Emphysema causes other than smoking: What Causes COPD Other Than Smoking?
What Causes COPD Other Than Smoking?
Called chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), this group of lifelong ailments includes emphysema, chronic bronchitis and severe asthma that doesn’t respond to treatment (called refractory asthma). While these diseases are more prevalent among smokers, up to one in six people with COPD have never smoked.
What Causes COPD Other Than Smoking?
Most cases of COPD are related to smoking or inhaling secondhand smoke. However, you can get COPD without smoking. Other factors can also increase the likelihood of developing these lung diseases.
Other causes of COPD besides smoking include:
Exposure to air pollutants such as chemicals, fumes and dust in the workplace over a long period of time can compromise lung health.
But COPD can strike people who never smoked or inhaled air pollutants. That’s probably due to another factor: genetics.
The genes you inherit from your family can make you more likely to develop certain diseases, including COPD. So far, researchers have pinpointed a variation in one specific gene (alpha-1 antitrypsin) that can cause a deficiency.
The gene abnormality can cause lung damage and emphysema, even without smoking or breathing irritants. If COPD runs in your family, consider genetic testing for the alpha-1 antitrypsin anomaly.
But besides the alpha-1 gene, there may be more than 100 genetic differences that can make you more susceptible to COPD. The more of these gene variations you have, the higher your risk.
What Are Symptoms Of Lung Disease?
Lung disease symptoms typically creep up over time. Symptoms may start as a nagging cough or feeling short of breath during your regular activities. Since COPD most often occurs after the age of 40, you might be tempted to chalk it up to getting older. But these symptoms aren’t a normal part of aging.
Signs of COPD include:
- Shortness of breath
- Constant and ongoing cough
- Tightness in chest
- Frequent respiratory infections
- Lack of energy
- Unintended weight loss
- Shortness of breath, especially with mild exercise
- Blueness of the lips or fingernails (cyanosis)
- Chronic cough with mucus
People with COPD are also likely to have periods when their symptoms worsen and persist for days or longer, called exacerbations.
Although there is no cure for COPD, its symptoms can be treated and your quality of life can be improved. The first step is to stop smoking and to avoid any environments with smoke or air pollutants. Additional lifestyle changes, including healthy eating, regular exercising and controlling stress, are recommended.
If you have any COPD symptoms or risk factors such as smoking or poor workplace air quality, talk to your family doctor. Your doctor may recommend you see a pulmonologist, a doctor who specializes in lung health or pulmonary medicine.
How Is COPD Diagnosed?
A simple breathing test called spirometry can determine if you have COPD. The earlier you find out, the sooner you can start treatment to slow the progression of the disease.
What COPD Treatments Are Available?
While there currently isn’t a cure for COPD, there are many treatment options available to reduce and prevent symptoms. COPD medications can prevent flare-ups as well as quickly open up airways when it feels difficult to breathe.
Your doctor may prescribe medications such as bronchodilators, anti-inflammatory drugs, steroids, oxygen, theophylline, phosphodiesterase-4 inhibitors and antibiotics. Finally, there are other therapies such as supplemental oxygen therapy and pulmonary rehabilitation.
These medications are delivered through a fine mist that you inhale, using either:
- Inhaler – a device that sprays the medication in your mouth
- Nebulizer – a machine that turns liquid medicine into a mist you inhale through a face mask
Those with COPD can also take steps at home to maintain optimal health, including:
Participating in a pulmonary rehabilitation program can also improve quality of life. These programs give you a better understanding of the illness and help you adjust to living with the disease. Pulmonary rehabilitation specialists provide tips on breathing techniques, safe ways to exercise, proper nutrition and how to cope with anxiety.
Lung development may explain why some non-smokers get COPD and some heavy smokers do not
Tuesday, June 9, 2020
According to a new study, people with small airways relative to the size of their lungs may have a lower breathing capacity and, consequently, an increased risk for COPD—even if they don’t smoke or have any other risk factors. The study, funded in part by the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute (NHLBI), part of the National Institutes of Health, will publish in the June 9 issue of JAMA.
Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), a debilitating lung condition, often develops as a result of smoking, but researchers have long puzzled over why nearly a third of cases occur in people who never smoked. Now they may finally have an answer—and it may be linked to how lungs develop in certain people.
“This work, stemming from the careful analysis of lung images of COPD patients, shows that an abnormal lung development may account for a large proportion of COPD risk among older adults,” said James Kiley, Ph.D., director of NHLBI’s Division of Lung Diseases. “More research is needed to understand what drives this occurrence and to devise possible interventions.”
COPD, the fourth leading cause of death in the United States, causes airflow blockage and breathing-related problems that can severely limit a person’s day-to-day activities. Smoking, asthma, or air pollution account for many COPD cases, but up to 30% of cases occur in people who never smoked, and only a minority of heavy smokers develop the disease, suggesting that there are other risk factors at play.
Previous research offered a clue about a possible cause, finding that about half of older adults with COPD appeared to have low lung function early in life. Benjamin Smith, M.D., a pulmonary physician in the Department of Medicine at Columbia University Irving Medical Center, New York City, who was involved in the new study, explained the phenomenon.
When people breathe, they move air through their airways, beginning with the windpipe or trachea, which branches out to smaller airways called bronchi and bronchioles. As people grow, their airways are thought to develop in proportion to their lungs, but in some people, the airways grow smaller or larger than expected—a condition called dysanapsis— for reasons that are not clear.
To find out if small airways might be the culprit for COPD in people who did not smoke or have other risk factors, a team led by Smith looked at records for more than 6,500 older adults participating in three studies that included smokers and nonsmokers with and without COPD. Each study—the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis (MESA) Lung Study, the Subpopulations and Intermediate Outcome Measures in COPD Study (SPIROMICS), and the Canadian Cohort of Obstructive Lung Disease (CanCOLD) study—assessed dysanapsis using computed tomography (CT) scans of the lungs.
The MESA Lung study, based in six U.S. cities, included white, African American, Hispanic, and Chinese American people who were age 69 on average. The participants from the CanCOLD study were age 67 on average and came from nine Canadian cities. SPIROMICS, based at 12 U.S. medical centers, included people who were age 63 on average and reported 20 or more pack-years of smoking.
In the MESA Lung and CanCOLD studies, participants with smaller airways relative to lung size were much more likely to develop COPD compared with those with the larger airways relative to lung size. The association remained after considering standard COPD risk factors, including smoking, pollutants, and asthma.
The researchers then focused on participants from the CanCOLD study who never smoked and heavy smokers from the SPIROMICS study. Never smokers with COPD had much smaller airways relative to lung size, whereas the heavy smokers who did not have COPD had larger than normal airways.
“These results show that small airways relative to lung size are a very strong risk factor for COPD,” said Smith, the lead study author. “This helps us to understand why 30% of COPD can occur in people who never smoked.” With normal aging, lung function declines, so people who already have low lung function to begin with may develop COPD later in life, even if they don’t smoke, he explained.
Smith added that the findings may also help explain why some lifelong heavy smokers do not develop COPD. People with larger airways relative to lung size may be able to withstand lung damage from smoking and still have enough breathing reserve to prevent them from developing COPD. Still, given the multiple health problems caused by tobacco, Smith emphasized that smokers should do their best to quit.
The MESA Lung Study was funded by NIH/NHLBI grants R01-HL130506, R01-HL077612, RC1-HL100543, R01-HL093081, and R01-HL121270. MESA was supported by contracts 75N92020D00001, HHSN268201500003I, N01-HC-95159, 75N92020D00005, N01-HC-95160, 75N92020D00002, N01-HC-95161, 75N92020D00003, N01-HC-95162, 75N92020D00006, N01-HC-95163, 75N92020D00004, N01-HC-95164, 75N92020D00007, N01-HC-95165, N01-HC-95166, N01-HC-95167, N01-HC-95168 and N01-HC-95169 from the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute. SPIROMICS was supported by contracts from the NIH/NHLBI (HHSN268200900013C, HHSN268200900014C, HHSN268200900015C, HHSN268200900016C, HHSN268200900017C, HHSN268200900018C, HHSN268200900019C, HHSN268200900020C), grants from the NIH/NHLBI (U01 HL137880 and U24 HL141762). Additionally, co-authors Norrina B. Allen, M.D., David J. Couper, Ph.D., Mark T. Dransfield, M.D., Ani Manichaikul, Ph.D., Fernando J. Martinez, M.D., Elizabeth C. Oelsner, M.D., and Robert Paine III, M.D., report receiving grants from NHLBI. Additional institutions outside of NIH also provided funding for research or co-authors involved in this study. For a more complete funding disclosure, please see the full research article.
About the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute (NHLBI): NHLBI is the global leader in conducting and supporting research in heart, lung, and blood diseases and sleep disorders that advances scientific knowledge, improves public health, and saves lives. For more information, visit www.nhlbi.nih.gov.
About the National Institutes of Health (NIH):
NIH, the nation’s medical research agency, includes 27 Institutes and Centers and is a component of the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. NIH is the primary federal agency conducting and supporting basic, clinical, and translational medical research, and is investigating the causes, treatments, and cures for both common and rare diseases. For more information about NIH and its programs, visit www.nih.gov.
NIH…Turning Discovery Into Health®
Emphysema | Conditions | UCSF Health
When you breathe, air travels to your lungs through airways called bronchi. The bronchi divide into smaller airways, called bronchioles, which end in clusters of tiny air sacs, called alveoli. Emphysema, the fourth leading cause of death in the United States, affects the walls of the millions of tiny air sacs in the lungs, which become inflamed and lose elasticity, causing the bronchioles to collapse. As a result, air becomes trapped in the air sacks, which become overstretched and may rupture, greatly affecting a person’s ability to breathe normally.
The leading cause of emphysema is cigarette smoking. Other risks factors include air pollution, occupational exposure to dust and chemicals, frequent lower respiratory infections and second hand smoke. In rare cases, the genetic disorder alpha-1 antitrypsin (AAT) deficiency causes emphysema.
Emphysema is a type of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), a group of lung conditions that cause permanent blockage of airflow in the lungs.
Our Approach to Emphysema
UCSF offers comprehensive evaluations and care for all types of COPD. When treating emphysema, we aim to ease symptoms, slow progression of the disease and prevent complications.
Treatment options include medications, supplemental oxygen and, for patients with AAT deficiency, AAT infusions. We also offer pulmonary rehabilitation, a multifaceted program that provides nutrition and exercise counseling, help in quitting smoking and education on how to stay as healthy as possible. Some patients may benefit from surgery to remove small portions of damaged lung or from lung transplantation. UCSF is currently the top lung transplant program in the U.S. for higher-than-expected patient survival rates and graft survival rates (ongoing function of the transplanted lungs).
In addition to caring for patients, we lead research to improve the understanding and treatment of COPD. Interested patients may have the option to try experimental treatments by participating in a clinical trial.
Compare causes, symptoms, treatments, & more
Emphysema vs. COPD causes | Prevalence | Symptoms | Diagnosis | Treatments | Risk factors | Prevention | When to see a doctor | FAQs | Resources
Lung disease is a prevalent problem in the U.S. Two common lung diseases include emphysema and COPD. Emphysema is a type of COPD that causes damage to the air sacs in the lungs (alveoli). COPD stands for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and is a lung disease that causes obstructed airflow from the lungs.
Read on to learn an overview of emphysema and COPD, along with their causes, prevalence, symptoms, risk factors, treatment options, and more.
Emphysema is generally caused by long-term exposure to airborne irritants. This includes tobacco and marijuana smoke, air pollution, chemical fumes, and dust. In addition, genetic factors such as an alpha-1-antitrypsin deficiency can cause emphysema.
