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Fatigue from cold: Stages of the Common Cold: Your Day-by-Day Guide


How long does a cold last? Recovery tips & when to see a doctor

If you’ve ever had a stuffy nose, runny nose, or fever, you may have had a common cold. Colds are a type of viral infection that can affect the nose and throat. The common cold is called that for a good reason. More than 2 million people in the United States will get a cold each year. Those with weakened immune systems and children are especially prone to catching a cold. Let’s take a look at some common cold facts like how long they last, the best recovery and treatment for them, and how to know when it’s time to see a doctor.  

How long does a cold last? 

Many different viruses can cause colds, but rhinoviruses are the most common cause. The amount of time someone has a cold will depend on their overall health and age. Generally speaking, most colds will go away on their own within a couple of weeks. Kids and seniors are more prone to catching colds than young and middle-aged adults.  

How long does a cold last in adults?


According to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), a cold can last anywhere from seven to 10 days for adults. The average adult will get about two to three colds per year, but they could get more or less depending on their immune system’s strength. It’s not uncommon for young children to get eight to 10 colds per year. 

There are early, peak, and late symptoms of a cold, which are useful to know so you can tell whether your cold is going away or getting worse. 

  • Early stage: The first signs of a cold are a sore throat, headache, chilliness, lethargy, and body aches. These symptoms can last one or two days before symptoms start to get worse.  
  • Peak: Runny nose or congestion, cough, sneezing, and low-grade fever can last anywhere from a few days to a whole week. 
  • Late stage: Fatigue, cough, and congestion or a runny nose are late-stage symptoms of the cold typically happen around days eight to 10. 

How long does a cold last in children?

Children get more colds than adults because their immune systems haven’t built up enough strength to fight off germs. 

  • Early stage: A runny nose with clear liquid, fussiness, trouble sleeping, and sore throat will typically last one or two days.   
  • Peak: Kids can experience a cough, low-grade fever, chills, runny nose, and sneezes for several days to just over a week. 
  • Late stage: A cough, congestion, or yellow and green mucus are late-stage symptoms of the cold. Kids might feel fatigued and become extra fussy. Late-stage cold symptoms start eight to 10 days into a cold.

Although it’s rare, the common cold can cause complications. If your cold lasts longer than 10 days, you may have something else going on, such as an ear infection, sinus infection, bronchitis, or pneumonia. These conditions, which can be viral or bacterial infections, will require medical attention from a healthcare professional. 

Cold recovery and treatment

You can help your cold go away faster if you know how to treat it. Here are some home remedies to treat a cold without medicine: 

  1. Stay hydrated. Drinking plenty of fluids will prevent dehydration and help loosen up sinus congestion. Water, tea with honey and lemon, bone broth, and juices are great options for staying hydrated. 
  2. Use a humidifier. Running a humidifier while experiencing a cold will help keep your airways moisturized, soothing sore throats, and coughs. 
  3. Get enough rest. Getting sufficient sleep and staying rested will help the body heal. Overexertion and heavy exercise can put extra stress on the immune system during a cold. 
  4. Use a neti pot. When used correctly and safely, neti pots can help relieve stuffy noses and congestion. The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) outlines safety practices here.
  5. Gargle with saltwater. A saltwater gargle can alleviate a scratchy throat caused by a postnasal drip.
  6. Eat healthy foods. Eating an anti-inflammatory diet while experiencing a cold may help boost the immune system. Leafy greens, vegetables, fruits, bone broth, and salmon are all anti-inflammatory foods that would be great to eat while sick. 
  7. Take Echinacea. Herbal Echinacea reduces the duration of the common cold by up to a day and reduces the chances of catching a cold by more than half. Echinacea is available at most health food stores.  
  8. Take vitamin C. Some research suggests that vitamin C can shorten the duration of cold symptoms. Eat vitamin C-rich foods or take supplements to strengthen your immune system. 

If you aren’t getting any relief from your symptoms with self-care, over-the-counter (OTC) cold medications might help. Here are some of the most common cold medicines that work best for treating colds: 

  • Pain relievers like ibuprofen and acetaminophen (Tylenol) can help cold symptoms like achiness, and they can also help reduce fevers. Note: A rare side effect called Reye’s syndrome can occur when treating viral infections in children with aspirin.
  • Antihistamines are a type of allergy medicine that helps stop runny noses. Older antihistamines (chlorpheniramine and brompheniramine) may be more effective for cold symptoms than newer antihistamines such as Allegra or Claritin. Note: Drowsiness is the primary side effect of first-generation antihistamines.
  • Decongestants and expectorants like Sudafed and Mucinex are medications that relieve nasal and chest congestion. 
  • Cough medicines like Robitussin help suppress coughs and can make it easier to sleep at night. 
  • Lozenges and cough drops can help soothe sore throats or suppress a cough. 
  • Nasal sprays are available over the counter for symptom relief of nasal congestion and stuffiness. Difficulty breathing and sleeping at night is a problem many people with colds have, and saline nasal sprays may make this easier. 

RELATED: The best cough medicine

When to see a healthcare provider for a cold

Even though most common colds will resolve on their own, they sometimes require medical attention. “If you are running a high fever, are short of breath, wheezing, bringing up green [phlegm] all day—you should see your doctor,” says Susan Besser, MD, a family medicine physician at Mercy Personal Physicians at Overlea. “If you have any questions or concerns, call your doctor and speak with them. We are here to help, even if sometimes the help is just advice (not everything needs a prescription).”  

If you have any of those symptoms, it’s best to see a healthcare provider. If you have a cold plus an underlying medical condition, it may also be a good idea to see your primary care provider. In rare circumstances, cold viruses can lead to secondary upper respiratory infections like sinus or middle ear infections. A cold accompanied by sinus pain, swollen glands, or a mucus-producing cough could indicate a secondary infection that requires medical attention. 

During this global pandemic, it’s also important to know the difference between common cold symptoms, flu symptoms, and COVID-19 symptoms. If you have shortness of breath, fatigue, loss of appetite, a cough, or a fever, it may be a good idea to contact your healthcare provider and get tested for coronavirus. Avoiding close contact with sick people, wearing a mask, and using hand sanitizer are good ways to reduce your chances of getting a cold virus or COVID-19. 

5 ways to wipe out winter tiredness

Do you find it harder to roll out of bed in winter when the temperature drops and the mornings are darker? If so, you’re not alone. Many people feel tired and sluggish during winter.

Here are 5 energy-giving solutions that may help – and some conditions that can sometimes be the cause.

1. Let in some sunlight

As the days become shorter, your sleep and waking cycles may become disrupted. The lack of sunlight means your brain produces more of a hormone called melatonin, which makes you sleepy.

Open your blinds or curtains as soon as you get up to let more sunlight into your home, and get outdoors in natural daylight as much as possible. Try to take even just a brief lunchtime walk, and make sure your workplace and home are as light and airy as possible.

2. Get a good night’s sleep

Getting enough undisturbed sleep is vital for fighting off winter tiredness. 

It’s tempting to go into hibernation mode when winter hits, but that sleepy feeling you get does not mean you should snooze for longer.

In fact, if you sleep too much, chances are you’ll feel even more sluggish during the day. We do not actually need any more sleep in winter than we do in summer – aim for about 8 hours of shut-eye a night, and try to go to bed and get up at the same time every day.

Make sure your bedroom helps you feel relaxed and sleepy: clear the clutter, have comfortable and warm bedding, and turn off the TV.

Find out how to get a good night’s sleep

3. Get regular exercise

Exercise may be the last thing you want to do when you’re feeling tired on dark winter evenings. But you might be surprised by how energetic you feel after getting involved in some kind of physical activity every day.

Exercise in the late afternoon may help to reduce early-evening fatigue and also improve your sleep. Try to reach the recommended goal of 150 minutes of exercise a week.

Winter is a great time to experiment with new and different kinds of activity.

For instance, if you’re not used to doing exercise, book a session at one of the many open-air skating rinks that operate during the winter. Skating is good all-round exercise for everyone, including beginners. There are also many dry ski slopes and indoor snow centres in the UK, which will offer courses for beginners.

If you’re feeling like being more active, arrange a game of badminton at your local sports centre, or a game of tennis or 5-a-side football under the floodlights.

If you find it hard to get motivated to exercise in the colder, darker months, focus on the positives – you not only will feel more energetic but may also avoid putting on weight during the winter.

Get tips on exercising in winter

4. Learn to relax

Are you feeling pressured to get everything done during the shorter daylight hours? If so, it may be contributing to your tiredness – stress has been shown to contribute to tiredness.

There’s no quick fix for stress, but there are some simple things you can do to help to reduce it. Many people find adding meditation, yoga, breathing exercises or mindfulness techniques into their day helps them to calm down and feel more relaxed.

Check out 10 ways to reduce stress

5. Eat the right food

Being overweight or underweight can affect your energy levels and leave you feeling sleepy. So it’s important to make sure you eat a healthy, balanced diet.

Once the summer ends, there’s a temptation to ditch the salads and fill up on starchy foods such as pasta, potatoes and bread. However, you’ll have more energy if you include plenty of fruit and vegetables in your comfort meals.

Winter vegetables – such as carrots, parsnips, swede and turnips – can be roasted, mashed or made into soup to provide a warming winter meal for the whole family. And classic stews and casseroles are great options if they’re made with lean meat or pulses, and plenty of veg.

Here are 8 tips on healthy eating to inspire you.

You may find your sweet tooth going into overdrive in the winter months, but try to avoid foods containing lots of sugar. They may give you a rush of energy, but it’s one that wears off quickly.

Here are some quick and easy ways to cut down on sugar, and more information about energy-giving foods.

You can also read more articles on how to beat tiredness and fatigue.

Do I have a health condition?

While it’s normal for all of us to slow down over winter, there are some medical conditions that could be causing your tiredness.

Sometimes a lack of energy and enthusiasm (lethargy) can be a sign of winter depression. Known medically as seasonal affective disorder (SAD), it affects around 1 in 15 people, but it can be treated.

If your tiredness is severe and present all year round, you could have chronic fatigue syndrome.

Your tiredness may also be linked to a condition like anaemia, or a long-term infection that your body is trying to clear.

If your tiredness is stopping you from going about your normal life, or goes on for a long time, you should talk to a GP.

Page last reviewed: 28 August 2020
Next review due: 28 August 2023

5 Reasons Why You Might Have the Chills

Are chills serious? Shivering and goose bumps can accompany a wide range of conditions, from a too-cold environment to cancer.

Maintaining our core temperature is one of the body’s most basic functions, and when that temperature is off — or when our body thinks it’s off — we get the chills.

“Chills occur when the muscles contract and relax in order to make heat,” says Rose Taroyan, MD, MPH, a family medicine physician at Keck Medicine of USC and clinical assistant professor of family medicine at the Keck School of Medicine of USC. “This occurs when you are cold, but it can also be your body’s defense mechanism in fighting an infection.”

Everyone knows the sensation of getting the chills when your environment is too cold. That’s usually a signal to put on more layers or turn up the heat. But there are many underlying medical conditions that can cause them, too. Read on for some common — and not so common — causes of chills.

1. You have a viral or bacterial infection.

When chills are accompanied by other symptoms, such as fever, body aches or fatigue, they’re more likely associated with a systemic infection, such as flu or pneumonia.

“Chills boost your body’s core temperature when your immune system attempts to fight off infection,” Taroyan explains. “Your body temperature increases, even though you might feel cold. If you have a viral infection, you will usually notice other symptoms along with chills, such as sore throat, cough, headache, fatigue and muscle aches. Most of the time, it can be self-limiting and will resolve within 2 weeks. It’s important to get plenty of rest and increase your fluid intake.”

2. You have low blood sugar.

Although many people feel a bit shaky and irritable when they need to eat, true hypoglycemia, or low blood sugar, most often occurs in people who have diabetes.

“One of the symptoms of hypoglycemia is a feeling of shakiness, which may mimic chills,” Taroyan says. “Hypoglycemia requires immediate treatment to get blood sugar levels back to normal.”

Defined as blood glucose of less than 70 milligrams per deciliter, hypoglycemia can cause a variety of other symptoms, including sweating, confusion, a rapid heartbeat, blurry vision, lightheadedness and drowsiness.

If you have diabetes and you notice these symptoms, follow the “15-15” rule: Have 15 grams of simple carbs, such as a glucose tablet, juice, honey or hard candy, and check your blood glucose again in 15 minutes. Then eat a meal, but don’t overeat, or your blood sugar will spike.

3. You’re having a panic attack.

Chills can occur if you have a profound or intense emotional reaction to a situation, according to Taroyan. “Emotions that might cause chills include fear or anxiety,” she says.

According to the American Psychiatric Association, nearly 30% of all adults will experience an anxiety disorder during their lifetime. A panic attack can cause a combination of physical as well as psychological symptoms, including chills, shortness of breath, heart palpitations, sweating, dizziness and chest pain. Because of the severity of the symptoms, a panic attack sometimes causes people to think they’re having a heart attack.

If you’ve never had a panic attack before, seek medical attention. If you’ve been diagnosed with an anxiety disorder, psychotherapy (“talk” therapy) and medication can help.

4. You have malaria.

Symptoms of malaria, a disease spread by infected mosquitos, can mimic those of a cold or flu. In addition to chills, they can include fever, sweats, head and body aches, nausea and fatigue. A simple blood test can identify the presence of the malaria parasite, but since malaria is relatively rare in the United States, your doctor might not immediately test for it. If you’ve traveled to regions where the disease is common, such as sub-Saharan Africa, Southeast Asia, parts of India and parts of Central and South America within the last 12 months, be sure to mention it when you’re being evaluated, even if you took antimalarial medications.

5. You have leukemia.

Chills can also be a sign of blood cancers, including leukemia. Symptoms of leukemia may include swelling of the lymph nodes, along with fever, chills, fatigue, loss of appetite, night sweats, abdominal pain and recurring infections. If you have a fever and chills that just won’t go away, see your doctor, in case it’s something more serious.

Having the chills may be nothing more than the body’s attempt to warm you up, but if they’re accompanied by other symptoms, that’s the time to seek medical attention. “Please schedule an appointment with your primary care physician for further evaluation,” Taroyan advises.

by Tina Donvito

Do you have questions or concerns about chills? One of our expert family medicine physicians can help. If you’re in Southern California, request an appointment or call (800) USC-CARE (800-872-2273).

Fighting the Stages of a Cold

By Sarah Parker Ward

For as common as colds are, it’s rare that we stop and think about their actual progression. Yet understanding the early warning signs of a cold can help you take steps toward relief sooner and accurately identifying when a cold is truly waning can help keep you from jumping back into work before your body is really ready.

So, here are the five stages of a cold you should know and the related remedies to consider that can help get you through – and of course, be sure to talk to your healthcare professional if you have any questions.



