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Flu, Cold or Allergies? Know the Symptoms

Connect Healthy Tips Flu, Cold or Allergies? Know the Symptoms

The season for sniffles is in full swing. But, before you run to the store and buy medicine to treat a cold, make sure you know the cause of your symptoms. Differentiating between a flu, cold or allergies can be difficult because they have similar symptoms.

Seasonal Flu Symptoms

The flu usually begins quickly. The first symptoms are a fever between 102 and 106°F. (An adult usually has a lower fever than a child.)

Other common symptoms include:

  • Body aches
  • Chills
  • Dizziness
  • Flushed face
  • Headache
  • Lack of energy
  • Nausea and vomiting
  • Extreme fatigue, exhaustion and weakness
  • Chest discomfort and cough

Between day 2 and day 4 of the illness, the fever and “whole body” symptoms begin to fade.

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Then breathing symptoms begin to increase. The symptom is usually not a dry cough. Most people also develop a sore throat and headache. Runny nose and sneezing are common. It is a clear, watery nasal discharge.

These symptoms (except the cough) usually go away in 4 – 7 days. Sometimes, the fever returns. The cough and feeling tired may last for weeks. Some people may not feel like eating.

The flu can make asthma, breathing problems, and other long-term illnesses worse.

The Common Cold Symptoms

The common cold is the most common upper respiratory tract infection. More than 200 different viruses can cause colds. Symptoms usually develop 1 – 3 days after being exposed to the virus.

  • It nearly always starts rapidly with throat irritation and stuffiness in the nose.
  • Within hours, full-blown cold symptoms usually develop, which can include sneezing, mild sore throat, fever, minor headaches, muscle aches, and coughing.
  • Fever is low-grade or absent. In small children, however, fever may be as high as 103 °F for 1 or 2 days. The fever should go down after that time, and be back to normal by the 5th day.
  • Nasal discharge is usually clear and runny the first 1 – 3 days. It then thickens and becomes yellow to greenish.
  • The sore throat is usually mild and lasts only about a day. A runny nose usually lasts 2 – 7 days, although coughing and nasal discharge can persist for more than 2 weeks.
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Allergy Symptoms

The following are just a few allergy symptoms you could experience.

  • No fever
  • Breathing problems
  • Burning, tearing or itchy eyes
  • Conjunctivitis (red, swollen eyes)
  • Coughing
  • Headache
  • Itching of the nose, mouth, throat, skin or any other area
  • Runny nose
  • Sore throat
  • Wheezing

If you think that you are suffering from allergies, a cold or flu, then make an appointment to see your doctor. If you need a doctor, let us help you find one. Your physician may perform allergy tests and prescribe medications to help you deal with your symptoms. People who become very sick with the flu may want to see a health care provider. People who are at high risk for flu complications may also want to see a doctor if they get the flu.

Know the Difference Between a Cold and the Flu | News



A sudden onset of any of the following:

  • Fever lasting 3-4 days about 102-104°

  • Sore throat

  • Headache

  • Runny or stuffy nose

  • Cough

  • Chills

  • Muscle or body aches

  • Fatigue (tiredness)

  • Shortness of breath or difficulty breathing

  • Some people may have vomiting and diarrhea, and is more common in children


  • Stay home except to get medical care.

  • Contact your health care provider right away if you are at high risk, antiviral drugs may be a treatment option.

  • Drink plenty of fluids, dehydration can increase a fever.

  • Get plenty of rest.

  • Take over-the-counter pain relievers. For children, ask your health care provider for the correct type and dose for your child’s age and weight.

  • Use a cool mist vaporizer or take a hot, steamy shower.

  • Isolate at home until your fever is gone for at least 24 hours, except to get medical care.

  • Wear a face covering around other people.

When to see a physician

  • If you are at high risk of flu complications, including young children, adults 65 years of age and older, pregnant women or have a medical condition such as asthma, diabetes and heart disease.

