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Facial Rash – Symptoms, Causes, Treatments
Facial rashes can be caused by a wide variety of diseases and conditions, including infection, inflammation, allergic reaction, and autoimmune processes. A sudden or acute facial rash may be due to an allergic reaction or sensitivity to a particular substance, such as a facial moisturizer, food, or medication.
A chronic or long-term facial rash may be caused by such conditions as acne or an inflammatory disorder, such as rosacea. Rosacea is characterized by facial flushing, particularly on the cheeks, and raised bumps that can resemble acne. The precise cause of rosacea is not known, yet effective treatments to control rosacea are available.
A facial rash in an infant may be caused by trapped dead skin cells (milia) or baby acne, although other causes are possible. A facial rash in children can be a sign of many different conditions, including eczema, allergies and viral diseases.
In all age groups, more serious causes include a severe allergic reaction with anaphylaxis (tightening of the airways), bacterial meningitis, and cellulitis (an invasive skin infection that can be caused by streptococcal or staphylococcal bacteria, also called erysipelas).
Infectious causes of facial rashes
A facial rash may be caused by an infection including:
Bacterial infection, such as an infection caused by streptococcal or staphylococcal bacteria
Chickenpox (viral infection)
Fifth disease (mild viral infection in children that can also cause harm to unborn babies)
Folliculitis (inflammation or infection of a hair follicle)
Fungal infection of the skin (also called ringworm)
Herpes virus infection
Impetigo (bacterial skin infection)
Measles (viral infection)
Shingles (viral reactivation of chickenpox infection)
Allergic causes of facial rashes
A facial rash may be caused by an allergic reaction including:
Autoimmune and inflammatory causes of facial rashes
A facial rash may be caused by an autoimmune or inflammatory disorder including:
Baby acne (skin inflammation triggered by maternal hormones)
Dandruff (seborrheic dermatitis, which can affect the face and neck as well as the scalp)
Rosacea (chronic inflammatory skin disorder)
Systemic lupus erythematosus (disorder in which the body attacks its own healthy cells and tissues)
Other causes of facial rashes
A facial rash may also accompany the following conditions:
Anxiety or stress
Erythema toxicum (benign, noncancerous skin condition common in newborn babies)
Milia (tiny white bumps of dead skin cells and other debris)
Life-threatening causes of facial rashes
In some cases, a facial rash may accompany a serious or life-threatening condition that should be evaluated immediately in an emergency setting. Serious or life-threatening conditions include:
Allergic purpura (an autoimmune bleeding disorder)
Anaphylaxis (a life-threatening allergic reaction)
Erythema multiforme (a type of allergic reaction)
Meningitis (infection or inflammation of the sac around the brain and spinal cord)
Toxic epidermal necrolysis (skin and mucosal loss due to a severe medication reaction)
Questions for diagnosing the cause of a facial rash
To diagnose the underlying cause of a facial rash, your doctor or licensed health care practitioner will ask you several questions about your symptoms. Providing complete answers to these questions will help your provider in diagnosing the cause of your facial rash:
What does the rash look like?
When did the rash appear?
Does the rash appear on only one specific region of the face?
Have you had the rash before?
Is the rash spreading to other areas?
What is your medical and dental history? Do you have any diseases or conditions?
What medications, supplements or herbal drugs are you taking?
Have you been in recent contact with any unusual substances or environments, such as exposure to chemicals or unusual plants, taking new medications or supplements, or traveling to a foreign country?
Do you have any other symptoms?
What are the potential complications of a facial rash?
In some cases, a facial rash can lead to complications, especially if there is severe itching and scratching that leads to breakdown of the skin. Scratching can introduce bacteria or fungus in the layers of skin, resulting in infections. Complications include:
Bacterial or fungal infection of the skin
Cellulitis (an invasive bacterial or fungal infection of the skin and surrounding tissues)
Open sores and lesions
Permanent change in skin texture
Permanent skin discoloration
Serious complications of underlying causes of a facial rash, such as measles or meningitis, can also occur. You can best reduce the risk of complications of a facial rash and its underlying causes by following the treatment plan you and your health care provider develop specifically for you.
Facial rashes | DermNet NZ
Author: Hon A/Prof Amanda Oakley, Dermatologist, Hamilton, New Zealand, May 2016.
Patients often present with quite mild signs when they have a facial lesion or rash — due to embarrassment — and the diagnosis may be tricky.
Significant itch suggests atopic dermatitis or contact dermatitis.
- Monomorphic clustered vesicles or crusted papules
- Often locally recurrent in the same site
- Swabs: Herpes simplex
- Acute dermatomal eruption
- Painful: pain may precede the rash
- Erythema may precede vesicles
- Swabs: Herpes zoster
- Irregular enlarging plaque
- Honey-coloured crusts
- Swabs: Staphylococcus aureus +/- Streptococcus pyogenes
Dry or scaly rash
- Often also affects scalp, retroauricular sites, ears
- Hairline, eyebrows, medial cheeks, nasolabial folds, chin creases
- Scaly blepharitis
- Poorly defined, variable white or yellowish flaking
- May have erythematous patches or thin plaques
- Follicular prominence or follicular digitate keratoses
- Eyelids, temples, retro- and pre-auricular skin and/or seborrhoeic dermatitis sites
- Also affects scalp, ears, elbows, knees, nails
- Well-demarcated erythematous plaques
- White scale
- More persistent than seborrhoeic dermatitis
- Often affects flexures: retroauricular, elbow and knee creases
- Symmetrical dermatitis of eyelids, perioral skin (up to lips)
- Intensely itchy
- Acute flare: oedema, erythema, crusting, fissuring
- Subacute: dryness, pinkness
- Chronic: dryness, lichenification, Dennie Morgan folds (2 creases in lower eyelids)
Face: scaly rash
- Acute, relapsing/intermittent or chronic presentation
- Irregular, variable, unilateral or asymmetrical dermatitis
- Sharp border if contact irritant dermatitis
- Patch tests positive if contact allergy
- Exposed areas of face, arms, chest, legs
- Spares under hair, eyelids, creases
- Flares after exposure outdoors
- Can be drug-induced
Face: localised areas of dermatitis
- Asymmetrical eruption
- Annular configuration is common
- Scaly edge
- Mycology positive
- Located on sun-exposed sites of temples, forehead, nose, cheekbones, angle of jaw, upper lip, lower vermilion lip
- Persistent tender scaly papules, macules, plaques
Cutaneous lupus erythematosus
Discoid lupus erythematosus
- Nose, cheeks, ears, lips, scalp
- Circumscribed plaques with follicular prominence, scale
- Post-inflammatory pigmentation, atrophic scarring
- CBC, ANA, ENA often normal
Lupus tumidus / Jessner lymphocytic infiltrate
- Cheeks, upper trunk
- Smooth surface to erythematous dermal plaques
Cutaneous lupus erythematosus
- Onset often at puberty
- Usually, symmetrical forehead, chin, lateral face, nose
- Mixed inflammatory and non-inflammatory lesions
- Papules, pustules, nodules, comedones
- Usually adult females using face cream, often topical corticosteroid
- Often, asymmetrical first in perioral sites, later in perinasal and periocular sites
- Spares a centimetre of skin around vermilion of lips
- Grouped erythematous papules and pustules on erythematous patches, flaky surface
- Can occur in children
- Most prevalent in middle-aged adults
- Mid-facial: cheeks + nose, chin and forehead
- Erythema, flushing, papules, pustules, telangiectasia
- Rhinophyma causes enlargement of the nose in some patients
- Sensitive skin
- Lesions can approach the lips
- Shaving rash
- Follicular papules, pustules, curled-in hair
Face: follicular rash
Erythema is less pronounced in dark skin
- Violaceous eyelids — may be swollen
- Poikiloderma on the trunk and limbs
- Gottron papules on fingers
- May have muscle weakness
- Intermittent redness when hot, embarrassed or with certain foods
- Often lifelong tendency
- Systemically well
- Associated with rosacea
- Sun-exposed site
- Spares eyelids, furrows, under the chin
Systemic lupus erythematosus
- Butterfly erythematous rash
- Systemic symptoms: tiredness, lethargy, arthralgia
- Check CBC, ANA, ENA
- May accompany flushing
- Vascular dilatation
- Various types
Face: brown macules/patches
Pigmentation is more pronounced in dark skin
- Sun-exposed sites
- Small to large freckles
- Well-demarcated flat or slightly scaly brown marks or thin plaques
Erythema dyschromicum perstans
- Grey-brown discolouration
- Any distribution
- Distinct border, sometimes red at first
- Usually adult female
- Centrofacial, malar and mandibular patterns
- Spares eyelids, rare below jawline
- Symmetrical pigmentation with ragged border
- Preceding eczema, psoriasis, acne etc
- Distribution depends on cause
Face: brown patches
Face: pale or white macules/patches
- More commonly observed on limbs
- Young child
- Hypopigmentation, light scale
Face: pale patches
- Preceding eczema, psoriasis, acne etc
- Distribution depends on cause
- Most often periocular, perioral
- White, smooth surface
Face: white patches
- Middle-aged adult
- Solitary thickened smooth, purplish-brown plaque or plaques
- Yellowish-brown to mauve infiltrated plaque
- May arise within existing scar
- Lupus pernio affects nose and ears
- Mostly > 40 years
- Forehead, temples
- Yellowish papules with central follicular dimple
Face: papules and plaques
- Smoker, sun damaged older patient
- Periocular, cheekbones, nose, neck
- Usually symmetrical
Basal cell carcinoma
- Slowly enlarging, destructive papule, nodule or plaque
- Early erosion, ulceration and bleeding
Squamous cell carcinoma
- Enlarging tender scaly or crusted nodule
- Various types and syndromes
- Follicular or eccrine origin
- Periorbital or cheeks
- Superficial firm small papules
- Scattered on forehead, cheeks
- Yellowish with central dell
Face: multiple papules
Is Your Skin Rash a Sign of Something More Serious?
