passing out.
  • Seizures.
  • A health problem that may lead to very bad organ problems has rarely happened with this vaccine. Sometimes, this has been deadly. Call your doctor right away if you have very bad muscle pain or headache, feel very tired or weak, or have trouble breathing. Call your doctor right away if you have signs of liver problems like dark urine, not hungry, stomach pain, light-colored stools, or yellow skin or eyes. Call your doctor right away if you have any bruising or bleeding or signs of kidney problems like not able to pass urine or change in how much urine is passed.

What are some other side effects of this drug?

All drugs may cause side effects. However, many people have no side effects or only have minor side effects. Call your doctor or get medical help if any of these side effects or any other side effects bother you or do not go away:

  • Headache.
  • Muscle pain.
  • Feeling tired or weak.
  • Mild fever.
  • Pain, redness, or swelling where the shot was given.

These are not all of the side effects that may occur. If you have questions about side effects, call your doctor. Call your doctor for medical advice about side effects.

You may report side effects to your national health agency.

Report side effects to the FDA/CDC Vaccine Adverse Event Reporting System (VAERS) at https://vaers.hhs.gov/reportevent.html or by calling 1-800-822-7967.

How is this drug best taken?

Use this drug as ordered by your doctor. Read all information given to you. Follow all instructions closely.

  • It is given as a shot into the fatty part of the skin.

What do I do if I miss a dose?

  • Call your doctor to find out what to do.

How do I store and/or throw out this drug?

  • If you need to store this drug at home, talk with your doctor, nurse, or pharmacist about how to store it.

General drug facts

  • If your symptoms or health problems do not get better or if they become worse, call your doctor.
  • Do not share your drugs with others and do not take anyone else’s drugs.
  • Keep all drugs in a safe place. Keep all drugs out of the reach of children and pets.
  • Throw away unused or expired drugs. Do not flush down a toilet or pour down a drain unless you are told to do so. Check with your pharmacist if you have questions about the best way to throw out drugs. There may be drug take-back programs in your area.
  • Some drugs may have another patient information leaflet. If you have any questions about this drug, please talk with your doctor, nurse, pharmacist, or other health care provider.
  • Some drugs may have another patient information leaflet. Check with your pharmacist. If you have any questions about this drug, please talk with your doctor, nurse, pharmacist, or other health care provider.
  • If you think there has been an overdose, call your poison control center or get medical care right away. Be ready to tell or show what was taken, how much, and when it happened.

CDC Information

Vaccine Information Statements (VIS) are made by the staff of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). Each VIS gives information to properly inform the adult receiving the vaccine or, in the case of a minor, the child’s parent or legal representative about the risks and benefits of each vaccine. Before a doctor vaccinates a child or an adult, the provider is required by the National Childhood Vaccine Injury Act to give a copy of the VIS. You can also get foreign language versions.


Consumer Information Use and Disclaimer

This information should not be used to decide whether or not to take this medicine or any other medicine. Only the healthcare provider has the knowledge and training to decide which medicines are right for a specific patient. This information does not endorse any medicine as safe, effective, or approved for treating any patient or health condition. This is only a brief summary of general information about this medicine. It does NOT include all information about the possible uses, directions, warnings, precautions, interactions, adverse effects, or risks that may apply to this medicine. This information is not specific medical advice and does not replace information you receive from the healthcare provider. You must talk with the healthcare provider for complete information about the risks and benefits of using this medicine. The use of this information is governed by the Lexicomp End User License Agreement, available at https://www.wolterskluwer.com/en/solutions/lexicomp/about/eula.

Last Reviewed Date



© 2021 UpToDate, Inc. and its affiliates and/or licensors. All rights reserved.


Any trip outside your home country is a rather risky undertaking. But it is one thing to cope with minor troubles such as errors in tickets, forgotten things, voltage differences in sockets, etc. It is clear that you cannot insure yourself against everything, but you can (and should) do something. And early vaccination is the surest way to avoid painful troubles in the literal sense.


When preparing for a trip to hot countries, you should begin to carry out the necessary vaccinations with the vaccination against yellow fever . Moreover, it is recommended to make this injection, even if you are flying to a country where this disease has not been recorded.