However, smoking is the number one factor. For this reason, emphysema is one of the most preventable lung diseases.
There are various causes of COPD. Like emphysema, COPD is generally caused by tobacco smoke. It can also be caused by secondhand smoke, long-term exposure to air pollution, dust, fumes, and chemicals, as well as alpha-1-antitrypsin deficiency.
|Emphysema vs. COPD causes|
Emphysema is one of the most preventable lung diseases since it is linked to smoking. Today, more than 3.8 million people have been diagnosed with this lung disease.
For every 8 out of 10 cases of COPD, research has shown that it is caused by tobacco smoke. Cases for COPD were stable between 2014 and 2017 before spiking in 2018. In 2018, 16.4 million adults reported a diagnosis of any type of COPD. There are two types of COPD: emphysema and chronic bronchitis. In 2018, there were 9 million adults diagnosed with chronic bronchitis.
|Emphysema vs. COPD prevalence|
There are various symptoms associated with emphysema. But keep in mind, some individuals have this lung condition for many years without noticing any symptoms. With that said, the main symptom of emphysema is shortness of breath, which occurs gradually but in time becomes prohibitive.
It’s not uncommon for individuals to experience shortness of breath as their only symptom up until 50% or more of the lung tissue has been damaged. Call a doctor if you experience any of the following symptoms:
- Long-term cough, often known as a “smoker’s cough”
- Shortness of breath, especially while engaging in light exercise or walking up steps
- Long-term mucus production
- An ongoing feeling of fatigue
There are various signs and symptoms that indicate COPD in an individual. Like emphysema, symptoms of COPD often don’t appear until there is significant lung damage. These symptoms will generally worsen over time, especially if exposure to smoke continues. Symptoms include:
- Breathlessness, especially when engaged in physical activity
- Chest tightness
- Chronic cough that might produce clear, white, yellow, or a greenish mucus
- Respiratory infections that occur frequently
- Swelling in ankles, feet, or legs
- Unintended weight loss (later stage COPD)
|Emphysema vs. COPD symptoms|
Your doctor will diagnose emphysema by conducting a medical examination, recording your medical history, and learning additional information about your symptoms. Your doctor might order tests such as a chest X-ray or pulmonary function tests (PFTs), which involves a series of breathing maneuvers. A CT scan can also be used to measure the extent of emphysema that has developed. An arterial blood gas test may be used if emphysema worsens, which helps to measure oxygen and carbon dioxide levels in the blood as a determination of how well lungs are able to move oxygen into the blood and remove carbon dioxide from the blood.
Your doctor will diagnose COPD by conducting medical examinations, evaluating your symptoms, and asking for a complete medical history. Your doctor can test for COPD by performing PFTS such as spirometry, which tests how well your lungs work. In addition, chest X-rays, CT scans, and other tests might be required to help diagnose COPD.
|Emphysema vs. COPD diagnosis|
Emphysema and COPD are treatable but not reversible. There is no cure for either condition, but treatments and lifestyle changes are available to make symptoms more manageable.
While there is no cure for emphysema, there are a few treatment options available to make symptoms more manageable. Your doctor might prescribe medication such inhaled steroids, or a bronchodilator. However, the medication prescribed will depend on the severity of the emphysema.
Other treatment options available are therapies such as pulmonary rehabilitation, nutritional therapy, and supplemental oxygen. Depending on the severity, your doctor might recommend surgery. Surgeries can include lung volume reduction surgery or a lung transplant.
RELATED: Can you use an expired inhaler?
Many individuals with COPD have a mild form of the disease, which is why the first line of defense recommended by doctors is to stop smoking. For more advanced forms of the disease, a doctor might recommend medications such as bronchodilators, inhaled corticosteroids, or combination inhalers. However, your doctor will recommend medication based on the severity of your COPD.
Other treatment options include lung therapies such as oxygen therapy to supplement the lack of oxygen in your blood or a pulmonary rehabilitation program. A doctor might also recommend an in-home noninvasive therapy using a machine with a mask to improve breathing.
For severe forms of COPD, surgery may be necessary such as lung volume reduction surgery, a lung transplant, or bullectomy.
RELATED: COPD travel tips
|Emphysema vs. COPD treatments|
There are various risk factors that increase an individual’s likelihood of getting emphysema. Smoking is the biggest cause of emphysema, and therefore, is the greatest risk factor. This is also true for cigar, pipe, and cigarette smoking. The risk increases with the number of years and amount of tobacco smoked.
Age is another risk factor. Individuals with tobacco-related emphysema begin to experience symptoms between the ages of 40 and 60.
Other risk factors include exposure to secondhand smoke, occupational exposure to fumes and dust, and exposure to indoor and outdoor pollutants.
There are various risk factors that increase an individual’s chances of being diagnosed with COPD. The greatest risk factor for COPD is long-term exposure to cigarette smoke. The longer you smoke, the more your risk increases.
Those who smoke pipes, cigars, are exposed to secondhand smoke, and marijuana smokers might be at risk as well. Those with asthma have an increased risk as well.
Other risk factors include occupational exposure to dust and chemicals, exposure to fumes from burning fuel in poorly ventilated homes, and genetics (alpha-1-antitrypsin deficiency).
|Emphysema vs. COPD risk factors|
Since smoking is the main cause of emphysema, the best way to prevent it is by not smoking. In addition, individuals should avoid other lung irritants such as secondhand smoke, air pollution, chemical fumes, and dust.
Prevention is the same for COPD as it is for emphysema. Smoking cessation and avoiding other lung irritants are the best methods to prevent COPD. To slow the progression of COPD and optimize their quality of life, patients should take their medication as prescribed and stay up to date on routine vaccines to prevent pneumonia and influenza.
|Emphysema vs. COPD prevention|
When to see a doctor for emphysema or COPD
If you are experiencing symptoms of emphysema or COPD on a consistent basis, it’s important to visit a doctor as soon as possible. Doctors can generally diagnose these diseases early. Early detection allows individuals to receive treatment sooner, which can slow the progression of the disease.
Note: COPD patients, including those with emphysema, have an increased risk of severe illness from COVID-19, according to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC).
Frequently asked questions about emphysema and COPD
What stage of COPD is emphysema?
The Global Initiative for Chronic Obstructive Lung Disease’s (GOLD) GOLD Staging System uses the forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1) measurement from a pulmonary function test to categorize COPD into four stages (compared to a predicted FEV1 value of similar individuals with healthy lungs):
- Stage 1: Mild COPD with a FEV1 about 80% or more of normal.
- Stage 2: Moderate COPD with a FEV1 between 50% and 80% of normal.
- Stage 3: Severe emphysema with a FEV1 between 30% and 50% of normal.
- Stage 4: Very severe or end-stage COPD with a FEV1 less than 30%
Can you have emphysema without COPD?
Emphysema is a type of COPD, so you cannot have emphysema without COPD. However, it is possible to have COPD without emphysema.
Can you get COPD even if you’ve never smoked?
COPD is most commonly linked to smoking but non-smokers can get it too. In fact, 1 in 6 COPD patients have never smoked. Non-smokers who have been exposed to other lung irritants or have other genetic factors can get COPD as well.
- Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, CDC
- Trends in COPD morbidity and mortality, American Lung Association
- Respiratory diseases, Office of Disease Prevention and Health Promotion
- COPD prevalence, American Lung Association
- COPD, National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute
- Stages of COPD, Lung Health Institute
- High-risk patients for coronavirus, CDC
- COPD facts, National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute
Smoking and COPD | Overviews of Diseases/Conditions | Tips From Former Smokers
What Is COPD?
Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) refers to a group of diseases that cause airflow blockage and breathing-related problems. COPD includes emphysema and chronic bronchitis.1
With COPD, less air flows through the airways—the tubes that carry air in and out of your lungs—because of one or more of the following:2
- The airways and tiny air sacs in the lungs lose their ability to stretch and shrink back.
- The walls between many of the air sacs are destroyed.
- The walls of the airways become thick and inflamed (irritated and swollen).
- The airways make more mucus than usual, which can clog them and block airflow.
In the early stages of COPD, there may be no symptoms, or you may only have mild symptoms. As COPD worsens, the symptoms may become more severe. Symptoms of COPD include:2
- A cough that lingers for a long time and doesn’t go away completely, or a cough that produces a lot of mucus
- Shortness of breath, especially with physical activity
- Wheezing (a whistling sound when you breathe)
- Tightness in the chest
Not everyone with these symptoms has COPD. A doctor can determine if you have COPD or another condition that has similar symptoms.
How severe your COPD symptoms are depends on how much lung damage you have. If you continue smoking, the damage will occur faster than if you stop smoking.2
How Is Smoking Related to COPD?
COPD is usually caused by cigarette smoking, though long-term exposure to other lung irritants, like secondhand smoke, can also contribute to COPD.2,3 As many as 1 out of 4 Americans with COPD never smoked cigarettes.4 However, smoking accounts for as many as 8 out of 10 COPD-related deaths3 and 38% of the nearly 16 million U.S. adults diagnosed with COPD report current smoking.5
Smoking and secondhand smoke exposure during childhood and teenage years can slow lung growth and development. This can increase the risk of developing COPD in adulthood.3,6
How Can COPD Be Prevented?
The best way to prevent COPD is to never start smoking, and if you do smoke, to quit.6 Talk with your doctor or other health care professional about resources that can help you quit, like counseling and medication. Also, stay away from secondhand smoke, which is smoke from burning tobacco products, such as cigarettes, cigars, hookah, or pipes.3,7 Secondhand smoke also is smoke that has been exhaled, or breathed out, by a person smoking, or that comes from the end of a lit tobacco product.2,7
US Pharm. 2018:43(7):13-14.
Emphysema is a type of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), which is the third leading cause of death in the United States behind heart disease and cancer. Emphysema is caused by damage to the air sacs of the lungs (alveoli) after long-term exposure to airborne irritants. Over time, the damaged alveoli weaken and rupture, creating a smaller lung surface area and, consequently, causing less oxygen to reach the bloodstream. Emphysema is a chronic condition that develops slowly and worsens over time. People with emphysema have significant trouble breathing, which can impact their work, ability to exercise, quality of sleep, and other daily activities.
The primary risk factor for emphysema is smoking, although extended exposure to air pollution or chemical fumes, as well as a rare genetic deficiency, can also lead to disease. About 85% of all people with emphysema are current smokers or have smoked in the past. The risk of developing emphysema increases with the number of years of smoking and the amount of tobacco smoked. While cigarette smokers are at highest risk, pipe and cigar smokers also have an elevated risk of disease. People who do not smoke but who live with a smoker are also at risk because of exposure to secondhand smoke.
The symptoms of emphysema occur gradually and often go unnoticed for many years. Because of the damage to the lung tissue, persons with developing emphysema require more effort to breathe and, as a result, tire sooner. This leads to shortness of breath with even minor exertion. People with emphysema also experience such symptoms as chronic cough, chest tightness, and wheezing. For long-term smokers, symptoms usually become noticeable between ages 45 and 60 years.
Combined with a thorough medical history and assessment of symptoms, physicians use a series of pulmonary function tests (PFTs) to assist in the diagnosis of emphysema. PFTs measure lung size, airflow, the transfer of gases (like oxygen) into and out of the blood, and inflammation. Also, chest x-rays, CT scans, blood tests, and lung biopsies may be performed to rule out other causes of lung dysfunction, such as lung cancer.
Treatment Manages Symptoms
There is no cure to reverse the damage to the lung tissue that leads to emphysema. The primary goal of treatment is to slow the progression, relieve the symptoms, and prevent complications of the disease. The most critical intervention for the treatment of emphysema is smoking cessation. Evidence shows that quitting significantly improves lung function. Patients with emphysema who quit smoking can reduce their decline in lung function to match the function of others of the same age, weight, and sex who are nonsmokers.