Do you have a rash? Know the difference between common conditions and when it could signal a more serious health concern.
Rashes are caused by exposure to any number of environmental allergens such as food, weather, sunlight and even stress.
Many of these can be treated effectively with over-the-counter medications. But in some cases, your skin may be telling you that you have a more serious condition.
“In dermatology, we treat a wide variety of rashes, from life-threatening to simply bothersome,” says Ashley B. Crew, MD, a dermatologist at Keck Medicine of USC and assistant professor of clinical dermatology at the Keck School of Medicine of USC.
Because skin is the largest organ in the body, it can show signs of an internal disease before the disease shows typical symptoms.
When is a rash more than a rash?
A minor rash is easily treatable with antihistamines or hydrocortisone cream. But you should speak with your doctor if you have any of the following symptoms:
- Do you have a fever or pain accompanying your rash? It could be a sign of infection and should quickly be evaluated by your doctor.
- Do you have blisters? A rash that begins to blister but that can’t be explained by exposure to poison oak or ivy could be shingles.
- Does your rash persist without improvement from over-the-counter medications? If antihistamines or hydrocortisone cream offer no improvement, a visit with your doctor is advised.
- Is there any bruising or swelling around it? The rash may be preventing proper blood flow.
- Is there any discharge or secretion from the rash? Any colored discharge or bad odor is a sign of infection.
- Did the rash appear and spread quickly? This could be an allergic reaction to medication or food. Seek immediate medical attention if breathing becomes difficult.
- Is the rash circular in shape? This could be a sign of Lyme disease.
- Do you have skin discolorations or changes in your skin texture? A yellowing of the skin could indicate liver disease. Hardening and darkening of the skin could be signs of diabetes.
Common adult rashes
If you’ve ever had chicken pox or been vaccinated against chicken pox, you’re at risk of developing shingles later in life.
Shingles are reddish patches of skin with small bumps that blister and itch. Pain can be moderate or severe, lasting up to five days and taking up to four weeks to heal.
When your immune system is weakened, perhaps by something as simple as a cold, the shingles virus can infect your skin cells. Typically, you will feel tired before the rash appears and might experience a mild fever.
Hives appear as a rapidly spreading, red, raised and itchy rash in splotches or all over the body. Caused by an allergic reaction to medications or food, hives can be a sign of a life-threatening problem when accompanied by difficulty breathing and a drop in blood pressure.
Allergic reaction to medications
Rashes can develop from an allergy to a medication, also known as DRESS syndrome (drug reaction with eosinophilia and systemic symptoms). This condition may take weeks to appear after you start a new medication. Common symptoms that accompany the rash are fever and inflammation in the liver, heart, lungs or thyroid.
“Some of the rashes we see are dangerous because of the rash themselves,” Crew says. “An example of this is a severe drug eruption called Stevens-Johnson syndrome or toxic epidermal necrolysis, where people develop sudden peeling skin on mucosal surfaces. Other serious rashes treated by dermatology can be dangerous because they signify other underlying issues — examples of this include a cutaneous vasculitis or lupus rash.”
by Heidi Tyline King
Rashes can be indications of a more serious problem. If you’re unsure of the type of rash you have or if it’s taking days or weeks to heal, seek help from one of the dermatology experts at Keck Medicine of USC. If you’re in the Los Angeles area, make an appointment by calling (800) USC-CARE (800-872-2273) or by visiting https://dermatology.keckmedicine.org/
Common Skin Rashes | Everyday Health
A skin rash is an area of skin that has become swollen, inflamed, or irritated. Skin rashes can include skin bumps that look like pimples or sores; blotchy, scaly or red skin; and itchy or burning skin. Allergens, heat, and certain medical conditions (some more serious than others) can all cause skin reactions like these. Some skin rashes occur right away, while others take some time to develop. Some tend to occur on the face while others flare up on the arms, legs, or torso. Location, appearance, and color of a skin rash are all factors in determining the right diagnosis and the right treatment.
It’s important to note that the word “rash can mean a whole lot of things to a whole lot of different people,” says Whitney High, MD, the director of dermatopathology at the University of Colorado School of Medicine in Denver, and a spokesperson for the American Academy of Dermatology. “To a dermatologist, rash is an extremely broad term, ranging from connective tissue disease like lupus, to infections, to something very obvious” — for example, after using a new laundry detergent, you notice redness and irritation in your underarms; when you switch back to your old detergent, it goes away.
Some rashes may be relatively harmless and easy enough to take care of at home while others can be more problematic. So how do you know when to see your doctor for medical treatment? Isabela Jones, MD, a dermatologist at McLean Dermatology and Skincare Center in McLean, Virginia, recommends seeking medical attention if any of the following symptoms are also present:
- Fever, which “can indicate the presence of an infection, serious reaction to a medication, or rheumatologic disease,” says Dr. Jones.
- Blisters or open sores on the skin, mouth, or genitalia. “Some benign rashes, like poison ivy, can cause small blisters in the skin. However, many times blisters and open sores can indicate a serious or life-threatening condition that requires immediate intervention,” she notes.
- A rash that is painful and that is all over the body or spreading rapidly.
- A rash that has not improved with home care.
Dr. High notes that if you’re feeling well and the condition is not interfering with your quality of life, it’s fine to try reasonable home remedies, such as hydrocortisone cream. But if the irritation persists, however innocuous it may seem, it’s a good idea to check with your doctor. “Usually, if a rash has not improved within two weeks of starting home care, seeking medical care would be recommended,” says Jones. “Contacting a dermatologist or primary care provider is never a bad idea if someone is uncertain about how to treat the rash, or is generally worried about the appearance of the rash,” says Jones.
If you’re suffering from a skin rash, check out the following images to see if it could be one of these. (Warning: A few of these rashes might be a little tough to look at.)
Rash and Skin Disorders | Common Types and Treatments
Most rashes are not life threatening, according to the American Academy of Dermatology. They may be treated with over-the-counter antihistamines, lotions or cortisone creams that relieve itching and swelling. These may go away on their own after a few days or weeks.