There are several reasons for this. First, a vaccine against this deadly disease was developed back in 1937 (for which its creator, the American virologist Max Tayler, received the Nobel Prize in 1951) and its complete safety has been revealed over the past seven-odd decades.Secondly, about 200 thousand people fall ill with yellow fever every year in the world. The disease is characterized by high fever, hemorrhagic rash, kidney and liver damage, with the development of jaundice and acute renal failure. The course of the disease is extremely severe and in most cases fatal. This disease is viral, and there are no specific drugs for treatment! And, thirdly, a number of countries where this disease occurs, to visit their territory require compulsory vaccination against yellow fever.In IKB No. 1, after the vaccine has been administered to you, you

will give a special international vaccination certificate. Without it, you will not be able to get a visa to a number of countries (for example, to the same Bolivia), and sometimes it is required to present it at the border (for example, if you enter Brazil from Peru or Bolivia, then the Brazilian border guards will not let you into the country without confidence that you are vaccinated).

The best part is that the vaccine starts working in 14 days, and you will need a subsequent revaccination no earlier than 10 years later.Unfortunately, there are not so many points where this vaccination is given in our country. But in the ICB No. 1 the yellow fever vaccine is always available.


The next point of compulsory vaccination are vaccinations against hepatitis A and (if you do not have these vaccinations yet).

Viral hepatitis A is common in almost all developing countries with poor hygiene standards.It is a “dirty hand” disease. You can meet him at any southern resort. And in order not to be tormented by questions of where it is safe to drink and eat, it is better to get vaccinated, which after 7-10 days gives protection for a year (the latest vaccines – up to 10 years).

Viral hepatitis B is a disease that primarily affects the liver and is the most common cause of liver disease. There are about 350 million carriers of the hepatitis B virus in the world, of which 250 thousand aredie every year from liver disease. In our country, 50 thousand new cases of the disease are registered annually and there are 5 million chronic carriers. Hepatitis B is dangerous in its consequences: it is one of the main causes of liver cirrhosis, and the main cause of hepatocellular liver cancer.

Travelers traveling to regions that are unfavorable for this disease are at risk, so vaccination is highly recommended in this case.

Do not forget to only enter information about the vaccinations made in international vaccination certificate . These vaccines are sufficient until

horns and often doctors recommend taking tests to see if you have had these diseases before. By

According to some data, in our country, about 10% of people have already had these diseases, without knowing it. To determine the presence of antibodies to hepatitis B, you must take an anti-HBs test, for hepatitis A – an anti-HAV screening test.It is up to you to bother with this or not, but even if you have had this disease and, nevertheless, have been vaccinated, nothing terrible will happen.


In addition to the above vaccinations, it makes sense to vaccinate against typhoid fever (and, of course, enter information about this in the international vaccination certificate).

Typhoid fever is a rather unpleasant disease.The infection affects the intestines, nervous system and other organs, and is dangerous with the development of severe complications. A single vaccination allows you to get immunity for 5 years. Evaluate your plans, your travel program: even in Europe, if you plan to visit remote, “non-tourist” areas where food hygiene is in question, it is better not to risk it and get vaccinated. From typhoid in general is recommended for all travelers to be vaccinated, in case you are going to eat outside the main restaurants and hotels.By the way, these vaccinations are recommended even for those who are just planning a vacation in Turkey.

One injection is also given for three years.

TOTAL: you need to complete four vaccinations – this is a very small price to pay in order to maintain your health and not ruin your vacation and life. All vaccines are always available in IKB No. 1. Before vaccination, an infectious disease doctor is consulted. You can sign up for a vaccination by calling 8-499-190-19-77.

Information about the work of the consultative and polyclinic department of the ICB No. 1, prices and conditions for vaccination:

http: // ikb1.ru / personal / zapis-na-priem / # kpo

Rospotrebnadzor official website:


Preventive vaccination against yellow fever

The Territorial Department of the Office of Rospotrebnadzor in the Kemerovo Region in the city of Guryevsk, the city of Salair and the Guryevsky District informs you that, in accordance with the provisions of the International Health Regulations (2005) (hereinafter referred to as the IHR), yellow fever remains the only disease requiring vaccination when entering countries where there is a risk of contracting yellow fever.

  • According to the information of the World Health Organization (hereinafter – WHO), from 2016 – 2018 cases of yellow fever have been reported in Bolivia, Brazil, Colombia, Ecuador, French Guiana, Peru and Suriname. In the period from July 1, 2017 to June 1, 2018, 1266 cases of the disease were laboratory confirmed in Brazil, including 409 deaths.