Medications are used to improve the symptoms of emphysema and to treat complications such as infections. Bronchodilators are inhalers that can relieve shortness of breath and breathing problems by opening the constricted airways. Inhaled corticosteroids are sometimes given to reduce inflammation and improve shortness of breath. Antibiotics are given if the patient experiences a bacterial infection, such as pneumonia or acute bronchitis.
Other treatments include instruction in effective breathing exercises, oxygen therapy, and nutrition therapy. In more severe cases, surgical options include removal of the damaged lung tissue to allow the remaining healthy tissue to expand and lung transplantation.
Complications and Prognosis
The prognosis for those with emphysema depends on the severity of the disease, the symptoms, and the presence of complications. Having emphysema can lead to complications of the lung and the heart. High blood pressure, enlargement of the heart, and potentially heart failure can result from the constant strain on the heart caused by reduced oxygen. People with COPD are also at increased risk for respiratory infections during cold and flu season. Lastly, difficulties in adjusting to changes in health and lifestyle can lead to clinical depression.
If you have any questions about treatments for emphysema, speak with your trusted local pharmacist or another healthcare provider.
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Diagnosing COPD in non-smokers: splitting not lumping
Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is the diagnostic label given to patients with chronic airflow obstruction that is poorly reversible.1 As such, it is a non-specific disease entity and, like stroke or atrial fibrillation, can be the end result of multiple and often very differing conditions. A diagnosis of COPD based on spirometry alone should therefore trigger further investigation to identify the underlying cause and the application, if possible, of a more appropriate and specific diagnostic label. Hence while sarcoidosis, chronic asthma, organ-specific autoimmune disease, cystic fibrosis and multiple other pathologies can all cause COPD (and in a technical sense allow all such patients to be labelled as having COPD) most would recognise this as diagnostic duplicity.
Recent studies have highlighted the apparently high proportion of patients with COPD who have never smoked. Collectively, these studies suggest that even in developed countries cigarette smoking causes COPD in only 50–70% of patients. Indeed, the Swedish OLIN and US NHANES III studies reported that the population-attributable risk of COPD from smoking in these countries was 45% and 44%, respectively.2 3 More recent studies in the UK suggest that 15% of adults above the age of 65 who have never smoked also have COPD.4 These data, however, do not gel with most UK physicians’ practice, at least at a secondary care level. While there is little doubt that exposure to biomass smoke in developing countries and certain occupational insults in other settings can lead to COPD,5 6 clinical practice would suggest that the proportion of patients with genuine COPD in the UK who have never smoked is extremely small. Suggesting that COPD is common in never smokers living in developed countries (and hence by implication could be termed “idiopathic”) runs the significant risk of leaving such patients underdiagnosed and inappropriately treated.
So what has led to the view that obstructive lung disease is common in non-smokers? This matter has been reviewed recently by Salvi and Barnes7 who present mainly epidemiological studies, where a diagnosis of COPD has been made most commonly by questionnaire and spirometry alone. The problems associated with such studies are obvious and include poor case validation, failure to exclude patients with other common airway diseases such as asthma, bronchiectasis, tuberculosis and prior viral bronchiolitis, and insufficient scrutiny of patients’ true exposure to tobacco smoke. These studies are further hampered by age-related changes in physiology; surely it is inappropriate to label an elderly patient with cough or breathlessness who has never smoked but who has mildly “obstructive” spirometry as having COPD? This matter was recently highlighted in a study by Hardie and colleagues who found that the Global Initiative for Obstructive Lung Disease (GOLD) guidelines for diagnosing and treating COPD falsely classify a substantial number of healthy, asymptomatic, never-smoking older adults as having COPD. Indeed, in their study, undertaken in residents of Bergen, Norway, >50% of such individuals aged over 80 years would have been classified as having COPD.8 This conclusion is supported by a number of other studies conducted in primary care that highlight the pitfalls of using the current recommended spirometric criteria for COPD in the elderly.9 Hence we must avoid using spirometric data in such an absolute way as, say, a diabetologist might when using a blood sugar level to define diabetes and avoid making a diagnosis of COPD in all those with chronic airflow obstruction. This view does not, of course, undermine the importance of certain events such as poor socioeconomic status, low birth weight, concurrent asthma, previous tuberculosis, etc. to operate as important sensitisers to the effects of cigarette smoke7; however this does not equate with independent causation. Moreover, there seems to be little evidence to support the view that outdoor air pollution causes COPD.
Hence, while accepting that different phenotypes exist under the diagnostic label of “smoking-related COPD”, this term would appear to be an entirely appropriate label for patients with a significant (eg, >5 pack year) smoking history, obstructive spirometry (postbronchodilator forced expiratory volume in 1 s (FEV1)/forced vital capacity (FVC) ratio <70%) and evidence of chronic bronchitis or emphysema; we would suggest that other causes of airflow obstruction must be sought in individuals in the UK who do not fulfil these criteria. This will avoid COPD becoming a “catch all” diagnostic label applied to multiple unrelated respiratory pathologies with clearly diverse aetiology. COPD would run the risk of becoming degraded into the “lung failure” equivalent of “heart failure” with little thought as to its true aetiology. The call to include non-smoking patients with “COPD” in trials designed to assess novel treatments7 is also likely to confound and confuse rather than add clarity. Cigarette smoking may be a less common cause of COPD in developing countries, but in the UK smoking should be considered a diagnostic prerequisite and its absence should trigger more detailed investigation. It is our view that the diagnostic process should start and not stop at the point of a spirometric diagnosis of airflow obstruction.
The work in the author’s laboratories is supported by the MRC, Wellcome Trust, EPSRC, Asthma-UK, BBSRC, GlaxoSmithKline and NIHR Cambridge Biomedical Research Centre
90,000 treatment of the disease and methods of prevention – clinic “Dobrobut”
Emphysema of the lungs: symptoms, causes, diagnosis, treatment
Emphysema of the lungs is a pathological condition characterized by the expansion of the alveoli and destructive changes in their walls. Distinguish between primary (idiopathic) emphysema – an independent nosological form that develops without previous bronchopulmonary pathology, and secondary (obstructive), arising against the background of other respiratory diseases.The frequency of pathology increases significantly in the age group over 60 years old. The disease belongs to COPD (chronic obstructive pulmonary disease). You should know what pulmonary emphysema is and how to treat it.
Signs of pulmonary emphysema, causes of the disease
Symptoms of pulmonary emphysema:
- Shortness of breath. At the first stage of the disease, it worries patients only with significant physical exertion. With the progression of emphysema, shortness of breath becomes permanent.
- Cough. Usually harsh, unproductive.
- Cyanosis. Typical for patients with secondary emphysema of the lungs.
- Weight loss. Patients are slender, may look cachectic.
Signs of pulmonary emphysema when examining a patient – a barrel-shaped chest, hyperfunctioning of the auxiliary respiratory muscles (shoulder girdle, neck, abdominal muscles).
X-ray examination reveals a low location of the dome of the diaphragm, an increase in the retrosternal (retrosternal) space (the so-called Sokolov sign), the filamentous nature of the vascular pattern.The most characteristic sign of the condition is a decrease in VC (vital capacity of the lungs) with an increase in their total capacity (OEL). The ECG shows a deviation of the electrical axis of the heart to the right. Data from laboratory studies of lung disease emphysema – an increased level of hemoglobin and the number of red blood cells.
Causes of the disease
Secondary emphysema develops due to COPD. Primary pulmonary emphysema can be caused by:
- Ecology. Environmental pollution causes damage to the alveolar walls, which leads to the development of emphysema.
- Smoking. Tobacco smoke causes the migration of neutrophils, which produce proteolytic enzymes that destroy the walls of the alveoli.
- Genetically determined deficiency of alpha-1-antitrypsin, a shift towards proteolysis and damage to the alveolar walls.
- Occupational hazardous environment, eg miners.
- Senile age.
With bullosa emphysema in the tissues of the organ there are bullae – swollen areas over 10 mm in size.There is also a decrease in the content of alpha-1-antitrypsin in the blood. This type of pulmonary emphysema is characterized by the development of spontaneous pneumothorax (accumulation of air in the pleural cavity).
Pulmonary emphysema: treatment
There is no specific treatment for emphysema, therefore, therapeutic programs common to all COPD are used. It is important to eliminate all the factors that caused the development of emphysema (smoking, chronic infectious process, exposure to polluted air).
Treatment of pulmonary emphysema:
- Drugs of choice – bronchodilators: β2-adrenomimetics, m-anticholinergics, long-acting theophylline preparations.
- Glucocorticosteroids are given orally in short courses. In the absence of an effect, hormonal therapy is no longer prescribed. With a positive result of therapy, it is advisable to continue treatment with inhaled hormonal drugs.
- Long-term use of acetylcysteine reduces the frequency of exacerbations of COPD and, consequently, the progression of secondary emphysema.
- Thoracoscopic bullectomy – surgical reduction of lung volume by resection of peripheral areas.After the operation, the functional state of the lungs is significantly improved.
- With the development of spontaneous pneumothorax, drainage of the pleural cavity and removal of air are performed.
- Oxygen therapy is indicated for severe respiratory failure.
- A group of American researchers reported that regular intake of acetylsalicylic acid (aspirin) slows the progression of emphysema and COPD.
- Respiratory gymnastics for pulmonary emphysema is aimed at training the respiratory muscles.
Prevention consists in quitting smoking, preventing respiratory diseases, influenza vaccination, adequate therapy for chronic inflammatory diseases of the respiratory tract, improving working conditions, spa treatment of patients with COPD. Read more about the prevention of pulmonary emphysema on our website dobrobut.com.
Frequently Asked Questions
childhood often had colds, colds almost always
“Went downstairs”, after which she coughed for 2-3 months.First attacks
suffocation began to bother 40 years after gynecological surgery. At the Central District Hospital
diagnosed with bronchial asthma. What is this disease? Is it possible
to cure this disease or is it not curable?
Voronezh Region pos. Redwood.
asthma is a chronic inflammatory disease of the airways,
characterized by bronchial hyperreactivity, which manifests itself
recurring episodes of shortness of breath, shortness of breath, sensation
chest congestion, coughing fits, wheezing,
especially often at night or in the early morning.These episodes occur in
as a result of widespread, but varying in severity, obstruction
(narrowing) of the airways. Obstructive manifestations can be
reversible spontaneously or under the influence of drugs.
the severity of bronchial asthma is based on clinical signs
diseases before starting treatment. Depending on the severity
symptoms, severity of bronchial obstruction, and variability
(variability of indicators of lung function) during the day, there are
four degrees of asthma severity: intermittent, mild persistent,
persistent moderate and severe persistent.This
classification is used in the initial diagnosis of asthma and
necessary for the choice of starting therapy. The severity of a particular
the patient may change over time. For example: a patient for the first time
seeks medical help with severe BA symptoms, and he
diagnosed with persistent asthma of moderate severity.
After the appointment of treatment and in the case of a good response to therapy in
subsequently, the degree of asthma can be classified as mild
persistent.In the recommendations for the treatment of asthma from 2006. was introduced
term: “level of control over BA”, which is assessed based on the degree
the severity of the symptoms of the disease and their impact on the quality of life
the patient. Assessment of the level of control over asthma is carried out as medical
workers and patients with the help of various tests and questionnaires.