Stage 1: Onset
It’s roughly 1-3 days since you came into contact with a cold virus and your body is starting to show mild symptoms like mild fatigue, runny or stuffy nose, and a sore throat. Even though you’re busy, try not to ignore these warning signs! Get ample rest and stay especially well hydrated.

Stage 2: Progression
Your cold is really settling in, as is the cough and congestion. Now’s the time to make a full on TLC Kit stocked with chicken soup, tea, honey, cough drops, soft tissues and lip balm. Zinc is a staple of a balanced and healthy immune system, so stock up on zinc-rich foods like eggs, garbanzo beans, pumpkin seeds and whole grains.

Stage 3: Peak
Your cold is in full swing and you’re feeling knocked out. Body aches and a low-grade fever are normal, but double up on your liquids – water, broth and juices – to stay hydrated. To relieve congestion and sinus pressure, use hot, steamy showers and humidifiers and consider an over-the-counter nasal decongestant.

For faster relief of some of your most frustrating symptoms, try TYLENOL® Cold or TYLENOL® Sinus. Have a child under the weather with a cold? TYLENOL® offers helpful treatments for them, too.

Stage 4: Remission
As your fever breaks and your aches start to subside, you know you’ve turned the corner toward wellness. As you gain back your strength, take the time to nix persistent germs by disinfecting surfaces in your home, car and office. Throw all bedding and clothes into the wash for a good scrubbing, and don’t forget to sterilize personal items like toothbrushes and cell phones that could also harbor and spread germs.

Stage 5: Recovery
Finally, you’re on your feet and feeling back to normal! Treat any minor, lingering symptoms like a cough or runny nose, with the appropriate over-the-counter medicine and stick to an especially healthy, balanced diet as your body reboots.

Remember, cold weather isn’t the source of a cold – hence many of us come down with it in the summer, too! Rather, viruses transmitted through miniscule droplets are the cause. So the best prevention method is to disinfect the spaces around you regularly and wash hands for a full 20 seconds at least five times a day.

Want more information? Try these common cold and flu prevention tips, or these nine things you should know about the common cold.

©Johnson & Johnson Consumer Inc. 2019

Wellness Advice While Dealing with Cold Weather and COVID Fatigue

After nearly a year of disrupted plans and social distance, the current routine can still feel unsettled.

“Most of us did not anticipate that this heightened period of stress would be going on for 10 months and even longer in the future,” said Terrie Moffitt, Nannerl O. Keohane University Distinguished Professor in the Department of Psychology and Neuroscience. “And there is still some uncertainty about when we will get out of this predicament.”

And at this time of year – during the winter and after the holidays – there’s typically a bit of a flat period, Moffitt added, once the celebrations are done and we return to school and to work. The days are short and cold, which also means people likely are not getting enough sunlight to strengthen the immune system and boost mood.

“We should all recognize that as a period of high risk for feeling depressed and anxious – for everyone,” Moffitt said. “Understand that this is temporary. Winter does go away, and spring will come.”

Here are some suggestions to help stay healthy and safe in the coming months.


Find Control Where You Can

Because the pandemic is lasting longer than our expectations, this can make self-care difficult.

“People are very good at changing behaviors in the short term, but maintaining those changes week after week and month after month is where the challenge comes in,” said Kyle Bourassa, a clinical psychology researcher and a postdoctoral scholar at Duke’s Center for the Study of Aging and Human Development.

His research examines how changes in behavior might improve health among people who experience stressful events. Part of his training also focuses on values – individual beliefs about what’s important.

“We should remind ourselves why we’re wearing a mask or distancing from people we hope to keep safe,” Bourassa said. “We’re not doing this just because we were told we have to, but because we choose to in order to protect those around us.”

It’s also good to be intentional about socializing, relaxation and exercise, he said, especially in this time period when it’s harder to get outside.

“One thing I like to emphasize is that we often cannot change how we feel,” Bourassa said. “But we can change how we behave and what we choose to do every day.”

The more that people can be self-aware and pay attention to their own habits, the better, Bourassa added.

“If you’re struggling, there are resources available to support you,” Bourassa said.


Socialize, Safely

When socializing, meet outside or keep the windows open, wear a mask, wash your hands, avoid large gatherings and stay home if you’re not feeling well. Follow the Duke Compact.

“You can visit others, and you can get together with key people,” Moffitt said. “Having control over your life and decide when you can be socially connected with others is so important.”

Moffitt also advised creating a written contract that you will reach out to someone every day. And then, make a short FaceTime call or send an Instagram message.

“Very often people think, I don’t want to bother anyone, so I’ll just sit here quietly and lonely,” Moffitt said. “But if everyone else is feeling the same, how could we fix that?”

Contact each day will go a far way towards keeping the human support system and social network going, she added. You should also choose to contact people who make you feel uplifted, Moffitt said, and it’s fine to decide that a relationship is too upsetting at this moment and create some space between yourself and the person causing stress.

“There are some close friends or loved ones that you might decide to not meet with for a while, until the pandemic eases, because it brings too much stress and conflict,” Moffitt said. “And that’s healthy.”

For students, Moffitt encouraged them to make one person they contact a faculty member. They’re feeling the same effects of isolation as students.

“I love talking to students, and other faculty feel the same way. That’s why we do this job,” Moffitt said. “Reach out to a professor.”


Find Duke health and wellness resources.

If you or someone you know is thinking about harming themselves, call 9-1-1.

Temperature Problems With Fibromyalgia & CFS

Doing you have trouble staying warm because of fibromyalgia (FMS) or chronic fatigue syndrome (ME/CFS)? Do you dread the cold?

Kupicoo / Getty Images 

Temperature sensitivity is a common symptom of these conditions. When cold temperatures are a problem for you, it can make the winter months a real battle—and make overly air-conditioned spaces difficult, too, which makes it a year-long problem. With a little planning, though, you may be able to alleviate the worst of what the cold does to you.

Getting chilled is a problem for a couple of reasons:

  1. We can have a really hard time warming up
  2. It can lead to flares of other symptoms 

We’re starting to see some research on this symptom, which may lead to treatments down the road, and we do have some idea why we have a problem dealing with the cold. (Many people with these conditions have problems tolerating heat, as well.)

Cold sensitivity in these conditions is so broadly accepted by the medical community that it’s frequently used in studies to trigger a pain response, and yes, we are shown to react more to it than healthy people. In fact, in a 2015 Belgian study on skin temperature changes in FMS, researchers noted lower tolerance to cold and a more extreme drop in temperature when exposed to near-freezing water.

Why Do We Get So Cold?

Many researchers believe these illnesses involve something called dysautonomia, which means dysregulation of the autonomic nervous system. That’s what controls our homeostasis, which keeps things like our heart rate, digestion, and body temperature within normal parameters.

In dysautonomia, these automatic functions can be askew, and in many of us with FMS and ME/CFS that’s highly apparent in our body temperature.

When a healthy person’s feet get cold, for example, the autonomic nervous system kicks into action, re-directing the flow of blood to warm up the area. As long as the situation isn’t extreme, the body should be able to overcome the effect of the environment.

Because of dysautonomia, though, when someone with FMS or ME/CFS gets chilled feet, the body isn’t able to adapt properly, so the feet stay cold. Even putting on thick socks may not help warm them up. The environment has a greater impact on the body that it should.

In some people, this problem may be severe enough to warrant its own diagnosis—Raynaud’s syndrome. In that condition, hands and feet can become so cold that they turn blue and the tissues may become damaged. That sets it apart from FMS and ME/CFS, which don’t involve the color change and tissue damage.

If you suspect you have Raynaud’s symptoms, be sure to talk to your doctor so you can be properly diagnosed and treated.

When pain is directly related to being cold but no tissue damage is occurring, it’s called thermal allodynia. When the cold acts as a trigger for widespread pain in areas that aren’t cold, or triggers a cascade of other symptoms … well, that’s just how FMS and ME/CFS tend to work. It’s just part of having a hypersensitive nervous system.

Preventing Problems With Cold

So far, we don’t have widely recognized treatments aimed at regulating our temperature and alleviating cold-related symptoms, but we do have one small study suggesting something called Waon therapy for ME/CFS.

Waon therapy is a Japanese practice that involves soothing and warming the body. In the study, ten people with ME/CFS sat in a sauna for 15 minutes and then laid under a blanket, outside the sauna, for half an hour. They weren’t specifically looking at temperature sensitivity, but researchers observed an improvement in fatigue, mood, and performance after therapy.

While this was a small, preliminary study, it shows that heat may be beneficial for people with this condition and provides a starting point for those wondering how to improve symptoms, including the tendency to get chilled.

Short of spending lots of time in a sauna, though, we need to find ways to manage these symptoms on our own. The best way is to prevent yourself from getting overly cold.

Ways to Prevent Getting Cold

Some ideas for heading off the chills include:

  • Keeping your feet covered during cold weather
  • Dressing warmly, especially in layers, because dressing too warmly can trigger the symptom of heat sensitivity in some
  • Drinking hot beverages
  • Eating hot foods like soup and oatmeal
  • Bundling up before going out in the cold
  • Warming up your car before you leave home, especially with a remote starter
  • Keeping your environment warm
  • Having things like blankets and slippers handy

If you work, go to school, or otherwise spend time in a place that’s frequently cold, you may need to keep an extra sweater handy. On the job, you can ask for reasonable accommodation, which could mean moving your workstation to a warmer area of the building or away from windows or vents.

Warming Up

No matter how careful you are, you’re likely to get chilled from time to time. Once the cold sets in, it can be hard to shake.

When your body can’t get itself warmed up, you may need to find an outside heat source, such as:

  • A hot bath or shower
  • Hot water bottle
  • Heating products, such as battery-operated socks or mittens
  • Electric blankets
  • Heating pads, rice bags, or similar microwavable products

Be careful, though! You don’t want to burn yourself or trigger heat-related symptoms by trying to warm up too fast, or with something that is too hot. Go slowly and carefully.

The effects of exhaustive exercise on thermoregulatory fatigue during cold exposure


Cold exposure facilitates body heat losses that, unless mitigated by vasoconstriction or shivering, thermogenesis, will cause lower body temperatures. Fatigue associated with chronic overexertion altered both vasoconstriction and shivering responses causing core temperature to decrease when exposed to cold. The question we posed is: do the physiological mechanisms elicited to maintain core body temperature “fatigue”, such that shivering and vasoconstriction are blunted during subsequent cold stress? This overview will focus on findings examining whether multiple stressors (fatigue combined with energy deficit and sleep deprivation over 9 weeks or 72 h) or individual stressors, such as acute exercise (1 h), and chronic exertional fatigue (3–7 days), compromise the ability to maintain thermal balance in the cold. Laboratory studies employed experimental design controls to isolate the effect of exercise from other consequences of exertion (initial core temperature, hypoglycemia) in order to study the independent effect of fatigue on thermoregulatory responses to cold. Results suggest that prior physical exercise may predispose a person to greater heat loss and to experience a larger decline in core temperature when subsequently exposed to cold air. The combination of exercise intensity and duration studied in these experiments did not fatigue the shivering response to cold exposure. Cold-induced increments in circulating norepinephrine, a marker of sympathetic nervous stimulation, appear unaffected by acute or chronic exertional fatigue. However, the possibility that fatigue impairs thermoregulatory responses to cold by mechanisms related to blunted peripheral vasoconstriction to sympathetic nervous stimulation merits further study.





Thermoregulatory fatigue


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90,000 cold and cold fatigue. – Everything about survival

is a lot of letters, but it’s worth it. article by a person with real experience of many hikes.

Preparing for cold hiking.

Author – Filimonov Phil, Blagoveshchensk

Cold and freezing of group members on the route are present in almost all hikes, of different complexity and seasonality, with different results. The consequences of the cold, depending on the group’s readiness for it, weather conditions and luck, can range from a one-time shiver in a sleeping bag in the evening to the death of the entire group.

Accordingly, you should be well versed in what nuances to pay attention to when preparing a hike, and also think with your head on the route. Based on this, we note the following points, the planning of which should begin before the hike, and not try to get the Darwin Prize while directly implementing your plans:

– Temperature regime at the location along which the route will pass.
– Range of possible weather fluctuations on route sections and analysis of their danger.
– Preparing equipment for the hike and packing it to protect against environmental aggression.
– Overcoming obstacles on the route, both local and long.
– Overnight stays, their methods and location, exact or approximate.
– Food, quantity, method of preparation and packaging, distribution to participants, drawing up a menu and a schedule for cheating products from group members.
– The accumulation of cold fatigue, how to deal with it.
– Potential emergencies and the effect of cold and / or other climatic conditions on mortality among participants in such situations.
– Preparation of hike participants, physical, psychological and special (for working with mountaineering equipment, for example).

When planning, we must clearly imagine what the ambient temperature will be at this location. Since we are now talking about cold, we should focus on the lowest temperature limit to which it can drop. It should be understood that in summer there is usually a greater variation in temperature with height than in winter. T.n. in summer, on the same Kodar, the normal daytime temperature in the forest zone is + 20 … 25 degrees, and above the forest zone + 15 … + 5 degrees. At the same time, in case of bad weather or frosty nights, the temperature can drop to + 8 … + 6 degrees in the forest zone and to 0 … -5 above the forest level, and when spending the night on passes or near glaciers, even lower.

In winter, there are almost no fluctuations in air temperature with climb, i.e. there cannot be -20 in the forest and on the same day -35 above the forest level (although the wind is stronger above the forest level).But night temperatures in winter can have much stronger changes with daytime, from -15 in the afternoon to -45 … -50 at night. That is, in summer, the temperature difference between day and night does not always reach 20 degrees, but in winter it can reach 35 degrees.

Note that the smaller the temperature difference between night and day, the easier it is for the body. He needs to expend less energy, less cold fatigue accumulates and physical activity is easier to endure. The camp is set up and removed in a shorter time, and less time is spent on cooking.All this as a whole gives our body an opportunity to rest better. At a daytime temperature of minus five degrees, and at night (respectively morning and evening) at minus 20, we will feel worse than with a daytime temperature of minus 20 and a night temperature of minus 25 – naturally, if the group is prepared for equipment and food for these same minus 25 degrees.

Why is this happening? For the body, cold is, first of all, a subjective feeling of a relatively low air temperature in relation to a warmer time (place) or to the usual conditions for a given time (place).Cold fatigue is not least of a psychological nature.

Of course, cold is not only a feeling of inconvenience. Despite the fact that the process of homeostasis in the body, with adequate preparation of the group for the route, proceeds as usual, i.e., the body temperature practically does not change, with prolonged exposure to low temperatures and related factors, such as strong wind, high humidity, exhausting stress, injury, hypothermia may develop. Hypothermia is a condition in the body in which the body temperature drops below what is required to maintain normal metabolism.

