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Why Do I Feel Depressed When I Have My Period? (for Teens)

When my period comes, I feel ill and depressed. I don’t want to do anything. My period is heavy and I don’t go to school because of the cramps. It rules my life and I can’t go out at all. Please help.

It’s normal to have the blues or feel sick before and during a period. As hormone levels rise and fall during a girl’s menstrual cycle, it can affect the way she feels, both physically and emotionally. This is known as premenstrual syndrome (PMS) and it can make a girl feel like hiding in bed with the covers over her head.

Luckily, you can do a few things to ease PMS symptoms. Try eating a balanced diet with lots of fresh fruits and vegetables and cutting back on processed foods like chips and crackers. Reduce the amount of salt you eat and drink more water. Say no to caffeine and yes to foods with calcium and whole grains. And get plenty of sleep at night.

Occasionally, PMS symptoms might include feelings of extreme depression and hopelessness. If this is the case, speak with your doctor — it may be a sign something else is going on.

Heavy bleeding every so often, especially at the beginning of your period, is probably nothing to worry about. But if you soak through a pad or a tampon in an hour or less, call your health care provider, who can check you out to make sure everything’s OK.

Unfortunately, cramps are a fact of life for many girls. Over-the-counter pain relievers can be helpful. Try taking them as soon as you notice cramps starting instead of waiting for the pain to get bad. Regular exercise can make cramps less painful and help with PMS symptoms. Plus, exercise is a good mood lifter. Some girls find that heating pads or warm baths can also help with cramps. If your periods are still painful, talk to your doctor for other suggestions.

PMS, occasional heavy bleeding, and cramps can all be part of normal periods. But when your period keeps you home from school or prevents you from doing stuff with your friends, talk to your doctor. He or she can suggest ways to help you feel better.

*Names have been changed to protect user privacy.

PMS Emotions: Mood Swings In Women During Period

The most common emotional PMS symptoms are:

  • Irritability
  • Anger
  • Depression
  • Crying
  • Oversensitivity
  • Feeling nervous and anxious
  • Alternating sadness and rage

Getting to the Root of PMS Mood Swings

Although researchers don’t know exactly why PMS strikes, these emotional disturbances are thought to be connected to the rise and fall of hormones, specifically estrogen, throughout the menstrual cycle. Estrogen levels begin to rise slowly just after a women’s period ends, and it peak two weeks later. “Then estrogen levels drop like a rock and begin rising slowly before dropping again just before menstruation starts,” explains Livoti. These hormonal peaks and valleys are thought to cause mood swings and other menstrual symptoms.

“Stressful situations, such as a divorce or job loss, don’t cause PMS, but they can make it worse,” adds Livoti. Some research suggests that female hormones interact with brain chemicals in a way that can affect mood in those with PMS. “Reduced levels of estrogen during the luteal phase of the cycle could possibly cause a drop in serotonin, although more research needs to be done to confirm this link,” says Livoti. Lower serotonin levels are associated with depression, irritability, and carbohydrate cravings, all of which can be PMS symptoms.

Severe PMS: Beyond Run-Of-The-Mill Mood Swings

Between 3 and 8 percent of menstruating women have an even more severe condition called premenstrual dysphoric disorder (PMDD). These women become seriously depressed a week or two before their periods. “With PMDD, major depression and extreme irritation are the foremost symptoms,” says Livoti. “PMS is milder and usually involves physical menstrual symptoms, as well as emotional ones.”

Women with a family history of depression or who have previously experienced postpartum depression are at increased risk for PMDD, which is included on the American Psychiatric Association’s list of mental illnesses (the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders). To be diagnosed with PMDD, a woman must have at least five of the following symptoms around the time of her period:

  • Deep sadness or despair, with possible suicidal thoughts
  • Lasting irritability and anger, which may include frequent outbursts at loved ones
  • Feelings of tension or anxiety
  • Panic attacks
  • Mood swings
  • Crying
  • Disinterest in daily activities and relationships
  • Trouble thinking or focusing
  • Feeling out of control or overwhelmed
  • Fatigue
  • Low energy
  • Food cravings or binge eating

These symptoms will disappear shortly after menstruation starts. “If they last all month, that’s not PMDD,” says Livoti. Instead, another mental or physical illness may be the cause.

Treating PMS Symptoms, From Mild to Severe

For many women, lifestyle changes can be a successful part of PMS treatment. For women with severe PMS, medication may be needed. The following PMS treatment options can help stabilize mood swings and improve a woman’s emotional health in the weeks before menstruation:

  • Exercise. Physical activity can lift moods and improve depression. It’s believed that endorphins — feel-good brain chemicals that are released during exercise — may help counteract some of the hormone changes that may trigger severe PMS. “Exercising can also boost energy and help with cramps and bloating, which may help you feel better,” says Livoti. Aerobic exercise such as walking, running, bicycling, or swimming is recommended.
  • Small, frequent meals. Eating small meals throughout the day rather than two or three big meals may also help ease PMS symptoms. A large meal, particularly one high in carbohydrates, can cause blood sugar swings, which could worsen PMS. “Low blood sugar may contribute to crying spells and irritability that are often seen in women with severe PMS,” says Livoti. Try to eat six small meals a day to keep your blood sugar levels steady.
  • Calcium supplements. In a 2009 double-blind clinical trial of college women with PMS, those who supplemented their diet with 500 milligrams of calcium twice daily had significantly less depression and fatigue than those who didn’t. In fact, “a number of studies have shown that getting plenty of calcium can help ease mood changes related to severe PMS, although we don’t know exactly why,” says Livoti.
  • Avoid caffeine, alcohol, and sweets. Staying away from coffee and other caffeinated drinks for two weeks before your period may make a difference in your mood because caffeine can increase anxiety, nervousness, and insomnia. Cutting down on alcohol may also be helpful because alcohol acts as a depressant. And steering clear of candy, soda, and other sugary foods, especially in the week before your period, may help ease severe PMS symptoms by preventing mood swings associated with blood sugar fluctuations.
  • Stress management. Stress can make severePMS symptoms worse, so finding ways to give stress the slip can help treatPMS. Try relaxation techniques such as meditation, deep breathing, and yoga. Individual or group therapy has also been found to be an effectivePMS treatment for women with severe mood swings and debilitating emotional changes.

    Antidepressants called selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) that change serotonin levels in the brain have been shown to be helpful for women with severe PMS and PMDD. In fact, the U.S. Food and Drug Administration has approved three of these medicines — Zoloft (sertraline), Prozac or Sarafem (fluoxetine), and Paxil CR (paroxetine) — for the treatment of PMDD.

    Talk to your doctor about which of these approaches might work best for any moderate or severe emotional PMS symptoms you’re experiencing.

What Is Premenstrual Dysphoric Disorder (PMDD)?

“I always know when it’s starting,” says Lily, 17, sighing. “I feel tired and sad and fat. I get angry and upset at the smallest, dumbest stuff. I know it’s not real, but it still feels so bad.”

For most women and teenage girls, periods are just a part of life. At worst, a monthly inconvenience, at best a reminder our bodies are on track, working like they’re supposed to be. But for girls like Lily who have premenstrual dysphoric disorder (PMDD), the onset of menstruation can feel like a week of total hell.

What is PMDD?

Like its better known but less extreme cousin, premenstrual syndrome (PMS), PMDD is a constellation of physical and emotional symptoms. They occur during what’s called the luteal phase of the menstrual cycle, right before your period, when the uterus preps for the possibility of pregnancy with a surge of hormones.

Symptoms of PMDD and PMS often appear similar and include:

Symptoms typically start 5-8 days before your period but can begin earlier, and go away once the period begins. Onset of PMDD can be any time after puberty.

So what’s the difference?