During 2018, 22 cases of yellow fever were reported in Colombia (8 laboratory confirmed).Most of the cases are from the Kalleria region, Coronel Portillo province, Ucayali region. Peru has 15 cases of yellow fever (8 laboratory confirmed).

According to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), from 1970 to 2016, 7 imported cases were registered in the countries of the European Region (France, the Netherlands, Spain, Switzerland, Germany and Belgium), mainly from West Africa.

In 2017 – 2018 there were imported cases of yellow fever from Brazil in unvaccinated international travelers in France, the Netherlands, Romania, Switzerland, Germany, Argentina.

In 2018, imported cases of yellow fever were registered – in Switzerland (from French Guiana), in a resident of the Netherlands (from Gambia) and in a traveler from the Netherlands (from Suriname).

Yellow fever is a vector-borne disease and is carried by mosquitoes. In the Americas, yellow fever is spread by mosquitoes of the genus Haemogogus , in Africa – Aedes (mainly of the species A. Aegypti ). The disease exists in two epidemiological forms: jungle fever (transmitted by mosquitoes from infected monkeys) and urban fever (transmitted by mosquitoes from person to person). The latter causes the majority of outbreaks and epidemics. Monkeys are the natural reservoir of yellow fever. The incubation period for yellow fever is six days.

Preventive vaccination against yellow fever of persons traveling to countries endemic for this infection is the only and most reliable means of preventing the disease.

Yellow fever vaccines provide protection against infection 1O days after vaccination and sustained lifelong immunity after a single yellow fever vaccination, as set out in the updated Annex 7 of the IHR (2005), which entered into force on 11 July 2016. Adults and children from 9 months of age are subject to vaccination.

In accordance with the requirements of the IHR (2005), vaccinated persons receive an international certificate of vaccination or prevention.Vaccination certificates are only valid if the vaccine used is approved by WHO.

Vaccination certificates are completed in full in English or French, in addition – in Russian. The certificate must bear the stamp of the institution where the procedure was carried out. Vaccination certificates are considered an individual document.

Travelers without yellow fever vaccination certificates entering countries where yellow fever vectors are present traveling from countries at risk of yellow fever transmission may be quarantined for an incubation period (six days) medical examination or other preventive measures, up to and including refusal to enter the country in accordance with Article 31 of the International Health Regulations (2005.).

Passengers in transit who are at the airport for more than 12 hours, where there is a risk of yellow fever transmission, must be informed about the vaccination. A number of countries require a yellow fever vaccination certificate for passengers who have traveled through an airport located in a country at risk of yellow fever transmission, regardless of the time of transit.

The list of yellow fever vaccination centers is published annually on the official website of Rospotrebnadzor.On the territory of the Kemerovo region, preventive vaccination against yellow fever can be obtained at:

  • Medical Center Your Doctor, 650099, Kemerovo, st. N. Ostrovsky, 27, tel: (3842) 36-88-62, fax: 34-94-06 e-mail: Email address is being protected from spambots. Javascript must be enabled in your browser to view the address.
  • PremierMed LLC, st. Svobody, 3, ave. Miners, 109, pom. 112 tel: (3842) 45-27-57, (3842) 90-07-07 e-mail: Email address is being protected from spambots.Javascript must be enabled in your browser to view the address.

Yellow fever: description, prevention, treatment

This virus carries the yellow fever mosquito (species Aedes Aegypti), which is especially common in Latin America, South America and Africa.

Despite the fact that the yellow fever vaccine was invented 60 years ago, epidemics in Africa still occur from time to time due to insufficient immunization in cities.

Yellow fever

If you are going to a sub-Saharan African country, it is better to take care of vaccinations. Preventing this disease is very important as it can lead to hepatitis and severely damage your liver. In fact, the main symptoms of yellow fever – jaundice and fever – come from the virus damaging the liver.This disease can lead to other injuries to internal organs, moreover, to lethal ones, so taking safety measures is a matter of life and death.

What is yellow fever? Understanding the


Yellow fever is a viral infection that causes damage to organs, especially the liver. About 200,000 cases are reported annually, 30,000 of which die. The number of cases has risen critically in recent years, due to the fact that cities are growing, the climate is changing, but immunization of the population is often low.According to the WHO, Latin America has the highest risk of contracting yellow fever in the world.