  • If you develop shortness of breath, painful breathing, ear pain, facial pain or a bad sore throat.

  • If you get better, then get worse again.



A gradual onset of symptoms of any of the following that last about 1-2 weeks:

  • Low-grade fever (above 98.6° F but lower than 100.4° F)

  • Sore throat

  • Headache

  • Runny or stuffy nose

  • Dry cough or wet cough without wheezing or rapid breathing

  • Mild general body aches

  • Red eyes

  • Sneezing


  • Drink plenty of fluids to stay hydrated.

  • Get plenty of rest.

  • Use over-the-counter saline nasal drops and sprays for nose congestion.

  • Take over-the-counter pain relievers. For children, ask your health care provider for the correct type and dose for your child’s age and weight.

  • Drink warm liquids to soothe and ease congestion.

  • Honey may help coughs in adults and children who are one year or older.

When to see a physician

  • If you have signs of pneumonia, bronchitis or other upper respiratory complications, including increased coughing, difficulty breathing, high fever, ear pain, facial pain or chest pain.

  • If you have symptoms that continue beyond one or two weeks.



One or more of the following symptoms may appear 2-14 days after exposure, with the average being 5 days:

  • Fever (100°F or higher)

  • Sore throat

  • Headache

  • Runny or stuffy nose

  • Cough

  • Chills

  • Muscle or body aches

  • Severe fatigue (tiredness)

  • Shortness of breath/chest tightness (for those under 12 years old – increased work to breathe)

  • Loss of taste or smell

For children under 12 years old, symptoms may include:

  • Nausea or vomiting

  • Diarrhea

  • Poor feeding/appetite

  • Plus at least one respiratory symptom


  • Stay home except to get medical care.

  • If symptoms get worse, contact your health care provider immediately.

  • Drink plenty of fluids, dehydration can increase a fever.

  • Get plenty of rest.

  • Take over-the-counter pain relievers. For children, ask your health care provider for the correct type and dose for your child’s age and weight.

  • Isolate in a specific room and away from other people at home. If possible, use a separate bathroom.

  • Wear a face covering around other people.

  • Stay in touch with your health care provider. Call before you go in for medical care.

When to see a physician

If you think you or your child may have been exposed to COVID-19 or have symptoms, contact your health care provider. If you or your child is showing any of these signs, seek emergency medical care immediately:

  • Trouble breathing

  • Persistent pain or pressure in the chest

  • New confusion

  • Inability to wake or stay awake

  • Bluish lips or face

Strep Throat


Strep throat is an infection caused by bacteria and the following symptoms usually start very quickly:

  • Fever

  • Sore throat

  • Headache

  • Swollen glands in the neck

  • Red and swollen tonsils, sometimes with white patches or streaks of pus

  • Tiny, red spots on the roof of the mouth (the soft or hard palate)

  • Some people develop a rash

  • Some people may have stomach pain, nausea or vomiting, and is more common in children


  • If you think you or your child have strep throat do not attempt home treatment, contact your health care provider immediately.

  • A simple rapid strep test or throat culture from a clinic can determine if group A strep is the cause.

  • Health care providers treat strep throat with antibiotics. Complete all prescribed medications in full.

  • Take over-the-counter pain relievers to ease the pain. For children, ask your health care provider for the correct type and dose for your child’s age and weight.

  • Gargle with saltwater to help relieve pain.

  • Sip warm beverages, cold beverages and frozen treats to help relieve pain.

When to see a physician

  • If your child has symptoms of strep throat, especially if someone in your family or in your child’s school has recently had a strep infection.

  • When you or your child develop any of the symptoms associated with strep throat (see above).