For example, a common type of rash is contact dermatitis. It causes redness and itching in reaction to an environmental irritant that touches the skin such as poison ivy, soap, cosmetics or household chemicals. It’s usually treated by over-the-counter medicines and staying away from the irritant that triggered the rash. It is uncomfortable but isn’t serious or contagious.
However, some rashes can be signs of serious health problems or allergic reactions. For example, a rash called Stevens-Johnson syndrome (SJS) is a medical emergency. SJS is caused by a severe allergic reaction to a medication and can be life threatening.
Dermatologists or allergists are doctors that specialize in rashes and skin problems. Always consult a medical provider before treating a serious rash on your own to avoid making the condition worse.
Hives or urticaria is a very common type of itchy, red or skin-colored rash that sometimes burns or stings. It usually appears as welts, bumps or plaques called wheals on the skin. They can appear on any part of the body, move locations, change shape or disappear and reappear.
Hives affects about 20 percent of people at some point in their lives.
Chronic hives appear almost daily and may last months, while acute hives may last only a few days. This rash is typically caused by an allergy to a drug or food but other causes include stress or infections.
Hives usually goes away on its own. But serious cases that last longer may require a shot or oral medication. Rarely, hives can cause swelling in the airways, making it difficult to breathe.
Common hives triggers include:
- Antibiotics such as penicillin and NSAIDs such as aspirin and ibuprofen
Bites or stings from insects
Certain foods, especially eggs, peanuts, shellfish and nuts
Exposure to latex
Infections caused by bacteria, such as urinary tract infections and strep throat
Infections caused by viruses such as infectious mononucleosis, hepatitis and the common cold
Pressure, heat, cold, sun exposure, exercise or physical stimuli
Treatment consists of antihistamines, cool compresses to relieve itching and topical corticosteroids or anti-inflammatory medications such as prednisone.
Contact dermatitis happens when the skin encounters an irritant such as poison oak or poison ivy, a household chemical, hand sanitizers, soaps or certain metals such as nickel or gold. Sometimes, the reaction might occur after sun exposure.
Symptoms of contact dermatitis include:
- Blisters or bumps that may or may not be filled with clear fluid
Irritated, red and swollen skin
Skin that feels hot or tender
The rash can appear hours or days after contact with the irritant. Washing the skin with soap and water immediately after contact with the irritant may help. Doctors may prescribe creams or oral medication to help the skin heal and control itching.
Allergists may be able to perform a patch test to figure out what is causing the irritation. The patch contains common irritants such as hair dye, rubber or fragrances. Patients wear the patch for about two days, then the doctor checks for results.
Eczema, also called atopic dermatitis, is a chronic long-lasting disease that manifests as a rash with redness, swelling, cracking and extreme itchiness. Usually it appears on the arms, legs, and cheeks. It can affect anyone at any age, but usually begins in childhood.
The rash comes and goes, and sometimes it disappears completely. When the rash is active, it’s called a flare. It’s a common disease, and about 18 million American adults have the disease, according to the National Eczema Association.
Symptoms of atopic dermatitis include:
- Scaly, dry skin
Rash that appears on the cheeks, legs and/or arms
Flares come with open, weepy or crusty sores in severe cases
Treatments include medications, skin care to avoid dry skin, and phototherapy — a type of therapy that uses ultraviolet light to control rashes.
Psoriasis is an autoimmune condition that manifests as a scaly, flaky, itchy, burning rash. People with psoriasis have skin cells that grow too fast. This causes the cells to pile up on the skin’s surface, causing redness and inflammation.
Out of the eight million Americans with psoriasis, between 15 and 30 percent develop psoriatic arthritis, a condition that causes swelling, pain and joint damage similar to rheumatoid arthritis.
It typically affects the scalp, knees and elbows, but it can appear in any location according to the National Psoriasis Foundation — even the genitals and fingernails. It’s also associated with other diseases such as depression, heart disease and diabetes.
Common symptoms of psoriasis include thick, raised patches of skin called plaques. These patches can be light pink or deep red and are covered with a layer of silvery, dry skin called scales. The way it looks and specific symptoms vary depending on the type of psoriasis.
Treatment includes oral medications, topical ointments and creams and phototherapy.
Lupus is a long-term autoimmune disease that causes the immune system to attack healthy cells and tissues. It affects internal organs, joints and skin. People with lupus often have a butterfly-shaped rash on the nose and cheeks. There are four kinds of lupus: systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), cutaneous lupus, drug-induced lupus and neonatal lupus. SLE is the most common kind.
Nine out of 10 people with lupus are women.
Lupus can affect anyone, but it most often occurs in women ages 15 to 44. Because lupus is an autoimmune disease, it affects the entire body.
Symptoms of lupus include:
- Butterfly-shaped rash on cheeks and nose
Chest pain when taking deep breaths
Joint pain and swelling
Sensitivity to sunlight
Sores in the nose or mouth
Lupus medications include nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), antimalarial drugs such as hydroxychloroquine, corticosteroids such as prednisone and BLyS-specific inhibitors such as belimumab.
Heat rash, or prickly heat, is a red, itchy rash made of small “prickly” feeling bumps that look like a cluster of pimples or small blisters. It’s most common in children but can happen to anyone. Humid, hot weather triggers this rash.
It is most likely to appear on the groin, neck, in the creases of elbows and armpits. Heat rash happens when excessive sweat gets trapped in pores. It typically goes away in three or four days.
Staying cool and dry is the best treatment for heat rash. Cool compresses and wearing loose clothing soothes it. Using creams or ointments can block pores, so doctors don’t recommend them. But a light lotion like calamine may help the itch.
Rashes Caused by Infection or Disease
Sometimes a disease or infection triggers a skin rash. Infections may be bacterial, viral or fungal.
Shingles manifests as a painful rash with blisters on one side of the face or body. These blisters take seven to 10 days to scab and heal, according to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. But before the rash appears, there will be tingling, pain and itching in the affected area. Other symptoms include fever, headache, upset stomach and chills.
The hallmark sign of chickenpox is an itchy rash that affects the entire body. Fluid-filled blisters that eventually scab over often accompany it. The illness lasts four to seven days. People who have been vaccinated still get the disease, but it is milder.
Because people with HIV have compromised immune systems and use medications that affect the immune system, they may develop an itchy, red rash. This can be caused by an infection or medication reaction. Most of these rashes go away on their own, but some medication-induced rashes might be serious. Make sure you talk to your doctor.
In addition to headache, high fevers, red watery eyes and cough, people with a measles viral infection develop a red, spotty rash all over their body about three to five days into the infection. It usually begins on the face and spreads downward all the way down to the feet.
Syphilis is a sexually transmitted disease that manifests as skin sores at the original site of infection, typically around the genitals, anus or mouth. As it progresses, it may cause a skin rash and swollen lymph nodes.
Roseola is an illness caused by a virus and it typically affects children between the ages of six months and two years old. Children will have a high fever and break out in a skin rash as the fever breaks. The rash appears as pinkish red, raised spots on the trunk. These spots turn white when touched. Roseola can spread to the face, neck, legs and arms.
The hallmark symptom of Lyme disease — a disease caused by the bite of an infected tick — is a rash called erythema migrans. It happens in 70 to 80 percent of people with Lyme disease. It appears like a bull’s-eye, and may spread up to 12 inches across. It is rarely itchy.
Rashes Caused by Medications
One of the side effects of medications can be a skin rash. Some are minor reactions that disappear in a few days without treatment. But others can be life threatening.
Non-allergic amoxicillin rash is a common side effect of the antibiotic amoxicillin, especially if it’s the first time someone takes the medication. About five to 10 percent of children taking it will develop this rash, according to OakLeaf Clinics. It’s not typically dangerous and clears up in about three days. The rash appears like pink spots that may be slightly raised on the trunk, but may spread to the face, legs and arms.
Allergic amoxicillin rash is more dangerous and starts within two hours of the first dose. It is usually very itchy and may cause breathing problems.
Side Effect Information
Learn about skin rashes and other side effects associated with prescription drugs.