An estimated 75 percent of women and girls experience some emotional and physical discomfort around their periods, but the impact of PMS on their lives is usually relatively mild. The symptoms of PMDD are far more severe and often cause problems that persist even after the tampon box is back in the cabinet.

“We all can have mood swings before the start of our periods, but in the case of PMDD we’re talking about feeling like a different person,” says Dr. Stephanie Samar, a clinical psychologist who works with young women at the Child Mind Institute. It’s only PMDD if it is seriously impairing.

For example:

  • A girl with PMS might feel tired or a little out of it. A girl with PMDD might be almost unable to get out of bed, or struggle to concentrate on even simple tasks.
  • A girl with PMS might feel grumpy or frustrated. A girl with PMDD might feel moments of irrational rage, find herself fighting with loved ones out of nowhere, or end up damanging friendships or romantic relationships.
  • A girl with PMS might be more emotional and find herself crying at things like sad commercials. A girl with PMDD is likely to experience feelings more akin to a major depressive episode, including feelings of hopelessness, worthlessness, misery and even suicidal thoughts.

PMDD is caused by a heightened sensitivity to the hormones estrogen and progesterone, both of which spike during the week before menstruation. In 2017, researchers at the National Institutes of Health found evidence that PMDD is likely genetic. Girls whose mothers have a history of severe premenstrual symptoms are more likely to have PMDD.


When PMDD is in full swing, girls are extra sensitive and respond more rashly and more intensely to anything that reads as rejection. Something like an offhand comment from her boyfriend or a sibling’s unwillingness to turn off the TV can trigger a major meltdown.

One of the most difficult aspects of PMDD is that though the symptoms that cause these blowups disappear once girls get their periods, the resulting conflicts, academic difficulties and interpersonal problems don’t. “I’d get my period and feel okay again,” Lily says, “but by then I’d done so much damage it almost didn’t matter. I felt better, but the problems were still there.”

Tracking symptoms

After a particularly awful premenstrual week during which she’d missed an important homework assignment, blown off swim practice, and “fought with basically everyone,” Lily’s mother suggested they talk to her gynecologist. The doctor told Lily to start recording her symptoms.

Tracking is the first step to determining whether someone has PMDD. To make a diagnosis, experts require tracking for a minimum of two cycles showing consistent patterns in behavior and mood. If you think your daughter might have PMDD, work with her to mark down symptoms: what they are, how bad they get, and how long they last. Paper calendars work well, and many period tracking apps have a function that allows users to record symptoms. Teens can track by themselves, or parents can do it with them.

Talk to your doctor

 Once two or more cycles have been tracked, make an appointment to speak to a gynecologist. Let the doctor know that you think your daughter may have PMDD, and share the tracking information you’ve gathered. Since PMDD is still a relatively new diagnosis, some doctors may need time to research the best treatment options for your child.

It is important to find someone who’ll be thoughtful and thorough, Dr. Samar notes. “If you believe this diagnosis fits but your doctor isn’t listening or is minimizing your worries, consider asking for a second opinion,” she adds. “You need to find someone who understands your concerns and takes them seriously.”


 In some cases, doctors may recommend medication as a treatment for PMDD. Birth control pills are often the first choice because they can help regulate and balance premenstrual hormonal shifts. In some cases, doctors may prescribe antidepressants. If your child already takes antidepressants, her doctor may recommend increasing the dosage during the week when her symptoms are most intense.

Planning and managing

 The same information you collected in tracking can also make it easy to do some preemptive scaffolding at home. “Knowing how your PMDD affects you is powerful information,” says Dr. Samar. “Planning ahead can help minimize the impact.”

Planning how she’ll manage stress, interpersonal interactions and physical symptoms while she’s feeling good can help her navigate difficult situations when she’s feeling bad.

  • If she often gets into fights, she might avoid making big social plans, like parties or dates. If problems do come up, she might make an agreement to revisit upsets or conflicts when she’s feeling like herself again.
  • Stock the house with healthy food and plan to drink plenty of water.
  • Alcohol can often make symptoms worse. If she’s of age, she could pledge not to drink until after she gets her period.
  • Encourage exercise. “We know exercise is a big help when it comes to PMDD,” says Dr. Samar. Help her get moving. Signing up for a yoga class or planning to go for run can help relieve symptoms and help her feel more relaxed.
  • Girls can also use cognitive behavioral techniques to help manage some of the more unruly emotions, says Dr. Samar. “Try to challenge thoughts and emotions you know might be out of proportion where you can,” she suggests. “Slow down and give yourself a second to say, Am I responding this way because I’m really this upset? Or am I responding this way because I’m more sensitive right now?”

The more girls build and practice coping skills, the better they’ll become at mitigating the impact of PMDD, something that will become even more important as they grow up, says Dr. Samar. “PMDD doesn’t go away. So these are skills that they’ll need all their lives.”

Taking it seriously

 “This is a serious disorder, but historically we haven’t treated it as such,” says Dr. Samar. “A lot of women and girls who experience PMDD aren’t even aware that it’s out of the realm of normal functioning.” Lily counts herself among them. Since hitting puberty at 13 she’d assumed her symptoms were a normal, if horrible, part of having her period. “I thought this was what everyone went through,” she says, “and this was just how it had to be.”

One of the first things girls with PMDD — and their families and doctors — need to understand is that they can’t just “get over it,” Dr. Samar explains. “This is organic. It’s not something you can choose not to feel.”

Parents should take care to validate their daughters’ experience, even while trying to help them learn to manage their emotions in a healthier way. “Don’t say, ‘Oh you’re just saying that because you’re on your period, you’ll be over it soon,’ ” she explains. Instead, she suggests parents instead try something more along the lines of, “I can see how upset you’re feeling. Let’s take a break now and talk this over when you’re feeling a little calmer.

Finding a way forward

For Lily, finding out that she had PMDD was a lifesaver. “Before I understood what was going on it was like I’d spend three weeks feeling more and more panicky, like oh, it’s coming, and the fourth just losing my mind.” But after being diagnosed, she says, things have become brighter and easier. Lily’s gynecologist put her on birth control and she’s learned some techniques to help her manage her emotions. “Before it was like a tsunami,” she says, “uncontrollable and just totally devastating. Now it’s more like little waves. It’s not perfect, but it is a lot easier and I can deal with that.”


Related: How to Help Girls With ADHD Manage Periods

My daughter with anxiety issues is worried about getting her period. What can I do?

Mood Disorders and Teenage Girls

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Premenstrual Dysphoric Disorder: Symptoms & Treatment


What is premenstrual dysphoric disorder (PMDD)?

Premenstrual dysphoric disorder (PMDD) is a more serious form of premenstrual syndrome (PMS). PMS causes bloating, headaches and breast tenderness a week or two before your period.

With PMDD, you might have PMS symptoms along with extreme irritability, anxiety or depression. These symptoms improve within a few days after your period starts, but they can be severe enough to interfere with your life.

How common is PMDD?

PMDD affects up to 10% of women who have periods.

Who might get PMDD?

You may be more prone to PMDD if you have:

Symptoms and Causes

What causes PMDD?

Experts don’t know why some women get PMDD. Decreasing levels of estrogen and progesterone hormones after ovulation and before menstruation may trigger symptoms. Serotonin, a brain chemical that regulates mood, hunger and sleep, may also play a role. Serotonin levels, like hormone levels, change throughout your menstrual cycle.

What are the symptoms of PMDD?

PMDD symptoms appear a week or two before menstruation and go away within a few days after your period starts. In addition to PMS symptoms, you may have:

Diagnosis and Tests

How is PMDD diagnosed?

Your healthcare provider will take a medical history and evaluate your symptoms. You may need to track your symptoms through one or two menstrual cycles. To diagnose PMDD, your provider will look for five or more PMDD symptoms, including one mood-related symptom. Your provider will rule out or diagnose other conditions such as anxiety, depression or reproductive disorders.