Uncontrolled asthma can lead to the development of severe exacerbation.
lungs is an anatomical change in the lung tissue, in which
there is an expansion of small bronchi (bronchioles), which is accompanied by
pathological changes in the alveolar walls.
emphysema is associated with irreversible changes in the wall of the bronchi and lungs
under the influence of prolonged inflammation and respiratory obstruction
ways. Such changes can also occur with bronchial asthma,
when the elastic properties of the lungs are disturbed and in them after exhalation
begins to remain more than normal, the amount of air. Together with
those in the bronchi and lungs, the number of
connective tissue, i.e. pneumosclerosis is formed.In older people
such changes can be considered a variant of the norm.
Emphysema and pneumosclerosis can be diffuse (widespread) and localized (focal).
local emphysema is associated with congenital anomalies and scarring
changes in lung tissue. Focal pneumosclerosis most often
develops after postponed inflammatory processes in the lung tissue
(pneumonia, tuberculosis, lung abscess, etc.).
of these pathological processes, the main measures are aimed at treatment
the underlying disease that caused the development of pulmonary emphysema and
pneumosclerosis and to combat respiratory failure.
of the most important measures in the treatment of chronic lung diseases
smoking cessation is. In doing so, keep in mind the following:
smoking cessation at once is more effective than gradual smoking cessation
a decrease in the number of cigarettes smoked, and a high motivation for quitting
smoking is a major determinant of success.
Basic principles of the treatment of lung diseases.
In case of exacerbation of a chronic inflammatory process in the lungs, antibacterial drugs are prescribed.
In the presence of broncho-obstructive syndrome, bronchodilators are used (atimos, foradil, berotek, salbutamol, berodual).
exacerbation of asthma, inhaled glucocorticosteroids are prescribed
(Pulmicort, Klenil, Beklazon) or a combination of inhalation
corticosteroids with long-acting bronchodilators (seretide, foster,
symbicort, foradil combi). The amount of therapy depends on the severity
To improve sputum discharge, expectorant drugs (lazolvan, bromhexine, etc.) are prescribed.).
an aspect in the treatment of asthma with already developed pulmonary emphysema is
breathing exercises, which helps to improve ventilation of the lungs
and gas exchange. Physiotherapy exercises aimed at reducing
muscle tone and improvement of bronchial patency, also gives
good effect on bronchial obstruction. Very important in
the treatment of pulmonary emphysema has diaphragmatic breathing training in
lying and standing.
To improve the drainage function
special drainage positions and exercises with
forced prolonged exhalation.Positional (postural) drainage –
it is the use of a certain position of the body for better separation
sputum. Postural drainage is contraindicated in hemoptysis,
pneumothorax and significant shortness of breath during the procedure or
an attack of suffocation.
Classic segmental, acupressure, cupping massage is also used in the rehabilitation of patients with lung diseases.
Climatic treatment of patients with pulmonary emphysema is carried out in the conditions of the Crimea, the middle zone during the summer-autumn season.
acquired emphysema is the prevention of chronic diseases
lungs. Early detection and treatment is essential
chronic pathology of the respiratory system.
Like all chronic
diseases – bronchial asthma proceeds with periods of exacerbation and
remission. With the right therapy and strict implementation
prescribing a physician, you can achieve complete control over asthma.
six months ago, I had a rare cough that did not bring much
restlessness, slight shortness of breath when climbing stairs.On one’s own
decided to be treated with antibiotics and herbs – no effect. Made
x-ray, x-ray revealed an increase in the intrathoracic lymph nodes,
suspicion of sarcoidosis. What kind of disease is it, do you need additional
surveys, where to go next?
Svetlana, 35 years old. Art. Oskol
it is a chronic autoimmune disease, the causes of
which is still unknown, although it was first described in England
dermatologist Jonathan Hutchinson back in 1869
year.Sarcoidosis is characterized by formation in many organs
inflammatory nodules, or granulomas.
an accumulation of immune cells that normally participate in defense reactions
organism. In 90% of cases, lung involvement is typical for sarcoidosis.
Simultaneously, the pathological process may be involved
lymph nodes, spleen, salivary glands, skin, bones, joints,
muscles and eyes and other organs.
In our country, sarcoidosis is more common
in total, they are detected during routine fluorographic examinations.Radiologists
detect bilateral enlargement of the lymph nodes of the roots of the lungs
(sometimes in combination with changes in the pulmonary pattern).
Sarcoidosis can have two onset – acute and gradual.
In the acute form, the following symptoms are characteristic:
– joints swell and hurt, more often ankle
– rashes appear on the skin in the form of “ spots ”
– temperature, sweating
– chest pain
– shortness of breath
– weight loss by several kg in a short time
– on the roentgenogram enlarged inside thoracic lymph nodes
in acute form, these symptoms may not develop all and / or in different ways
time, but appear “ suddenly ”, within a few weeks.Acute onset sarcoidosis has a good prognosis in most cases.
gradual onset of sarcoidosis, the onset of symptoms is prolonged
in time (several years). For example, a cough may first appear,
who was not treated with antibiotics, then a slight fever, which
keeps constantly, then shortness of breath, etc. Often these manifestations
sarcoidosis is attributed to acute respiratory infections, stress, etc. and the disease begins
suspect only if they find an increase in intrathoracic
lymph nodes.With this form of sarcoidosis, positive dynamics,
if it is, it goes slowly, and most often there is a gradual
Since, the cause of sarcoidosis
remains unknown, then the disease remains a diagnosis of exclusion. V
the focus has now shifted towards a more intense
examination of patients with suspected sarcoidosis: carrying out a computer
high-resolution chest tomography,
transbronchial and videothoracoscopic biopsy.
After detecting bilateral enlargement of the intrathoracic lymph nodes, a laboratory examination should be carried out.
1. general analysis
2. general urinalysis
3. computed tomography of the chest organs with inclusion of the liver and spleen in the examination area
5. thoracoscopy with biopsy or open lung biopsy for final confirmation of the diagnosis
6. study of the function of external respiration
8. Consultation of an ophthalmologist.
sarcoidosis has long been dealt with by phthisiatricians. Currently
diagnostics and therapy are carried out by pulmonologists, therapists, immunologists.
Since the cause of sarcoidosis remains unknown, no
and specific therapy for this pathology. It is important to note that
not all sarcoidosis patients require treatment.
diseases in the absence of symptoms, treatment can be omitted,
limited to regular examination, or prescribe drugs with
minimal side effects – vitamin E, veroshpiron.Therapy
indicated for damage to vital organs (that is, central
nervous system, cardiovascular system or eyes) or
the progression of the disease.
for 12 years, quit a year ago, but in the morning a dark
phlegm, sometimes I feel a lack of air. Are these the consequences of smoking?
How to get rid of them?
Symptoms such as coughing
in the morning, phlegm and shortness of breath, or feeling short of breath, are
signs of a serious illness – chronic obstructive disease
It should be noted that COPD is widely
a common and dangerous disease and ranks 4th in the structure
mortality, second only to heart disease, lung cancer and
strokes. If untreated, this disease leads to irreversible
changes in the structure of the lungs and heart, which shortens the patient’s life in
on average for 20-25 years.
It is important that the disease develops
gradually, imperceptibly for a person and for a long time passes without
striking clinical symptoms.As the severity progresses
manifestations of COPD are increasing. The earliest symptom of the disease is cough. On
at first it occurs rarely, more often in the morning, but after a while
time becomes a constant companion of the patient. Usually a cough with COPD
accompanied by the release of sputum. At the beginning of the disease, it is slimy, but during
time of exacerbations and as the disease progresses, it thickens and can
acquire a purulent character. Typically, sputum is secreted in
a small amount in the morning (usually no more than 50 ml per day).Most
a late symptom of the disease is a feeling of shortness of breath, or shortness of breath. She
may appear only a few years after the onset of coughing and usually
serves as the main reason for going to the doctor, so the diagnosis is often
established only at a late stage.
The main cause of COPD is
this is smoking. To determine the intensity of smoking and the risk for
health for each individual patient use a special
coefficient “pack index / years”. To calculate this coefficient, you need
the number of packs of cigarettes smoked per day multiplied by the duration
smoking in years.If the ratio is more than 10 packs / years (i.e.
a person smoked 1 pack of cigarettes for 10 years or 2 packs per
for 5 years), then the patient can be attributed to hard smokers with
high risk of developing COPD and lung cancer.
a factor in the development of COPD is environmental pollution,
industrial dust and chemicals, home heating smoke and fumes
from cooking.This fact may explain the occurrence and
the development of COPD in nonsmokers.
To confirm the diagnosis of COPD
the following survey methods are used: determination of the function of the external
respiration (spirography), chest x-ray,
clinical blood tests, pulse oximetry, ECG, if necessary
computed tomography of the chest and fibrobronchoscopy.
Unfortunately, COPD is a steadily progressive disease. but
early treatment can slow it down and relieve symptoms.
Particular attention is paid to the elimination of risk factors – smoking cessation.Of the medicines, inhalation bronchodilators are used, and with
exacerbation of antibiotics, expectorants and anti-inflammatory drugs.
Physical exercises and breathing exercises are of great importance,
aimed at training the respiratory muscles and improving
drainage function of the lungs.
- Are you worried about coughing in the morning?
- Are you coughing up mucus or phlegm?
- Does the cough get worse after ARVI?
- Do you have more shortness of breath than your peers?
- Have you been smoking for many years?
If you find similar symptoms, you may have COPD,
be sure to see a doctor.
is one of the signs of disturbed breathing during sleep.
statistics, snoring is noted in more than half of adults, while
for many of them, snoring may be a sign of such a serious
diseases like obstructive sleep apnea syndrome  sleep (OSAS).
The main signs of obstructive sleep apnea syndrome:
- loud, intermittent snoring;
- pauses in breathing during sleep;
- increased fatigue and drowsiness during the daytime;
- morning fatigue, headaches after waking up;
- irritability, decreased mood background;
- increased urine output at night;
- high blood pressure, heart rhythm disturbances, increased blood sugar
Possible complications of OSAS
breathing during sleep can not only significantly degrade the quality
the patient’s life due to daytime sleepiness and loud snoring, but also lead to
the development of such life-threatening complications ,
as myocardial infarction, stroke, dangerous heart rhythm disturbances and
heart failure.In addition, a relationship has been established between sleep apnea
and overweight (obesity), diabetes mellitus, “metabolic
Today, sleep apnea is successfully diagnosed and treated.
an examination and treatment should be prescribed by a doctor who is engaged in diagnostics
and treatment of sleep disorders. One of the methods of instrumental
Sleep apnea diagnosis is the night cardiorespiratory monitoring .
With the help of special equipment throughout the night there is
registration of muscle tone, ECG, respiratory parameters, saturation
is carried out in a specially equipped ward.
starts in the evening; at night, during the study, the attendant
the nurse monitors the patient’s condition and the quality of the recording.
Treatment of obstructive sleep apnea and snoring syndrome
the treatment started can eliminate all manifestations of the disease, reduce
risk of cardiovascular complications, eliminate snoring
normalize a person’s daytime well-being.To date, the most
Positive air pressure therapy (CPAP therapy  ) is a safe and effective treatment for sleep apnea.
With this method of treatment, the patient is supplied with air through a small mask,
which keeps the airway open while
sleep. Against the background of treatment, breath holding and snoring are eliminated,
sleep, and in the morning patients feel more alert and rested.
in addition, the activity of the heart and blood pressure are normalized,
the risk of cardiovascular complications decreases.Many people suffering
from excess weight, with the systematic use of the apparatus, reduce
the weight. Those patients who have mild forms of respiratory distress
in a dream, sometimes other methods of treatment are recommended – intraoral
(dental) devices, surgical correction of nasal disorders
respiration, drug treatment of allergic diseases of the nasopharynx.
a relatively rare disease. Most often it comes to light by accident. But in
at the same time, with this pathology, damage to all systems is possible
the human body.