Respiratory Syncytial Virus (RSV)


The following symptoms can appear 2 to 8 days after contact with RSV:

  • High fever (can be low-grade over age 3)

  • Sore throat (typical from age 3 – adult)

  • Headache

  • Stuffy or runny nose

  • Severe cough and/or wheezing*

  • Shortness of breath or very fast rate of breathing*

  • Bluish color of the lips or fingernails*

  • Lethargy, irritability or listlessness*

  • Lack of appetite/poor feeding

  • Apnea*

*typical for infants younger than age 3


  • Drink plenty of fluids

  • Use a cool mist vaporizer

  • Use saline nose drops

  • Use non-aspirin fever medicine

  • Wash hands frequently/avoid touching face/eyes

  • Avoid public areas during RSV outbreaks

  • Get plenty of rest

When to see a physician

Your child should see a physician if they:

  • Have moderate difficulty breathing indicated by breathing 40-60 times per minute

  • Tire quickly during feeding/loss of appetite

  • Are struggling to breathe or wheezing

  • Have an unusual color. Skin becomes slightly gray or lacelike purple and pale while tongue, gums and lips remain pink.

  • Are excessively tired and lack appetite

  • Are less than 3 months old and have a fever greater than 100.4°

  • Show signs of dehydration

Body aches? What to do for this common flu and COVID-19 symptom

During the fall and winter seasons, infectious diseases begin to emerge such as strep throat, influenza, rhinovirus, adenovirus, the common cold and, this year, COVID-19. Viral infections like the flu can cause muscle soreness called myalgias, often referred to as “body aches.” Myalgias are a result of the body working to heal itself. Other causes of myalgias include vitamin and mineral deficiencies such as vitamin D and potassium.

The good news is that body aches — like many other symptoms of these common viruses — can often be treated at home with the right over the counter medications and a little self-care.

Here are the do’s and don’ts of managing body aches.

What to do for body aches

OTC pain relievers

If you become ill and experience body aches, you should seek medical attention by first calling your doctor. They will often recommend over the counter pain relief such as acetaminophen or nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs). Acetaminophen and NSAIDs like ibuprofen can help relieve headaches, achiness, fever, ear pain, muscle and joint pain.

However, salicylates like aspirin should be avoided in children under the age of 19 because of the association with a serious illness called Reye’s syndrome.

If you’re unsure which or how much medication to take, always consult your doctor. You should also check with your doctor before taking NSAIDs if you have a history of stomach problems, diseases of the heart, liver or kidney, or if you’re taking a blood thinner.

Related: What to expect while recovering from COVID-19

Herbal products

You may also consider herbal products to help relieve body aches and other symptoms caused by the flu and other viruses. Over the counter supplements containing the roots of pelargonium sidoides and the extract of black elderberry (Sambucus fructi) have been evaluated for the management of upper respiratory tract symptoms. Black elderberry can be taken as a syrup, gummy or oral supplement.

Take care of your body

In order for your body to fully recover, make sure you get plenty of rest. Use this opportunity to take it slow and easy. It’s also important to stay hydrated when you are ill, so be sure and drink a lot of fluids.

Manage other symptoms

Body aches are often accompanied by other symptoms like fever, chills, headache, sore throat or cough, and the combined effects of these symptoms can leave you feeling miserable. Talk to your doctor about ways to manage any other symptoms you’re experiencing in addition to body aches.

Related: Fever 101: What to do and when to worry

What not to do for body aches


COVID-19, the flu and the common cold are viruses. Antibiotics are only used to treat bacteria and therefore will not work to cure a virus. In fact, treatment with antibiotics for uncomplicated upper respiratory tract infections can actually cause more harm than benefit.

It is best to get tested for influenza, COVID-19 and strep throat before considering the need for an antibiotic. If you test positive for influenza, you may be prescribed an anti-viral medication if detected within 48 hours of symptom onset. However, if bacterial strep throat is detected, antibiotics can be effective.


OTC antihistamines are used for the treatment of seasonal allergies but have no role in treating viral illnesses that cause body aches. These sedating antihistamines may have small symptomatic benefit to help with sleep, but taking them won’t help your body aches go away any faster.

These home remedies can be helpful but if you do get sick, be sure and talk to your primary care doctor about what treatment methods are right to manage your body aches and other symptoms.