View Side Effects
Stevens-Johnson Syndrome (SJS)
Stevens-Johnson Syndrome (SJS) is a severe skin reaction that most people get in response to taking a medication. The first sign of the disease is a fever with flu-like symptoms. Then, a blistering, peeling skin rash develops, resembling a severe hot water burn.
It is raw and very painful. It starts on the chest and face, and then spreads to other body parts. It damages mucous membranes in the mouth, leading to difficulty swallowing and trouble breathing. It may also spread to the genitals, eyes and urinary tract.
SJS is potentially fatal and requires emergency medical treatment.
Erythema Multiforme Major (EMM)
Erythema multiforme major (EMM) is a type of erythema skin rash that occurs in response to medication, similar to SJS. It comes with fevers, red itchy spots all over the body and sores in the mouth, genitals and lips. The spots may resemble a bull’s-eye, with a red ring around a red center.
Like SJS, EMM is a medical emergency and may be fatal.
Some skin disorders may resemble rashes, but don’t have the typical symptoms of other rashes.
Vitiligo may resemble a rash because it causes patches of skin discoloration, but it’s not a rash. It is a condition that causes skin to lose color. It causes milky-white patches of skin on the face, hands, feet and arms. People with vitiligo may also have hair that runs white on their head, beard, eyelashes and eyebrows.
Rosacea is a skin condition that may also affect the eyes. It causes pimples and redness on the face and is common in fair-skinned people. Other symptoms include a swollen nose, small red lines under the skin, frequent flushing, thick skin, and itchy dry eyes.
When to Seek Treatment
Most rashes are not life threatening, but some symptoms may signal a more serious condition. The American Academy of Dermatology recommends that people seek medical help if they have any of the following symptoms.
- The rash covers the entire body
You have signs of infection, such as swelling, yellow or green fluid, crusting, pain, warmth or a red streak coming from the rash
You have pain in the rash
Blisters in the rash turn into open sores, especially if it’s around the mouth, eyes or genitals
The rash comes with a fever, a potential sign of an allergic reaction or infection (shingles, measles, scarlet fever)
The rash appears suddenly and spreads rapidly
Rashes in babies and children
Many things can cause a rash in babies and children, and they’re often nothing to worry about.
Non-urgent advice: See a GP if:
- your child seems unwell, and has a rash and a fever
Coronavirus update: how to contact a GP
It’s still important to get help from a GP if you need it. To contact your GP surgery:
- visit their website
- use the NHS App
- call them
Find out about using the NHS during coronavirus
Use the information on this page to get an idea of what to do about a rash. But don’t self-diagnose – see a GP if you’re worried.
Rash with fever
Fever and red cheeks
A fever and a bright-red rash on both cheeks can be slapped cheek syndrome. Your child may have a cold, and the rash can spread to the body.
It usually clears up within a week. Children’s paracetamol can bring down a fever.
Blisters on hands, feet and in the mouth
Hand, foot and mouth disease is a common childhood illness that causes blisters on the hands and feet, and ulcers on the tongue. It also causes fever, and your child may have a cold.
It usually clears up in about a week. Children’s paracetamol can bring down a fever.
Scarlet fever causes a pink-red rash, which feels like sandpaper and looks like sunburn.
It usually starts with a swollen tongue, sore throat, headache and fever.
See your GP straight away if you suspect scarlet fever. It’s treated with antibiotics.
Measles usually starts with a fever, sore eyes that are sensitive to light and grey spots inside the cheeks.
After a few days, a red-brown rash appears on the head or neck and spreads to the rest of the body.
Call your GP if you think you or your child has measles.
Rash with itching
Rash caused by heat
Heat and sweat can cause small red spots known as prickly heat or heat rash. It itches, so you may notice your baby scratching.
Heat rash should clear up without treatment.
Scaly red skin or cracked skin
Skin that’s itchy, red, dry and cracked may be eczema. It’s common behind the knees, elbows and neck, but it can appear anywhere.
Speak to your GP if you think your child has eczema.
Raised itchy spots
A raised, itchy red rash (hives) can appear as an allergic reaction to things like stings, medicines or food.
It usually clears up within a day or 2.
Speak to your GP if your child keeps getting this type of rash. They may be allergic to something.
Call 999 if there’s swelling around their mouth.
Itchy round rash
An itchy, ring-like rash can be ringworm.
Ask your pharmacist for a cream or lotion to treat ringworm.
Speak to your GP if it appears on your child’s scalp, as it may need to be treated with medicine.
Small spots and blisters
Chickenpox causes red spots that turn to blisters. They can be itchy. They eventually scab and fall off.
Some children have a few spots, while others have them all over their body.
Itchy red sores or blisters
Red sores or blisters that burst and leave crusty, golden-brown patches could be impetigo.
The sores or blisters can be itchy, get bigger or spread to other parts of the body. They often appear on the face, hands or around the middle of the body.
Speak to your GP if your child may have impetigo.
Tiny and very itchy spots
Scabies is caused by tiny mites that burrow into the skin.
Ask your pharmacist for a cream or lotion to treat scabies. Everyone in the household needs to be treated at the same time – even if they don’t have symptoms.
You should take your baby to a GP for advice if they are under 2 months old.
Rash without fever or itching
White spots in babies
Small white spots (milia) often appear on a baby’s face when they’re a few days old.
They usually clear up within a few weeks and don’t need treatment.
Red, yellow and white spots in babies
Raised red, yellow and white spots (erythema toxicum) can appear on babies when they’re born. They usually appear on the face, body, upper arms and thighs.
The rash can disappear and reappear.
It should clear up in a few weeks without treatment.
Pink or skin-coloured spots
Small, firm, raised spots that can appear anywhere on the body are common in children and known as molluscum contagiosum.
Treatment isn’t recommended because the spots clear up on their own, although it can take more than a year.
Red patches on a baby’s bottom
Nappy rash can be red patches on your baby’s bottom or around the whole nappy area.
The skin may look sore and feel hot. There may be spots or blisters. It can make your child feel uncomfortable or distressed.
You can buy cream from your pharmacy to help clear it up.
Pimples on the cheeks, nose and forehead
Baby acne can appear within a month after birth but usually clears up after a few weeks or months.
Washing your baby’s face with water and a mild moisturiser can help.
Do not use acne medicines intended for older children and adults.
Yellow, scaly patches on the scalp
Cradle cap is when a baby gets yellowish, greasy scaly patches on their scalp.
It usually gets better without treatment in a few weeks or months.
Gently washing your baby’s hair and scalp with baby shampoo may help prevent more patches.
Page last reviewed: 15 February 2018
Next review due: 15 February 2021
5 Rashes Your Child May Bring Home From Preschool – Health Essentials from Cleveland Clinic
Chances are your child (or one of their friends) has probably dealt with one of these illnesses that they brought home from preschool. From rashes around the mouth and buttocks to hives, these common viruses know no boundaries.
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When it comes to germs, kids in daycare and preschool love to share. Pediatrician John Lampe, MD, shares practical tips on how to prevent and treat five distinct, common rashes affecting kids.
1. Hand, foot and mouth disease
This contagious viral illness is more common in summer but can occur at any time. Look for fever, small sores in back of the mouth (usually the sides, in front of the tonsils), and small blisters (often on the palms, soles and buttocks, and sometimes the arms and legs).
“Keep your child hydrated,” says Dr. Lampe. “Offer a soft diet and if needed, give acetaminophen for fever or pain. This rash spreads through oral secretions, so discourage sharing cups and water bottles.”
Since hand, foot and mouth disease is most contagious during the first week your child has it, they may also stay contagious until the rash completely disappears. Remember to keep your child home from preschool and away from other people and children during the time they have it.
Don’t forget to wash your hands well after changing a diaper or helping your child clean up after having a bowel movement. The virus is shed in the poop, too.
2. Fifth disease
Also called “slapped cheek disease,” this mild viral illness causes tiredness, aching and sometimes a headache, but no fever. Look for reddening of the cheeks, followed after several days by a flat, lacy-looking rash inside the upper thighs or on the forearms.