1999, a historical document appeared, the “Statement” on Sarcoidosis, in
which generalized the world experience in the treatment of this disease, and was
it was stated that at least half of patients with sarcoidosis can
Sarcoidosis is a chronic autoimmune
a disease, the etiology of which is still unknown, although for the first time
the disease was described in England by dermatologist Jonathan Hutchinson
(Jonathan Hutchinson) back in 1869.This disease
characterized by the formation in many organs of epithelioid cell
granulomas, a violation of the normal architecture of the affected organ, or
organs. The main symptom of sarcoidosis is granulomas, which can spontaneously
arise and disappear.
Chronic means that it can last for a long period of time.
Sarcoidosis is characterized by multisystem involvement. It means that
sarcoidosis can affect several organs or systems at the same time
organism.In 90% of cases, this disease is typically affected.
lungs. At the same time, the pathological process may be involved
lymph nodes, spleen, salivary glands, skin, bones, joints,
muscles and eyes. Less common is sarcoidosis of the liver, kidneys, heart and
the nervous system of the genital organs.
refers to the formation of small inflammatory nodules or granulomas in
the affected tissue. Granuloma comes from the Latin word meaning
small grain or granule.Granuloma is an accumulation of
immune cells that normally participate in defense reactions
Autoimmune means that the disease is characterized by
specific immune response not only to foreign agents, but also to
components of the body’s own tissues.
There are three types of reasons for the formation of epithelioid cell granulomas:
-Infections Bacteria and fungi.
– factors of plant and animal origin (pollen, spores).
Many “ sarcoidologists ” believe that the cause of sarcoidosis lies in
combination of genetic predisposition with environmental influences
Wednesday. Manifestations of genetic predisposition are associated with racial and
In our country, sarcoidosis most often
detected during routine fluorographic examinations. Radiologists
detect bilateral enlargement of the lymph nodes of the roots of the lungs
(sometimes in combination with changes in the pulmonary pattern).Less common patients
self-seek medical help with Löfgren’s syndrome (fever,
joint pain and swelling, erythema nodosum and bilateral
lymphadenopathy of the roots of the lungs). Clinical manifestations of the disease in
damage to the lungs and lymph nodes of the roots of the lungs in ninety
percent of cases are manifested by: cough, shortness of breath, sometimes chest pain,
malaise, fever and weight loss.
With skin lesions observed in 10-35%: granulomas, erythema nodosum, rarely – vasculitis.
In thirty percent of cases of eye damage occurs: benign infiltration of the conjunctiva and lacrimal glands, uveitis.
rarely observed heart damage, which may manifest
intracardiac block, artimia and sudden stop
Nervous system involvement is rare (<5%), however may manifest as lymphocytic meningitis, cranial nerve palsy and hypothalamo-pituitary dysfunction. Bell's palsy (facial palsy nerve of the peripheral type) with sarcoidosis without other neurological signs is considered a good prognostic symptom, while others nervous system damage can be very serious.
The central nervous system and heart are the most common causes of death in sarcoidosis.
While among all patients with this pathology, sarcoidosis itself becomes
direct cause of death in less than five percent of cases.
the etiology of sarcoidosis remains unknown, then the disease remains
diagnosis of exclusion. The focus has now shifted to the side
more intensive examination of patients with suspected sarcoidosis:
performing computed tomography of the chest organs of high
resolution, transbronchial and videothoracoscopic (VTS) biopsy.
After detection of bilateral lymphadenopathy with or without changes in the lungs, start with a laboratory examination.
1. General blood test with leukocyte count, mandatory assessment of red blood, platelets and ESR.
2. general urine analysis.
3.X-ray of the chest organs in two projections, you can immediately
to carry out x-ray computed tomography (CT) of the chest organs
cells with the inclusion of the liver and spleen in the examination area.
4. FBS with transbronchial biopsy, cytological and microbiological examination of lavage fluid.
5. Thoracoscopy with biopsy performed under general anesthesia.
6. Open lung biopsy may be the method of choice.
7.the study of the function of external respiration should be investigated at the stage
primary diagnosis and during follow-up.
8. ECG, if necessary, Holter ECG monitoring.
9. ophthalmologist consultation.
epithelioid cell granulomas, absence of mycobacterium tuberculosis,
fungi or other pathogenic pathogens, atypical and tumor cells
evidence in favor of sarcoidosis.
the etiology of the disease, then there is no specific therapy for this pathology.
It is important to note that not all sarcoidosis patients require
treatment.In case of an asymptomatic course, with a compensated state
patient and with careful qualified supervision, you can leave
a patient without treatment or prescribe drugs with minimal side effects
effects.For example: vitamin E. Therapy is indicated in case of damage to vital
important organs (i.e., the central nervous system,
cardiovascular system or eyes) or with progression
diseases. Glucocorticosteroids are the mainstay of therapy. But,
complications of therapy are frequent even after the termination of this type of treatment
a relapse is possible.
In the future, follow the patient
sarcoidosis can be a therapist, general practitioner, pediatrician, pulmonologist,
immunologist or hematologist.
I was diagnosed with pulmonary fibrosis.The doctor in the hospital where I lay on
examination, he did not tell me anything comforting. The treatment that I
recommended, only symptomatic. But I have, apart from
pulmonary fibrosis, also pulmonary emphysema, cardiosclerosis, on the cardiogram
diffuse changes in the myocardium, an increase in the left ventricle of the heart and
hypertension II Art. I read an article in your newspaper
a pulmonologist who writes just about my illness and explains how it
is developing. Maybe the doctor can recommend me any
treatment of my disease in order to at least stop its development, or
will advise where you can go for qualified help?
Nina Nikolaevna, St.Voronezh.
the function of the lungs is to remove carbon dioxide from the blood and saturate it
oxygen. This requires the following conditions: sufficient
intake of air into the alveoli for oxygen delivery and removal
carbon dioxide (ventilation), normal pulmonary blood flow (perfusion), normal gas exchange between alveolar air and blood (diffusion).
The normal respiratory rate is 12-16 per minute, and the tidal volume is
about 500 ml. Approximately 30% of the inhaled air does not reach
alveoli, ventilating only the airways.Doesn’t happen in them
gas exchange, therefore they are called anatomical dead space.
The remaining 70% enter the alveoli and quickly mix with the existing
there by air. Thus, if the minute volume of respiration in a healthy
person at rest is approximately 7 l / min, then 2 l / min goes to
ventilation of the dead space, and 5 l / min – on the alveolar
ventilation. The total volume of all lung structures where no
gas exchange, – the respiratory tract and ventilated, but not supplied with blood
(perfused) alveoli – called functional dead
The alveolus is the area of the lung where gas exchange takes place. Alveoli
resemble bubbles of irregular polygonal shape, they separate
special interalveolar partitions. The thickness of these partitions
very small and ranges from 2 to 8 microns. The wall of the alveoli contains holes –
the so-called Cohn’s pores, connecting adjacent alveoli to each other.
each septum contains a dense network of blood capillaries, elastic, reticular and collagen fibers and connective tissue cells.The number of alveoli in both lungs of a person reaches 600 – 700 million, and
their total surface ranges from 40 m2 during exhalation to 120 m2
when inhaling. For normal gas exchange, a hundredth of
the available number of alveoli. The diameter of the alveoli of a newborn baby in
the average is 150 microns, an adult – 280 microns, with age, the volume of the alveoli
increases due to the rupture of some interalveolar septa. Their
the diameter reaches 300 – 350 microns. Thus can develop
emphysema of the lungs – an anatomical change in the lung tissue, in which
there is an expansion of the small bronchi (bronchioles), this is accompanied by
pathological changes in the alveolar walls.Development of emphysema
associated with irreversible changes in the wall of the bronchi and lungs under
the influence of prolonged inflammation and impaired airway patency
ways. Such changes can also occur with chronic obstructive
lung diseases, bronchial asthma, when elastic
properties of the lungs and after exhalation begins to remain in them more than in
the norm, the amount of air. In older people, such changes can be considered
variant of the norm. At the same time, in the bronchi and lungs begins
the amount of connective tissue increases progressively, i.e.e.
pneumosclerosis is formed.
Your existing cardiosclerosis
– the process of formation of connective tissue in the heart muscle.
A formed scar located on the myocardium provokes dysfunction
the muscles of the heart and, as a result, leads to heart failure. V
in some cases, when scarring is formed on individual small
areas, the development of cardiosclerosis is almost asymptomatic.
The main causes of cardiosclerosis are diseases such as
ischemic heart disease, heart attacks, inflammatory processes
myocardium (myocarditis).An enlargement of the left ventricle of the heart is one of the
complications of hypertension.
Treatment of cardiosclerosis
is aimed at eliminating the manifestations of the underlying disease, signs
conduction disorders, heart failure, improvement of the course
metabolic processes in the myocardium. With the development of pulmonary emphysema and
pulmonary fibrosis, the main measures are aimed at treating the disease,
which caused these complications and to combat respiratory failure.
At the stages of rehabilitation physiotherapy exercises
shown to almost all patients.The main tasks of medical
physical education are: restoration of the functions of the affected organs and
systems; prevention of disease progression and elimination
functional disorders of the body associated with immobilization;
activation of cardiovascular and respiratory activity
systems, improving the blood supply to organs and tissues; stimulation of metabolic
processes and an increase in the general tone of the body.
acquired pulmonary emphysema, pulmonary fibrosis, cardiosclerosis are
prevention of chronic lung diseases, various
90,000 About the dangers of smoking
On the dangers of smoking
Smoking is one of the most significant threats to human health.
According to the World Health Organization
Tobacco causes nearly 7 million deaths annually, of which more than 6 million are among tobacco users and former users, and over 890,000 among non-smokers exposed to second-hand smoke.Unless urgent action is taken, the number of annual deaths by 2030 could exceed 8 million.
On the effects of smoking on the body
Tobacco smoking leads to addiction.
In smokers, addiction to the nicotine contained in tobacco leaves quickly develops, which leads to a strong need to smoke again and again.
When a person tries to quit smoking, he or she may have withdrawal symptoms, including:
- Decreased concentration of attention
- sleep problems
- increased appetite
- Powerful cravings for tobacco.
In addition to nicotine, a number of other hazardous chemicals are found in tobacco smoke, such as tar, radioactive polonium, arsenic, lead, bismuth, ammonia, and organic acids. There are practically no cases of acute poisoning with these substances due to the fact that they enter the body slowly, dosed, but these substances lead to a gradual deterioration in health.
When 20 g of tobacco is burned, the average is formed:
- 0.0012 g.hydrocyanic acid;
- About 0.0012 g of hydrogen sulfide;
- 0.22 g of pyridine bases;
- 0.18 g of nicotine;
- 0.64 g of ammonia;
- 0.92 g of carbon monoxide;
- Not less than 1 g of concentrate from liquid and solid products of combustion and dry distillation of tobacco
Many smokers believe that smoking filter cigarette is safe, but it is not. If absorbers and filters provided complete protection against harmful substances, then they would also absorb nicotine itself, in which case the effect of smoking would not be felt.90 071 light cigarette smokers also find that smoking light cigarettes has minimal impact on the body.
The harm caused by smoking any cigarette is the same for all smokers.
In addition to the smoker himself, those who are around – the so-called passive smokers – also suffer.
Long-term smoking leads to diseases of various organs and systems.
What is the damage to health in general caused by tobacco use?
Smoking increases the risk of death from cancer and other diseases in cancer patients and healthy people.
Smoking can cause cancer in any organ:
- blood (acute myeloid leukemia)
- kidneys and ureters
- oral cavity (throat, tongue, soft palate and tonsils)
- trachea, bronchus and lungs
Smoking damages the heart and blood circulation and increases the risk of coronary heart disease, stroke, peripheral vascular disease (damaged blood vessels) and cerebrovascular disease (damaged arteries that supply the brain with blood).