So what causes yellow fever? It is most commonly transmitted by infected mosquitoes through a bite.

How is yellow fever transmitted?

In most cases, people contract yellow fever when they are bitten by an infected mosquito. The virus can also be transmitted directly through an infected person, through dirty needles, for example. Otherwise, this disease is not transmitted from person to person.

Symptoms of yellow fever

Some people who are infected do not develop yellow fever symptoms. The infection usually has 3 stages. The first begins a few days after a mosquito bite and may include the following symptoms:

  • Headache
  • Dehydration
  • Pain in muscles and joints
  • Back pain
  • Loss of appetite
  • Vomiting
  • Symptoms similar to a cold
  • Heat
  • Chills

After the initial phase, most patients get better and often do not develop further.However, in about 15-25% of patients, the condition worsens again and passes to the third, more serious stage. During this phase, the following symptoms may appear:

  • Intense heat
  • Dehydration
  • Internal bleeding
  • Shock
  • Bleeding from eyes, mouth and nose
  • Bloody stools
  • Bloody vomit
  • Jaundice – yellowing of the skin and eyes
  • Redness of tongue, eyes and face
  • Inflammation of the liver or hepatitis
  • Multiple organ failure
  • Seizures
  • Coma
  • Death

These are symptoms of viral hemorrhagic fever, it damages the internal organs and the circulatory system.This condition is life-threatening for the patient. About half of patients with stage III yellow fever do not survive.

But those who survived will need lifelong medical attention, because some of the organs, including the heart, lungs, kidneys or liver, can be seriously damaged. Patients with kidney damage may require lifelong hemodialysis. If your heart is damaged due to yellow fever, you will have to constantly take medications or undergo other treatment to prevent heart failure or heart attack.Even when yellow fever recedes, the patient’s life can be drastically changed.

Where is yellow fever common?

Yellow fever is more common in Africa and Central and South America. These areas are endemic for yellow fever. Its prevalence is particularly high in West Africa and South America. Among those who have not been vaccinated and have been in West Africa for just 2 weeks, according to the Center for Disease Control and Prevention, 50 out of 100,000 are infected with yellow fever.Among people who have spent a two-week vacation in South America, 5 in 100,000 are infected.

Countries with a particularly high prevalence of yellow fever:

  • Benin
  • Cameroon
  • Republic of the Congo
  • Côte d’Ivoire
  • Burkina Faso
  • Ghana
  • Gabon
  • Guiana
  • Central African Republic
  • Liberia
  • Mali
  • Angola
  • Niger
  • Rwanda
  • Democratic Republic of the Congo
  • Sao Tome and Principe
  • Togo

In addition to these countries, some sub-Saharan Africa and Central and South American countries can be added to this list.City dwellers are more susceptible to the virus. In Russia, all cases of yellow fever are imported. In our country, this infection has been known for a long time. Back in 1805, a decree was issued with its description and information on the need to protect port cities from this disease. The largest epidemic of yellow fever in Russia was during the construction of the Panama Canal, then 500 thousand people were ill.

How do you know if you have yellow fever?

The only way to know if you have yellow fever is to see a doctor.If you have been to a country where this condition is common and after that you develop a fever or other symptoms, see your doctor right away. The doctor will clarify the symptoms and test for yellow fever. Tests may also be done to check for damage to the liver or other organs. When the first symptoms appear, it is important to see a doctor right away, because if untreated, fever can lead to irreparable consequences.

Treatment of yellow fever

There is no treatment as such, if only symptomatic therapy, and the latter must be timely.If you are infected with this virus, doctors will advise you to be admitted to hospital to make it easier to monitor your symptoms and provide treatment based on the condition.

For example, you may be given medication to reduce fever and muscle pain, and may also be given an IV to treat dehydration. If you regularly take anti-inflammatory medications that thin your blood, such as aspirin, you will need to stop taking them. These medications increase the risk of internal bleeding in this condition.If your condition worsens due to organ damage, doctors at the hospital can help you.

Yellow fever vaccine

Since there is no cure for this virus, it is important to be vaccinated against yellow fever before traveling to a high-risk country. Moreover, to get to some countries, you will need an international vaccination certificate with a record of the yellow fever vaccination.