It is necessary to plan running clothes for a hike based on the minimum temperatures and the worst weather conditions possible on the route during the day, and bivvy clothes, a tent and a sleeping set based on the minimum temperatures at night in the bivouac. That is, three different groups walking along the same location, different routes can have radically different equipment and a significant difference in the weight of the backpack. Here are some examples: the first group will reach the shelter at the border of the forest and walk radial routes from it.In this case, you can make an easy hike with simple tents, ultra-light sleeping bags, without special requirements for clothing and shoes. The second group goes a normal mountain walking route in 16-18 days, at the end of August, with most of the overnight stays above the forest level. This implies already much more serious sleeping sets, the presence of light jackets with insulation for all members of the group and a good tent with a skirt for the team. This group can forget about light backpacks if they want to survive, despite the fact that the weight requirements for each piece of equipment are much more stringent than in simpler hikes.The third group goes on a hike of 5-6 category of difficulty with passes 2B-3A. On the same Kodar, in August she will need winter sleeping bags, good powerful padded boots, puffs, and significantly more fuel. The difference in the weight of backpacks between the first and third groups can reach 20 kilograms and it is impossible to level it.

Near-zero temperatures are very dangerous for tourists, and at any time of the year. In summer, rain under such conditions, and even more so wet snow, easily and quickly kills an unprepared or emergency group.In winter, the situation is not much better – a sharp warming provokes avalanches, and snow often becomes impassable. At the same time, clothes and shoes quickly become damp, with all the ensuing consequences for all participants.

Proceeding from this, the group should be prepared for regular movement and spending the night in the worst weather conditions possible in the area, and also have an idea of ​​how to survive in such conditions even with partial or complete loss of equipment. The readiness of the group for the campaign should be supported by the combination of the correct selection of equipment, physical and psychological form, thoughtfulness of escape options, the presence of practical skills in emergency situations and a problem-free psychological opportunity to redraw or cut the route in the event of a local apocalypse.

The proposed route during planning should be divided into sections in which one or another hazard is sought and highlighted. Options for solutions to mitigate the consequences of likely emergency operations should be worked out immediately. Example: when approaching Kodar across the Mergeli River, we cross the non-categorical Khadatkand pass, which is a plateau where it is convenient to put up a tent. Now imagine that the weather deteriorates at night and sleet falls in the morning or there is a heavy downpour at a temperature of 3-4 degrees Celsius.The question is – will the group be able to survive under the given circumstances and will it be able, if it survives, then continue the route? The answer to this question lies in the availability of a good tent, a warm jacket, a burner, adequate sleeping bags and the availability of emergency rescue blankets, allowing, in case of need, to sleep in wet sleeping bags. That is, here lies the solution to the problem in the quality of equipment and the experience of using it. But – rain or snow eventually ends and a dense fog descends on the plateau, limiting visibility to two or three meters.At the same time, the temperature remains around zero. Variants are possible here, while not only equipment interferes with the outcome, but also the quality of cartographic material and diagrams, coupled with the willingness and physical ability of the group to leave the plateau below the fog level. At the same time, there is also an option to just sit out the bad weather. If the equipment or training is inadequate, the group dies or is injured either when trying to leave a dangerous place, or when trying to exist in such conditions when the body becomes unable to resist the pressure of the environment.

Let’s give one more example. On Tunkinskiye Goltsy in May, the group climbs to the top of Dinosaur along route 2B, leaving in the morning from the camp located on the border of the forest in the valley of the Zun-Khandagai River. Because of the snow, you can easily descend from the mountain only towards darkness, while in the event of bad weather, there may not be an opportunity to return to the camp. Without a pre-set, clearly marked assault tent, with some kind of sleeping bags, a group exhausted by a technical ascent can easily freeze.It is very useful to have snow shovels and snow saws with you to the assault tent standing on the approaches, which will allow you to dig out snow caves and spend the night in them if the tent for some reason is not found. At the same time, the relative comfort of the climbers will be provided by the presence of a burner, emergency chocolate and powder puffs. In such cases, simple foresight will turn a potentially life-threatening situation into an unpretentious adventure.

That is why each separate section of the route must be analyzed in terms of deteriorating climatic conditions, as to what exactly at that moment the group will be doing there.

Let’s dwell on the choice of equipment. You should be aware that the equipment may be different for different regions. For example, if for the summer Sayan mountains it is possible to walk on a solo hike with a bivouac, although without comfort and on the verge of risk, then on the Kodar and Muisky ridges with overnight stays above the forest level, such a choice in most cases is tantamount to a perverse method of suicide. For mountains, even for a base camp, if it will be on the border or outside the border of the forest, even for a walking route, you should give preference to tents with an aluminum frame, a skirt and maximum wind resistance.Those. the tent must withstand stormy weather at this location without damage to the structure and the inhabitants with their equipment. At the same time, it is not enough to choose a tent and take it with you, you also need to position it correctly on the ground, as well as carefully tie all stretch marks and fasten the skirt. Beginners often do not do this, which is why they suffer, and then unreasonably blame the equipment for it. Every camping camping trip should be prepared for sudden changes in weather, from bad to worse.

When choosing a tent, it will also not be superfluous to ask the question – can you cook in it on the burner? How exactly are we going to cook? And if the burner is not gas, but gasoline?

In winter, if the group intends to go without a stove, double layer tents are preferable. In a three-seater two-layer tent with a skirt, when three people live there, the temperature difference from the outside can reach 5-8 degrees, depending on the strength of the wind outside. This allows you to sleep well in a winter sleeping bag with a comfort temperature of -28 degrees, when the outside temperature reaches minus 35, or just not freeze to death at an outboard temperature of minus 45.If one person is accommodated in the same tent, then there will be almost no difference in temperatures.
On solo hikes, it is often the right decision to take a single layer tent, preferably a membrane, with minimal weight, but at the same time make the sleeping set heavier, preparing it for lower temperatures. In principle, in winter in the forest zone, you can not use a tent at all, but above the forest zone, it is definitely better not to count on this option.

In groups of 8-12 people it can be advantageous to take a large tent with a stove and a small chainsaw.In this case, within the forest zones, you can very comfortably spend the night, while almost without accumulating cold fatigue, it is easy and high-quality to repair equipment in case of need, and also use a first-aid kit. Food will be much fuller and easier to digest, and it will take less time to get adequate sleep.

Be very careful with gas or oil heaters. It is strictly forbidden to use such devices in tents with a skirt and, moreover, to sleep with the heater turned on.The heater consumes more oxygen than it manages to enter the tent – I think the consequences of this are clear.

Now about the sleeping set. You should always start selecting it with a rug. Personally, I have four rugs in my household that I use when hiking. I use a thin 4mm full length rug for hiking in the summer. When spending the night above the forest level, I fold it in half. Such a rug is not suitable for use by all tourists on long hikes in the mountains, as it weakly protects from the cold from below and it is very hard to sleep on it.Without sufficient experience of spending the night and without constant sleep at home on a hard surface, it is impossible to take such a rug on a serious hike. Izhevsk rug 8 mm is much warmer and more versatile, although heavier and more voluminous. It is also well suited for use in the off-season in locations with not very cold climates. In more severe areas, with overnight stays above forest level and a constant night temperature below minus 10 degrees, it is better to take rugs with a thickness of 10 mm or more.

In winter, in a forest zone in a tent without a stove, you can do with one rug of 16 mm, but in the mountains, with night temperatures of minus 15 … 20 degrees and below, you should take two rugs.For example, on Kodar, where night temperatures at the end of February can drop to minus 40… 48 degrees, the minimum set is two rugs 16 and 10 mm thick.

When spending the night in winter, the following observation is revealed: sleep comfort with a less thin sleeping bag (with sleep comfort at minus 20) and a thick mat (16 + 10 mm) is higher than with a warmer sleeping bag (with sleep comfort at minus 28), but a thin rug (one rug 16 mm). This suggests that a lot of attention should be paid to the selection of rugs, and in emergency situations, time and effort should be devoted to a high-quality bedding on the couch.

From the nuances, it should be noted that one of the rugs can be cut to length from shoulder to mid-thigh, which will reduce weight and volume. It’s just that the largest area of ​​contact with the earth’s surface occurs precisely in this gap, respectively, and the heat loss is maximum here.

Inflatable rugs deserve special mention. It is more comfortable to sleep on them than on “foam”, they take up less space. With extreme caution, they should be taken on difficult winter hikes, since it will be difficult to find and seal a small hole in such a rug in winter.Putting the same inflatable rug is necessary in winter only on the “foam”, but not vice versa.

Sleeping bags are much more complicated. The upper temperatures for comfort and extreme are very vague and subjective. For example, in a sleeping bag with a declared comfort temperature of minus 25 degrees and a cocoon width at the top of 80 cm, a large person sleeping in a solo campaign at minus 20 degrees will be oh, how cold it is. And why? Because the body will be in direct and tight contact with the walls of the sleeping bag.At the same time, the only option to additionally insulate is to tape the puff to the outer part of the cocoon with tape.

But even for a smaller person, the sleep comfort of a sleeping bag is only valid if there is a dense and uniform bedding (rug) and there are no protruding stones or tree roots. Otherwise, a person, trying to get comfortable, begins to bend or curl up into a ball, which can also lead to freezing due to stretching the walls of the sleeping bag.

Even more relative is the extreme temperature, which, in fact, is the upper temperature threshold for the survival of an average size and average preparation of a person, with an ideal bedding, well-fed and as warm as possible. At the same time, in practice, a person can, as without health consequences, survive a lower temperature, and freeze to death at a warmer temperature.

All of the above remarks are less critical when the group is large, from three people in a tent and more, since, hugging each other, tourists warm themselves up.

Do not forget that the declared temperature characteristics are valid only for new products, and accordingly they deteriorate with the time of their use, improper storage and washing.

During the hike in winter, condensation crystals accumulate in the insulation layer of the sleeping bag. If we compare the thermal insulation of a sleeping bag at the beginning of the hike and after ten days, in conditions where no drying measures were taken and no measures were taken to combat condensation, the comfort temperature would drop by half.Since normal drying of a sleeping bag is usually possible only in a warm room, it is better to immediately prepare the condensates. You can dry sleeping bags over a fire, as a last resort, but only very carefully and directly controlling the process.
In those regions where the days are sunny in winter, you can dry your sleeping bag in the sun on days. If solar activity is high, then the amount of accumulated condensation in the layers of the sleeping bag insulation will decrease.

In winter, the sleeping bag insert plays an important role in the sleeping bag.On the one hand, it performs a hygienic function, allowing not to wash the winter cocoon, on the other hand, it increases the comfort temperature, on the third, it prevents condensation from entering the insulation to some extent. The type of liner and the general design of the concept itself for sleeping should be chosen specifically for the planned route and formed exclusively on our own experience of overnight outings and short hikes with overnight in the “field”. This is due to the different brands of sleeping bags among the members, the size of the sleeping bags, and the physical characteristics of each member of the group.

The most common fleece liners are comfortable, but relatively heavy and bulky, and retain less condensation than airtight liners. The latter, made of a thin vapor barrier fabric, block the flow of condensate into the insulation of the cocoon to the greatest extent. Sleeping, however, is less comfortable in them, but it is warm.

In some cases, you should also take with you a thin blanket or sleeping bag cover, preferably made of a membrane. Condensation from the breathing of the sleeping people and the condensation that pours down from the walls of the tent in an already frozen form should settle on it.Without an insert in a sleeping bag, such a blanket does not make sense, since that part of the condensate that is still trying to escape from the insulation in the form of steam will settle in the form of crystals on the inner surface of the blanket and in some places melt and be absorbed into the insulation again. In this case, the bedspread will be harmful.

The layered structure is the most comfortable for constant low temperatures. It is based on a downy cocoon sleeping bag, with a heater weight of 800-1200 grams, a shoulder width of about 90 cm and made of waterproof fabric, i.e.e., not breathable. A lightweight sleeping bag on primaloft or the like, with a weight of about 1000 grams, is inserted inside. A membrane cover is put on the outside of the sleeping bag. The weight of such a set is 3-3.3 kg, while only the inner sleeping bag can be dampened, which is much easier to dry than the main one, and you can sleep in such a set even in the snow for many nights in a row without drying the main bag.

With bivy clothes, everything is easier. The main thing is to clearly define the moment at which summer hike you should take a warm jacket.In winter, with expected bivvy temperatures below minus 35, it is highly advisable to take two warm jackets with you, one of them should be light, small, for warming on halts and work in the camp, as well as for technical work on the route, the second is very warm, designed to the static state of a group member. In case of illness, injury, emergency overnight stay and just severe frost, such a jacket is a means of survival for the participant, regardless of his degree of preparedness.
As for running clothes, everything is individual here, since in a state of active movement, participants freeze in different ways.The nuance is only two points. The first is that the clothes should take away excess heat from the body. Second, the thinner the overall layer of clothing (regardless of the degree of perception of cold by the participant), the greater the loss of heat from the wind. For the latter, I will give an example: on Kodar in winter, my partner wears two layers of thermal underwear and pants with insulation. In the same conditions, I wear the same two layers of thermal underwear and Soft Shell pants without insulation. Under normal conditions, I am not cold in my clothes, but in a strong wind my legs freeze, while my partner does not.Therefore, I have to wear additional upper windproof pants above the forest zone in bad weather. Those. initially I win in freedom of movement, comfort and removal of excess heat, but I still have to insure myself against bad weather.

For summer, in cold regions, a rain jacket is required. With prolonged rains, without such a jacket, with an ambient air temperature below +10 degrees, you cannot leave healthy, you can catch hypothermia very quickly.

In winter, a lot of attention needs to be paid to footwear. The shoe should not only be high and hold the ankle well, but also be waterproof, and also experience minimal size transformations with complete freezing in order to facilitate the procedure of shoeing in the morning and eliminate unpleasant sensations during the morning wearing and warming up the boots. It is strictly forbidden to hike in boots, which the tourist wears on a hike for the second time in his life, and for the first time he was in the store for a fitting! Nevertheless, this happens all the time, even with experienced participants.Initially, of course, modern footwear needs little or no posting. Only this is true only if the foot or the lower part of the leg has not been deformed during the life of the participant. The latter is especially true for women, in whom foot deformities are more common than in men. As a rule, shoe problems can be solved at home by posting or making minor alterations from a good shoemaker.

It should be noted that for difficult winter hikes it is better to definitely give preference to two-layer shoes, i.e.e. shoes with a liner. This choice improves leg comfort by an order of magnitude. A prerequisite for safety is also the availability of spare liners for this model of boots.

In a winter hike, with the right approach to the choice of shoes, freezing of feet usually occurs at the camp, especially in the morning, or with a long static position. Therefore, it is better to take light soft shoe covers with insulation to the camp, in which you can put on shoes directly on the liners of the main shoes. In this case, the feet on the camp will not freeze, and walking without load in the area of ​​a kilometer from the tent can be without problems and with convenience.