Carbon monoxide from smoke and nicotine put more stress on the heart, making it work faster. They also increase the risk of blood clots.
In fact, smoking doubles the risk of heart attack, angina. People who smoke have a double risk of dying from coronary heart disease than non-smokers.
Smokers who smoke 5 or fewer cigarettes per day may have early signs of cardiovascular disease.
If you quit smoking
A year after quitting smoking – the risk of developing cardiovascular diseases is halved , after 15 years the risk is similar to the risk of someone who has never smoked.
People who smoke have an increased risk of developing ulcers and stomach cancer.
Smoking can cause reflux – the reflux of gastric contents, in which case acid from the stomach can move in the opposite direction – into the esophagus.
Smoking is an important risk factor for developing kidney cancer , and the longer smoking history, the higher the risk.
Studies have shown that if you regularly smoke 10 cigarettes a day, then one and a half times more likely to develop kidney cancer compared to non-smokers.If a person smokes 20 or more cigarettes a day, the risk doubles.
Smoking causes premature aging of the skin for 10-20 years.
Smoking cessation prevents further deterioration of the skin condition caused by smoking.
Smoking can reduce bone mass and increase bone fragility. Women should be especially careful as they are more likely to develop osteoporosis than nonsmokers.
Smoking increases the risk of stroke by 50%, which can lead to brain damage and death.
Smoking increases the risk of developing a cerebral aneurysm. This is a swelling of a blood vessel caused by the weakness of its wall. This condition can lead to subarachnoid hemorrhage, which is a type of stroke, and can cause extensive brain damage and death.
Within two years after quitting smoking, the risk of stroke will be halved, and within five years it will be the same as in non-smokers.
Cough, colds, wheezing and asthma are just the beginning. Smoking can lead to fatal diseases such as pneumonia, emphysema and lung cancer. 90,074 Smoking causes 84% of lung cancer deaths and 83% of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) deaths.
COPD, a progressive and wasting disease, is the collective name for lung diseases including chronic bronchitis and emphysema. People with COPD have difficulty breathing, primarily due to narrowing of the airways and destruction of lung tissue.Typical symptoms of COPD include shortness of breath when active, persistent coughing up phlegm, and frequent chest infections.
The early signs of COPD are often referred to as “smoker’s cough,” but if people continue to smoke, the condition worsens, which can greatly affect their quality of life.
The most effective way to slow the progression of the disease is to stop smoking.
The most serious oral health consequence of smoking is the 90,071 risk of developing cancer of the lips, tongue, throat, larynx and esophagus. Over 93% of oropharyngeal cancers (throat cancers) are caused by smoking.
In addition, smoking can result in bad breath, discoloration of tooth enamel, inflammatory gum disease and impaired taste.
Smoking can cause impotence in men because it damages the blood vessels that supply blood to the genitals. It can also affect the quality of semen, reduce sperm count, leading to infertility.
Smoking in women increases the risk of infertility and cervical cancer .
Smoking during pregnancy has a number of risks:
- premature birth
- low birth weight
- Sudden Infant Death Syndrome
- childhood illnesses.
Prevention of the consequences of smoking
Prevention of tobacco smoking among the population is as follows:
- in increasing cigarette prices
- in compliance with age restrictions for the sale of cigarettes
- in popularizing information about the dangers of smoking among adolescents, which they receive mainly on television, from billboards, during public events, from messages in newspapers, magazines, on the Internet, on the radio, in cinemas.
Tasks of school workers in the prevention of tobacco smoking.
Teachers, medical workers, school psychologists should instill in children and adolescents an understanding of the value of health and a healthy lifestyle. It is necessary to prevent smoking initiation and to promote smoking cessation among those who already smoke. Early prevention is quite effective because tobacco dependence has not yet been formed and there are no stereotypes of behavior.
Attention should be paid to the motivation for smoking among adolescents:
- example of adults and friends
- having fun
- fear of being out of date, not fashionable
- fear of falling behind peers
- “support the company”
- “from nothing to do.”
Social factors influencing the prevalence of nicotine addiction among schoolchildren should be noted:
- Ignoring sports
- positive or indifferent attitude towards smoking in the family
- Family conflicts
- conflicts at the place of study
- Difficulties in adaptation in high school
and biological factors:
- passive smoking
- alcohol intake.
Physicians in all specialties should educate patients about the dangers of smoking and how to stop smoking.
In antenatal clinics, it is necessary to educate pregnant and lactating mothers about the dangers of smoking. Information can be presented verbally as well as in the form of posters.
Once you stop smoking, your health will improve and your body will begin to repair itself.
Know! Smoking shortens a man’s life by about 12 years and a woman’s life by about 11 years.
Every cigarette you smoke is harmful!
Harm of smoking – all about the effect of a habit on the human body and others
Harm of smoking – all about the effect of a habit on the human body and others
Harm of smoking – all about the influence of a habit on the human body and others – RIA Novosti, 09.03.2021
The harm of smoking – all about the effect of a habit on the human body and others
Smoking is a bad habit that leads to problems with the health and appearance of a person.Why smoking is harmful, what is the effect of tobacco, electronic … RIA Novosti, 09.03.2021
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MOSCOW, March 9 – RIA Novosti.Smoking is a bad habit that leads to health and physical problems. Why smoking is harmful, what is the effect of tobacco, electronic cigarettes and hookah on the body, as well as how to quit smoking correctly – in the material of RIA Novosti. Composition of tobacco smoke – It seems to many that nicotine, which is part of cigarettes, has the most detrimental effect on the human body. Yes, of course, it is harmful and addictive, but there are other chemicals in cigarettes that have a carcinogenic effect on the body, ” psychiatrist and narcologist Natalya Tishchenko told RIA Novosti.Tobacco smoke contains about 4000 chemical compounds. The most dangerous of them are benzene, acetone, arsenic, ammonia, lead, mercury formaldehyde and acetaldehyde. The effect of smoking on the human body Respiratory organs – The harm of smoking is obvious. First of all, it is bad for the respiratory system. Shortness of breath, cough, weakness appear, – the doctor noted. The mechanisms of breathing regulation due to the use of cigarettes or devices replacing them are disrupted even with a smoking experience of six months. In addition, due to the use of toxic substances, the respiratory system is more often exposed to colds, acute respiratory infections.Smokers are more likely to develop asthma or chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. It has been established that the risk of developing bronchitis and pulmonary emphysema in smokers increases 10 times. Nervous system and psyche – Nicotine and other toxic substances of tobacco smoke have a negative effect on the brain. Under the influence of nicotine, its blood supply is disrupted. Smokers deteriorate attention, memory, ability to logic and coordination of movements is impaired. In addition, smokers are more likely to be overworked, they tolerate ordinary loads worse, – said the narcologist.An experienced smoker often has increased levels of anxiety and an increased likelihood of developing depression. The effect of cigarettes on the brain can also be manifested by frequent headaches, insomnia, neuroses and psychosis. Cardiovascular system Nicotine and other toxic substances from cigarettes also have a negative effect on the cardiovascular system. Her diseases represent the greatest danger for nicotine addicts, they are associated with 48% of premature deaths caused by smoking cigarettes.According to studies, smokers have a 2-4 times higher risk of death from myocardial infarction and stroke than non-smokers. In addition, smoking raises the level of cholesterol in the blood. Organs of digestion According to the expert, disorders of the gastrointestinal tract are a frequent result of cigarette use. Tobacco smoke, entering the mouth, acts on the salivary glands, increasing the secretion of saliva. Together with it, nicotine and other substances enter the esophagus, stomach, where they irritate the mucous membranes, destroying the protective layer and making them more vulnerable to hydrochloric acid.As a result, there are consequences such as: In addition, most of the nicotine from tobacco smoke goes directly into the bloodstream, penetrating into the brain and affecting the hypothalamic region, where the centers responsible for the feeling of hunger and satiety are located. As a result, the digestive organs do not produce enough juices during the digestion of food or begin to produce them when it is not needed at all. According to scientists, smoking doubles the likelihood of developing functional dyspepsia.Endocrine system Frequent smoking of cigarettes or devices replacing them often leads to disruption of the endocrine glands: thyroid and genital. Smokers can be hot-tempered, irritable, and have sexual problems as nicotine interferes with hormone synthesis. Therefore, smokers are often diagnosed with infertility and impotence. Organs of the Senses Due to toxic substances in cigarettes, most smokers have a decreased taste sensation, because the tongue becomes covered with a thick, viscous coating that blocks food’s access to the receptors responsible for the sense of taste.Also, the smoker’s sense of smell is impaired, the ability to perceive smells is reduced. In addition, the nasal mucosa becomes inflamed due to smoking, which can lead to a chronic runny nose. Smoking also affects vision, as tobacco smoke negatively affects the retina and optic nerve. It may even develop color blindness. Hearing Due to the toxic substances in cigarette smoke, hearing can also be damaged. Poisonous substances lead to inflammation of the nasopharynx, and so, in turn, is connected to the tympanic cavity.As a result, inflammation of the auditory nerve is not excluded. What is the harm of smoking? The human body is fully formed only by the age of 20. For this process to go well, all these years, cells must receive the right amount of oxygen and nutrients, and when smoking, toxins from tobacco smoke are added to them. In addition, nicotine addiction develops much faster in adolescence than in adults.Dangers of Smoking to Women In addition to the fact that toxins from cigarette smoke affect all internal organs of women, their effects also affect their appearance. The skin on the face ages faster and loses its elasticity, rashes appear. Nails and hair suffer from oxygen deprivation, become dull and brittle, grow more slowly, and look faded. Teeth are gradually decayed by tobacco smoke, a persistent fetid odor develops, and inhalation of tobacco smoke negatively affects reproductive function.Women who smoke more often cannot become mothers. Among them, infertility is much more common than among those who have never smoked. Harm of smoking for men Carcinogenic substances in cigarettes affect the reproductive function of men no less than all other systems in the body. Due to toxins, testosterone synthesis slows down, which is fraught with a decrease libido and deterioration in sperm quality. In heavy smokers, their movement slows down. This directly affects the possibility of conception. In addition, due to the disruption of the central nervous system and insufficient blood filling of the corpora cavernosa, it can lead to the development of diabetes mellitus, which leads to impotence.Harmfulness of smoking during pregnancy Smoking is a risk factor for complications during pregnancy, scientists have found. All carcinogens from tobacco smoke enter the woman’s bloodstream, and then to the baby. Nicotine, in turn, constricts blood vessels, including those in the umbilical cord. Because of this, the amount of oxygen supplied to the baby is reduced. Subsequently, there is a high risk of having a baby in a state of severe asphyxia, and if the baby has been receiving nicotine for 9 months, then after birth he will develop nicotine withdrawal syndrome.The harm of secondhand smoke to others Sidestream smoke with a high concentration of carcinogens is considered even more toxic than the main one. It also contains small particles of harmful substances (ammonia, benzene, cadmium, cyanide formaldehyde) that can more easily penetrate body tissues such as the lungs. There is no safe level of secondhand smoke. Even a few minutes of being near a smoking person is harmful. In addition, smoke after smoking indoors does not disappear, but partially accumulates on surfaces: furniture upholstery, floors, car interiors.This “waste” from cigarettes is called tertiary smoke. It is especially dangerous for children, who, for example, often crawl on a dirty carpet. The harm of alternative types of smoking It seems to a person that he replaces a harmful cigarette with a “harmless” hookah or “aikos”. However, according to the specialist, other tobacco products contain the same carcinogens that negatively affect the body, like regular cigarettes. At the same time, nicotine dependence on them can develop even faster. Electronic cigarettes and vaping – For example, when smoking electronic cigarettes or vaping, a person takes puffs and does not control the amount of smoked.As a result, it turns out that he can take more nicotine, since he cannot track how much he used. Addiction in such cases forms faster, and the harmful effect on the body is stronger, – noted the narcologist. The same happens with tobacco heating systems. Due to the fact that they practically do not emit tobacco smoke and a pungent odor, many smoke them indoors: in cafes, restaurants, at home in the kitchen. The smoke from tobacco heating systems and from ordinary cigarettes is equally toxic to the bronchi and lungs.Hookah lovers should know that long-term smoking leads to inhalation of more nicotine smoke compared to regular cigarettes. – If a person makes 8-12 puffs while smoking cigarettes, then in the case of a hookah there are 50-100 of them, each of which contains nicotine … For one hour of hookah smoking, a person smokes about a pack of cigarettes. Also, when smoking a hookah, foil is often used, which, when heated with coal, emits aluminum vapors, which are not at all useful for the human body, – noted Natalia Tishchenko.There are nicotine-free hookah mixes on the market, but they are also harmful to the body, as they contain preservatives, dyes, and flavorings. Hookah cannot completely clear the smoke from combustion products, which means that when heated, many toxins are released that affect the nervous system no worse than cigarette tobacco. Inhaled smoke often leads to lung cancer, heart disease and other ailments, experts say. How long is nicotine excreted from the body? There is no single formula by which you can calculate how much nicotine will be completely excreted from the human body.Nevertheless, according to the expert, it is generally accepted that nicotine leaves the human body on average from 7 to 21 days. How long do smokers live? – There is also no single formula by which to calculate, for example, how much less a patient will live. if he smoked 1500 cigarettes. It all depends on his body. However, it is believed that one smoked cigarette shortens life by 10-15 minutes, the expert explained. How to Quit Smoking There are many methods of quitting smoking. According to Natalia Tishchenko, the following algorithm can be effective: – The sensations arising from the refusal of nicotine are unpleasant, but they are a sign that the body is recovering.All of them will pass in a week or two. In the case when you cannot quit smoking on your own, you should seek help from a psychiatrist-narcologist. An integrated approach helps to get rid of this bad habit and sets the mind on the refusal of tobacco products in the future in any form, – said the narcologist.