Like any vaccine, yellow fever vaccine has side effects.This vaccine is live, and therefore carries more risks than inactivated vaccines. Some patients develop symptoms similar to those of a cold, while others may develop severe allergic reactions. Sometimes life-threatening reactions develop to the vaccine. If your condition changes after vaccination, see your doctor immediately.

Remember that any vaccine is not 100% effective. Some vaccinated people can still get yellow fever.

As a rule, doctors recommend that all travelers over 9 months who travel to countries where yellow fever are endemic should be vaccinated.However, to avoid serious side effects, you should consult your doctor before getting vaccinated if:

  • You have problems with the immune system due to HIV or another condition
  • You are undergoing cancer treatment or any other difficult treatment for the body
  • You have cancer or remission
  • You have problems with the thymus
  • You are 65 or over
  • You need to vaccinate a child younger than 9 months
  • You have had an allergic reaction to the yellow fever vaccine or any other vaccine
  • You are allergic to gelatin, chicken or eggs
  • You are pregnant or about to become pregnant
  • You are breastfeeding

If your doctor thinks you should not be vaccinated against yellow fever because the risk of serious side effects is too high, it is best to reconsider your plans.If you still need to travel to a country with a high risk of contracting this virus, you may need a record of the contraindication in the international vaccination certificate, in some countries you may simply not be allowed.

How long does the yellow fever vaccine last?

The vaccine becomes active after about 10 days, and most doctors recommend getting vaccinated at least 10 days before travel. Some doctors advise getting the vaccine one month in advance so that all possible side effects of the vaccine go away.Additional recovery time may be required, even if you only have symptoms similar to a cold after vaccination. It is better to stay at home and recover, otherwise all the pleasure of the trip may come to naught.

The yellow fever vaccine works for 10 years, therefore, no matter how often you travel to countries where this sickness is widespread, you will need to be vaccinated once every 10 years. If you want to know more about the risk of infection and about the side effects of vaccinations, it is best to see your doctor.

Prevention of yellow fever

How to avoid contracting yellow fever while traveling? The best prevention is to avoid mosquito bites. The following tips will help you protect yourself:

  • Use repellents. Most effective are those containing DEET, IR3535, picaridin, lemon and eucalyptus oil. Always check the expiration date and follow the directions carefully.
  • Apply repellent to clothing, tent, hotel window nets, and any other mosquito nets.
  • Be sure to use mosquito nets on the windows of the place where you intend to live. Check the nets regularly for damage.
  • Spray all mosquito nets with insect repellent at night. This will further protect you.
  • Wear long sleeves and long pants. Cover your skin as much as possible so that mosquitoes don’t have a chance to bite. It is better to choose clothes in light shades. Mosquitoes perceive light colors worse, among other things, such clothes will protect you from overheating.
  • At dawn and dusk, try not to walk in areas with a high number of mosquitoes. It is at this time of day that these insects are most active.

It is almost impossible to avoid all mosquito bites, write down all your trips in a special journal and register there any insect bites that you notice on yourself. If you develop any unusual symptoms, these notes will help doctors make a correct diagnosis.

Long-term solutions to mosquito problems

Most people contract yellow fever through a mosquito bite.If you reduce the number of mosquitoes around you, you will greatly reduce the risk of bites and infection. Despite the fact that there are no natural foci of yellow fever in Russia, travelers infected with this virus or other diseases often return from endemic zones. Local mosquitoes can carry disease from these travelers to healthy people.

In addition to yellow fever, the yellow fever mosquito can also transmit dengue and chikungunya fever. If you have mosquitoes in your area, you run the risk of getting infected.Yellow fever prevention should start with reducing the mosquito population in your yard.

The best method of protection is to reduce the number of mosquitoes around you. If you want to reduce your risk of bites and disease, there are several steps you can take to reduce the mosquito population.

The very first and easiest step is to reduce the number of mosquito breeding sites. These insects love to lay their eggs in humid and warm places. For the appearance of thousands of eggs and larvae, a lake, a pond and any (even minimal) volume of stagnant water are enough.Such places, as well as shady areas, can be eliminated in your area. Particular attention should be paid to:

  • Standing water in tires
  • Bird drinkers
  • Moats and ditches
  • Standing water in flower pots and other containers
  • Rain Barrels
  • Tall grass

In some cases it may not be possible to eliminate standing water. For example, you may not be able to remove a pool from a neighboring property or drain swamps in the area.In this case, mosquito traps can help.