Management and Treatment

How is PMDD managed or treated?

Your healthcare provider may recommend one or more of these treatments to help manage PMDD:

What are the complications of PMDD?

Untreated PMDD can lead to depression and, in severe cases, suicide. The disorder can cause severe emotional distress and negatively affect relationships and careers.

If you’re experiencing suicidal thoughts, call the National Suicide Prevention Lifeline at 1.800. 273.8255. This national network of local crisis centers provides 24/7 free and confidential emotional support to people in suicidal crisis or emotional distress.


How can I prevent PMDD?

Treating existing depression or anxiety may make it less likely that PMS could become PMDD. But PMDD could be related to the way your hormones work, and you might not be able to prevent it. In that case, treatment can bring relief.

Outlook / Prognosis

What is the prognosis (outlook) for people with PMDD?

With treatment, most people with PMDD get relief from their symptoms and are able to enjoy life more fully. Talking to a mental health specialist or joining a support group may also help.

Living With

When should I call my healthcare provider?

You should call your healthcare provider if you experience:

  • Extreme anxiety and panic attacks.
  • Feeling like you’ve lost control.
  • Severe depression or suicidal thoughts.
  • Thoughts of harming yourself or others.
  • Uncontrolled anger.

What questions should I ask my healthcare provider?

If you have PMDD, you may want to ask your healthcare provider:

  • Why did I get PMDD?
  • What is the best treatment for me?
  • What are the treatment side effects?
  • Should I change my birth control?
  • What lifestyle changes can I make to manage symptoms?
  • Am I at risk for major depression or suicide?
  • What should I do if I feel seriously depressed or suicidal?
  • Should I look out for signs of complications?

A note from Cleveland Clinic

PMDD is a serious disorder that can negatively affect your life, relationships and career. Women with PMDD may harm themselves or others. If you consistently experience severe depression and anxiety or other PMDD symptoms in the weeks leading up to your period, seek help from your healthcare provider. Medications can get hormone or serotonin levels in check so that you feel more like yourself. PMDD isn’t a problem you have to live with. Don’t put off getting the medical and mental health care you need.

Premenstrual Syndrome – What Is PMS? Physical and Emotional Symptoms

You probably get some signs that your period is coming. For most women, it’s no big deal — maybe tender breasts or a taste for sweets. But for others, the days before their period are harder. If it messes with your daily life, you might have premenstrual syndrome (PMS).

Your period is a natural part of your life. And you can do anything you would do any other time of the month. If PMS is a problem for you, there are ways to manage it.

PMS is a group of changes that can affect you on many levels. They can be physical, emotional, or behavioral. The changes come 1 to 2 weeks before your period. Once your period starts or soon after it starts, they’ll go away.


Most women have at least one sign of PMS each month. But it’s not the same for everyone. It can change as you get older. It can be hard to know if you just have a few symptoms before your period, or if it’s really PMS.

One way to think about it is to ask the question: “Do these changes get in the way of my regular life? Do they cause trouble at work or with family and friends?” If you answer yes, it might be PMS. Another way to know is if you have symptoms on the 5 days before your period, for 3 months in a row.

Women with PMS deal with it in lots of ways. You can make changes to improve your diet, sleep, and exercise. You can also learn ways to relax their mind and body. If what you try doesn’t seem to work, you could talk to your doctor.

What It’s Like

PMS shows up in many different ways. Everything in this list could be a sign of PMS. But most women get just a few of these, not all of them.

Physical signs

Emotional signs

  • Tense or anxious
  • Depressed
  • Crying
  • Mood swings
  • Can’t sleep
  • Don’t want to be with people
  • Feel overwhelmed or out of control
  • Angry outbursts

Behavioral signs

  • Forget things
  • Loss of mental focus
  • Tired

Girls and women who still get their period can get PMS. But it’s most common in women who:


Even though PMS is common, doctors don’t know exactly what causes it. It probably has to do with changes in your body chemistry around the time of your period.

Some conditions affect PMS, but don’t cause it. PMS can be brought on, or can get worse if you:

  • Smoke
  • Are under lots of stress
  • Don’t exercise
  • Don’t sleep enough
  • Drink too much alcohol or eat too much salt, red meat, or sugar
  • Are depressed

Women with other health problems may find that those problems get worse before their period. Some of those are migraine headaches, asthma, and allergies.

What You Can Do

There are lots of ways to manage PMS. Even if you can’t totally fix it, it’s nice to know you have the power to help yourself. These ideas might help:

  • Exercise about 30 minutes a day.
  • Eat healthy foods like whole grains, fruits, and vegetables.
  • Try to get enough calcium from foods (think dairy, green leafy vegetables, and canned salmon).
  • Avoid salt, caffeine, and alcohol.
  • Don’t smoke.
  • Get plenty of sleep.
  • Work to lower stress.
  • Track your moods and symptoms in a journal.
  • Try over-the-counter pain relievers like ibuprofen, acetaminophen, or naproxen. Be sure to follow the dosing instructions exactly as it says on the label.

Some women take vitamins and minerals like folic acid, magnesium, vitamin B-6, vitamin E, and calcium with vitamin D. Others find that herbal remedies help. If you take any vitamins or supplements, check with your doctor first to make sure it’s safe for you.

What Your Doctor Can Do

If you’ve tried different things, but still have bad PMS, it’s probably time to get help. Make an appointment with your doctor or gynecologist. They’ll ask about your symptoms, your health, and medicines you take. They may take some blood tests to make sure the problem is PMS and not something else.

Your doctor may prescribe medicine. Birth control pills sometimes help with headache and cramps. Antidepressants (medicines that help treat depression) may be an option. Some women take medicine to get rid of extra fluid that makes them feel bloated. Doctors call these diuretics (water pills).

Your doctor might suggest talk therapy. It’s a way to feel better and learn new skills to overcome challenges by talking with a mental health counselor.

If you have notes about your symptoms, bring it to the appointment. Plan ahead about the questions you want to ask. That way you’ll get the best help from your doctor.

Premenstrual syndrome | You and Your Hormones from the Society for Endocrinology

Alternative names for premenstrual syndrome

PMS; premenstrual tension; PMT; premenstrual dysphoric disorder (severe PMS)

What is premenstrual syndrome?

Woman pressing her abdomen to relieve cramps due to premenstrual syndrome.

Most women experience some symptoms in the days leading up to their monthly period (i. e. during the second half of the menstrual cycle). Each woman’s symptoms are different and can vary month to month. If these symptoms, which can manifest as physical, behavioural and psychological, recur and are severe enough to impact on the woman’s daily life they are defined as premenstrual syndrome. Symptoms usually disappear or significantly decrease by the end of menstruation. More severe PMS is known as premenstrual dysphoric disorder (PMDD).

The first day of the menstrual cycle is defined as the first day of a monthly period. Around mid-cycle – approximately day 14 if cycles are regular – ovulation occurs. The empty follicle that has nurtured the egg forms a corpus luteum, which produces high levels of progesterone and lower levels of oestradiol to prepare the womb for pregnancy if conception has occurred. If the egg is not fertilised then the corpus luteum begins to break down and the production of progesterone and oestradiol begins to fall. This starts about a week before the next period.  

What causes premenstrual syndrome?

The exact cause of premenstrual syndrome is not known however hormonal changes are thought to trigger the symptoms. After ovulation, when the corpus luteum begins to break down, the decline in progesterone levels towards the end of the menstrual cycle affects various chemicals in the brain (such as serotonin). Women with premenstrual syndrome do not have abnormal levels of hormones but they appear to be more sensitive to the effects of progesterone and oestrogen.

The degree to which these processes affect a woman will be influenced by her psychological and social wellbeing at that particular time in her life. 

What are the signs and symptoms of premenstrual syndrome?