Fifth disease is commonly spread through mucus and saliva when kids sneeze or cough. It’s also spread when your little one puts a toy in their mouth or likes to touch other kid’s faces or hands. The good news is that this virus goes away within two weeks on its own.
“Your child won’t need treatment for fifth disease,” he says. “However, this virus poses risks for children with blood disorders and pregnant women. So take care that your child doesn’t accidentally expose them to it.”
If your child comes home with red cheeks, put moisturizer on their cheeks.
3. Poison ivy
Playing outside is one of the greatest joys about childhood. However, your child may come home with a case of poison ivy if they’ve been exploring the great outdoors in their preschool yard.
This highly itchy rash appears wherever oil from poison ivy leaves has brushed the skin. Look for skin to turn red and possibly resemble the surface of an orange. Lines or patches of tiny blisters develop quickly and the blisters can enlarge and, over time, may open and ooze.
“Stay away from three-leaved plants,” says Dr. Lampe. “If your child accidentally touches one, quickly scrubbing with soap may prevent a reaction. If the rash has begun, apply topical 1% steroid cream. If it becomes severe or affect the face or genitals, oral prednisone can help.”
This bacterial infection is more common in the warm summer months but occurs throughout the year.
“Look for a honey-colored crust and red borders,” he says. “The rash may start on the face and often under the nose. It spreads when bacteria gets transferred from infected skin to a new area.”
Your child may complain of pain and itchiness. For this, mupirocin, a topical antibiotic cream or ointment, may help. For a more widespread rash, your child may need oral antibiotics. No matter, what, good handwashing is important, especially whenever a child or parent has touched the infected area (and during the current pandemic!)
These allergic skin responses can develop after allergy-prone kids are exposed to soaps, detergents, lotions, antibiotics or new foods.
“Look for pale, raised welts with red margins,” says Dr. Lampe. “They can be round or unusually shaped. The welts range in size from what look like insect bites to giant hives, but large hives are no more serious than small ones. ”
If hives are on your child’s skin, give them oral Benadryl (diphenhydramine). If the hives persist or keep coming back, consult with your pediatrician. Although it rarely occurs, if your child develops hives along with difficulty breathing or swallowing or lightheadedness, go to the ER immediately or call 911.
MEASLES: a memo for the population
MEASLES: a memo for the population
- Measles is a viral infection with a very high susceptibility.If a person has not been vaccinated against this infection, then after contact with a sick person, infection occurs in almost 100% of cases. The measles virus is very volatile.
- The period from contact with a sick measles until the first signs of the disease appear (incubation period) lasts from 7 to 14 days. During this period, the patient becomes a source of infection for others !!!
- The disease begins with a pronounced headache, weakness, fever up to 40 degrees C .A little later, these symptoms are joined by runny nose, cough and almost complete lack of appetite . The appearance of conjunctivitis is very characteristic of measles , which is manifested by photophobia, lacrimation, sharp redness of the eyes, and subsequently – the appearance of purulent discharge. These symptoms last 2 to 4 days
- On the 4th day of illness, rash appears, which looks like small red spots of various sizes with a tendency to merge.The rash occurs on the face and head (especially behind the ears) and spreads throughout the body for 3-4 days. It is very characteristic of measles that the rash leaves behind pigmentation (dark spots that persist for several days), which disappears in the same sequence as the rash appeared.
- With measles, quite serious complications can occur: pneumonia (pneumonia), otitis media (otitis media), encephalitis (brain inflammation).
- After measles, stable lifelong immunity develops. All those who have had measles become immune to this infection.
- The only reliable protection against this disease is vaccination against measles , which is included in the National Vaccination Schedule.
- Persons (children and adults) who have not been vaccinated against measles, who have not been sick and have no information about vaccinations, in cases of a disease in the team, (preschool, school, university, etc.)are not allowed in it !!!
90,000 Rubella: symptoms, diagnosis and treatment
Rubella is an acute infection of a viral nature, which manifests itself in the form of characteristic rashes all over the body except for the palms and feet, as well as general intoxication of the body of a moderate degree against the background of a concomitant increase in lymph nodes and a blood reaction.The rubella virus is transmitted by airborne droplets and enters the body through the upper respiratory tract. The incubation period lasts from 10 to 25 days. The rash characteristic of rubella initially appears on the face, then quickly spreads throughout the body.
Symptoms and Signs
Rubella symptoms in adults usually begin with catarrhal manifestations:
- increased temperature;
- general weakness and malaise;
- lacrimation and photophobia;
- a small runny nose;
- sore throat and dry coryza;
- mild inflammation of the throat and mucous membranes.
The symptoms of initial rubella are enlarged lymph nodes in the occipital and mid-cervical region. The main symptom of rubella is a specific rash that appears from the first days of the disease, spreads throughout the body in just a day. The rash begins to spread in the neck, behind the ears, under the hair and on the face, leaving the palms and soles intact. The rash is small, red or pink, rounded spots that have smooth edges and do not rise above the skin.
Do you have symptoms of rubella?
Only a doctor can accurately diagnose the disease.
Do not delay the consultation – call
+7 (495) 775-73-60
Routes of infection and risk factors
The rubella virus is practically unstable to the external environment, easily disintegrates under the influence of ultraviolet radiation, heating and disinfectants. Moreover, he easily tolerates freezing and lives for several hours at room temperature.Rubella during pregnancy is transmitted to the fetus through the placenta. In this case, congenital rubella is observed in children.
The most susceptible to the virus are women of childbearing age. The spread and multiplication of the virus in the blood provokes the work of the immune system, under the influence of which antibodies to rubella are produced, which have a persistent lifelong effect. Rubella can proceed in a passive form, in which case a blood reaction is observed in women – rubella igg positive.To date, the only risk factor for virus infection is close contact with a patient with acute or erased forms of the disease.
Complications after rubella are rare and are associated with a concomitant bacterial infection. The greatest danger is rubella during pregnancy, as it has a negative effect on the normal development of the fetus and can even cause fetal death.
Among bacterial infectious diseases are pneumonia, encephalitis, sore throat, otitis media, arthritis and others.
Diagnosis of rubella in adults is carried out in a comprehensive manner, includes the following activities:
- patient interview and external examination – at this stage it is established whether rubella vaccination was carried out when the last rubella vaccination was received, and a detailed collection of the clinical picture and all manifestations is carried out during the passive time of the incubation period.
At the time of the manifestation of the rash, it becomes relevant to conduct laboratory tests to detect antibodies to rubella.The following methods are the most informative here:
- serodiagnosis – based on a blood test in order to detect the titers of antibodies M and G. Also, this study is carried out in pregnant women to identify a predisposition to the disease, while rubella has a positive reaction in case of a previous illness;
- virological research is aimed at identifying the virus itself in the human body. The study is carried out from any washings – blood, saliva, urine, feces, etc.This method is most informative in the period from 7 to 14 days of the incubation period;
- polymerase chain reaction or PCR is the most informative method for detecting a positive rubella titer and is based on the synthesis of the two previous methods.
The final diagnosis is made taking into account all the studies. A non-specific study is a complete blood count, showing an increase in lymphocytes and high ESR values.
Treatment of the disease consists in creating a sparing regimen, since recovery occurs by itself at the time of the formation of an immune response to the penetrated virus.How long can rubella last? It depends on the strength of the body’s immune system, but on average, the period of the acute stage of the disease takes 5-7 days, while the incubation period is 10-25 days.
In the case of a severe course of the disease, symptomatic treatment is prescribed:
- Antipyretic drugs;
- taking antihistamines;
- means aimed at detoxifying the body.
Prevention of the spread of the virus lies in the timeliness of rubella vaccinations.
The rubella vaccine is given twice – the first time at 12-16 months, the second at the age of 6 years. Adolescent girls and young women should be revaccinated again. In case of contact with a sick person, an emergency administration of anti-rubella immunoglobulin is possible. The prognosis of recovery is favorable. After a disease, lifelong immunity is developed.