For almost any boots, snowflake gaiters are a mandatory addition, they also protect boots from water in ice and from mechanical damage – it is much easier to mend them than to patch your boots in a sleeping bag at minus forty degrees.

For single-layer boots, it is better to make one-piece shoe covers on them. I bought OZK shoe covers in an army store, cut off the rubber top from them and sewed on a fabric one instead. Those. the main problem of the boot in winter is solved – water absorption and subsequent freezing.

Inexperienced tourists like to dry their feet by the fire without removing their boots. This, at the very least, has a negative effect on the manager’s mental balance, as a maximum, it leads to the loss of shoes, with subsequent varied consequences.

Gloves in winter hiking are also very tricky business. For winter hikes, two pairs of walking gloves and one pair of warm gloves are taken. Walking gloves should repel snow and breathe (!). Ski gloves are unacceptable, because after two or three days they absorb so much condensation that it becomes impossible to dry them without a stove, and putting them on in this form threatens to amputate your fingers in the evening.Warm gloves should be up to the middle of the forearm (in the middle between the wrist and the elbow), two, or better three-layer, with the ability to vary the layers. There must be a system of fixation on the hand, both worn and removed, so as not to get lost.

In winter, participants must have avalanche shovels and a snow saw (the long folding Fiskars will do just fine). This will allow, not only with proper skill, to emergency overnight if necessary, but also to make a windproof wall, dig up a tent, equip a camp and, in general, work comfortably at the camp, not to mention the fact that these things are extremely necessary for digging up comrades trapped in avalanche.

Regardless of the location of the hike and its complexity, the time of year and the location of the stars in the sky, it is necessary that the sleeping set of participants (with the exception of rugs) and spare clothes are always in a sealed package. Neglecting this rule means neglecting your life.
In the case of specific hazardous places in winter associated with water, a puff should also be packed in a plastic bag, which in normal situations is simply worn either in the valve of the backpack or in its upper part.

Let’s simulate the situation: when moving along the riverbed in winter, I (solo trip) find myself in wasteland, 2 meters high. Inside there is water, 0.5 meters deep. To get upstairs, I need to tie two prusiks together, take off my backpack, take off the cats and tie them to the backpack, tie the backpack with prusiks to myself, stand on the backpack, reach the top of the ice edge with an ice pick, clean the edge of poorly adhering ice, climb out from using an ice ax on the ice above and contriving to pull out a backpack behind you.The work is not easy, even if you have companions. Now let’s imagine how much water the backpack takes, and at a very low temperature. We answer the question – how will we sleep in a wet sleeping bag after that? You can easily spend the night without having a tent in winter and having a sleeping bag, but with the opposite presence, an incident will come out.

The same applies to summer hikes. With a difficult crossing, the backpack can hang out in the water for quite a long time. In case of prolonged rains, also the entire contents of the backpack, which are not packed in the seal, will simply be wet, and not slightly damp.

Also in any hikes and outings with an overnight stay in the pocket of a jacket (and not a backpack) or trousers of an emergency foil rescue blanket is a must!

A walker on the route must maintain an optimal temperature balance of his body. Since we are talking about cold, this is achieved by choosing and alternating layers of clothing, as well as the pace of movement. In cold weather, movement means life. If a person is well-fed, rested, not sick and has not accumulated cold fatigue, then in winter with a backpack in calm weather, you can go in light clothes.In practice, this is not always the case. The first thing to think about when picking up your pace in winter is no matter how you overheat. Overheating can easily be followed by reckoning – hypothermia. Both hypothermia and overheating take up a lot of energy, which is critical, since in the vast majority of cases we have a calorie deficit during a hike, which naturally leads to a further decrease in muscle mass and exhaustion. Also, overheating increases the consumption of water in the body and the leaching of salts, which is also not useful.

Accordingly, in order not to overheat, you need to take off your excess clothes on the way, which will also allow you to move more freely and faster. The second rule is to avoid moving at maximum pace for long periods of time. While driving in winter, it is undesirable for the walker to sweat. Therefore, the optimal is a kind of golden mean between the maximum pace and the speed that supports the schedule. If in some area a pedestrian strains and sweats, then you cannot immediately get up to a halt, you need to walk a little more to cool down.At the same time, during the march, ventilation pockets should be widely used, the zipper should be unzipped so that excess heat is quickly released from the inside, while at a halt and at the beginning of the movement, on the contrary, should be fastened.

In areas with deep snow, sometimes it makes sense to trail without backpacks, then return for them and walk with a load along an already normal trail. This gives a slight overtime, but significantly saves energy and reduces the risk of getting cold.

Passage of doubtful and dangerous sections should be carried out only in a relatively cooled state and fully fastened.This also applies to summer, for example, when crossing a log across a mountain river, since there is a very significant difference in what form you can fall into the river, hot and wet with sweat, when it is easy to stop your heart or catch pneumonia, or dry and cooled down. Also, you should not swim in mountain rivers and lakes at all, when the body can not withstand the temperature drop. In particular, on Khamar-Daban, on the Chertovy Vorota pass, a tourist who entered the pass from the side of the Utulik River died on the lake – his heart simply could not stand while swimming, although the water in the lake usually seems rather warm.

During windy weather, everything should be done so that you are not blown through. In winter, a mask is put on the face, on the torso and legs, if necessary, wind protection. In very severe frost and wind, the knees should be insulated by tying spare gloves to them with tape (preferably super tape), and put spare socks in the groin so as not to get cold. In winter, it is very convenient when there is a light warm jacket and a severe down jacket, and not one universal one. Walking in a thick, warm down jacket under a backpack is harmful both for a tourist (it overheats and restricts movement) and for a down jacket.At this moment, by the way, there is a light jacket on the same primaloft.

At a halt, according to the situation, you can throw on a light jacket, both in summer and in winter. But at the camp it is better to immediately warm up more seriously.

Preparing for the technical section, you need to very clearly select and put on clothes in accordance with the chosen tactics of passage. Example: you need to go through a frozen waterfall in three, while hanging 300 meters of handrails and having two ropes of 60 meters each. It is assumed that the most experienced participant will hang in front, the rest will go on zhumars, waiting for the hanging time at the stations.In this case, the backpack of the first participant will be lifted with a rope. The first participant should dress in such a way that the clothes allow making good swings with ice axes, and also do not interfere with screwing the ice screws and do not obstruct access to the equipment hung on the gazebo. At the same time, the knees must be insulated, since when organizing belay points, they will statically touch the ice for a long time. If there is water on the ice, then the pants must be waterproof, and the insulation of the knees must be hydrophobic. In turn, the rest of the participants will remain in a completely static state for half the time of work at the technical site, therefore they must be insulated to the maximum, based on the temperature and wind.Their clothes will practically not interfere with climbing the railing on the zhumar and insuring the leader, but they will be significantly less freezing at the same time.

Lagging hikes are a problem for most groups. As a result, the first participants freeze more than the lagging one, the lagging one is more physically exhausted, because he rests less, i.e. everyone has problems. The reasons for the delay can be different: incorrect weight distribution of backpacks, insufficient adaptability of the equipment, incorrect fit of the backpack, inability to use one’s equipment or its inadequacy to the route, insufficient physical training of the participant or his absent-mindedness.Most of these problems should be resolved before the hike, and not during the route. The leader is obliged to anticipate such situations and decide whether to take problem participants on the hike or solve problems that arise on the route. I must say that the second option, judging by the numerous and long-suffering experience, borders on idiocy. The only problem that can be solved in practice is the weight distribution of the backpack. That is, in any case, the products are debited first from women, then, in whole or in part, from the most physically weak men, then from the strongest participants.In advance, before the trip, you need to draw up an approximate schedule for writing off food and fuel from the participants, this will solve some of the problems and make the group more mobile.

For each hike, the leader sets conditions for the participants in terms of equipment and physical training. Participants must either agree with the requirements or not go hiking. At the same time, they must clearly be aware that there are no individual problems in a group.

During bad weather, movement is often the only option that does not complicate life.Standing in a cold rain or resting in the middle of a water spill can be unsafe for your health, as hypothermia is easy to get. At the same time, it is simply irrational to camp – the weather can be protracted, but it does not directly interfere with movement, since the passes or technical sections are not available in the near future. Also, in winter, a situation may arise when you need to have time to go through a difficult section before the approaching front of bad weather, or just run away from the blizzard down. In severe frosts, from 40 and below, making long halts is also dangerous.In all these cases, in order not to freeze, freeze and frostbitten, movement becomes survival. The walking time increases, the rest time decreases, and the running speed often increases. But – to make such jerks, the group must be well prepared both physically and in terms of equipment. Otherwise, the group loses time and may, at best, just freeze, and at worst, get into an accident or camp for the whole time of bad weather, without having time to slip through a dangerous section – for example, a steep high frozen waterfall in an extended canyon, which is not you stick around, although in good weather it just goes around the edge very neatly.

When driving in winter above the forest level for halts, it is advisable to choose places behind swells or depressions in the snow. At the same time, the presence of snow shovels and snow saws easily turns such slots into a comfortable, not blown-out space in five minutes, where the group can sit out not five minutes, but fifteen to twenty, having a good rest and drinking, if available, hot tea from thermos flasks.

The total rest time of the group per running day in winter is significantly less than in summer. The winter running day is short by default.As a result, there are great demands on the physical fitness of the group. If, for some reason, the group does not fit into the schedule, it is strictly forbidden to catch up with it, significantly increasing the total daily mileage. Those. if it was planned to walk 15 km that day, then it should not be 25. It is clear that in many winter hikes in the mountains the sleeping places are strictly regulated and if the group moves too slowly, it is tantamount to an emergency. Those. you can increase the running time, but you cannot increase the mileage.At the same time, given the inadmissibility of running at night in the absence of pronounced safe paths or roads, the group should make maximum use of daylight hours. In winter, for example, the group should go out on the route at the first rays of the sun (respectively, wake up at five o’clock in the morning), and the camp set up in the evening should be illuminated when the last guy of the tent is fastened with the extreme ray of the setting sun. It is forbidden to cross more than 30 km per day or travel in time over daylight hours, as destroying health, and in winter dangerous to life, as they can cause extreme fatigue and either freezing or severe injury.There are a great many examples of accidents in such situations, since the body is so tired that it turns off all internal security systems. A very vivid example, far from the only one of its kind: a group of students of the technical school in which I studied, made a ski trip. After a long day of work, one of the participants fell asleep next to the fire and rolled into it, receiving burns incompatible with life. Nobody took alcohol. The rest of the participants were so exhausted that they could not immediately provide assistance, as they noticed the incident too late – they were also asleep.

It has also been repeatedly observed that extremely exhausted and cold-stricken participants lose self-control and receive various injuries associated with distraction.

Wet areas and water during the hike are directly related to hypothermia. For this reason, it is strictly forbidden to wade mountain rivers barefoot, without socks and shoes, as well as long-term movement on water without them, and along mountain rivers without thermal underwear on the body. Thermal underwear and competent socks with boots allow you to move through the water for a long time without fear of cramps and hypothermia.

In the case of crossings through mountain rivers, when the first participant swims the river with a rope, and then works on belay, this same participant must cross in clothes, which, nevertheless, should not contribute to his drowning, and must also be carried on his back spare clothes in the sealed bag. Having crossed to the other side, he must secure the end and after that change dry, since the crossing of other participants can take a long time and the wet first number can get overcooled.When crossing the rest of the group, it makes sense to first of all drag the backpacks so that in the future the participants can change clothes or warm themselves immediately. It is clear that the packing of things in a backpack should be appropriate for the situation.

The situation is worse in winter. Having fallen into the water and getting wet through from the knees and higher in frosty or windy weather, it is impossible to move without the risk of frostbite. The behavior in this situation differs depending on the conditions and is chosen individually – drying and changing clothes with a fire; dressing up in a group, when the rest of the participants protect the wet from the wind; just active movement until wet clothes dry.When changing clothes, other members of the group are obliged to help the wet one, so that the process goes as quickly as possible, it even makes sense to often give the victim his own clothes, rather than waste time and look for his own in a backpack. A lone tourist finds himself in the least advantageous situation, for whom active movement is often the only way out. In fact, of course, the modern manufacturability of clothing allows a prepared participant to change clothes with the least chances of hypothermia – undressing to the second layer of thermal underwear and putting on dry clothes on top, and then start active movement.In all this there is only one cruel “but” – it can be very difficult and long for a frozen person to take off shoe covers and boots that have instantly risen with ice. In such situations, buckled boots are very comfortable, high, do not require shoe covers, hold the ankle well and have a removable liner. When dry, it takes more time to remove them than traditional boots; in wet and frozen ones, it is much shorter.

Alcohol has the ability to raise the internal temperature of the body, while significantly increasing the outflow of heat from the internal organs to the surface of the skin, as a result of which, a person who takes alcohol and is not in the heat at the same time – a warm hut, a heated tent or a heated sleeping bag – is simply freezes.Drinking alcohol in unfavorable temperature conditions or in any emergency situations is unacceptable.

The choice of a place to spend the night in winter and summer hikes can be radically different. For example, good winter camps can be damp in summer, while good summer camps can be covered with ice.

A little about summer. In terms of heat, you should definitely avoid spending the night on the saddles of passes or on ridges, where there is always a high risk of getting caught in frost, snow and stormy winds. It is also better not to get up for the night under the glacier without special need, it is better, if possible, to go a little lower and further, which will ensure a higher temperature at the bivouac.

The tent should always be supported on all guy lines. If the tent is with a skirt, then the skirt must either be reinforced with stones or covered with snow. The same rule applies to winter conditions. The camp must always be prepared for the worst weather.

Whether in summer or winter, when driving along the river, you should be careful not to get up on a low bank, as water can quickly rise in summer and ice in winter. Frost is very dangerous and if inexperienced tourists put up a tent on the ice of swamps, rivers or streams, the ice that has crawled out at night will almost always lead to the death of the entire group.

When equipping the camp, the tent site must be cleared of snow with shovels, as well as the campfire site. In the case of very deep snow, it makes sense to either set up a tent on a platform made of skis or brushwood, and make a fire on a net, or dig caves to spend the night. In some cases, you can simply trample the snow.

If in winter the tent is placed above the forest level, then it must be surrounded by a wall of snow bricks. If the camp is basic and lasts for several days, then the condition of the wall needs to be checked every day, updating it or re-installing it if it melted in the sun during the day.
In the forest zone, the fuel for the fire should be prepared in the morning in the evening, which will significantly speed up the breakfast preparation time and allow the team members to freeze less. In general, in winter, a campfire is necessary in the camp, as it removes cold fatigue, improves the digestibility of food, allows you to dry things and repair them.