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society, health, smoking
MOSCOW, March 9 – RIA Novosti. Smoking is a bad habit that leads to health and physical problems. Why smoking is harmful, what is the effect of tobacco, electronic cigarettes and hookah on the body, as well as how to quit smoking correctly – in the material of RIA Novosti.
23 November 2020, 12:06
An oncologist told what smoking vapes and hookahs can lead to
Composition of tobacco smoke
– It seems to many that nicotine, which is a part of cigarettes, has the most detrimental effect on the human body.Yes, of course, it is harmful and addictive, but there are other chemicals in cigarettes that have a carcinogenic effect on the body, psychiatrist and narcologist Natalya Tishchenko told RIA Novosti. There are about 4,000 chemical compounds in tobacco smoke. The most dangerous of them are benzene, acetone, arsenic, ammonia, lead, mercury formaldehyde and acetaldehyde.
The effect of smoking on the human body
– The harm of smoking is obvious.First of all, it is bad for the respiratory system. Shortness of breath, cough, weakness appear, – the doctor noted.
Respiratory regulation mechanisms due to the use of cigarettes or devices replacing them are disrupted even with a smoking experience of six months. In addition, due to the use of toxic substances, the respiratory system is more often exposed to colds, acute respiratory infections. Smokers are more likely to develop asthma or chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. It has been established that the risk of developing bronchitis and pulmonary emphysema in smokers increases 10 times.
February 9, 23:05
The doctor told how to restore the lungs after smoking
Nervous system and psyche
– Nicotine and other toxic substances of tobacco smoke have a negative effect on the brain. Under the influence of nicotine, its blood supply is disrupted. Smokers deteriorate attention, memory, ability to logic and coordination of movements is impaired. In addition, smokers are more likely to be overworked, they tolerate ordinary loads worse, – said the narcologist.
An experienced smoker often has increased levels of anxiety and an increased likelihood of developing depression.The effect of cigarettes on the brain can also be manifested by frequent headaches, insomnia, neuroses and psychosis.
Nicotine and other toxic substances from cigarettes also have a negative effect on the cardiovascular system. Her diseases represent the greatest danger for nicotine addicts, they are associated with 48% of premature deaths caused by smoking cigarettes.
“Smokers often have heart rhythm disturbances and a predisposition to high blood pressure,” the doctor said.
According to studies, smokers have a 2-4 times higher risk of death from myocardial infarction and stroke than non-smokers. In addition, smoking increases blood cholesterol levels.
November 19, 2020, 02:02
Rospotrebnadzor told how much smoking shortens life
According to the expert, disorders of the gastrointestinal tract are a frequent result of cigarette use.
Tobacco smoke, entering the oral cavity, acts on the salivary glands, increasing the secretion of saliva.Together with it, nicotine and other substances enter the esophagus, stomach, where they irritate the mucous membranes, destroying the protective layer and making them more vulnerable to hydrochloric acid. As a result, there are such consequences as:
feeling of nausea, heaviness;
gastric ulcer formation;
belching and heartburn;
increased production of hydrochloric acid;
decrease in the rate of contraction of the walls of the stomach.
In addition, most of the nicotine from tobacco smoke goes directly into the bloodstream, entering the brain and affecting the hypothalamic region, where the centers responsible for hunger and satiety are located. As a result, the digestive organs do not emit enough juices during the digestion of food or begin their enhanced production when it is not needed at all.
According to scientists, smoking doubles the likelihood of developing functional dyspepsia.
January 1, 12:32 pm
In Russia, it is forbidden to leave burning cigarettes unattended in houses
Frequent smoking of cigarettes or devices replacing them often leads to disruption of the endocrine glands: thyroid and genital. Smokers can be hot-tempered and irritable, and also have problems sexually, since nicotine affects the synthesis of hormones.
In this regard, smokers are often diagnosed with infertility and impotence.
Toxic substances in cigarettes have a reduced taste experience for most smokers, as a thick, viscous coating builds up on the tongue that blocks food’s access to taste receptors.
Also, the smoker’s sense of smell is impaired, the ability to perceive smells is reduced. In addition, the nasal mucosa becomes inflamed due to smoking, which can lead to a chronic runny nose.
Smoking also affects vision, as tobacco smoke negatively affects the retina and optic nerve.Color blindness may even develop.
Hearing can also be damaged due to toxic substances in cigarette smoke. Poisonous substances lead to inflammation of the nasopharynx, and so, in turn, is connected to the tympanic cavity. As a result, the occurrence of inflammation of the auditory nerve is not excluded.
February 19, 13:04 LIVE The smokers will be driven into one room. New rules for smoking in residential buildings
What is the harm of smoking
Harm of smoking for adolescents
The main harm of smoking for adolescents, according to the doctor, is due to their physiological immaturity.The human body is fully formed only by the age of 20. For this process to go well, all these years, the cells must receive the right amount of oxygen and nutrients, and when smoking, toxins from tobacco smoke are added to them.
In addition, nicotine addiction develops much faster in adolescence than in adults.
January 3, 08:00
Smoking is dangerous – for the wallet: how much will alcohol and cigarettes rise in price
The harm of smoking for women
In addition to the fact that toxins from cigarette smoke affect all internal organs of women, their effect also affects appearance.The skin on the face ages faster and loses its elasticity, rashes appear. Nails and hair suffer from oxygen deprivation, become dull and brittle, grow more slowly, and look faded. The teeth are gradually destroyed by tobacco smoke, there is a constant fetid odor from the mouth.
In addition, inhalation of tobacco smoke adversely affects reproductive function. Women who smoke more often cannot become mothers. Among them, infertility is much more common than among those who have never smoked.
Harm of smoking for men
Carcinogenic substances in cigarettes affect the reproductive function of men no less than all other systems in the body.
Due to toxins, testosterone synthesis slows down, which is fraught with a decrease in libido and a deterioration in the quality of sperm. In heavy smokers, their movement slows down. This directly affects the possibility of conception.
In addition, due to disruption of the central nervous system and insufficient blood filling of the corpora cavernosa can lead to the development of diabetes mellitus, which leads to impotence.
Harm of smoking during pregnancy
Smoking is a risk factor for complications during pregnancy, scientists have found.
All carcinogens from tobacco smoke enter the woman’s bloodstream, and then to the child. Nicotine, in turn, constricts blood vessels, including those in the umbilical cord. Because of this, the amount of oxygen supplied to the baby is reduced. Subsequently, there is a high risk of having a baby with severe asphyxia.
In addition, if a child received nicotine for 9 months, then after birth he will develop nicotine withdrawal syndrome.
– There is a myth that if at the beginning of pregnancy a woman uses cigarettes, then it is necessary to continue doing this, allegedly it is harmful to quit smoking abruptly, as the child will be worse off. The harm of smoking during pregnancy is obvious, therefore, you can tie up with a bad habit at any time, – said Natalia Tishchenko.
Dangers of secondhand smoke to others
Sidestream smoke with a high concentration of carcinogens is considered even more toxic than the main one. It also contains small particles of harmful substances (ammonia, benzene, cadmium, cyanide formaldehyde), which more easily penetrate the tissues of the body, such as the lungs.
There is no safe level of secondhand smoke. Even a few minutes of being near a smoking person is harmful.
In addition, smoke after smoking indoors does not disappear, but partially settles on surfaces: furniture upholstery, floors, car interiors. This “waste” from cigarettes is called tertiary smoke. It is especially dangerous for children, who, for example, often crawl on a dirty carpet.
July 11, 2020, 17:53
Triggered. A psychologist about the effect of “frightening” pictures on cigarette packs
Harm of alternative types of smoking
It seems to a person that he is replacing a harmful cigarette with a “harmless” hookah or “aikos”.However, according to the specialist, other tobacco products contain the same carcinogens that negatively affect the body, like regular cigarettes. Moreover, nicotine dependence on them can develop even faster.
Electronic cigarettes and vaping
– For example, when smoking electronic cigarettes or vaping, a person takes puffs and does not control the amount smoked. As a result, it turns out that he can take more nicotine, since he cannot track how much he used.Addiction in such cases is formed faster, and the harmful effect on the body is stronger, – said the narcologist.
The same happens with tobacco heating systems. Due to the fact that they practically do not emit tobacco smoke and a pungent odor, many smoke them indoors: in cafes, restaurants, at home in the kitchen. The smoke from tobacco heating systems and from ordinary cigarettes is equally toxic to the bronchi and lungs.
– At the same time, if earlier someone was too lazy to go to the balcony or go out into the street, then sticks can be smoked at home, which means that more of them are smoked.And there are also sticks, which include glycerin and propylene glycol, which clearly cannot but affect the body negatively, – the doctor emphasized.
Hookah lovers should be aware that long-term smoking leads to inhalation of more nicotine smoke than regular cigarettes.
– If, when smoking cigarettes, a person makes 8-12 puffs, then in the case of a hookah there are 50-100 of them, each of which contains nicotine.For one hour of hookah smoking, a person smokes about a pack of cigarettes. Also, when smoking a hookah, foil is often used, which, when heated with coal, emits aluminum vapors, which are not at all useful for the human body, – noted Natalia Tishchenko.
There are nicotine-free hookah mixes on the market, but they are also harmful to the body, as they contain preservatives, dyes, and flavorings. Hookah cannot completely clear the smoke from combustion products, which means that when heated, many toxins are released that affect the nervous system no worse than cigarette tobacco.Inhaled smoke often leads to lung cancer, heart disease and other ailments, experts say.