How to make an appointment with a doctor
In the center of Moscow in JSC “Medicine” (the clinic of Academician Roitberg) you will be provided with the necessary assistance in the treatment of rubella in adults. The best specialists conduct receptions here. You can make an appointment with a therapist by phone +7 (495) 775-73-60, using a mobile application or the registration form on the website. Our clinic is located in the Central Administrative District at the address: Moscow 2nd Tverskoy-Yamskaya lane, 10, Mayakovskaya metro station.
Rubella prevention – GUZ LOCC
Rubella is an acute viral infection, manifested by characteristic rashes against a background of moderate intoxication, accompanied by regional lymphadenopathy and hematological reaction.The rubella virus enters the body through the mucous membrane of the respiratory tract, where it enters with the inhaled air. The incubation period lasts from 10 to 25 days. The typical signs of rubella are the appearance of a rash first on the face, its rapid spread throughout the body, and the absence of palms and soles on the skin. Rubella is diagnosed clinically.
The source of rubella is a sick person. In this case, the disease can occur both with clinical symptoms and in a latent, erased form.Virus shedding begins a week before the onset of exanthema and lasts 5-7 days after. Rubella spreads by means of an aerosol transmission mechanism, mainly by airborne droplets. When pregnant women are infected with rubella, transplacental transmission of the infection to the fetus occurs.
The disease in adults usually begins with a fever (sometimes it can reach quite high values), malaise, weakness, headache. Moderate runny nose, dry cough, sore throat, lacrimation, photophobia are often noted.Examination may reveal mild hyperemia of the pharynx and posterior pharyngeal wall, irritation of the conjunctiva. These symptoms usually persist for one to three days. In children, catarrhal symptoms are most often absent.
In the initial period of the disease, both adults and children have lymphadenitis, predominantly of the occipital and mid-cervical lymph nodes. The lymph nodes are enlarged and painful to the touch. Lymphadenitis can persist for up to 2–3 weeks. After the catarrhal period, rashes appear.The rash is usually preceded by itching.
In 75-90% of cases, the rash appears on the first day of illness, first on the face and neck, behind the ears, under the hair. In some cases, the rash can spread from a different location. During the day, the rash covers various areas of the skin with the exception of the palms and soles. The rash is small, patchy, not rising above the surface of the skin. The spots are red or pink, rounded, with smooth edges, the skin around the elements of the rash is not changed. In adults, the elements of the rash often merge; for children, drainage exanthema is not typical.
Rubella is treated on an outpatient basis.
Rubella is prevented by routine vaccination with live associated measles, mumps and rubella vaccine. In addition, there are monovaccines. Vaccination against rubella is performed twice, the first time at the age of 12-16 months, then revaccination at the age of 6 years. In addition, adolescent girls and young women are often revaccinated in the future. Contraindications: immunodeficiency, hypersensitivity to aminoglycosides and egg white (when using MMR-II), acute illness or exacerbation of chronic; also, the vaccine is not administered 3 months before pregnancy. In all other cases, it is possible to vaccinate after stabilization of the condition.
General measures in foci of rubella infection are ineffective due to the presence of variable forms and the isolation of the virus long before the first symptoms appear. But nevertheless, the sick person is isolated for 5-7 days from the moment the rash appears, and those in contact with him – for 21 days.
Emergency prophylaxis is carried out to contact children and pregnant women by administering anti-rubella immunoglobulin.Rubella patients are isolated up to 5 days after the onset of the rash. There are no special quarantine measures for patients and contact persons.
When a pregnant woman comes into contact with a patient, her susceptibility is determined by serological methods and they look for the presence of IgG – if they are, then the woman is considered immune, if not, the test is repeated after 5 weeks and, with a positive IgG result, an abortion is suggested, but if the second time they do not find anything – they carry out the test for the third time in a month – the interpretation is the same as for the second test.
90,000 Chickenpox (“chickenpox”)
This infection has been called “chickenpox” due to its infectiousness. Its propagation occurs as if with the speed of the wind. A child can become infected with chickenpox by entering an elevator after a sick person. After a sick child appears in school or kindergarten, after a while most children fall ill.
Chickenpox is one of the most common childhood diseases.In recent years, the incidence of chickenpox in Russia has almost doubled. Mostly children aged 1 to 10 years old are ill, the maximum incidence is observed among children aged 3-4 years. Children under 6 months practically do not get chickenpox, because the mother passes on her own immunity to them through the placenta and during breastfeeding. The peak incidence is observed in the autumn-winter period.
What is chickenpox?
Chickenpox is an acute viral infection with airborne transmission, characterized by the appearance of a rash on the skin and mucous membranes in the form of small bubbles.
The causative agent of chickenpox is the Varicella zoster virus, which belongs to the herpesvirus family. In the external environment, the virus is unstable and dies quickly.
The only source of infection is humans. The susceptibility to chickenpox is very high.
Patients become infectious at the end of the incubation period (48 hours before the onset of the rash) and until the 5th day after the appearance of the last element of the rash.
The route of transmission of infection is airborne.
Viruses are secreted in large quantities when sneezing, coughing, talking. Transmission of the virus from mother to fetus during pregnancy is also possible. No transmission of infection is possible through third parties. There is also no chance of bringing the virus home on shoes and clothes.
Due to the high volatility of the virus, its spread is possible from floor to floor, at a distance of up to 20 meters.
Chickenpox in adults is much more severe than in children and can cause serious complications.
The incubation period lasts from 10 to 21 days (usually 14-17 days).
In children, the disease begins with a rise in temperature to 38.5 – 39 about C, weakness, decreased appetite, and headache are noted. The child becomes moody, refuses to eat. Simultaneously with the rise in temperature, a rash appears. The severity of the fever corresponds to the abundance of the rash. The duration of the fever is 3-5 days.Each new rash is accompanied by a rise in body temperature. The rash first looks like red spots, which turn into papules within a few hours, then into bubbles, and after 1-2 days a crust remains at the site of the rash. The size of the bubbles is comparable to the size of a pinhead. After the crust falls off, a red spot remains, sometimes a scar. The first elements of the rash usually appear on the skin of the face, scalp, back, abdomen, chest, shoulders, and thighs. The rash is usually absent on the palms and soles.Children are very worried about the itching of chickenpox vesicles, and therefore children often comb them, peel them off, after which a scar remains, and suppuration is also possible due to the addition of a secondary bacterial infection. There are cases when only single elements appear throughout the disease, or even the rash is absent. Such cases are found mainly in children.
Recovery occurs no earlier than 10 days after the rash.
Complications of the disease.
Chickenpox is considered a benign disease, however, in some cases, severe complications can develop. Among the complications of chickenpox, the most common are purulent skin lesions – boils, abscesses, etc. Specific pneumonia is severe, and the most formidable complication of this infection is damage to the central nervous system in the form of encephalitis or meningitis.
Among the adult population, the most common complication is pneumonia, and in newborns “ congenital varicella syndrome “, when a pregnant woman has had the disease in the early stages of pregnancy.
Difficulties in the course of the disease are observed in people with immunodeficiency, including HIV infection.
To prevent the addition of a secondary infection, it is necessary to monitor the frequency of the patient’s hands, clothes, bedding. During the period of rashes and fever, the patient must comply with bed rest.
It is recommended to lubricate the elements of the rash with a solution of brilliant green. During the period of rashes, washing with a gentle soap is allowed, a washcloth should not be used, as there is a risk of damaging the crusts.
Parents should promptly respond to changes in the rash and call a doctor to prevent the development of complications:
· If the rash grows in size, similar to the beginning of a “cold on the lips”, becomes covered with numerous bubbles, turns blue, bloodshot, new rashes appear 10 days after the first signs of chickenpox disease appear.
If the temperature is above 37 for more than a week or the temperature rises every day,
If the rash spreads to the mucous membranes: eyes, mouth, or genitals, i.e.because similar changes can be on the internal organs.
If you have a cough or a runny nose, because herpetic eruptions may be in the nasopharynx
With the appearance of diarrhea and frequent vomiting,
those. in all cases when chickenpox is atypical.