Traps are used to reduce the population of mosquitoes (especially when the area is surrounded by a high impenetrable fence), they catch the females. It is the females who drink the blood, they need it for laying eggs. After a few weeks of operation of the trap, there will be a noticeable decrease in the number of mosquitoes. The World Health Organization notes that the most effective prevention of yellow fever is to control the number of mosquitoes.

Use Mosquito Magnet Traps to Reduce Mosquitoes

You do not need any complex systems to reduce the number of bloodsuckers near your home.Mosquito Magnet traps emit heated and humidified carbon dioxide along with an additional attractant. When mosquitoes fly up to the trap, they are sucked in, where they dry up and die. It is a safe alternative to chemical sprays.

If you combine Mosquito Magnet traps with repellents and stagnant water control, the number of mosquitoes in your area will be critically reduced (especially if your yard is surrounded by a sufficiently high fence). Isn’t it great to enjoy your summer vacation without mosquito bites? Not only will you protect yourself from annoying itchy blisters, but you will also avoid contracting vector-borne diseases.

your family, pets and guests from diseases carried by mosquitoes from
with the Mosquito Magnet trap – long-lasting,
scientifically proven solution.

90,000 Yellow fever vaccination

EMC is the first and only private clinic in Moscow that has an official permit for vaccination against yellow fever and the issuance of an internationally recognized confirmation certificate.

Vaccinations can be done in consultation with a specialist at the EMC Tropical Medicine Clinic.Registration by phone +7 495 933 6655.

Detailed pre-travel advice includes:

  • informing about diseases in the region of travel and about the necessary additional vaccinations;
  • recommendations on the list of medications to take with you.

Also, if necessary, the patient can undergo a comprehensive examination before traveling and purchase an individual remote accompaniment by a doctor using the unique TytoCare remote examination service.

Details of yellow fever vaccination

Yellow fever is caused by a virus that spreads through mosquito bites ( Aedes and Haemogogus) . Symptoms develop within 3-6 days after the bite and include fever, acute anemia (a rapid decrease in hemoglobin levels), nausea and vomiting, muscle pain, photophobia, cardiac dysfunction, and rapidly developing liver cell damage.

Vaccination is the most important remedy against yellow fever virus infection.

The vaccine is safe, single dose provides life-long protection against yellow fever.

As a result, you receive an international certificate, which is an official document confirming the vaccination.

1) List of countries requiring an international certificate of vaccination against yellow fever:

http://77.rospotrebnadzor.ru/index.php/san-epid/40-2009-08-20-06-08-14/6938-spisok-stran-trebuyushchikh-nalichiya-mezhdunarodnogo-svidetelstva-o-vaktsinatsii -protiv-zheltoj-likhoradki-u-lits-pribyvayushchikh-iz-lyuboj-strany

2) List of yellow fever endemic countries where yellow fever vaccination is recommended upon departure:

http: // 77.rospotrebnadzor.ru/index.php/san-epid/40-2009-08-20-06-08-14/6940-spisok-stran-endemichnykh-po-zheltoj-likhoradke-pri-vyezde-v-kotorye-kazhdomu- puteshestvenniku-rekomenduetsya-provedenie-vaktsinatsii-protiv-zheltoj-likhoradk

90,000 Yellow fever

Basic facts

Yellow fever is an acute viral haemorrhagic disease transmitted by infected mosquitoes. It is called “yellow” because of the jaundice that develops in some patients.Yellow fever kills up to 50% of people who develop severe illness. An estimated 200,000 cases of yellow fever occur worldwide every year, of which 30,000 are fatal, 90% of them in Africa. The virus is endemic in tropical regions of Africa and Latin America with a total population of over 900 million. Yellow fever cases have increased over the past two decades as a result of declining immunity to infection, deforestation, urbanization, population migration and climate change.There is no cure for yellow fever. Only symptomatic treatment is possible, aimed at relieving symptoms for a more comfortable condition of patients. Vaccination is the most important prevention measure for yellow fever. The vaccine is safe, affordable, and highly effective. It provides protection for 30-35 years or more. For 95% of vaccinated people, the vaccine provides effective immunity one week after immunization. Yellow fever vaccination is highly recommended for those traveling outside urban areas in endemic countries (Africa and South America), which do not officially report cases of the disease and usually do not require a certificate when entering the country.