Up to 150 symptoms have been identified as part of premenstrual syndrome. The most common physical symptoms include breast tenderness, feeling bloated, headaches, acne, abdominal pain and fatigue. The most commonly experienced psychological symptoms include mood swings, irritability, anxiety, depression, feeling tearful, upset/emotional and difficulty in concentrating.

How common is premenstrual syndrome?

It is difficult to estimate how many women are affected. Up to 80% of women are thought to experience premenstrual symptoms while premenstrual syndrome itself is believed to affect between 5% and 25% of women in the reproductive age group. An estimated 5% to 8% of women suffer from severe premenstrual syndrome also known as premenstrual dysphoric disorder.

Is premenstrual syndrome inherited?

Early research has suggested that there may be a genetic-predisposition to developing premenstrual syndrome; however, this has not been proven. More research is needed to clarify whether premenstrual syndrome runs in families.

How is premenstrual syndrome diagnosed?

Diagnosis of premenstrual syndrome is based on the symptoms experienced by the patient and the point during the menstrual cycle at which the symptoms are experienced. In order to make a diagnosis, women are encouraged to keep a diary of their symptoms over the course of at least two consecutive months.

How is premenstrual syndrome treated?

Because the exact cause of premenstrual syndrome is not yet understood treatment is focused on providing relief from symptoms. Management of premenstrual syndrome follows a tiered approach and each treatment option may take up to three months to make a noticeable difference. Initial management involves encouraging a woman to lead a healthy lifestyle, in terms of a balanced diet, regular exercise and minimising stress, as well as avoiding salt, caffeine and alcohol.

There are a number of herbal and vitamin supplements that are suggested for treatment of premenstrual syndrome. Some small studies have suggested that a good intake of the B vitamins thiamine and riboflavin as well as calcium and vitamin D may reduce the risk of premenstrual syndrome. Chasteberry (Vitex agnus castus) supplements are also supported by small studies. Further research is required to clarify the benefits of all of these. A woman should consult her doctor or dietician to discuss a regime that would be appropriate for her.

Cognitive behavioural therapy (a specific type of talking therapy) has also been shown to be of benefit in the management of premenstrual syndrome.

Medical treatments fall into two main groups: hormonal treatments and selective serotonin receptor inhibitors (or SSRIs).

Hormonal treatments – premenstrual syndrome can be alleviated in a proportion of women by using hormonal contraceptives that suppress ovulation. There are a number of ways to do this. The woman may be given oestrogen patches with progestogen (progesterone) in the form of tablets or a steroid-impregnated intrauterine device, called Mirena. Sometimes the combined oral contraceptive pill may be used. If a woman’s symptoms are very severe, she may be referred to a gynaecologist and be given another hormone treatment called a gonadotrophin-releasing hormone analogue. Since the hormonal methods used to ameliorate symptoms of premenstrual syndrome are also contraceptive, they are not appropriate if the woman is planning a pregnancy.

Selective serotonin receptor inhibitors – these are a group of medications that are used to treat depression (by elevating levels of the neurotransmitter serotonin) and have also been found to be very effective in the treatment of premenstrual syndrome. Unlike in depression, it is possible to take the medication just when experiencing symptoms, i.e. just in the second half of the menstrual cycle. This group of antidepressants may be harmful in pregnancy, so women that are planning a pregnancy should seek advice on treatment options from their doctor.

Are there any side-effects to the treatment?

Vitamin supplements and complementary therapies to relieve the symptoms of premenstrual syndrome can cause side-effects; for example, calcium supplements can cause indigestion.

With hormonal treatments, sometimes a woman can be sensitive to the hormone and experience side-effects such as nausea or breast tenderness.

Some women feel nauseated or drowsy when they first take selective serotonin receptor inhibitors but these side-effects usually settle.  This medication can also affect libido (sexual drive). 

Women should discuss any concerns about the treatment options or side-effects mentioned with their doctor.

What are the longer-term implications of premenstrual syndrome?

The frequency and severity of premenstrual syndrome varies from woman to woman and in each individual woman from month to month.

The greatest prevalence appears to be among women aged 30 to 50 but women can also experience a worsening of their symptoms around the time of their menopause (attributed to the erratic fluctuations in hormone levels at this time). Also it is a common time for a woman to experience stress in her life, for example as children leave home and ageing parents become more dependent. Hormone replacement therapy (HRT) can be used to treat symptoms due to the menopause and has a variable effect on symptoms experienced as part of premenstrual syndrome, which can occur during the perimenopausal period.

Premenstrual syndrome should resolve when the woman has passed her menopause as the woman no longer has a menstrual cycle with the associated cyclic release of steroid hormones from the ovary. Likewise, during pregnancy there will be no cyclical symptoms. However, women may experience similar symptoms such as abdominal bloating, breast tenderness and mood swings during pregnancy as levels of progesterone are high.  

Are there patient support groups for people with premenstrual syndrome?

The National Association for Premenstrual Syndrome (NAPS) may be able to provide advice and support to patients and their families.

Last reviewed: Apr 2019

Physical and Emotional Challenges Through the Menstrual Cycle

The menstrual cycle is governed by hormones that rise and fall in rhythmic patterns, influencing the variety of physical sensations and emotional shifts that you may experience for several days before menstruation and sometimes during the first few days of menstrual flow. Hormonal fluctuations are normal and are not a sign of a hormone imbalance.

Some people report not feeling very different, or experiencing increased energy and creativity. Among the more negative changes are mood swings, fatigue, depression, bloating, breast tenderness, and headaches. These premenstrual experiences may be mild, but sometimes they can disrupt our lives significantly.

Mood Changes and Depression

It’s not uncommon to experience mood changes before your period, including some level of depression and emotional irritability. Sometimes issues that have been with us all along become more pronounced at this time. Or they might be authentic expressions of feelings you’re not usually comfortable enough or secure enough to show. The intensity of these symptoms and frustrations may be completely manageable or feel intolerable.

Certain self-care and nonmedical techniques can sometimes help with mood changes. Approaches that have proved useful in a few studies include exercise, calcium, vitamin B6 supplementation (although too much B6 can have serious side effects), and the herb Vitex agnus-castus (chasteberry).

Approaches that some people find helpful and are still under study include dietary changes such as limiting salt, sugar, caffeine (especially coffee), red meat, and alcohol; massage; reflexology; chiropractic manipulation; biofeedback; yoga; guided imagery; photic stimulation; acupuncture; and bright light therapy.

A small but significant number of women experience extreme premenstrual depression that interferes with work, social interactions, and general well-being. In these instances, recognition and care are critical. If premenstrual depression interferes noticeably with your daily life (you don’t want to get out of bed, you miss work, or you have suicidal thoughts) and non-medical approaches are not helpful, seek advice from your primary care provider, your ob‑gyn, or a mental health professional.

Medical treatments for premenstrual depression include using hormonal contraception continuously, so that there is no menstruation, or taking antidepressant medications called SSRIs. However, there are questions about the effectiveness and safety of SSRIs. (For more information, read Depression and Other Mental Health Challenges During Pregnancy.)


The term “PMS,” which stands for premenstrual syndrome, is often used with words like “symptoms” and “treatments,” as though premenstrual changes are an illness. This does not reflect the real and significant variation in experiences.

Similarly, there is debate about the term and diagnosis “premenstrual dysphoric disorder” (PMDD), which is used to describe a severe and rare form of premenstrual depression. Some critics argue that the term, created by the American Psychiatric Association in 1993, pathologizes menstrual changes by giving women the label of a specific psychiatric “disorder,” and reinforces the idea that we should not be in positions involving great authority or stress.

Pharmaceutical companies whose medications are approved by the FDA for anyone with a PMDD diagnosis sometimes create marketing materials that encourage overuse of this diagnosis. The Bayer pharmaceutical company had to run corrective advertisements to make up for ads that implied that simple irritability and other common premenstrual discomforts were PMDD and should be treated with its birth control pill, Yaz. Its corrective ads explained that PMDD is both rare and severe.