In any case, as soon as you notice the first signs of a child’s malaise and a rash, call your doctor right away. Only he will accurately determine whether a child has chickenpox or another disease (it is quite difficult for an inexperienced eye to distinguish the symptoms of chickenpox from allergies or other diseases with a rash), and will control the course of the disease.
Chickenpox in adults
Chickenpox is much more severe in adulthood. A distinctive feature of chickenpox in adults is the pronounced symptoms of intoxication and the frequent development of complications, up to and including death. Chickenpox in adults is often complicated by pustular skin lesions, conjunctivitis, stomatitis. The most dangerous complications of chickenpox are damage to the internal organs and the brain.Among the most common are pneumonia, meningitis, encephalitis, myocarditis.
Chickenpox in pregnant women.
A pregnant woman with chickenpox needs close medical supervision. The infection is dangerous both for the woman herself and for the fetus. Chickenpox can cause vision abnormalities, as well as a delay in the mental and physical development of the fetus.
General prevention of chickenpox consists in the timely diagnosis of the disease, isolation of the patient, followed by ventilation and wet cleaning of the room in order to prevent the spread of infection.A patient with chickenpox is isolated until the 5th day from the moment the last elements of the rash appear. In children’s groups, quarantine is imposed from 11 to 21 days from the moment of contact.
To date, a specific prophylaxis for chickenpox has been developed. Vaccination is carried out for children who have not had this infection before. The vaccine is administered subcutaneously: for children aged 1 to 13 years – once; children over 13 years old and adults need two doses of the vaccine with intervals between injections of 6-10 weeks.
Vaccination is indicated for persons belonging to a high-risk group: persons suffering from severe chronic diseases, patients with acute leukemia, persons receiving immunosuppressants, radiation therapy, patients who are planning to undergo organ transplantation.
Among vaccinated individuals, cases of chickenpox infection are extremely rare. If an infection has occurred, then the disease proceeds in a mild or latent form. After the vaccination, the child’s immunity begins to form on the same day, which completes its formation after 6 weeks.From this moment on, when contacting a sick child, you should not be afraid of the disease.
Acne on the face in newborns – causes of appearance, first symptoms, prevention
Acne is a disease of the sebaceous glands. Typically, acne is a red, inflammatory nodule (pimple) that is often painful, as well as non-inflammatory comedones, which are painless blackheads. Acne is one of the most common skin lesions.Among the seborrheic acne associated with hormonal stimulation, there are neonatal, infant and juvenile acne.
- Excess of the mother’s hormones that the baby still has
- Reorganization of the child’s hormonal system
- Excessive secretion of the sebaceous glands of the child
- Blockage of pores and skin follicles
- Excessive proliferation of lipophilic yeasts leading to inflammation
- Hormonal failure (in adolescents)
- Problems with the gastrointestinal tract (in adolescents)
Neonatal and juvenile acne develop during periods of physiological natural hormonal changes.Infant acne is rare, mainly in boys, rashes become noticeable from the second half of life and continue to appear for 2-3 years, sometimes up to 5 years. In all forms, additional exogenous provoking factors can play a significant role.
Facial skin lesions: comedones, papules, pustules, in rare cases – cystic nodes.
Acne in newborns is similar to those that occur in adolescents during puberty.In some cases, they can appear on other parts of the body, such as the neck, ears, or back.
Under no circumstances should neonatal acne be squeezed out. This will not speed up treatment and recovery. You always need to remember that there is a danger of introducing an infection into the baby’s body.
Before undertaking any treatment for inflammation that has appeared in children, it is necessary to clearly determine what exactly you are facing. Perhaps this is not newborn acne at all, but an allergy.Symptoms may be similar and therefore, in this situation, it is better to consult a pediatrician and a dermatologist, since only they will be able to distinguish these skin rashes in children.
Juvenile acne is a global problem for both doctors and patients due to the almost total prevalence of this disease (80-90% or more), long-term course, unpredictable outcome with the possibility of disfiguring scars or transition to acne in adults. It is also possible for patients to develop psychological problems associated with an unaesthetic appearance of lesions on the face, which is especially difficult in adolescence.Juvenile acne occurs between 8 and 21 years of age.
Clarification of the diagnosis by a dermatologist is carried out with the help of: dermatoscopy of the rash; pH-metry of the skin; bacteriological examination (if there are signs of infection).
- Regular hygiene procedures
- Air and sun baths
- Do not smear your face with baby cream, oils and lotions
- Keep skin clean and dry
- Do not squeeze pimples, this can cause infection of the sebaceous glands and inflammation
- Contact a dermatologist.A dermatologist can prescribe medication to determine the cause of acne
- Switching to non-comedogenic cosmetics
- Using sun protection cream
More about pediatric dermatology at the YugMed clinic
90,000 Avoid measles disease due to timely vaccination
The Federal Service for the Control of Consumer Rights Protection and Human Well-being, with reference to the European Center for Disease Control and Prevention, reports that measles cases, including fatal ones, have been registered in 14 countries: Austria, Romania, Bulgaria, Belgium , Czech Republic, Hungary, France, Germany, Sweden, Italy, Portugal, Iceland, Spain, Switzerland.The largest number of victims is noted in Romania and Italy.
According to the data of the epidemiological investigation, the epidemic spread of measles became possible against the background of a low level of immunization of the population of European countries and the absence of restrictive measures in the foci of the disease, as a result of which there were cases of importation.
In St. Petersburg, there was an outbreak of measles in the early 2012 of the city – then more than a hundred Petersburgers fell ill.
Measles is an acute infectious viral disease that begins as a common ARVI.It is transmitted by airborne droplets. The virus settles on the mucous membranes of the respiratory tract and eyes. In some cases, infection occurs through ventilation, windows and stairwells.
Main symptoms: general malaise, fever, runny nose, cough, redness of the eyes and watery eyes, small white spots on the inner surface of the cheeks. After a few days, a rash appears, usually on the face and upper neck, and gradually spreads throughout the body and eventually appears on the arms and legs.
A distinctive characteristic of the virus is its ability to suppress immunity. As a result, measles causes complications in a wide variety of systems and organs. The most serious complications include central nervous system damage (encephalitis, meningoencephalitis) and severe respiratory tract infections such as pneumonia. There is no specific treatment for the measles virus.
A person is considered contagious starting from the penultimate day of the incubation period, that is, outwardly he looks absolutely healthy.This period ends on the 4th day after the appearance of the rash. From the 5th day of the appearance of a skin rash, the patient is recognized as non-infectious. The incubation period lasts from 1 to 2 weeks after communication with the patient. Quarantine for children who are not vaccinated and who have not had measles who have communicated with an infected child in the kindergarten is established for 17 days from the start of contact. Measles is a real danger for pregnant women, as in 20% of cases it causes fetal malformations or abortion.
Due to the worsening epidemiological situation with measles, we kindly request that children be vaccinated against measles in a timely manner.Vaccination for children is carried out at 1 year and 6 years old. Children can be vaccinated in the clinic, kindergartens, schools. The measles vaccine is available in sufficient quantities.
90,000 Chickenpox (chickenpox)
Chickenpox (chickenpox) is a highly contagious acute infectious disease that occurs with a characteristic blistering rash.
Children attending kindergarten or school – places with a large crowd of people – are more likely to get sick.
The disease is caused by one of the herpes viruses (herpesvirus type 3).Chickenpox is a highly contagious disease. The virus is transmitted from a sick person to a healthy person by airborne droplets (when talking, staying in one small room). With the current of air, chickenpox can spread over long distances (up to 20 m). Infection can also occur from a patient with shingles (caused by the same type of herpes virus). The virus is unstable in the external environment, therefore, the final disinfection after the patient is not carried out.
A person with chickenpox becomes contagious two days before the onset of the rash, and remains contagious for the first 5-7 days after the onset of the rash.
The incubation period of chickenpox is 7-21 days. The virus enters the human body through the mucous membranes of the nose, mouth and pharynx. Then the virus spreads through the body by lymph and blood, penetrates the skin and mucous membranes, where it multiplies. The targets for the virus are cells of the spine layer of the skin and the epithelium of the mucous membranes. After primary infection, the virus resides for life in the neurons of the spinal ganglia, ganglia of the facial and trigeminal nerves. Like all herpes viruses, the varicella-zoster virus has the ability to suppress the immune system – which leads to a violation of the immune response in humoral and cellular types and a violation of the factors of innate resistance to infections.