Yellow fever vaccination is nearly 100% effective, while disease mortality reaches 60% in non-immune adults. Tolerance to modern vaccines is excellent. The only contraindication, in addition to a true allergy to the protein of chicken eggs, is the lack of cellular immunity (congenital or acquired, and the latter can only be temporary). A vaccination certificate can only be valid if it meets the requirements for its issuance and if the vaccine used is approved by the WHO and the vaccination is given at a certified yellow fever vaccination center.

The vaccination certificate is valid for 10 years, starting 10 days after the day of vaccination. If a person is revaccinated before the expiration of this period, the shelf life is extended for the next 10 years starting from the date of immunization. If the revaccination is recorded on a new certificate form, it is recommended to keep the previous vaccination certificate for 10 days from the date of revaccination, until the start of the expiration date of the new certificate.

List of countries requiring an international certificate of vaccination against yellow fever (in accordance with the letter of the Ministry of Health of the Russian Federation of 05.06.1997 No. 2510 / 4106-97-32 “On changing the requirements for vaccination against yellow fever when Russian citizens leave for foreign countries”)


Burkina Faso






Ivory Coast






Sao Tome and Principe


French Guiana

Central African Republic

List of countries where yellow fever is endemic or have areas endemic for yellow fever where it is recommended to have an international yellow fever vaccination certificate when entering (or in transit with a stopover):

South America Africa
Venezuela Angola
Bolivia Burundi
Brazil Gambia
Guyana Guinea
Colombia Guinea-Bissau
Panama Zambia
Suriname Kenya
Ecuador Nigeria
Sierra Leone
Equatorial Guinea

Tourists are advised to be vaccinated against yellow fever

Russian epidemiologists are calling for vaccination against yellow fever for citizens traveling to some countries in South America and Africa.According to the World Health Organization, the number of people infected with this disease has recently increased significantly.

The Federal Service for the Surveillance of Consumer Rights and Human Welfare told MK that deadly mosquito bites have become more frequent in Guinea, Brazil and the Gambia, while yellow fever has been reported in Mali for the first time in 10 years. At the same time, only 16 countries require tourists to have an international certificate of vaccination.Another 27 countries with outbreaks of the epidemic are limited to recommendations for vaccination before entering the country. These are Angola, Burundi, Gambia, Guinea, Guinea-Bissau, Kenya, Mauritania, Nigeria, Senegal, Sierra Leone, Somalia, Sudan, Uganda, Tanzania, Chad, Equatorial Guinea, Bolivia, Brazil, Venezuela, Guyana, Guiana, Colorado Panama, Peru, Suriname, Trinidad and Ecuador. In short, tourists going there must take care of their own safety themselves. And the only way of salvation that medicine can offer people today is a vaccine that works for 10 years.

Up-to-date information on the cost of this service can be obtained from the List of medical services provided by BUZ UR “URC AIDS and IZ” for a fee.

Yellow Fever | Médecins Sans Frontières

According to WHO, 34 countries in Africa and 13 countries in Central and South America are or have yellow fever endemic regions.

An estimated 84,000 to 170,000 new cases of yellow fever occur each year and up to 60,000 deaths.

The consequences of yellow fever

Yellow fever is an acute viral hemorrhagic disease transmitted by infected mosquitoes. According to WHO, 34 countries in Africa and 13 countries in Central and South America are endemic or have yellow fever endemic regions. An estimated 84,000 to 170,000 new cases of yellow fever occur each year and up to 60,000 deaths.

In many cases, the disease is asymptomatic, and if symptoms are present, they usually disappear without a trace within 3-4 days.Nevertheless, in a small proportion of patients, after the first symptoms disappear, a second, more severe and toxic phase of the disease begins. Half of those who enter the toxic phase die within 7-10 days.

In a number of African countries, there has been a sharp decline in the coverage of the population with systematic vaccinations, which can prevent and reduce the epidemic of yellow fever. As a result, outbreaks have recently occurred in Angola and the Democratic Republic of the Congo.

MSF Activities

In the late 19th century and early 20th century, yellow fever raged in many parts of the world. More recently, a highly effective vaccine was found, and systematic vaccination campaigns have significantly reduced yellow fever epidemics.