In another instance of the possible overuse of a PMDD diagnosis, the European Medicines Evaluation Agency refused to approve drugs for PMDD, raising concerns that women “with less severe premenstrual symptoms might erroneously receive a diagnosis of PMDD resulting in widespread inappropriate short- and long-term use of fluoxitine [Prozac].”

Severe Cramps (Dysmenorrhea)

I’ve always had cramps during my period and sometimes they made me pretty miserable. When my periods returned after I gave birth, my attitude toward cramps changed. Having felt labor contractions, I had an awareness that the cramping was actually just my muscle contracting. I still have moments when menstrual cramps suck (yay for ibuprofen), but I also have moments when I feel them, tune in, breathe, and feel powerful.

Experiences with menstrual-related cramping varies widely, from no cramps to severe ones. A particular constellation of symptoms, including cramping and often nausea and diarrhea, may be caused by excess production and release of prostaglandins. (One form of prostaglandins, which are hormone-like chemicals found throughout the body, causes contractions of both the uterine and the intestinal muscles.)

With too many prostaglandins, the usually painless rhythmic contractions of the uterus during menstruation become longer and tighter at the tightening phase, keeping oxygen from the muscles. It is this lack of oxygen that we experience as pain. Anticipation often worsens the pain by making us tense up. It’s not clear why some of us have more uterine prostaglandins than others, but this sort of menstrual cramping is actually a sign of normal hormone cycling and ovulation.

There are two types of dysmenorrhea (dis-men-or-EE-yah): primary dysmenorrhea is painful cramping (with or without nausea and diarrhea) not associated with any other pelvic disorder; secondary dysmenorrhea is pain associated with another pelvic problem such as endometriosis, pelvic inflammatory disease, or fibroids. Primary dysmenorrhea is more common and typically starts in the teen years; the pain resolves after a few days of bleeding.

Nonmedical approaches that may help include Chinese herbs provided by an experienced practitioner of Chinese medicine; applying wet or dry heat over the abdomen; taking omega-3 fatty acids; learning to self-apply acupressure points; and taking ginger supplements.

If these methods do not work, consider seeing your healthcare provider. Prescription-strength nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDS) such as ibuprofen, birth control pills, other forms of hormonal contraceptives, and the Mirena intrauterine device, can often diminish severe menstrual cramps.

Extremely Heavy Bleeding

Heavy menstrual bleeding (which may include clots of blood) or bleeding happening outside the normal cyclic menstruation is referred to as abnormal uterine bleeding (AUB). For more information, see Abnormal Uterine Bleeding.

90,000 Emotional integrity during the period of change

HomeAbout the projectNewsEmotional integrity in a period of change

02.11. 2020

What emotions are you afraid of? Anger or fear, anxiety or confusion, guilt or frustration? In fact, there are no good and bad emotions: what we think of an emotion depends on our upbringing and background. We restrain those emotions that are not accepted in our environment, and show those that are allowed to us.In one family, it is not customary to show anger, in another fear, in the third – sympathy. But suppression of emotions leads to emotional exhaustion, stress and even serious illness. In conditions of changes in the external environment, they cause strong tension and, as a result, emotional outbursts. In this material, we will tell how to maintain emotional integrity during a period of change and be the master of your thoughts . Marina Bagaeva, e expert practitioner in the field of personal and team development, shared her advice with us.

Emotions are derivatives of our thoughts, indicators of the state of the body. Therefore, they need to be lived, worked out. It is ineffective to drown out emotions – it will become easier for a while, but negative will grow inside, the body will live in fear. For example, if you suppress anger, your joy will be weaker.


  1. Become aware and draw your emotion. Better to draw with your left hand. You can try drawing with your eyes closed.Learn to recognize your emotions, name them. Is this feeling of pity or disappointment? Guilt or embarrassment?
  2. Shout. In the forest, park or at home in a pillow.
  3. Go for a power massage. Removing the clamps helps you deal with emotions.
  4. Translate emotion into dance. Focus on your emotions and start dancing.
  5. Speak out. It is important to just share the problem without receiving no feedback. If you understand that loved ones will begin to give advice, then it is better to speak out first to an inanimate object or tree in the park.
  6. Do breathing practice. Breathing is associated with the nervous system. Therefore, any breathing exercises will help you calm down.
  7. Write a letter to the person with negative emotions. Become aware of your feelings and write them down on paper. After that, the letter should not be sent, but torn or thrown away.
  8. Colin Tipping’s Radical Forgiveness questionnaire can be used. It will help you feel and accept emotions, separate false feelings, look at the situation from the outside and calmly change it.

There are strong emotions that are scary to live alone. In this case, it is better to consult a specialist.

It is important to listen to yourself, to your body. Describe sensations in a non-judgmental manner. What’s wrong with your body? What is your posture? Is your heart beating hard?

Remember that all emotions are indicators. Ineffective emotions protect our body from negativity. Think about the value of each of your negative emotions. Analyze each of them in terms of benefits. For example, disgust protects against rotten food and unnecessary people. Fear is associated with the instinct of self-preservation, helps to avoid danger and better prepare for the event. Anger helps you understand that someone is breaking your boundaries. Resentment is a request for love, a form of anger for someone who refuses to be angry. It shows that the person is important to you and hurt you. Resentment helps you build boundaries and understand your values. Guilt signals that you are against your own values.Apathy indicates that you need to rest and replenish resources.


  • Become aware of the emotion.
  • Manifest it: report it.
  • Understand what your goal is. What are you going to do?
  • Match purpose and emotion. Perhaps this is the emotion you need!
  • Determine what emotion is needed for this purpose. For example, your colleagues are teasing you. Do you want to keep in touch with them? Then calmness will help.Do you want to defend the borders? It will take some irritation – it will help you calmly express what you don’t like.
  • Choose a method for the desired emotional state. Prepare yourself a list of ways to achieve the desired emotional state in advance.
  • Apply this method.

Reframe your inner message, understand what kind of goal you need and what emotions will help, set the right atmosphere and, of course, start with small steps now.

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90,000 Stages of the patient’s experience of his illness

Psychological consultations for oncologists, anonymity remains
Phone: 8-800 100-0191
(call within Russia – free, consultation round the clock)

Faced with a diagnosis of “oncological disease” is often the strongest stress for any person and activates various psychological reactions. The process of experiencing a disease situation has several regular stages with different emotional and cognitive components.Each of these stages dictates the need to organize interaction with the patient in accordance with these characteristics, therefore, understanding the phases of experiencing the disease is an important tool for establishing contact in the “doctor-patient” system.

E. Kubler-Ross found that most patients go through five main stages of psychological reaction:

  1. Denial or shock
  2. Anger
  3. Bargaining
  4. Depression
  5. Acceptance

1.Disease denial phase. It is very typical: a person does not believe that he has a potentially fatal disease. The patient begins to walk from specialist to specialist, rechecking the data obtained, makes analyzes in various clinics. Alternatively, he may experience a shock reaction and no longer go to the hospital. In this situation, you need to emotionally support the person, but you do not need to change this attitude until it interferes with the treatment.

2. The phase of protest or dysphoric phase.It is characterized by a pronounced emotional reaction, aggression directed at doctors, society, relatives, anger, misunderstanding of the causes of the disease: “Why did this happen to me?” “How could this happen?”. In this case, it is necessary to let the patient speak out, to express all his grievances, indignation, fears, experiences, to present him with a positive picture of the future.

3. The phase of bargaining or auto-suggestive. This stage is characterized by attempts to “bargain” for as much life time as possible from various authorities, a sharp narrowing of a person’s life horizon.During this phase, a person can turn to God, use different ways to prolong life according to the principle: “If I do this, will it prolong my life?” In this case, it is important to provide the person with positive information. So, stories about spontaneous recovery give a good effect during this period. Hope and belief in the success of treatment are a lifeline for a seriously ill person.