Beginners usually try to warm up next to the fire in warm clothes and boots. The activity is not only meaningless, but also dangerous for clothes and shoes. When the camp is set up and the firewood is prepared, you should lay a rug next to the fire, sit down, take off your shoes and unbutton your clothes – in this case, the rest of the body and its perception of heat will be the best, and the liners or the boots themselves are much more convenient to dry.Also, everything should be dried and repaired before going to bed. If a participant is planning a long-term repair of equipment, then it is better to release him from camp work, giving him more time to repair. Drying of equipment parts without supervision is strictly forbidden. It is also forbidden to throw away equipment if its vapor is damaged. So, for example, I repeatedly observed how a novice who burned a mitten at the stake throws a second one there. Understanding comes the next day – even one is better than nothing.

When planning trips, whether summer or winter, overcrowding in tents should not be allowed. This leads to the fact that the extreme members of the group are freezing, as they are pressed into the edges of the tent, and their sleeping bags absorb moisture much faster. Saving weight on a tent is never worth the comfort of the participants’ sleep. The same applies to snow caves, where overcrowding is even more dangerous, especially if a blizzard begins.

The colder the sleeping conditions, the more time it takes to sleep, in which the sleeper will regain strength.The minimum time for sleep is for spending the night in a tent with a stove, where even 6-8 hours of sleep promotes good rest and prepares the body to fight the cold. In cold nights it takes from 9 to 14 hours, if the temperatures are constantly low, 25-45 below zero, and the hike is long, over a week. When planning a route, these figures should be taken into account, according to them, consider the approximate mileage that you can walk, and, accordingly, plan overnight places.

When spending the night in winter above the forest level, if you have the time and skill, it is worth making a hut out of snow.It is warmer in an igloo than in a tent without a stove, and it takes less time to collect in the morning. If there is no skill and time, then it is better to put up a tent. Snow burrows with a tent should not be done, since the sleeping bag in them dampens more.

The quality, quantity and timeliness of meals on the route are of great importance in the fight against the cold. It is impossible to survive without food in winter even with the most modern and technologically advanced equipment. You can lie in a sleeping bag, but if you have no energy in you, there will be nothing to warm it up.The fire will not help either. That is, if in the warm season, in the presence of water, you can go without food for a long time and at the same time somehow move, then in winter such an experiment is fatal in 1-3 days, depending on temperature, humidity and wind …

What are the axioms when calculating rations per route? The following rules should be adhered to:
In winter and in the off-season, there should be at least two hot meals a day. At the same time, a lunchtime snack must be accompanied by hot tea from thermos, at least 0.5 liters for each participant.Hot meals in the morning and in the evening are mandatory, while vegetable soup in a hot pot will provide more benefits than cold sausage and frozen chocolate washed down with cold water. The body needs to be served prepared food so that it does not waste its internal energy on preheating what has been swallowed. The thermos is definitely a survival equipment in cold weather.

The ration should not be less than 500 grams in the off-season, and not less than 550 grams in winter. It is clear that you can walk on a smaller ration.Here are just a decrease in the same fiber in a long hike will affect the work of the intestines and the tone of the body as a whole. In winter, the body spends a lot of energy on a hike – here you need to warm up, carry a backpack, and trail through the snow. As a result, an energy deficit in the body accumulates, which leads to exhaustion, loss of muscle (not fat) body mass, and a decrease in the physical parameters of the walker. If a ration of 500 grams can somehow, with a minimum deficit, provide a tourist with energy, then a ration of 400 grams is no longer there.We count for 15 days – the weight gain will be obtained with such a layout of 1.5 kg of products, excluding packaging. At the same time, the overall decrease in the functionality of the body can be greater than under those conditions when it carries these extra one and a half kilograms of weight. Well, and, we consider the calorie content, for the sake of interest: a difference of one hundred grams can give up to 500 kilocalories of a difference, which will not be superfluous, given that the arrival will not exceed 3000 calories at all its will, and the consumption can be up to 6000-7000 per day … The greater the deficit, the stronger you will feel the cold, and the more intense cold fatigue will accumulate.

A walker should always have chocolate (hematogen, energy bars), at least 100 grams, and matches in his pocket. In the event of an accident on the route, in case of loss of food for one reason or another, this chocolate can extend your life. Its presence is mandatory regardless of the time of the year and the quality and duration of the hike.

Regardless of the hike, a carbohydrate diet should be present for lunch – chocolate, hematogen, nuts. In winter, ascorbic acid is compulsory for lunch.Vitamin C increases the body’s ability to resist cold.

When assembling the ration, you should include in the diet foods that whet appetite, since under conditions of heavy loads, an organism that is not accustomed to them can simply go on strike. Raw onions, garlic, spices, hot sauce – in general, if you add them to food a little and without fanaticism, it will be wonderful and healthy.

When choosing a heat source – a fire or a burner – for cooking, one should be guided primarily by what will be the least costly for the body.For example, in cold windy weather in an open space in winter or rainy, damp weather in summer, it is more rational to use the burner, even if there is firewood. After all, instead of getting wet and freezing, you can cook in a tent and eat there.

Cold fatigue is the scourge of long winter hikes at low temperatures. The human body is not adapted to a long stay in harsh conditions without external heat. Being constantly in a state of stress, the body begins to get tired of constantly resisting the cold.This fatigue is called cold, and it tends to accumulate, like any other. As it accumulates, the body begins to resist low temperatures less intensely and to heat itself up. A person perceives the temperature significantly lower than it is, cannot warm up in a sleeping bag or put it in a compression bag in the morning, since his fingers simply do not obey him – the body minimizes their blood supply to provide warmth to the brain and internal organs. As a result, muscle fatigue increases significantly, the participant becomes twitchy and aggressive, in severe cases approaching a nervous breakdown.

The accumulation of cold fatigue should be reduced during the trek preparation stage. Quality food, quality equipment, proven on short outings, not a fanatical schedule that allows the group to sit around a campfire or simply allows more time to rest in a warm sleeping bag. Participants must be tempered and mentally prepared for low temperatures, and actively use campfires during the hike. When planning a hike, it will be very good if the path runs through the winter hut, where you can heat the stove.This will not only dry out the equipment, but also significantly restore the strength of the group.

As a rule, cold itself is rarely the main cause of death of a group or its individual members. He is often the final link in the chain of mistakes made by the group. If the group is unable to break this chain, then it naturally leads to death.

Tunkinskiye Goltsy, climbing Mount Three-headed. The first mistake is late access to the technical part of the route. Next up is a group member who is not feeling well.The next one is the leader and the group ignoring bad weather with strong wind and insufficient visibility. The next one is the unsatisfactory condition of the sick participant’s safety system. The next one is the disorganization of the group in an attempt to reach the sick participant who has fallen off and hung on the railing. As a result, the frustrated participant froze. Of the five main links of the chain, at least four could be broken and simply returned to the camp. Why didn’t the experimental group do it? They still cannot answer this question.

Mistakes are made by everyone and always, regardless of experience and rank. In principle, no hike without mistakes is possible, and the longer it is, the more severe the climate and the more difficult the terrain, the more these mistakes are. A good group blocks their accumulation and corrects single errors – this is normal and it should be. A poorly trained group and an inexperienced leader often make the same mistakes.

Modern clothing and equipment significantly, with proper preparation, increase the participants’ chances of survival.Any tourist should, at the stage of preparation for the trip, purposefully prepare himself for possible emergencies.

The more difficult the trip, the less chances that if one participant dies, others will not die. The price is also great for the mistake of one of the participants or his illness. However, it is often very difficult to make the right decision while on the route. One of the clearest examples of a women’s team dying while climbing Lenin Peak in 1974. One of the participants falls ill, and the group, apparently, decides to sit out in the tent.The raid storm tears the tent apart and the whole group freezes.
Another, already just a hypothetical example. When the backpack is ferried along the railing across the river, the backpack comes off and is carried away by the water. In the backpack there is a tent, cauldrons and a burner. Oops – as the protagonist of the movie “127 Hours” says. And before civilization, there is still a hundred kilometers of rugged terrain, half of which are above the forest level. The group does not have a tent, cooking kettles, burner, one sleeping bag and rug, one set of dry items.There is no way back, the weather is rainy, there is snow above the forest level. Survival begins, in which hypothermia can put an end. In very many cases, the cold puts a bold point, or even crosses on the participants or the whole group.

Let’s understand the situation. Well, it is clear that the backpack was drowned, although it is clear that it was stupid. But the question is, why did they pack the tent, the burner and the boilers in one backpack? Maybe there was still all the stew or all the crackers were? Oh, and all the cards are in the same place? Well, well …

And what was left in the pockets of those who were left without a backpack? A pack of chewing gum, some greasy candy? Welcome to the other world, man! Hmm, there is a knife, a life blanket, matches, your allergy pills, two sneakers, and you took your jacket out of your backpack and put it on yourself so that you, your beloved, would not be blown away by the wind from the river.Oh, did you find a mosquito nets in your jacket pocket? Then you can and should live, and thank yourself for being at least somehow prepared.

Conclusion: before the trip, the participants and the leader must weigh the many “ifs” and be prepared for them organizationally, functionally and psychologically. It is strictly forbidden to cut yourself in the equipment necessary for probable weather or possible emergency conditions. Many groups save on the weight of backpacks, eventually wasting their lives, instead of physically preparing and taking a suitable tent, snow shovels and a saw for each with them in the mountains in winter, and not one set per group, five ice screws instead of two and 60 meters rope instead of a twenty-meter stub.

It is worth mentioning the preparation only briefly, since a lot has been written in the profile books on this part.

It is not enough to have the necessary equipment for the route. Each team member must be ready for the route, and his readiness must be multifaceted.

Let’s take a closer look at these faces. They cannot be distributed according to the principle of priority, since they are complementary and it cannot be said that only the physical capabilities of a person should be enough for the winter route.

Undoubtedly, the participant must physically prepare for the hike. Among beginners, a common mistake is when a person purchases equipment, which is often expensive, from his point of view, and sincerely believes that this is enough, not realizing that equipment is only a tool that does not free the tourist from hard work.

It is difficult to reduce the physical training of a participant to some standards. Despite the general endurance and strength, I have to prepare intensively for some hikes, since the same difference in the weight of backpacks between 20 and 30 kilograms is very significant.The training requirements must be set by the leader, and the participants must meet before the hike. The principle of “maybe I’ll get there” is categorically not allowed. He is simply criminal and henceforth such a participant should be excluded from any exits as unreliable.

It is also a common opinion that if a participant was or is engaged in any kind of sports, it means that he does not need training for the hike. Far from it. During a half-year break in training, a person loses most of his muscle endurance.If he did not go on difficult hikes for three years and did not prepare for them, then this means that he has lost both his physical capabilities and most of his hiking experience. If a person, for example, is engaged in boxing, then this does not mean at all that he can easily walk 20 km over rough terrain with a heavy backpack on his shoulders. In different sports, the requirements are different and the athlete tries to adapt to them, which often mutually excludes different training programs.

In general, a tourist usually needs general endurance and a quick recovery of forces against its background.In what ways, and what program they are achieved, it does not matter.

Body hardening is not only a physical component that allows the body to optimize heat balance and increase resistance to cold, but also a psychological component that removes the tourist’s fear of the cold. These two components are equivalent. Many tourists intimidate themselves before the hike, assuring themselves of their “freezing”. This fear often takes on a self-perceived reality.

Quenching is not only and not so much dousing with cold water.This allows the body to tolerate only short-term exposure to cold. A cool bath and the habit of walking barefoot in the apartment are more effective. A minimum of clothing in winter makes the body to be constantly in good shape. Skiing in winter, on weekends, or just going out overnight turns the barrier between the body and the cold into a wall.

A member of the group must be able to work with all the equipment that will be used in the planned trip. Unfortunately, this is violated all the time.For example, often only one team member, usually the leader, can hang the track. What will happen in case of a breakdown or illness on the route is not considered before the hike. There are other options as well. Once I went on a ski expedition as a participant, where we had a girl who got up on skis for the first time. Very well physically fit. The result – while the whole team was working on the ascent, we sat out with her for three days at the base camp, since we did not manage to get to the intermediate camp before dark.As a result, she was sent down from the pass, accompanied by me.

Inability to use equipment, both group and your own, leads either to the occurrence of an accident, or to its aggravation, if one has already occurred. As already mentioned, in winter, any emergency situation attracts the danger of hypothermia to you, like a crow’s dump. Well, what, for example, is it worth, if you are the owner of a gasoline burner and cook on it yourself, tell others how to use it and carry instructions with it – just in case?

The same applies to rope handling.The group should definitely train together before the route, or arrange a training session before climbing on the terrain. This saves time of technical work and reduces the risk of hypothermia in the future, not to mention the fact that the work itself on the ground will then be more comfortable.

It is also unacceptable to ignore items on the list of equipment issued before the hike. Example: during the hike, one of the participants, as it turned out already during the hike, did not take sunglasses with him, explaining that his chameleon glasses already protect him.As a result, I picked up bunnies from the snow and complained of sore eyes.

Another mistake is to take equipment with you according to the principle, so that it was not a pity to throw it away. Somehow I got a participant with gaiters taken according to this approach. As a result, the gaiters did not fully fulfill their function, and darned every two days. The reason is an unsuccessful homemade design. They did not give any protection from the snow.

Another component of preparation for hiking and cold weather is gaining experience in non-standard situations. Simulation of accidents and rescue operations should be constantly present in training.It so happens that experienced tourists with long hiking experience simply forget the skills acquired at the beginning of their formation. Favorable hikes without accidents, lack of specialized training, turn them into arrogant participants and unreliable leaders.

You are going on a harsh winter hike. Are you ready for emergency situations? Try, out of interest as a group, to simulate a situation when one of the team members falls through the ice in winter. Before imitation, a question and analysis should be carried out – are they ready at all for being soaked at a low temperature.If you are not ready, it is better not to go on a harsh winter hike with such probabilities. If you are ready, then – he is standing in a thirty-degree frost in front of you and, in fact, you need to warm him. The degree of imitation can vary. Ideally, if there is a warm house nearby, it should be doused with two or three buckets of cold water over its head. If in ten minutes the wet participant is not dressed in dry spare clothes of his (namely his) comrades, sitting next to a large fire, with a mug of hot tea from a thermos, warmed up and happy with life, then the group is simply not ready even for such a simple scenario in the forest zone.This experiment is cruel, but fully reflects the degree of similarity of the collective and the trust between the members of the group.

Instead of concluding this section, I would like to highlight the main idea of ​​the text, its purpose – to push the thoughts of tourists who are preparing for difficult hikes in the right direction. The idea to write it arose after one of the campaigns, where I saw in the group members, on the one hand, the fear of the cold, on the other, their misunderstanding and rejection of the rules of protection from it. I see two reasons for this – hiking in warm regions and too little of the experience presented by many that allows many self-confident tourists to say “I’m cool because I went hiking and I know what I’m doing.”Unfortunately, such situations do not end well in all teams.

Cold nights.