However, declining vaccination coverage has led to recent outbreaks.

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Angola experienced an outbreak of yellow fever in December 2015, spreading to the neighboring Democratic Republic of the Congo and potentially threatening other countries. Immunizing the population with a highly effective yellow fever vaccine is a key element in controlling the spread of the disease. But the vaccine is scarce, and therefore it should be used wisely.

Efforts are already underway to replenish the world’s vaccine stocks, and yet there is a risk that an outbreak in a densely populated region of the world will wipe out the last stocks.

To prevent the spread of the virus, MSF is helping WHO and the Ministries of Health in Angola and the Democratic Republic of the Congo with vaccinations, treating patients, vector control (killing insects and their breeding grounds) and organizing training.

Since mid-February 2016, MSF has been supporting the Angolan Ministry of Health in treating yellow fever patients. In addition, MSF teams directly treat patients in the capital city of Luanda (Kapalanga Hospital) and Huambo, Huila and Benguela provinces.

In the Democratic Republic of the Congo, MSF vaccinated 350,000 residents in the town of Matadi on the border with Angola. In the DRC capital, Kinshasa, and Central Congo province, MSF teams have organized trainings for health workers on treating yellow fever patients and have begun preparing individual hospitals to receive patients.

The control of vectors of the disease is also carried out: to destroy insects and their breeding grounds, together with the laid eggs, houses are disinfected by spraying or fumigation.

In 2016, MSF vaccinated 1,167,000 people to deal with outbreaks.

Vaccination for travelers in Moscow

Recommended vaccinations for tourists

List of the most famous diseases that active travelers are susceptible to:

  • Viral hepatitis groups A and B.
    You can get it through dirty hands (hepatitis A), hepatitis B is spread through blood transfusions, wounds, or surgery.It is useful to put the vaccine both when traveling in Russia and when traveling abroad. The hepatitis B vaccine is now on the mandatory vaccination calendar.
  • Typhoid fever.
    A disease that affects the intestines and the human nervous system. There is a high likelihood of misdiagnosis and subsequent treatment. The greatest risk of getting sick is among tourists visiting countries in Africa and Asia, Latin America and India. The vaccine is valid for 5 years.
  • Meningococcal infection virus.
    It is transmitted by airborne droplets. The affected areas are the Sahara Desert, the UAE and Saudi Arabia. The vaccination is done every five years.
  • Tick-borne encephalitis.
    Infection – through a tick bite. The disease gradually affects the brain, which leads to complications in the form of lethargy and dementia. The main zones of encephalitis distribution are Siberia, the Volga region or the Far East. You can find a variety of the virus in European countries – parks and green areas in Austria, the Czech Republic and Switzerland.The vaccination procedure is carried out several months before the trip, since the vaccination is given in two stages (the difference between them is 30 days). In some cases, an accelerated vaccine prophylaxis procedure is possible.
  • Poliomyelitis.
    A disease that can affect the nervous system, up to paralysis. Infection occurs through food and water, you can get sick after being in an open reservoir. The risk zone is the countries of the African continent and all of Asia.

Vaccination for children

When married couples or individual tourist groups with children travel abroad, it is worth remembering that they must be vaccinated according to the unified Vaccination Schedule.

Children from 1 year old should be vaccinated according to a quick scheme: against hepatitis B – 3 vaccinations (interval – a month), DTP – 3 vaccinations (interval – a month, revaccination procedure – six months), poliomyelitis – 3 vaccines (monthly interval).

If you are planning a trip to a country where measles infection is observed, then it is worth giving the child a vaccine (for children 6 months and older). For children over 1 year old, vaccinated once – the 2nd dose of the active vaccine.

All missing vaccines are assigned to schoolchildren who have previously been fully vaccinated.The vaccination certificate must indicate the date and type of manipulation performed.

Preparing for vaccination before departure

The process of leaving for another country rarely leaves enough free time, so tourists should think about getting all vaccinations in advance. The last vaccine is given no later than one month before the departure date.

Sometimes it is possible to carry out the procedure in a shorter time frame, shortening the interval between the vaccinations already received, in order to prepare documents for vacation or business travel in time.For this, the doctor creates an individual calendar.

Both adults and children may need proof of all necessary vaccinations. The certificate of vaccination acts as it (it necessarily includes data on the presence of vaccination against yellow fever).