4. Depression phase. At this stage, a person understands the gravity of his situation. He gives up, he stops fighting, avoids his usual friends, leaves his usual affairs, closes at home and mourns his fate.During this period, relatives feel guilty. In this situation, you need to give the person confidence that in this situation he is not alone, that the struggle continues for his life, he is supported and worried about him. You can conduct conversations in the field of spirituality, faith, and also psychologically support the patient’s relatives.

5. The fifth stage is the most rational psychological reaction, although not everyone reaches it. Patients mobilize their efforts to continue to live for the benefit of their loved ones despite their illness.

The above stages do not always go in the prescribed order. The patient may stop at some stage or even return to the previous one. However, knowledge of these stages is necessary for a correct understanding of what is happening in the soul of a person who is faced with a serious illness, and for developing an optimal strategy for interacting with him.

Materials used www.psychooncology.ru

90,000 Sleep preserves emotional memories while erasing neutral ones – Scientists

Previous research has shown that sleep plays a key role in procedural memory associated with automatic skills such as playing the piano or typing.Scientists have shown that the formation of such memory is significantly enhanced during periods of sleep. However, the importance of sleep for the work of episodic memory, responsible for storing information about events, remained unclear.

Study co-author Elizabeth Kensinger of Boston College notes that memories usually contain highly emotionally charged elements and associated details that are not emotionally charged.

“We were interested in whether sleep affects all of these elements in the same way, or if it can help us forget some details more quickly and retain others,” says Kensinger.

Scientists conducted an experiment with 88 volunteers – college students. Each of them was shown images with neutral objects on a neutral background (a car parked on the street in front of a store) or an object that evokes negative emotions against a neutral background (a badly damaged car parked on a similar street).

The participants were then asked how they remembered the central object in the picture and the background. In this way, scientists could figure out how emotionally colored (broken car) and neutral aspects of a scene are remembered.

The participants in the experiment were divided into three groups. The first group was asked to recall what was in the pictures shown to them, after 12 hours that they spent awake during the day, the second group recalled what they saw after 12 night hours, some of which they slept. The third group tested their memory just 30 minutes after the presentation of the images.

“Our results showed that the subjects who were awake generally forgot the negatively colored scene, while forgetting both the background and the central object were on the same level,” says Payne.

According to her, those students who were tested after a period of sleep were able to recall in detail an emotionally charged image – a crashed car.

“After a night’s sleep, the participants in the experiment remembered the emotionally loaded object (the wrecked car) in the same way as those who were interviewed 30 minutes after the presentation of the picture. However, little emotionally neutral background (street) was preserved in their memory – it was equally little remembered those who spent the day awake and those who slept, “explains Kensinger.

Payne adds that sleep is “a complex process.” “We could say that sleep” works “at night to determine which memories to keep and which to discard,” the researcher notes.

Emotional lability in children and adults

Emotional lability is mood instability. It arises after stresses, shocks, experiences and other significant events. This phenomenon is characterized by certain symptoms, signs and treatments.

Human emotional lability is a pathology that is important to monitor and treat.An advanced stage can provoke the formation of more serious diseases.

The very word “lability” means mobility and instability. Simply put, the emotions of a particular person are changeable, rushing from one extreme to another, irritating not only the nervous system, but also those around them. In physiology, the term is used to denote the mobility of cells and tissues, their response to stimuli.

In psychiatry and psychology, emotional lability is a property of the psyche to respond with an inadequately expressed affect to an external event.For example, a person with a healthy psyche will calmly react to spilled coffee, and an “unhealthy” person can get very angry.

Increased emotional lability indicates the central manifestation of the disease of personality disorder, and is also a symptom of vascular diseases of the brain and endocrine diseases. Experts note that older people and children are most susceptible to this phenomenon.

The syndrome of emotional lability in children is associated with cognition of the world.Kids under 5 years old actively explore everything around: from the sand under their feet to the contents of upholstered furniture. Their reaction may be inadequately vivid to unexpected results of “research”. For example, a soft and fluffy cat suddenly bit or released its claws. For an adult, this situation will be common, but the child will be frightened and begin to scream. In this case, increased lability does not indicate pathologies and disorders.

For adults with a healthy psyche, increased emotional lability is not typical.Its signs indicate disorders in the body. The most common cause of pathology is stress.

Inadequate expression of emotions is common in many people. Increased emotional lability, which manifests itself regularly, requires specialist intervention and correction. Unfortunately, people often ignore such problems and prefer to call the disease a special character trait.

Unstable emotionality can flare up suddenly, be expressed in an inadequate attitude to certain events, and just as suddenly disappear.Such an effect on the nervous system is exerted by short-term stress. However, similar cases do not signal serious mental health problems.

Disorder of the expression of emotions is formed due to the following reasons:

  • prolonged stress;
  • a situation that traumatizes the psyche;
  • endocrine imbalance;
  • vascular and neurological diseases;
  • mental disorders.

Prolonged stress is the most common cause of increased emotional lability.In critical conditions, the body experiences difficulties with an adequate assessment of the situation, as a result of which intolerance to certain events arises.

A situation that traumatizes the psyche is capable of knocking out any person from the usual way of life. It can be the death of a loved one, a sudden change of place of residence, failure in personal life. Any event that is important for a specific person.

Endocrine imbalances, mental disorders, vascular and neurological diseases are problems in the body that require treatment.A pronounced emotional lability indicates that it is time to see a doctor and check your health.

The concept of emotional lability in adults consists of a definition and symptoms. Timely identification of signs of the disease will allow solving problems at an early stage of development and avoiding great difficulties in the future.

Emotional lability: what is it in adults? Pathology is accompanied by symptoms that can be used to determine the presence of problems.
The very definition of the term suggests that emotional instability is expressed in symptoms. This manifests itself in an inadequate response to familiar events.

Most often, people with the syndrome react sensitively to touching films and books, emotional conversations, small children and animals. They often cry, while they themselves cannot explain for what reason. Yes, kittens and puppies are cute, but not to tears.

Aggression and auto-aggression also take place. In most cases, they flare up abruptly and subside just as abruptly.This symptom is considered a defensive reaction when people try to hide their problems. An unobtrusive question about your well-being or mood can lead to inappropriate yelling and attempts to evade an answer.

Frequent mood swings are a striking symptom. A person can play a game with enthusiasm for 20 minutes, and after a minute decide that all this is nonsense and a waste of time. He may be interested in studying the repertoire of the cinema and planning a visit to the show, and later quit this business and burst into tears.

The next symptom is a passion for work. For example, the constant search for a new hobby and the rapid loss of interest indicate emotional lability. Immersion in the study of the history of Ancient China, a quick change from this hobby to cross-stitching, and then to football – all these are symptoms of pathology.

Let’s highlight the main symptoms of emotional lability syndrome:

  • Frequent mood swings;
  • excessive hobby;
  • aggression;
  • auto-aggression;
  • increased tearfulness.

All these symptoms are characteristic of each person at different periods of life. If you spot them, you don’t need to sound the alarm right away. It is worth thinking about help when they are expressed quite clearly and are repeated regularly.

Pathology in the form of emotional lability is of two types:

  • border;
  • impulsive.

The borderline type is expressed in apathy, frustration, indifference. A person subject to this type of lability expresses emotions weakly and inactively.There may be increased anxiety and distraction.

Impulsive type – antipode to borderline. People suffering from this type of pathology are characterized by a negative mood, anger, addiction to bad habits. Autoaggression can result in suicidal tendencies, so it is important for such people to contact specialists in a timely manner for help in solving problems.

Any type of emotional lability is destructive for the nervous system and mental health, which affects all areas of a person’s life.

Inadequate expression of emotions is characteristic of people of different age categories. If in adults it is a pathology that requires correction, is it the same for children?