Chickenpox immunity is non-sterile i.e. causes immunity to new infection and does not ensure the removal of the virus from the body. The virus resides for life in the spinal ganglia, the nuclei of the cranial nerves that are associated with the areas of the skin most affected by primary infection. Reactivation of the virus occurs in conditions of weakened immunity in the form of herpes zoster.
Chickenpox symptoms in children
The disease manifests itself primarily in a febrile state, a sharp increase in body temperature to 39-40 degrees, and a headache.The most prominent sign of chickenpox is a rash and itching.
Rash in the form of small, fluid-filled blisters, can cover a large part of the body and mucous membranes. The bubbles burst rather quickly and turn into small sores, which must be treated with an aqueous solution of brilliant green or potassium permanganate, acyclovir and other ointments as prescribed by a doctor. As the rash heals, it becomes covered with a crust, which gradually disappears, thereby demonstrating recovery. Usually the rash heals without a trace, but if it is combed, scars and scars may remain on the skin after healing.
Chickenpox occurs in children in a simpler form than in adults, who may suffer from complications in the future.
It is extremely rare that chickenpox can proceed without rashes and vesicles – in this case, additional specialist advice is needed to clarify the diagnosis.
Chickenpox usually clears up on its own within a week or 10 days. In this case, the temperature can return to normal after two to three days, although, in some cases, it persists throughout the entire period of the disease.
Treatment of chickenpox is symptomatic (i.e., the manifestations of the disease are treated: high fever, rash on the skin), since medicine at this stage does not know any ways to prevent or cure this disease. The goal of treatment is to prevent vesicles from suppurating. Greenery is perfect for this, you can use Castellani liquid, an aqueous solution of fucorcin or potassium permanganate, etc. Alcohol solutions are very painful for children.
Bathing a child with chickenpox is necessary to prevent the appearance of a secondary skin infection. In this case, you can not use a washcloth and it is better not to use soap, adding a weak solution of potassium permanganate to the bath. Create the most comfortable conditions for your baby’s skin: do not wear tight and tight clothes, use only cotton underwear.
If your child is concerned about severe itching, tell the doctor about it: he will prescribe antiallergic drugs.
When the temperature rises above 38 about C, chills, the child should be given antipyretic drugs (paracetomol, ibuprofen).
A patient with chickenpox is isolated at home for nine days from the onset of the disease. In preschool institutions, quarantine is established for 21 days.
Complications of chickenpox
Complications of chickenpox are rare and are most often associated with inaccurate treatment of rashes and their suppuration, which subsequently leads to scarring.
It is extremely rare that weakened children have severe forms of chickenpox with damage to the brain and internal organs.Such forms of the disease are treated in hospitals using special therapeutic methods.
Chickenpox vaccine and vaccine
The vaccine provides sufficient protection against chickenpox and its complications. It is recommended for children aged 12 months and older, as well as adolescents and adults who have not previously had chickenpox and have not received vaccinations. The vaccine protects against disease for 10 years or more. In rare cases, people who have received the chickenpox vaccine can get chickenpox, but the disease is mild.
Currently, in the United States, Japan and some other countries, the chickenpox vaccine is mandatory for child admission to daycare. But in Russia vaccination of children against chickenpox has not yet become widespread, and this remains the choice of parents.
It should be noted that some people with a weakened immune system (as a result of illness or taking medications that affect immunity) should not be vaccinated, as they may develop complications. Therefore, a patient with a weakened immune system should consult a doctor before receiving chickenpox vaccine.
Chickenpox in children
Chickenpox or chickenpox remains one of the most common infectious diseases that affect children aged six months to ten years.
Chickenpox or chickenpox remains one of the most common infectious diseases that affect children aged six months to ten years.Chickenpox also affects adults, but less often and more severely.
How is chickenpox spread?
In a large group of children, chickenpox can be epidemiological in nature and alternately affect each member of the group.
It is known that the disease is provoked by one of the herpes viruses and is highly contagious, although in most cases it is not dangerous. The virus quickly passes by airborne droplets from a sick person to a healthy one. At the same time, the person transmitting the disease may not experience symptoms of the disease at this moment.It can infect others for several days before the rash appears and the temperature rises. So it can sometimes be very difficult to track down the source of the disease in advance and prevent transmission.
Chickenpox has an incubation period of one to three weeks, and symptoms may appear no earlier than seven days after infection, but no later than 21 days.
A person ceases to be contagious a week or ten days after the first onset of signs of chickenpox.
Chickenpox symptoms in children
The symptoms of chickenpox are similar in all children and adults.The disease begins quite abruptly with a rise in temperature, mainly up to 38 degrees, but sometimes up to 40 degrees, weakness and headaches are noted. But the main symptom of chickenpox is a profuse rash that spreads over the entire surface of the skin and even mucous membranes. The rash in the form of small bubbles with fluid is accompanied by severe itching, which children do not tolerate very well.
The main localization of the rash is the trunk, head (face and scalp), genitals, mouth.
The first signs of chickenpox are redness of the skin up to one centimeter in diameter.In their place, after a rather short time, blisters with a transparent liquid appear, which subsequently transform and take the form of dried crusts.
The course of the disease is usually wave-like, so the rash may appear several times.
Treatment of chickenpox in children
Treatment of chickenpox in children and adults is aimed at overcoming unpleasant symptoms. The disease itself is not treated, but passes gradually and, as a rule, without a trace. Complications in children are rare; adults are much more susceptible to them.
Since children are prone to scratching the rash, the main treatment should be aimed at relieving itching and preventing the suppuration of ulcers and blisters. To do this, the skin is treated with a weak aqueous solution of brilliant green or potassium permanganate, fucrocin or Castellani liquid.
How to treat chickenpox in children and what to use to achieve an optimal result is a purely individual question, which should be decided by parents in conjunction with the attending physician.
Chickenpox in infants
Any child as young as six months old can get chickenpox.As a rule, the course of the disease in an infant is quite complex – babies do not tolerate the symptoms of chickenpox well and need careful care and constant attention from the mother.
Chickenpox in newborns shows the same symptoms as in older children. However, in a particularly complex form, chickenpox can cause serious harm to the body, affecting the development of internal organs. Treatment of chickenpox in infants should be carried out under the supervision of a specialist.
Doctors recommend that children over 12 months of age get vaccinated against chickenpox. It effectively protects the body from this disease for several years.
It is worth saying, however, that a number of experts are of the opinion that it is worth getting chickenpox in childhood and getting immunity for life, rather than facing this disease in adulthood and suffering from dangerous
Chickenpox in adults
Chickenpox in adults develops and proceeds as rapidly as in children, but more severe and often causes complications.
Adults who did not have chickenpox during childhood are at risk of developing the disease at an age when the course of this disease and its consequences can be very serious.
How is chickenpox spread in adults?
Chickenpox, or chickenpox, is a disease that is actively transmitted from a sick person to a healthy airborne droplet. It is rather difficult to protect yourself and your family from it, because it is not always possible to “catch” the moment and understand that communication with this or that person will lead to illness.
Chickenpox in adults develops and proceeds as rapidly as in children, after 7-21 days of the incubation period.
A person remains infectious for about a week after symptoms first appear.
Chickenpox symptoms in adults
The symptoms of chickenpox in adults are identical to those of children. The temperature rises sharply, a feverish state develops – weakness, headache, impaired appetite and sleep.At first, intense redness of the skin appears throughout the body, and then a rash, which is accompanied by severe itching. The rash can cover the torso and back, face and scalp, mucous membranes of the mouth and genitals. It is extremely rare that chickenpox can occur without a profuse rash, but the percentage of such cases is negligible.
Chickenpox symptoms in adults occur in waves – a rash and high fever appear several times during the week.
The rash usually goes away without leaving a trace if left alone or combed.