In this section, the term “cold overnight” refers to any overnight stay without a tent and outdoors. Accordingly, the given principles of choosing a place and setting up a camp may differ from the principles generally accepted by tourists for setting up a camp with a tent.

There are usually three reasons for a cold overnight stay in the modern world filled with high-tech products for every taste and budget: a planned hike without a tent, a training exit and an emergency situation.There is also military service, but there are nuances that are not included in the scope of this material.

Let’s define what exactly the tent gives us on the hike. A lightweight temporary house carried in a backpack provides us with shelter from precipitation, wind and midges, and if there is a stove and the tent is suitable for it, it also gives warmth, especially when the number of participants in the hike allows us to be on duty all night and heat the stove constantly, maintaining a relatively constant comfortable temperature.
Equally important is the feeling of protection from the external environment that a good tent gives.This has been inherent in man since ancient times, when his settlement was practically the only almost safe place among the harsh and cruel world filled with predators. And this psychological factor is inherent not only to humans: almost all animals that have their own lair, in case of danger or illness, rush to hide in a familiar and relatively protected place. Man, like many animals, is a territorial being. A tent is an island of personal territory in a hostile world.

While it is still possible to do without psychological protection and warmth on the route, protection from precipitation and gnat can be critical.You can almost always protect yourself from the wind in the forest zone, but the ubiquitous mosquito may not give you a good night’s sleep. Here, of course, much depends on the region: if there is not a lot of gnat in the western part of the country, then in Siberia, in the North, in the Far East it is orders of magnitude more and the issue of protection from gnat is very acute there.

The issue with precipitation is also twofold. In summer, shelter can be found or made from rain in forested areas, and a drop in temperature is not life threatening. Rain at near-zero temperatures or sleet, even with an awning, can pose a threat to the tourist.In the mountains above the forest level, in the steppes, it can also be hard without a tent.

In winter everything is simpler: there is no gnat. Precipitation is most often the same. Here I call the winter time of the year in which there is a stable negative temperature, not necessarily with the presence of snow. Without a tent in winter, they usually go for two or three days.

The principles of choosing a camp site converge to several axioms. First of all, it must be protected from the wind. Naturally, wherever possible. It couldn’t be easier in the forest.The camp is set up right there. The forest itself is a good windbreak. Further among the necessary companions of the bivouac are fuel and water. If you go on a stove or gas, then you, accordingly, do not depend on the fuel potential of the area. If on wood, then well, somewhere near your camp there should be enough twigs for cooking.

In winter, on short hikes, in the presence of equipment, a bonfire, in addition to cooking, is needed more psychologically. Still, it is more pleasant to wield a spoon next to some kind of heat source (different from your partner) than shaking in a sleeping bag and spilling soup there with an unsteady hand.A rug spread next to the fire and removed boots provide good comfort, and even some synergy. In the presence of snow, the water near the camp is also not critical. Otherwise, you will be tied to specific sources of ice or water.

When looking for a strategic location for your sleeping bag, in the next queue, after assessing the comfort, you should pay attention to the upper tier, and regardless of whether you are walking with a tent or not. Very often tourists do not look up at the camp.Fate, of course, does not punish them so often, through one, but this is already enough. So, the top tier: what can fall on you from above? Most often these are sushinas waiting in the wings and a potential suicide bomber, coupled with a strong gust of wind. Such a danger should be eliminated in advance by ruthless drinking. Rockfalls are dangerous in the mountains and on rocky areas. Always visually assess the potential hazard from above before setting up a camp. If you didn’t find anything, then turn your gaze down: blocks of all shapes and sizes (and even colors) can lie on the camp.From somewhere they appeared there! Think about it. Especially often the latter is not done by tourists in the mountains, who are ready to spend the night on the first flat area they come across.

A few words about how to arrange equipment during cold nights. Most often, all things that are not involved in the sleep process are packed into a backpack, a storm cape is put on it and it is placed next to the owner, if necessary, playing the role of a windproof wall. The shoes are placed with the sole upward to prevent rain, snow or dew from getting inside.The essentials are kept inside the boots. The ax can be placed side by side on the ground, and the saw is hung or packed in a backpack. Fuel in the morning should be collected in the evening, since it is better to warm up frozen shoes and a sleeping bag quickly than running barefoot on tiptoe in search of firewood. It will also be useful to cover the prepared firewood with a piece of polyethylene or something similar, if such a possibility exists. Once, in the off-season on Khingan, I fell into a swamp at night, after which I got out on a dry place, spread my sleeping set and fell asleep.The frost hit at night, and in the morning I could not put on my shoes, clothes, or roll up my sleeping bag. It took me two and a half hours to collect firewood naked in the swamp and warm my things. Lesson: firewood should be collected in advance, and wet clothes, if drying is impossible, should not be thrown on the ground – firstly, in the morning it will not be hollowed out in the winter (it will simply be dirty in summer), and secondly, it will not really freeze (it will not dry out in summer), so that it is better to hang it in the bushes.

Consider several ways to spend the night, which are mentioned in the literature and on the lips of tourists.The snow hut (igloo) and the snow yurt dominate such stories. However, it is not possible to build such shelters everywhere and not for everyone. This primarily depends on the nature of the snow cover. It is not so much important how deep it is, how important is how it is cut into bricks. In most of the territory of our country, snow is not suitable for the construction of such a hut, since it is too loose. However, since there is still a dependence on temperature and humidity, as well as on the effects of the wind, under certain conditions and at some time of the year, you can try to assemble a hut, if only, I repeat, the building material turned out.Now about the building itself. If you have not trained very well in building such huts, then you should not go on winter travel with the intention of building an igloo there for the night. At best, you risk not getting enough sleep. Of course, when traveling in the Far North and in the mountains in winter, the igloo is often the most effective shelter from rain and wind, but at the same time the builder must be able to build his architectural work at the level of automatism.

In large layers of snow, snow deposits, it is most often more expedient, from the point of view of physical costs, to dig snow caves.If it is hardly possible to cut snow bricks without an appropriate entrenching tool (a hacksaw or a machete), then you can dig a snow cave using your hands or hard inserts from an anatomical backpack, or even better using an avalanche shovel. At the same time, it is not difficult to get a cave of exactly the right size and be comfortable enough to accommodate there. However, like the construction of snow huts, cave digging should be done carefully. Not to learn how to dig in general, but to learn how to do it better in particular and to have at least two dozen nights of experience.

With an insufficient thickness of the snow cover and a firm intention to still create a snow cave, you can proceed as follows: heat up the snow in one pile, wait two or three until it freezes and dig a cave in it. As a rule, such a cave for one person is obtained without problems.
The created snow cave must be marked on the surface in such a way that you do not accidentally bring it down. This is especially true for caves for several people. Collapse can lead to both subsequent freezing and carbon dioxide poisoning due to volume reduction.Continuous or intermittent ventilation must also be provided to prevent poisoning. Better to let it be colder, but with air.

Further about bonfires. The most popular among tourists is the Nodya bonfire. What it is, every tourist can imagine. What can I say here? Firstly, with a good sleeping set, a campfire is not needed for spending the night. Secondly, the node must be folded correctly. Just spending the night next to a fire from randomly thrown branches will not give you warmth.Thirdly, the firewood must also be correct, that is, it must not be charred with the subsequent cessation of combustion and must not scatter sparks in all directions. You also need to find the right approach for each type of wood. Why is all this being said? Moreover, it is advisable to make a node or a fire from three logs for educational purposes, so that later, in an emergency, it would be possible to simply remain alive without any heroism.

Another way to spend the night with a fire is to move one and lie down in its place. Disadvantages – the sleeping set will be dirty after that, and at the same time there will not be enough heat for the whole night in the harsh winter.This method is rarely used in hiking, the same node is much more popular. However, it is sometimes the most effective way to stay warm overnight. It happens that you need to sleep on the bare frozen ground, blown by all the winds, which almost do not leave snow in a sinful place. At the same time, the vegetation around is scarce, but firewood can be found. In such conditions, in the frost and wind, no good sleeping set will save, be it at least three times made of eider down. It’s also good if there are two foams, and not one shortened carpet.Here we make a hot fire for an hour or two, then we move it and put on this place to sleep. A semblance of a windproof wall is made of a backpack and things, and the sleeping bag is covered on top with an awning, improvised or real. Especially effective will be a lifeguard’s blanket, of which, if any, they take two and use scotch tape to make an awning out of it (then you can cover a backpack and get something like a bivy). Most often it turns out that the first third of the night we cannot sleep because of the heat, the second we sleep sweetly, and the third we shake from the cold, aggravated by high humidity.However, at the same time, we not only stay alive, but also get enough sleep. And all this can be done even with a jacket, army blanket and rug. However, if you have spruce branches, you can do without a rug.

In the summer, the situation worsens with rains and gnaw, and improves with loyal temperature factors. Without a tent, you can walk wherever there are few or no blood-sucking animals, and rainfall does not fall every day. Everything is simpler here: if there is water and wood, then he threw the rug and sleep. A lush tree crown or an awning, as well as a waterproof cover for a sleeping bag, saves from drizzle.On hikes and outings with an overnight stay in the habitats of a mosquito, midges and biting midges, they go only for educational purposes, due to a drunken pastime, due to inexperience and by combined teams of maniacs of sadomasochists.
Nevertheless, life can turn to you and me in the most diverse places. Once in the Siberian taiga, I met a deserter soldier. Then I was surprised how he managed to spend the night with such an abundance of gnats. The soldier said: “I choose a penny with a bush in the forest, I bend it, breaking it to the ground, it will look like a nest.Then I settle many small branches with leaves on it, and I get a bed. I use a layer of spruce branches as a blanket, button up my clothes tightly, wrap my head with a clean footcloth and lie face down (so that the gnat does not reach). On a rainy night, I lie down under a spruce forest – it protects well from the rain. ”

If you sleep in a hut in the summer, you can use a gnat smoker. It is usually made from grass and cones stitched in a tin can or chock with a depression. Before spending the night, they smoke the hut with smoke, and then put the smokestack at the entrance, so that the smoke collects in the upper part of the hut, and clean, non-smoky air remains below.Here, the main thing is to experiment – in case of inaccurate handling, you can breathe yourself.

A separate issue is the organization of an overnight stay in a swampy area. Moreover, it may not necessarily be a swamp, but the same tundra, flooded with water after the rains. Here you need to turn to the local indigenous population for experience – to make something like bunks out of thin trees. We put three thick short logs at a distance of a meter from each other, on them we lay long thin trunks in one row.It is better to tie the outer trunks to the lower logs so that the structure does not move apart. That is, in principle, you need to create a platform for sleeping, raised from the ground.

Now about the training cold nights. They can be divided into two types. The first is a pre-planned training trip, in which the experience of sleeping at night in a specific setting is acquired. In the second case, tourists in a regular hike run in a way of spending the night, which is different from the traditional one. On study trips, participants prepare in advance for the upcoming nights.Such trips are necessary to understand the principles that allow you to survive in a variety of conditions.
What experience is needed for cold nights and how should it be acquired?

– Construction of snow huts. In conditions of freezing temperatures and dense snow, igloos are the most optimal and effective way to preserve their own heat, and therefore life. Few people succeed in building such a hut the first time, and it takes too much time. Those. first of all, you need to learn how to build it, and in the shortest possible time.Learning begins with small, “toy” igloos. Gradually, the size is brought to normal, residential. It should be noted that it is faster to build two igloos for four people each than one for eight personnel. It is more convenient to build, of course, together, but you need to be able to do it alone. Detailed instructions for the construction of shelters in general and snow huts in particular are described in special literature.
– Snow caves and half caves. The principles of making such caves should be learned, as they save time compared to building a snow hut.Snow structures can often combine hut and cave elements, especially if an awning is used. It is better to practice different building methods. It is not so much the construction technique that is more important here, as overcoming the fear of spending the night in such conditions. The latter is very important for cold nights. A person who is afraid will not be able to competently build and choose a shelter for himself and will not be able to sleep effectively.
– Construction of node-type bonfires. It is very difficult to build such a fire correctly the first time.Experience is needed. And you need to gain experience.
– Organization of overnight stays in the rain.
– Overnights with a minimum of equipment. For example, without a sleeping bag. You should prepare very well for such overnight stays. You should conduct constant self-control and have at first the equipment and comrades for safety net. In summer, the latter condition is less critical than in winter.

Training trips should be conducted regularly. It’s like doing physical education: if you don’t constantly do it, the effect disappears.It is not enough just to go a couple of times to the nearest forest and organize a cold camp there. Such trips should be carried out regularly, they bring not only experience, but, with the right approach, benefit the body, strengthening and tempering both body and spirit, and also contribute to strengthening the psychological climate of the group and identifying persons unwanted for trips.

In emergency situations, a person is obliged to fight for his existence, including at night, while sleeping. First of all, with such overnight stays, you should attend to the layer between the body and the ground.This can be spruce branches, dense bushes, moss, grass, plastic bottles, and some improvised items. It is undesirable to lie down simply in clothes on the ground or snow – it will damp. Better to make the flooring from the material at hand. Having a good knife or entrenching tool can solve many problems. It is also advisable to try to spend the night in a shock of hay at least several times at different times of the year.

On the one hand, in our time the need for cold overnight stays practically disappears, on the other hand, in difficult hikes and expeditions, even for a narrow contingent, there is always the possibility of an emergency overnight stay.For those who really need it, field training situations must be simulated dozens of times. Only thanks to this, it is possible to survive with a minimum of equipment, being injured (and in emergency situations, injury is a constant companion), without food and maps. Let the skeptics read the accident statistics. Accidents on the routes are lightning fast and come at the most unexpected time, much less often they are predicted in time and even less often measures are taken according to forecasts. It is impossible to take into account absolutely everything, but you need to be prepared for the unexpected.Then any marching trouble will simply seem like a small, slightly annoying misunderstanding that does not have serious consequences.

so that everyone who planned to get through the taiga, to a house in the village, please not only read but also draw serious conclusions.

signs and first aid / City news / Moscow website

Snow, ice and gusty wind – real winter has come to Moscow. Last night the temperature in the city dropped to minus 12-14 degrees.During the day, the thermometer will show eight to ten degrees of frost.

From the middle of the week, frosts will decline, but the temperature will remain below normal by a few degrees. In such weather, there is a high risk of hypothermia and frostbite. Hypothermia can cause both local and general cold injury, and deep frostbite can lead to disability.

Frostbite: main risks

The feet most often suffer from the cold, followed by the hands, followed by the nose, ears and cheeks.The body loses heat more quickly in cold water, as well as if a person is wearing wet clothes or shoes. The likelihood of frostbite is higher in strong winds and during a snowstorm, as well as in those who wear tight shoes or do not change their position for a long time. Contribute to cold injury and vascular diseases, neuritis, previous frostbite, fatigue, exhaustion, hunger, infectious diseases. People who are intoxicated often get frostbite.

What are the symptoms of frostbite?