First of all, it must be said that a person is exposed to stress at any age. An adult can control his emotional state, but it is more difficult for children.

Adults influence the formation of the child’s psyche and emotional state. Peers matter too, but parents and other loved ones are more important.Children are stressed equally from overprotectiveness and complete indifference on the part of their parents. It is important to strike a balance that will allow the little person to grow into a healthy personality.

Regardless of the upbringing, the child throws tantrums with screaming and rolling on the floor in the most inappropriate places. For the first time, he checks how adults will behave. If this situation repeats itself regularly, the moment is missed. A little manipulator can play too much and enter the role so much that regular tantrums will lead to constant tension of the nervous system, which translates into emotional lability.

Emotional lability: what is it in children – lack of upbringing, pathology or specificity? The regular manifestation of symptoms signals a problem, and a one-time “action” is a routine test of the degree of what is permitted.

As for adolescents, the question remains open. During puberty and alienation from parents, children experience a lot of stress due to changes in body and appearance. In this regard, many of them face problems in communication, in choosing a hobby, in a strategy of behavior.The same algorithm works here: a regular and vivid manifestation of symptoms is a cry for help, rare manifestations are just a period of growing up.

It does not matter who suffers from emotional lability – a child, an adult, a man, a woman, an elderly person. Anyone may need help, so it is important to apply correction methods and seek treatment from specialists.

Emotional lability and its treatment is an important aspect in the formation of the personality of children. Adults also need correction, since the pathology does not disappear by itself.Before starting work with the nervous system, it is necessary to establish the cause of the symptoms.

If this is a regular stress, you will have to find its root cause and try to eliminate it. If this is a disease of the cerebral cortex, endocrine or nervous system, therapy with a psychiatrist will be only a small part of the treatment program. In any case, it is worth undergoing an examination of the body and contacting a psychologist, psychiatrist or psychotherapist.

Doctors prescribe special drugs for adults that can control the emotional state and suppress outbursts of anger, aggression, expressiveness.Treatment for childhood syndrome is different. Most medicines are intended only for adult patients, but other methods of work are used with the child.

Parents influence the correction of emotional lability in a child to a greater extent. Adults should explain how to control emotions, deal with setbacks, and overcome difficulties. It is upbringing that, from early childhood, can instill in a child self-control, calmness and adequacy.

Prevention of emotional lability is realized throughout life.It can be conditionally divided into 4 important stages:

90,052 90,021 children;

90,021 teenagers;

90,021 adults;

  • elderly.
  • Each stage of life has its own characteristics. Tantrums and unstable emotional state of the child are corrected by the patience and personal example of parents and other adults. Children are a mirror image of their parents, so you need to take care of yourself first of all.

    Adolescents are a special category, since rebelliousness is characteristic of development during this period.There are exceptions, but rare. With adolescents who are prone to emotional changes, it is important to talk like adults and try to understand them. Shouts, threats and punishment will not lead to positive results. And again – a personal example. When a teenager sees that a parent is calm, trusts his child and adequately perceives information, then he himself becomes the same.

    An adult must independently control himself and track outbursts of emotions. Ignoring the problem does not contribute to its solution, but only exacerbates the situation.It is important to listen to the opinions of loved ones here. If they notice emotional instability, mood swings, and other symptoms, then they still need to observe themselves. In other words, for an adult, prevention of emotional lability is largely about self-control.

    The elderly are more prone to mental illness, such as senile dementia. Prevention for this category of people should be a continuation of work on themselves. Tracking your emotional state will help you avoid serious problems in the future, so you need to avoid stressful situations and take care of the nervous system.

    Human life is filled with stressful situations, problems and difficulties. Everyone has to overcome these difficulties, but not everyone can adequately perceive them. If from childhood a person gets used to the fact that all problems are solved by parents, in adulthood it will be quite difficult for her to cope with them on her own.

    The syndrome of emotional lability is familiar to most people. If you learn to control emotions, adequately assess difficulties, measure ambitions and opportunities – life becomes much easier.

    Emotional lability is a deep field of knowledge in psychology. Experts are constantly conducting research, studying symptoms and methods of correction, and developing treatment. The phenomenon affects both the physical state of a person and his mental health.

    Prevention of emotional lability for the most part consists in reflection and self-control. It is important to remember that a person’s main ally is himself.

    Best regards, Department of psychological support and career guidance, PSU

    Dormitory # 7, cab.77, 81

    Slave. tel .: 053379567

    Mental development of a baby from 1 to 3 years

    The period from 1 to 3 years is called early age . This is the time of psychological separation from the mother, which takes place in 3 periods.

    From 1 to one and a half years. A child who begins to walk and talk becomes more independent, at this age he is a researcher. He climbs everywhere, fills himself with bumps, and he cannot be restrained.

    From one and a half to 2 years . The kid is improving in the previously acquired skills. You can already clearly trace the manifestations of his character.

    From 2 to 3 years – period of active mental development of the child.

    Starting from the perinatal period, the child’s right hemisphere of the brain is actively developing. It is responsible for reading emotions, aesthetic perception, therefore, children subtly feel the moods of their parents, love everything bright and have a wild imagination.By spurring on his development, we kind of close the opportunities for the development of the left hemisphere and prevent the child from realizing the opportunities for the development of his emotional intelligence. A child who began to read at the age of three using any of the many different methods that exist nowadays may in the future hardly understand his own and other people’s emotions, not feel great pleasure from going to a concert or to an art gallery, not dream. And what is a dream for an adult? This is the basis for goal setting.

    The child constantly manipulates objects and toys, focusing on the actions themselves with them.At the end of an early age, there is a story game where the toddler comes up with stories and plays them. The appearance of symbolic actions is important for the development of the game.

    Early neoplasms: separating oneself from others, comparing oneself with other people.

    At this time, generalized images of a man and a woman as such and their difference between themselves are remembered, the ability to love and samples of emotional programs that love a man and a woman are formed.

    A child’s understanding of a particular gender occurs at the age of 2-3 years, and the presence of a father is extremely important.For boys, the loss of a father after 4 years has little effect on the assimilation of social roles. The consequences of the absence of a father in girls begin to show in adolescence, when many of them have difficulties in adapting to the female role when communicating with representatives of the opposite sex.

    Babies are still dependent on their parents, they constantly want to feel their physical closeness. Preference is given to the parent of the opposite sex. Tactile contact is important. The child learns the language of sensations.If the need is not satisfied, the person may remain tactilely insensitive.

    During this period, the child emotionally reacts only to what he directly perceives. The child’s desires are unstable and change rapidly, he cannot control and restrain them; they are limited only by the punishment and encouragement of adults. All desires have the same power, the child cannot yet choose.

    A kid, communicating with children, always proceeds from his own desires, completely ignoring the desires of the other.Self-centeredness at this age is the norm. He still does not know how to empathize, the child is characterized by vivid emotional reactions associated with his desires. It is easy for a young child to be distracted. If he is really upset, it is enough for an adult to offer to do something interesting with him, and the child instantly switches and is happy to do a new business. The development of the baby’s emotional sphere is closely related to the emerging self-awareness at this time. Recognizing yourself in the mirror is the simplest, primary form of self-awareness that appears by the age of 2.Consciousness “I”, “I am good”, “I myself” and the emergence of personal actions move the child to a new level of development.

    Your child already has a certain model of the world in his head. And he will have to perfect it all his life; in accordance with this model, the child’s behavior is built, and subsequently the whole way of life. Placing knowledge in the child, educating him, you enrich his ideas about the world and thereby greatly facilitate the child’s life. His time is precious; an adult is not able to acquire as much knowledge in a unit of time as a child can.Therefore, limit the baby less, give him the opportunity to explore the world.