January 26, 03:39
The doctor named the main danger of hookah smoking
How long is nicotine excreted from the body?
There is no single formula that can be used to calculate how much nicotine will completely leave the human body.
– It all depends on the age of the smoker, the length of time of use, whether it was a one-time reception or smoking lasted for several years.Also, a lot depends on the strength of cigarettes – the amount of nicotine that is part of them, – said the narcologist.
Nevertheless, according to the expert, it is generally accepted that nicotine leaves the human body on average from 7 to 21 days.
How long do smokers live?
– There is also no single formula that can be used to calculate, for example, how much less a patient will live if he smoked 1500 cigarettes. It all depends on his body. However, it is believed that one smoked cigarette shortens life by 10-15 minutes, the expert explained.
14 January 2020, 08:00 Science, Cigarettes and Madness. Scientists have discovered a new danger of smoking
How to quit smoking
There are many methods of smoking cessation. According to Natalia Tishchenko, the following algorithm can be effective:
Set the date when you can actually quit using.
Find yourself a task that will distract you for a few days.
Move all ashtrays, cigarette packs and lighters out of sight.
Drink plenty of water and keep a full bottle near you.
Try to be physically active to help you relax.
Change your daily habits: take another route to work, another route to the store.
Don’t look for a reason to smoke again: a stressful situation or a holiday is not a reason to take up cigarettes.Should you afford one, the second and the third will follow.
Treat yourself. At the end of the week, buy something nice with the money you used to spend on cigarettes
Watch what you eat. Try to eat more fruits.
Feb 17, 08:05 PM What happens after you quit smoking? Doctor answers
– The sensations of quitting nicotine are unpleasant, but they are a sign that the body is recovering.All of them will pass in a week or two. In the case when you cannot quit smoking on your own, you should seek help from a psychiatrist-narcologist. An integrated approach helps to get rid of this bad habit and sets the mind on the refusal of tobacco products in the future in any form, – said the narcologist.
Quit smoking NOW!
According to the World Health Organization, such a common habit as tobacco smoking provokes 90% of deaths from lung cancer, chronic bronchitis and coronary heart disease.The WHO called tobacco smoking the plague of the 20th century, reporting that tobacco accounts for 1 in 10 adult deaths. Some doctors compare smoking to suicide – only stretched out in time.
And you also smoke, killing your body with your own hands?
After smoking one cigarette, the number of heart beats per minute increases, the pressure rises, the blood vessels narrow, a condition develops that eventually leads to the formation of blood clots. The risk of sudden death increases several times.
Smoking is death!
The harm of smoking on the cardiovascular system is often underestimated by smokers. After smoking one cigarette, due to inflammation, the airways narrow, sputum production is activated, a cough develops, and asthma attacks occur more often. Nicotine from cigarette smoke provokes the division and multiplication of cancer cells in the lungs. Respiratory organs suffer.
After smoking one cigarette, changes occur in the oral mucosa, which provoke the development of malignant tumors.The likelihood of developing pancreatic cancer increases, and it is almost impossible to eliminate the tumor with non-surgical, let alone drug treatment. Retinal blood circulation is impaired, fundus changes occur – central vision deteriorates.
No less harm, smoking causes the reproductive system, leading to impotence and infertility. The harm of smoking is felt by an unborn baby, who may have serious health problems in the womb of a smoking mother.
Butane, cadmium, carbon monoxide, nicotine, hexamine, vinyl chloride, naphthalene, acetone, nicotine, ammonium, methanol, arsenic, methane, polonium, radium, thorium, resins … 4,000 chemicals of various toxicity. Ask any adult if he or she does not know about the consequences of addiction to smoking. Only a few will answer that they do not know. But 40% of the world’s population still do not want to fully realize the harm of smoking. And during the time that you read this article, 20 people have already died from its consequences.
You can become a victim of the next 6 seconds. Maybe it’s time to stop?
Tobacco smoking is the inhalation of tobacco smoke from tobacco leaves that are dried or smoldering. Tobacco leaves are presented in the form of cigarettes, cigars, or standard pipes.
At the same time, smoking of ordinary cigarettes involves inhaling smoke from the lungs of a person, when smoking pipes or cigars, the ingress of tobacco smoke into the lungs is not allowed, only the person’s mouth cavity is filled with smoke.
The reason for smoking is often drug addiction, that is, a bad habit. In addition, it is possible that there are social reasons why smoking occurs for a company with another smoking person for closer communication between people. In some social groups, tobacco smoking is a local tradition.
According to WHO, approximately one third of the adult male population uses tobacco. The tobacco smoking process was discovered by Columbus, who brought it after the discovery of the continent called America, and then this plant spread to European countries through trade routes.
According to the chemical formula, it can be noted that there are psychoactive substances in tobacco smoke, such as alkaloids, nicotine, harmine, which can cause mild euphoria in the human psyche. The effect of nicotine on a person consists in the temporary relief of anxiety, irritation, inability to concentrate on certain points, which happens when quitting nicotine even in a relatively short time interval.
Medical studies, which are designed to protect the population from smoking tobacco, indicate that there is a direct relationship between smoking and diseases of such a dangerous type as cancer and emphysema of the lungs, diseases of the cardiovascular system, as well as other human health problems.
From the point of view of psychological science, smoking is the process of irritation of the oral zone and is associated with those sensations when a person experiences the first positive feelings in his life, for example, sucking breast milk, satiety and security.
Therefore, from a psychological point of view, smoking is seen as a method to avoid anxiety, anxiety and stress. In addition, smoking is one of the methods of non-verbal communication, which, according to most psychologists, is a direct reason for a person to start smoking.
The harm of smoking to the human body is immensely great! Besides the fact that smoking negatively affects the physical and psychological health of our body, there are many other reasons to quit smoking:
- The negative effects of smoking also include bad taste in the mouth in the morning, yellow teeth, bad breath and bad hair.
- A smoker’s sleep is always worse than that of a non-smoker of the same type.
- Smoking dulls taste and smell.These feelings return to a person only after some time, after quitting smoking.
- Smokers cause great harm to others. More than 600 thousand people die every year from secondhand smoke, a third of whom are children.
- Smoking is a common cause of fires.
- Smoking is a waste of money. Calculate how much money you spend on cigarettes per year. The amount turned out to be considerable. With this money you can buy something really useful.
- Smoking is a waste of time.On average, a smoker spends 10 to 15 days a year on smoking! If you don’t believe me, then let’s count. The average smoker smokes 20 cigarettes a day, and one cigarette takes about 3 minutes. It follows that it takes 1 hour for a smoke break per day, and 365 hours a year.
Doesn’t that many reasons make you quit smoking once and for all? Do it today, because World No Tobacco Day is a great reason to quit smoking! Quit smoking now !!!
Health is only in your hands, only you are responsible for your life, in which there should be no place for smoking!
Emphysema of the lungs in Germany, cost of treatment
Diagnosis of pulmonary emphysema in Germany includes a careful clinical examination and collection of anamnesis, clarification of risk factors.Pulse oximetry, spirometry, and chest x-ray almost always make the diagnosis of emphysema possible.
However, to assess the causes, prevalence of the process and make a decision on the use of a particular treatment option, according to indications, more complex methods can be included in the examination: computed or magnetic resonance imaging, perfusion scintigraphy, as well as bronchoscopy and thoracoscopy.
For effective treatment of pulmonary emphysema in Germany, in addition to establishing the presence of emphysema, doctors always carefully assess the function of the respiratory system as a whole, conduct an active diagnosis of concomitant diseases, and determine the degree of involvement of the cardiovascular system.
Treatment of pulmonary emphysema in Germany, first of all, includes detailed counseling of the patient on measures to eliminate factors contributing to the development and progression of the disease. Patients who smoke are provided with comprehensive support for smoking cessation efforts. Since the lungs are constantly over-inflated in emphysema, the main respiratory muscles – the intercostal ones – are constantly taut and cannot cope with exhalation. Special gymnastics and physiotherapy allow more use of “diaphragmatic” breathing, which improves breathing effort.Feasible physical activity is recommended, under the supervision of a qualified rehabilitation therapist; they are useful even when the patient is receiving inhalation of supplemental oxygen. A complex of drug therapy and non-drug measures aimed at expanding the bronchi and facilitating exhalation is an important component of the treatment of emphysema.
Prevention, which includes the passage of a pulmonary examination in Germany, and the timely treatment of respiratory infections can prevent the rapid progression of symptoms of respiratory failure.Oxygen therapy is used to relieve symptoms. In some cases, in the complex treatment of pulmonary emphysema in Germany, volume-reducing lung operations are performed. In advanced stages, the disease may be an indication for lung transplantation or heart-lung transplantation, which are successfully performed in Germany.
What you need to know about the effects of smoking on oral health
When you think about the health consequences of smoking, lung diseases usually come to mind: lung cancer, pulmonary emphysema, chronic bronchitis.Considering that tobacco smoking can negatively affect the health of almost all organs and systems of the human body, it is not surprising that it can also damage the health of the oral cavity. This article contains information on the effects of smoking on the health of the oral cavity that you need to know in order to maintain your health.
According to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), smoking is the most common cause of all preventable death and disease in the United States.Whether you smoke cigarettes, cigars, or use smokeless tobacco, the fact remains that tobacco in all its forms – and even the tobacco smoke around you – does not really have a safe level of exposure. Your risk of developing tobacco-related illnesses, including oral problems, depends on the length of time you use tobacco and the number of cigarettes you smoke per day.
Oral cancer develops as a result of mutation of healthy cells in the tissues of the oral cavity and can arise in several ways.According to the Oral Cancer Foundation. tobacco smoking plays a significant role in the many cases of oral cancer diagnosed annually. A University of California study found that 8 out of 10 oral cancer patients smoked tobacco. When tobacco smoke is inhaled, harmful chemicals pass through the mouth and throat before reaching the lungs. With prolonged repeated use of tobacco, these chemical compounds cause changes in the condition of the oral cavity over time, which can lead to the development of cancer.
Despite this, oral cancer is a preventable disease. By eliminating tobacco and other high-risk habits and getting regular dental check-ups, you can protect yourself from developing oral cancer in the future.
Periodontal (gum) diseases
Inflammatory periodontal disease is an infection of the gums and bone surrounding teeth by harmful bacteria that accumulate in the oral cavity and can lead to tooth loss.However, when it comes to gum disease, bacteria are not the only cause of gum disease. According to the CDC, people who smoke tobacco have twice the risk of developing gum disease than non-smokers.
Smoking interferes with the immune system, making it difficult for the body to fight health problems like gum disease. Treatment of periodontal disease in a person who smokes may not be as successful as in a non-smoker because smoking makes it difficult for the gums to heal.
Bad breath and staining of teeth
In addition to serious risks of oral cancer and gum disease, smoking – according to the American Dental Association’s (ADA) oral health website – can also impair taste and smell and slow tissue recovery after tooth extraction or other dental procedures. … In addition, the tar from cigarette smoke stains the enamel surface of the teeth, causes bad breath and can even cause discoloration of the tongue.The only way to remove such stains from enamel is to carry out professional oral hygiene in the dentist’s office.
Permanent home care
The nicotine contained in cigarettes is extremely addictive, so quitting smoking is not easy. However, for a smoker, quitting this bad habit is an important step towards improving overall health.
Because it is difficult to quit smoking, many people need support.Take the time to talk to your dentist about smoking cessation options. While you are developing a smoking cessation action plan, keeping your mouth and teeth clean can encourage you to continue your daily oral care. Daily brushing of teeth with fluoride toothpaste and dental floss prevents tooth decay and periodontal disease. If you are struggling with tartar and enamel stains, try Colgate® TTotal Professional Whitening Toothpaste.