The first manifestations of frostbite are easy to miss.The temperature of the skin decreases, it turns pale, loses sensitivity, but a tingling or burning sensation may be felt. While a person is in the cold, it is very difficult to find out the extent of the damage. It is determined after rewarming.

If the skin warms up during warming, and sensitivity is restored, this means that the cold injury is superficial. Pain and numbness are characteristic of deep frostbite.

In terms of the depth of the lesion, injuries are divided into four types. The first two are considered superficial, the rest are deep.First-degree frostbite affects the surface layers of the skin. After warming, pale skin may turn red or even become cyanotic, and after a while it may peel off. Within a week, her condition returns to normal.

In a second-degree injury, blisters are formed on the skin, filled with liquid, most often light. After about a week, they subside, and after another two to three weeks, the skin is completely restored.

In the third degree, the bubbles are often filled with pink or red liquid, and their bottom is blue-purple.After the rejection of the dead tissue, wounds are formed. With the fourth degree of frostbite, the affected part of the body swells sharply, becomes dark, and gangrene may develop.

First aid

The victim should be moved from the cold to a warm, windless place, take off his wet clothes, and wrap him in a blanket. You can warm the frostbitten area with the help of heat-insulating materials, for example, cotton-gauze dressings with a layer of compress paper or plastic wrap, if this is not at hand – with the help of foam rubber, blankets, and so on.

Hot drinks and a warm bath will help keep you warm. It is imperative to heat the water in it gradually. They start with a temperature of plus 17-18 degrees and for about an hour the water is heated to plus 36-37 degrees.

But rubbing frostbitten skin with ice and snow is not worth it. There is a great risk of overcooling and injuring her even more.

Hypothermia, or hypothermia

Hypothermia can develop if you stay in the cold for a long time. This is a state of the body in which the temperature of the internal organs drops below 35 degrees.It can be determined by measuring the rectal temperature.

Signs of hypothermia

Hypothermia is accompanied by a general depression of consciousness, up to coma; muscle tremors may appear. Lowering the temperature below 30 degrees leads to the cessation of tremors and the appearance of muscle rigidity, reminiscent of rigor mortis. There are three successive stages in the development of general cold injury: mild, moderate and severe.

With an easy stage, the internal body temperature drops below 35 degrees.At first, a person feels chills, breathing and pulse become more frequent, blood pressure rises slightly, goose bumps appear. Then, due to a decrease in the temperature of internal organs, their functions are inhibited: the frequency of respiration and heartbeat decreases, a person feels lethargy, apathy, drowsiness, and muscle weakness. Coordination of movement, vision may be disturbed, there are hallucinations.

In the middle stage of frostbite, the temperature of internal organs drops to about 30 degrees. The victim’s skin turns pale (sometimes it takes on a marble shade), the heart rate decreases, consciousness is confused, speech and movement are disturbed, there is no facial expression, reflexes are weakened, a stupor occurs.

At a severe stage, the temperature of internal organs drops below 30 degrees, all the basic vital functions of the body are inhibited. A person may develop cramps and increased muscle tone. It becomes difficult to straighten arms and legs, the victim is unconscious, reflexes weaken. A person’s heart rate and pressure decrease, breathing becomes less frequent; incontinence of urine and feces is possible. With a further drop in temperature, an imaginary death may occur, in which breathing, pulse and blood pressure are barely perceptible, and reflexes are not detected.If the internal body temperature drops to 25-22 degrees, the person may die.

After the body warms up, the reactive period begins. As a rule, lethargy, fatigue, drowsiness, stiffness of movements, and headache are noted. With severe hypothermia, edema of internal organs can develop: the brain, lungs and others. Thrombosis may occur, and cardiovascular activity may also be disturbed, acute renal failure and a disorder of the nervous system may develop. In the future, inflammation of the internal organs may appear: pneumonia, bronchitis, nephritis and others.

First aid for hypothermia

The victim needs help to restore normal body temperature. The easiest and safest method is warm clothing, blankets, and a warm room. It is very important to keep your head covered because it gives off 30 percent of the heat. Electric blankets can be used. Only the chest should be warmed, otherwise complications are possible.

Hot drinks and a warm bath help well (gradually heat up to a temperature no higher than plus 36 degrees).In the bath, you can gently rub the body with soft washcloths. With a mild degree of cooling, only warming is sufficient; with an average and severe degree, the victim needs medical attention.

Just got up and was already tired: how to distinguish ordinary laziness from a serious illness – Society

That laziness is bad, a person learns about the same when he learns to brush his teeth or lace up his shoes. And in the school of idleness, they even declare war. Suffice it to recall that proverbs like “Laziness is worse than illness” were printed in bold on the flyleaf of the primer.

Modern doctors have something to answer both folk wisdom and those who consider laziness to be the fruit of pampering, improper upbringing and bad heredity. According to doctors, laziness is a disease, or rather, its symptom.

The lot of workaholics

The obsessive squeak of an alarm clock, coffee on the run, the whole day in an armchair in front of a computer … Go to foreign language courses, sign up for a gym or a swimming pool, meet with college friends – all these plans are put off again and again for later.

What is it: banal laziness and lack of willpower? Most probably not. Constant lethargy, lack of motivation, irritability and absent-mindedness can be symptoms of chronic fatigue syndrome.

Surprisingly, a disease that causes overwhelming laziness in a person most often affects workaholics.

On this topic

Chronic fatigue syndrome was first described by American doctors in the mid-eighties of the XX century after they examined thousands of patients who complained of constant lethargy, irritability and apathy.It turned out that almost all of them lived in big cities and worked a lot.

“From a medical point of view, laziness is a completely natural reaction of our body. If a person constantly works to the limit of his strength, the brain tries to protect itself from a stressful situation. And the unwillingness to do something can slow down a workaholic,” says therapist Elena Tikhomirova …

Chronic Fatigue Syndrome is like a speed limiter in a car. Exceeded the allowed – and a signal begins to beep in the cabin, warning that moving faster is life-threatening.

When the “speed” of our life is exceeded, the body produces stress hormones – adrenaline, norepinephrine and cortisol. In extreme situations, these substances help a person quickly navigate and escape from danger: they speed up the pulse, increase blood pressure, and stimulate the brain. That is why a person begins to think faster, becomes more resilient, can withstand cold, hunger and even blood loss. But for our benefit, these substances work only in situations that really threaten life and health.Usually this is a short period of time, and when the danger is left behind, relaxation sets in.

From a medical point of view, laziness is a completely natural reaction of our body. If a person is constantly working to the limit of his strength, the brain tries to protect itself from a stressful situation. And just unwillingness to do something can slow down a workaholic

Elena Tikhomirova


If there is no relaxation, a constant high level of stress hormones causes hypertension, insomnia, disturbances in the functioning of the heart and stomach, and rapid aging of the skin.After several months of living in such a rhythm, the body’s resources are depleted, and the person feels sluggish, overwhelmed, indifferent to everything, that is, lazy. But he has to keep racing.

“It happens that a person over-stimulates himself:“ I should be better than others, ”“ I should receive more than others, ”“ to be better than others, you have to try harder, ”says psychologist Pavel Volzhenkov. As a result, a person disturbs the balance of work and rest, drives himself to such an extent that he leaves three to four hours to sleep. “

Working at this pace is like trying to run a marathon at a sprinter’s pace. Meanwhile, the main rule of long-distance runners is the ability to distribute forces. Therefore, doctors recommend that workaholics reduce workload by at least twenty percent in order to really achieve success at work and at the same time stay healthy.

“Why are there only 24 hours in a day?”

Another major cause of constant fatigue and apathy is chronic lack of sleep.Workaholics often neglect sleep and either work at night or do things they cannot do during the day: meet friends, go shopping or go to the movies.

But in the evening, the brain begins to produce the hormone melatonin, which makes you want to sleep. Melatonin is both our doctor and worker: while we sleep, it restores strength, strengthens the immune system, slows down the aging of the body.

On this topic

It stands out most actively from twelve to three in the morning.With a lack of sleep, the production of melatonin decreases, the body’s biorhythms go astray, which is why we cannot sleep, even if we are deadly tired, and in the morning we hardly wake up and feel overwhelmed.

“Nature created a person so that his brain would rest at night and work during the day,” says cardiologist and therapist Nizami Guliyev, “in a dream, the brain processes and assimilates the information it received during the day, as if making room for a new one. but at the same time it works in the usual intensive rhythm, the brain is simply not able to quickly process information.It’s like a computer with a small amount of memory, which is forced to download a heavy video. He will do it very slowly. “

After a night spent on the next project, the body will strive for rest and resist the receipt of new information. Working in this state is perceived as a traumatic factor from which one must hide. So, the surging laziness and desire to do anything, just not work, is quite natural.

Manager’s disease

Lack of physical activity can also cause laziness.When we spend the whole day at sedentary work and our body is, in fact, inactive, the number of impulses coming from the muscles to the nervous system decreases, the blood is poorly saturated with oxygen. As a result, the efficiency of the brain decreases, memory and concentration of attention deteriorate. And we feel lethargy, weakness and … unwillingness to work.

If a person does not sleep enough, but at the same time works in the usual intensive rhythm, the brain is simply not able to quickly process information. It’s like a computer with a small amount of memory, which is forced to download a heavy video.He will do it very slowly

Nizami Guliyev


“If you regularly suffer from laziness, try to devote at least an hour a day to physical activity,” advises international-class fitness trainer Yekaterina Vasilenko, “work with a trainer, and if this is not possible, go one stop earlier from home and walk a couple kilometers on foot. Get a dog and walk with it for at least forty minutes in the morning and evening. ”

Scientists have shown that regular and moderate physical activity improves short-term memory and concentration by almost thirty percent.So companies that provide their employees with preferential fitness passes are actually making them more efficient.

“… similar to the English spleen, in short: Russian blues”

And what if a person does not have health problems, he gets enough sleep, moves enough, does not work hard, and still strives for idleness with all his heart? It turns out that he is the very bummer? Not at all. Most likely, such a person is simply doing not his own business or experiencing psychological stress.

On this topic

“Laziness is a label that people sometimes hang on each other when they do not try to figure out the reasons why a person does not want to perform this or that action,” explains psychologist Pavel Volzhenkov. something that he does not like. For example, if a person goes to work that does not bring him satisfaction. ”

Laziness as a result of satiety with life or hothouse upbringing, according to psychologists, is extremely rare.

More often it is a shield with which a person closes himself from the need to make an important decision for himself. After all, it will entail changes in the established life, uncertainty and, possibly, failure, which people always try to avoid.

So, if you are periodically lazy, do not rush to scold yourself, but rather try to figure out whether you like what you are doing. And, having decided on changes, do not forget what Confucius said: “Choose a job you like, and you will not work a single day in your life.”Probably the best guide for lazy people is hard to come up with.

Karina Saltykova

90,000 about the benefits and harms of cold for the human body

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2022 1 0

Most experts believe that cold has a positive effect on the human body, and low temperatures with a short exposure can actually strengthen the body, harden it.

YEREVAN, 28 Jan – Sputnik. The topic of the impact of cold on the human body does not cease to excite both ordinary people and scientists all over the world. A lot of research has been done on this topic, many scientific papers and publications have been written. However, opinions about the dangers and benefits of cold for the body are often divided 50 to 50.

Most experts believe that cold has a positive effect on the human body, and low temperatures, with a short exposure, can actually strengthen the body, harden it.

According to scientists, biological tissues are preserved much better in cold conditions. It is difficult to dispute this statement, since everyone knows the results of excavations in permafrost regions. But, the conditions in which tissues are stored in the cold, as in the case of mammoths, are simply incompatible with life, since this requires very low temperatures.

Cold, as you know, is a strong stress for an unprepared organism, and hardening should take place under the supervision of a doctor.

What happens to the brain when sugar is consumed: the discovery of scientists >>

Its effect on tissues can be very negative: at low temperatures (15-30 degrees below zero), due to a drop of about 40 degrees, the skin may suffer in the first place – cracking or reddening.

Low temperatures also affect the work of the heart, affect the pressure. As you know, in the cold, the arteries begin to harden, narrow, the flow of blood and oxygen decreases.Therefore, in the cold season, the risk of cardiovascular diseases increases markedly.

Moreover, long-term constant exposure to cold on the body can lead to colds, ARVI, since at this time the body’s immunity is weakened. Therefore, you should definitely dress for the weather and try not to overcool.

For those who are on all kinds of diets and dream of losing weight, the following statement will be extremely pleasant. For three hours in the frost in the fresh air, more than 200 kcal are burned.To maintain the required body temperature, the body begins to spend energy to generate heat, as a result of which calories are burned.

How does dark chocolate affect the body: scientists conducted a study >>

For those with oily skin, frosty weather also has its advantages. In winter, it becomes normal due to the effect of low temperatures on it.

Walking in cold weather relieves stress and fatigue. Remember at least the advice “keep your head in the cold.”And even with bruises and cuts, we always apply a cold one, since at low temperatures the sensitivity of the nerve endings disappears, and signals of pain cease to come to the brain.

Summing up all the pros and cons, you can only repeat the well-known words from your favorite song: “Nature has no bad weather” and enjoy the fresh winter frost. But we should not forget that everything is fine within reasonable limits, so, temper, but do not overdo it.

How to get rid of a sore throat in the summer

Summer is a great time to enjoy warm weather, walks with family and friends.Cold and bad weather are finally behind. Then why do you or your child still have a sore throat? Summer is a time of relaxation in the sun, not torment from a sore throat.

Don’t worry, this unpleasant symptom haunts many.

As a rule, discomfort in the throat is the result of viral infections, but some of them may be caused by allergies.

Cold and allergy symptoms can have similar symptoms. If you have signs of congestion, coughing, fatigue and headaches, most likely you have a cold or allergy, but only a doctor can make an accurate diagnosis.

So what do you do when dust, dehydration and allergies take over you and your family? We examined in detail the causes of sore throat in the summer. Also included are practical tips for overcoming them.

Causes of summer colds

The chances of catching a cold in summer are lower than in winter. But still there is a possibility.

The following factors may be the reasons:

  • Stress from travel or family vacations can lead to possible illness.In large crowds, you and your children can be ideal candidates for a throat infection. If the sore throat is only at an early stage, it may worsen 1 .
  • Air conditioning is used much more frequently during hot summer months than at other times of the year. Cold is an ideal environment for the growth of various pathogens, such as viruses. 2 If you are on vacation in a hotel room, pay attention to the cleanliness of the air conditioner. If it is dusty, then you will breathe dirty air, which will badly affect the condition of the throat.