    There is an early assistance sector in our Center, its specialists will provide psychological and medical support at every stage of growing up https://www.instagram.com/detskiicentr27/

    The material was prepared by the specialists of the social risk prevention department

    KGBU KhTSPMSP Tyulyaeva O.A., Pozdeeva K.A.

    Public health and environment – ZNiSO

    Journal of Population Health and Environment – ZNiSO is a monthly peer-reviewed scientific and practical journal, included in the list of peer-reviewed scientific publications of the Higher Attestation Commission, in which the main scientific results of dissertations for the degree of candidate of science, for the degree of doctor of sciences should be published.

    The journal publishes original research on topical issues of hygiene and epidemiology (the influence of environmental factors and industrial activities on human health, preventive medicine, epidemiology of infectious and non-infectious diseases, organization of laboratory work), public health and health care (the influence of socio-economic factors on human health the state of public health, the preservation and promotion of health), the sociology of medicine (the influence of socio-economic factors on the state of public health and the organization of medical care), etc.

    The magazine is designed for managers and employees of bodies and institutions of Rospotrebnadzor, the health care system, research institutes of the Russian Academy of Medical Sciences, the teaching staff of specialized departments of medical universities, researchers engaged in research and development.

    Founded in 1993. The founder of the journal is FBUZ “Federal Center for Hygiene and Epidemiology” of Rospotrebnadzor. The publication is registered with Roskomnadzor, certificate PI No. FS77-71110 dated 22.09.2017 (printed edition).

    Editor-in-chief: Popova Anna Yurievna

    Frequency – once a month. There are no editorial processing or publication fees.

    Declaration on the policy of access to materials – open access to all published materials is provided no earlier than 6 months from the date of their publication.

    The journal accepts articles for the following groups of specialties:

    • 02.14.01 – Hygiene (medical sciences)
    • 14.02.01 – Hygiene (biological sciences)
    • 02.14.02 – Epidemiology (medical sciences)
    • 02.14.02 – Epidemiology (biological sciences)
    • 02.14.03 – Public health and healthcare (medical sciences)
    • 02.14.04 – Medicine Labor (medical sciences)
    • 02.14.05 – Sociology of medicine (sociological sciences)
    • 02.14.05 – Sociology of medicine (medical sciences)
    • 02.14.06 – Medical and social expertise and medical and social rehabilitation (medical sciences)

    90,000 Psycho-emotional state of a woman during pregnancy, childbirth and the postpartum period

    Waiting for a baby, childbirth and caring for a newborn is the most important period in the life of every woman, which should be accompanied by feelings of joy and satisfaction.At the same time, the emotional, hormonal and physical changes in a woman’s body that occur during this period can cause sadness, confusion, fear and, possibly, even anger and aggression. Young mothers are often confused about these opposite feelings, especially when faced with an idealized social understanding of motherhood. The discrepancy between one’s own feelings and idealized social expectations creates a sense of guilt and shame. Most women cope with these emotional problems over time, while for some they not only do not go away, but also intensify, acquiring forms of maternal depression.

    Depression can be caused by the fact of unwanted pregnancy, memories of sexual abuse, childhood abuse. Although it has been proven that depression can happen to almost any woman both during and after pregnancy, you should pay attention to these prerequisites and risk factors in order to prevent or prepare in advance for possible manifestations of depression.

    A mother in a depressed state cannot have a positive emotional impact on the child and sufficiently stimulate his development, which is fraught with a delay in the development of the child.

    Some women suffering from depression stop taking care of themselves. They begin to eat improperly, suffer from constant fatigue and insomnia, do not visit a doctor, do not follow medical prescriptions, and may begin to abuse harmful substances such as tobacco, alcohol and drugs.

    Depression can seriously affect a woman’s ability to perform as a mother . Loss of interest in the child, irritability and fatigue can prevent the mother from giving the child the love, tenderness and affection and proper care for him.As a result, a woman develops a feeling of guilt, she loses confidence in herself as in a mother, which further aggravates her depression.

    During pregnancy and after childbirth, every second woman may have certain manifestations of maternal depression , which includes a whole range of physical and emotional changes. These conditions can have a negative impact on a woman’s mental health, her maternal qualities, family life and child development

    Antenatal depression occurs during pregnancy, when biological and hormonal changes occur in a woman’s body.Depressive symptoms include frequent mood swings, bouts of bad mood, tearfulness, irritability, and insomnia. But all pregnant women have such manifestations from time to time. Therefore, it is very important to recognize depression in time. many women who have experienced prenatal depression continue to suffer from it after childbirth. Timely consultation (doctors and psychologists) will be appropriate here.

    Postpartum sadness is considered normal. 50-80% of women go through this condition after childbirth.A woman can cry for a long time and disappointingly for no apparent reason, feel tired and irritated, suffer from insomnia. These symptoms usually begin on the fifth day after the baby is born and last 7-10 days. These symptoms go away and do not harm the mother and do not interfere with her care of the baby. There is no need to treat postpartum sadness. The main thing is that the woman and her environment know and understand what is happening with the young mother, what to expect and, if necessary, can seek qualified help.

    Postpartum depression is a clinically defined condition that requires the attention of a healthcare professional. During pregnancy, the amount of hormones (progesterone and estrogen) in a woman’s body increases dramatically, and during the first 24 hours after childbirth, it rapidly drops to their normal “non-pregnant” level. Scientists believe that rapid changes in hormone levels can cause depression. Another cause of postpartum depression may be the level of hormones produced by the thyroid gland.Low levels of thyroid hormones can trigger bad moods, loss of interest in the world around them, irritability, weakness, difficulty concentrating, trouble sleeping, and weight gain. A blood test for thyroid hormones helps to identify a reliable picture of the disorder.

    Postpartum Depression Symptoms:

    – long periods of bad mood,

    – irritability,

    – sleep disorders,

    – appetite disorders,

    – fatigue,

    – loss of interest in life,

    – inability to cope with the rhythm of life,

    – a sense of guilt and despair,

    – a feeling of underestimation of others,

    – indecision,

    – decreased concentration of attention,

    – thoughts about harming yourself and the child.

    This condition can last from several weeks to a year or even more. Approximately 8-15% of women who have given birth experience postpartum depression. A woman with these symptoms requires immediate help from specialists, especially doctors.

    Postpartum psychosis is the most complex of all conditions associated with maternal depression. It includes symptoms of hallucinations and obsessions as well as attempted suicide and murder of a child. Because of its complexity, postpartum psychosis is considered a psychiatric emergency.This condition occurs in 1-3 women in a thousand, but it deserves the closest attention, as the development of symptoms can be rapid.

    Psychologists and physicians are unanimous in the opinion that women pay for a sedentary lifestyle during pregnancy with complications during childbirth and the health of the baby.

    Improving the emotional and physical state of women during pregnancy, preparing women for childbirth has a positive effect on medical indicators – contributes to a favorable course of pregnancy and childbirth; reducing the number of birth injuries; reducing pain during childbirth; the number of complications and surgical interventions – a woman becomes an active participant in the process of childbirth, the level of postpartum depression decreases; adaptation to the emergence of a new family member is accelerated, etc.d.

    Today, both domestic and foreign methods of preparing for childbirth are widely used. A large number of existing studies and developed programs are devoted to the search for the most effective methods of non-drug pain relief in childbirth, teaching women with the use of auto-training.

    Recently, in preparing pregnant women for childbirth , more and more emphasis is being placed on the mental characteristics of pregnant women, their emotional state, the creation of positive emotions and the provision of an optimal psychophysical environment for the birth of a child.

    At present, all the components of preparation for childbirth are taken into account in preventive work: the formation of a maternal dominant, a woman’s positive emotional attitude to childbirth; learning to master sustainable skills of self-control in childbirth, breathing, muscle and general psychoemotional relaxation.

    Maternal and child health care, The mental and physical health of the future generation is one of the priority tasks of our state.