Allergies and sore throat in summer

Symptoms of allergies and colds are very similar. Even doctors admit that they are very difficult to tell apart. Both ailments present with similar symptoms, such as runny nose, watery eyes, congestion, coughing, fatigue, sneezing, and headaches. However, often with allergies, a more severe runny nose, sneezing is manifested. 3 On the other hand, sore throat is a more common symptom with colds than with allergies. And while pain and fever are symptoms of a severe cold, they are very unlikely to be symptoms of an allergy. 4

How to treat a sore throat in the summer

Regardless of the season, the treatments are pretty much the same. Learn tips to help relieve sore throat and sore throat.

  1. Have Strepsils® tablets for sore throat ready with vitamin C. This remedy helps to relieve pain and a feeling of hoarseness in the throat, it works in 5 minutes. 1 Vitamin C in its composition regulates immunological reactions and increases the body’s resistance to infections.Suitable for adults and children from 6 years old.
  2. Take a warm shower and inhale the steamed air. This will help you relax.
  3. Get enough sleep. Recommended sleep time per day:
  • Adults (18+): 7-9 hours
  • Teenagers (14-17): 8-10 hours
  • Children (6-13): 9-11 hours
  • Preschoolers (3-5): 10-13 hours
  • Toddlers (1-2): 11-14 hours
  • Infant (4-11 months): 12-15 hours
  • Newborns (0-3 months): 14-17 hours 5
  • Monitor your fluid intake.Remember to drink water throughout the day.
  • If symptoms persist, seek medical attention.
  • Monitor the air filtration system. Dust can be one of the main causes of summer allergies. Keep your home clean, clean your air conditioner regularly!
  • Now you know how to get rid of tickling and sore throat. Don’t let discomfort ruin your summer! Check out our range of sore throat medications.

    90,000 If your child complains of fatigue

    How to recognize this condition and help to cope with it?

    Until recently, it was believed that chronic fatigue is the scourge of only adults exposed to stress at work.Today, the diagnosis of chronic fatigue syndrome has begun to overtake children, especially of school age. Alas, their life is also full of stress, emotional stress, instability in relations with parents and peers.

    When does chronic fatigue appear?

    Chronic fatigue syndrome for many does not sound like a diagnosis, but as an “excuse”. But in fact, psychologists and neurologists have long recognized the seriousness of this condition, although it cannot be called a disease in the full sense of the word.Chronic fatigue syndrome can be characterized as a low resistance of the nervous system to psycho-emotional and physical overload.

    Most often, this condition occurs after a period of overwork, both nervous and physical. In other words, chronic fatigue can occur both after a strong experience of stress, and as a result of a busy rhythm of life, for which the child was not ready. Overwork, one way or another, is faced by every modern schoolchild: lessons, additional activities, TV, computer, telephone, relationships with peers – all this easily exceeds the permissible limits of the load on the child’s psyche.Although sometimes the cause of chronic fatigue may lie in a common cold disease that weakened the child’s body and left such a “side effect”.

    Signs of chronic fatigue

    Chronic fatigue syndrome is manifested not only by apathy and lethargy. He has other signs that noticeably interfere with learning normally and just enjoying life.

    • Sleep disturbance. You should be wary if the child suddenly began to fall asleep longer than usual, wake up more often in the middle of the night, or, conversely, constantly want to sleep.
    • Loss of appetite. Chronic fatigue often leads to the fact that the child refuses to eat, it suddenly becomes completely unappetizing for him, even when it comes to the once favorite dishes.
    • Changeable mood. Moodiness and tearfulness during the day can change dramatically to irritability or apathy.
    • Physical ailment, especially headache and increased sensitivity to weather changes.
    • Decreased performance and concentration.

    Unfortunately, parents sometimes do not understand what caused such changes in the child’s behavior, and begin to get angry at his “bad character”, exacerbating the situation. Although it is in such cases, it is necessary to seek advice from a neurologist or a child psychologist in order to analyze the symptoms and get the recommendations of a competent specialist.

    Fight against chronic fatigue

    There are very simple techniques that will work effectively if parents use them regularly.First of all, you need to establish the child’s sleep schedule. Track the time when the baby goes to bed.

    In case he falls asleep badly, stay with him so that the childish feeling of anxiety recedes. Even on weekends, do not allow your child to stay up late watching the TV, as this indulgence can shift the entire sleep schedule.

    Encourage daily walks in the fresh air. Do not forbid your child to meet with friends on the playground after school because of the need to do homework, because if he is not feeling well, he will still not be able to study well.

    Be sure to unload your extra-curriculum schedule. Discuss with your child and choose the ones that he really needs and those that can be donated. If possible, make a convenient schedule so that there is at least one completely free weekday. At the same time, it is advisable to add something new to the routine of everyday affairs – it is this move that helps to cope with chronic fatigue. Watching TV again can be replaced by watching a movie in a cinema, walking in a green area, or in an amusement park.

    Reduce the time your child spends at the computer and TV. Constant eye strain, coupled with a continuous flow of information, does not allow a normal rest, although the kid himself is sure that computer games are a way to relax.

    Do not force your child to do the same thing for a long time without interruption. After 45 minutes of doing your homework, you need at least a 15-minute break. Correct organization of work and rest, reduction of stress, positive emotions and pleasant impressions will have a positive effect on the children’s nervous system.Chronic fatigue syndrome can be overcome, the main thing is to provide children with help and support on time.

    Pediatrician of the OKDC Anna Pogorelova

    90,000 Diabetes Complications | OneTouch®

    What are the complications of diabetes?


    Diabetes can lead to complications that affect many organs and systems in the body, including the brain, eyes, heart, kidneys and nerves. Diabetic complications can be long term (chronic) or short term (acute).

    Long-term complications occur when blood glucose levels are poorly controlled and remain high for an extended period of time. Keeping your blood glucose levels as close to normal as possible, and having regular checkups and blood tests, can help slow or prevent long-term complications of diabetes. These include the following:

    Eye diseases

    Many people with diabetes develop some degree of eye disease (retinopathy) caused by damage to the blood vessels supplying the retina as a result of high blood glucose levels over a period of time.This can lead to impaired vision or blindness. Diabetic eye disease can go far enough before it affects vision, so it is important that people with diabetes get their eyes checked regularly. Early diagnosis and treatment can prevent blindness.

    Healthy oral health

    People with diabetes have a higher risk of developing gum disease (periodontitis) than people without diabetes. Periodontitis can cause tooth decay and loss and can lead to other complications such as heart disease.Poorly controlled blood glucose levels can lead to infections and diseases of the mouth. Good oral hygiene can help improve overall glucose control, prevent tooth decay and loss, and other diabetic complications.

    Cardiovascular diseases

    Cardiovascular disease is the leading cause of disability and death in people with diabetes. These include angina (chest pain or discomfort), myocardial infarction (heart attack), stroke, peripheral arterial disease (decreased blood flow to the limbs), and congestive heart failure (heart weakness leading to fluid buildup in the lungs and other tissues organism).The factors that increase the risk of developing cardiovascular disease are high blood pressure, high cholesterol and high blood glucose levels (typical in diabetes).

    Kidney disease

    Diabetes is one of the leading causes of chronic (long-term) kidney disease. It is caused by damage to small blood vessels in the kidneys (a condition called nephropathy) that results in reduced efficiency or complete kidney failure. Controlling blood glucose and blood pressure significantly reduces the risk of diabetic kidney disease.

    Complications during pregnancy

    Women with any type of diabetes are at risk of several problems during pregnancy: high glucose levels can affect fetal development and put mother and baby at risk of complications during childbirth. High blood glucose levels during pregnancy can lead to changes in the development of the fetus – it can grow oversize and become overweight. This can lead to injury to the baby and mother during childbirth, and to low blood glucose levels (hypoglycemia) in the baby after birth.Babies who are exposed to high blood glucose levels in the womb also have a greater risk of developing type 2 diabetes later in life. Careful monitoring of blood glucose levels during pregnancy is very important. For women diagnosed with diabetes before pregnancy, glucose monitoring and proper control should be started before pregnancy.

    Nerve damage

    Nerve damage (neuropathy) is the result of prolonged exposure to high blood glucose levels and can damage any nerve in the body.The most common form is peripheral neuropathy, which mainly affects sensory nerves in the legs. This condition can lead to pain, tingling, and numbness. As a result of neuropathy, injuries can go unnoticed, leading to ulcers, serious infections, and, in some cases, can lead to amputations. Nerve damage can also lead to erectile dysfunction (sexual problems in men), as well as problems with digestion, urination, and a number of other bodily functions.

    Legs affection

    In addition to nerve damage, people with diabetes may have problems with poor circulation in the legs, which results from damage to the blood vessels. These problems increase the risk of developing ulcers, infections, and can lead to amputation. The risk of amputation in people with diabetes can be up to 20 times higher than in those without the disease. However, proper glucose control can prevent a significant proportion of amputations. Because of these risks, it is very important for people with diabetes to regularly check their feet for problems at an early stage.

    Short term or acute complications can be associated with low or high blood glucose levels. Complications include hypoglycemia and related crises such as seizures, as well as crises associated with hyperglycemia such as diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA) and hyperosmolar hyperglycemic state (HHS). They often come on suddenly and can be life threatening. Fortunately, they can be prevented or you can provide quick help if you and your loved ones know how to act in these cases.

    Hypoglycemia: low blood sugar


    Hypoglycemia means low blood glucose. It is sometimes called “hypo” and can occur at any time of the day or night. Hypoglycemia occurs when your body doesn’t have enough glucose to use for energy. This usually happens when your blood glucose is 3.9 mmol / L or lower.

    Signs and symptoms of low blood sugar include:

    • Sudden, extremely intense hunger
    • Headache
    • Shiver
    • Weakness or fatigue
    • Cold sweat
    • Rapid heartbeat
    • Anxiety or nervousness
    • Irritability

    What to do if you have low blood sugar:

    • Check your blood sugar to make sure it is 3.9 mmol / L or lower.
    • Apply rule 15/155:
      • Take 15 g of a fast-acting carbohydrate that contains glucose, for example: a small glass of fruit juice, 3-4 teaspoons (1 tablespoon) of sugar diluted in water, glucose gel or glucose tablets (see label to determine how much corresponds to 15 g).
      • Wait 15 minutes and check your blood sugar again.
      • If your blood sugar remains low:
        • Continue to alternate 15g glucose and wait 15 minutes before retesting your blood sugar.Do this until it reaches acceptable performance.
    • Avoid skipping your next meal to avoid triggering a drop in blood sugar again.
    • If symptoms persist, contact your healthcare professional.

    If untreated, hypoglycemia can progress to a change in mental state, causing extreme confusion or loss of consciousness and, in some cases, seizures. It is helpful to know your symptoms of hypoglycemia and to be ready to take action quickly, especially if you are taking insulin.Your family and friends are encouraged to know your signs of low blood sugar and how to help you in an emergency if you are unable to take action on your own. Your doctor can help teach your family and friends how to help with diabetes emergencies and how to prepare for them.

    Hyperglycemia: high blood glucose


    Blood glucose rises when diet, activity level and therapy are poorly balanced: too much food, insufficient physical activity or drug dose.It can also happen when you are not feeling well or under stress. High blood glucose levels increase the risk of infection. And the infection can lead to an even higher rise in blood glucose levels.

    Signs of hyperglycemia

    Hyperglycemia, or elevated blood glucose, is the main symptom of diabetes, so the symptoms of hyperglycemia and diabetes are the same. These include features such as:

    • Frequent urination
    • Excessive thirst and / or hunger
    • Dry mouth
    • Sudden weight loss
    • Blurred vision
    • Lack of energy and extreme fatigue

    What to do if you have high blood sugar:

    • Call your doctor to see if a change in therapy is needed.
    • Measure your blood glucose regularly.
    • Drink plenty of water to flush excess blood sugar in your urine.
    • Practice moderate physical activity.
    • Reduce portions of food for the following meals.

    Diabetic ketoacidosis 4 (DKA) occurs when high levels of ketones accumulate in the blood. Ketones are chemicals that are produced when there is a lack of insulin when the body breaks down fats for energy.This is because the body cannot use glucose with little or no insulin and is forced to burn fat. High levels of ketones in the blood act like a poison.

    Signs and symptoms of this condition include shortness of breath, rapid breathing or shortness of breath with fruity breath, nausea, vomiting, ketones in the urine or blood, and high blood glucose levels.

    Diabetic ketoacidosis is a life-threatening condition that requires immediate treatment.His treatment is usually carried out in a hospital. If you suspect you have DKA, you need to call an ambulance or go to the nearest hospital.

    You can prevent this condition by doing a simple urinalysis for ketones using a test kit available from pharmacies. Avoid physical activity if your blood glucose is over 240 mg / dL and ketone bodies are present in your urine. Talk to your doctor about further monitoring your blood glucose and ketone levels if you find ketones in your urine.

    Hyperosmolar hyperglycemic state (HGS) 3 is an emergency condition commonly seen in older people with very high blood glucose levels. It usually develops in the presence of an underlying medical condition, such as pneumonia, urinary tract infection, or other infection, or when the diabetes treatment plan is violated.

    HGS causes severe dehydration and, if left untreated, can lead to seizures, coma, and even death.Other signs and symptoms include increased urination, intense thirst, fever, and changes in vision.

    HGS is a threatening condition that requires immediate treatment. You should call an ambulance or go to the nearest hospital.

    To prevent this condition from developing, check your blood glucose regularly and do this more often when you are sick. Talk to your doctor about when and how often you should check your glucose levels while you are sick.

    How can you prevent complications of diabetes?


    If poorly managed, diabetes can lead to complications, both short-term (acute) and long-term (chronic). Well-planned diabetes management can help prevent diabetes-related health problems. This may include

    • Blood glucose control
    • Proper blood pressure and cholesterol control
    • Regular lab tests, eye examinations by an ophthalmologist and doctor’s foot exams for early warning of problems
    • Exploring everything there is to know about how to best manage diabetes, including the following:
      • Healthy food choices
      • Active lifestyle
      • Taking medication as prescribed by your doctor
      • Routine blood glucose measurement
      • Knowing how to prevent diabetes emergencies or provide quick help.

    2 IDF Diabetes Atlas (Edition 8) (2017). International Diabetes Federation: Brussels, Belgium. Online version May 5, 2018 at http://diabetesatlas.org/IDF_Diabetes_Atlas_8e_interactive_EN/

    3 American Diabetes Association. (ADA) Standards of Medical Care in Diabetes – 2018. Diabetes Care 2018; 41, Suppl. 1. Online version May 6, 2018 at http://care.diabetesjournals.org/content/diacare/suppl/2017/12/08/41.Supplement_1.DC1 / DC_41_S1_Combined.pdf

    4 American Diabetes Association. (ADA) – DKA and Ketones. Online version dated May 7, 2018 at http://www.diabetes.org/living-with-diabetes/complications/ketoacidosis-dka.html

    5 MedlinePlus. 15/15 Rule. National Institute of Health (NIH) /U.S. Library of Medicine. Bethesda, MD. Online version dated 23 May 2018 at https://medlineplus.gov/ency/imagepages/19815.htm