Find a doctor near you or get virtual care from the comfort of home.

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Rheumatic Fever | Cedars-Sinai

Not what you’re looking for?

What is rheumatic fever?

Rheumatic fever is a complication of a strep throat. Fighting off the strep infection can cause other parts of the body to develop swelling or inflammation. This can happen even to those parts of the body that aren’t directly infected by the virus.

One common and potentially dangerous effect of rheumatic fever is damage to the valves of the heart. This can lead to narrowed or leaky heart valves. The mitral (or bicuspid) valve, which permits blood to flow from the left atrium to the left ventricle of the heart, is affected most often. The aortic valve is frequently affected. The tricuspid and pulmonic valves are rarely affected.

What causes rheumatic fever?

It is not yet known what causes rheumatic fever. It appears that when some people’s bodies fight off a strep throat infection, other parts of the body develop inflammation (swelling and tenderness).

Research has focused on whether this is an abnormal response by the immune system to the antigens produced by some types of streptococcal bacteria. The possibility that some people have a genetic disposition to have this response is also being studied.

What are the risk factors for rheumatic fever?

Your risk of developing rheumatic fever is greater if you:

  • Are between the ages of 6 and 15 years
  • Are a woman. The disease is twice as common in women as it is in men.
  • Are in a situation where you have a greater chance of being exposed to streptococcus infections, such as in a developing country where there is not enough food, overcrowding and poverty.
  • Have had previous rheumatic fever or evidence of rheumatic heart disease.

While it is relatively rare in the United States, there have been outbreaks over the last 20 years that tended to occur in white, middle-class suburban neighborhoods or in rural areas. Additionally, more aggressive strains of streptococci appear to be returning to the United States.

What are the symptoms of rheumatic fever?

Rheumatic fever develops only after a person has had a strep infection, which causes symptoms such as:

  • Fever
  • Headache
  • Muscle aches
  • Red and swollen tonsils
  • Sore throat

If you have a sore throat and fever for more than 24 hours or have a severe sore throat without much fever or other cold symptoms — especially if you’ve been exposed to someone with a strep infection — you should see your doctor. Rheumatic fever is easier to prevent than treat.

Prompt treatment of a strep infection can prevent the development of rheumatic fever. In more than half of all cases, rheumatic fever may affect the heart valves (rheumatic carditis) and interfere with blood flow through the heart.

Even without treatment, though, only about three people out of every 10 who have a strep throat infection develop rheumatic fever. The signs of rheumatic fever usually appear about five weeks after the strep infection.

Symptoms of rheumatic fever are divided into major and minor. A doctor will make a diagnosis of rheumatic fever if:

  • Two major signs are present, or
  • One major and two minor signs are present in person who has had a strep infection

The major symptoms are:

  • Inflammation (swelling) of your heart. About half the time people have a first attack of rheumatic fever, they develop this. If this happens, you may feel weak or short of breath, or have chest pain. A physical examination or a test such as an electrocardiogram or chest X-ray may also indicate inflammation of the heart. The inflammation may not lead to permanent damage, but it can lead to scarring of the heart valves and damage severe enough to cause heart failure. Sometimes the damage isn’t diagnosed until years after the rheumatic fever has gone away.
  • Pain that moves from joint to joint. This can cause painful swelling, redness and a feeling of heat.
  • A lack of coordination or uncontrollable jerky movements of your arms, legs and face. Your handwriting may become worse, for example. This symptom is known as chorea, Sydenham’s chorea, rheumatic chorea or St. Vitus’ dance. About one out of every 10 people who have rheumatic fever develops this. It usually disappears in a few weeks or months.
  • Pink or faint red rashy patches that don’t itch on your skin.
  • Lumps under the skin, even if the rash isn’t there.

The minor symptoms include:

  • A blood test indicating inflammation
  • Abnormal heartbeat on an electrocardiogram
  • Fever
  • Heart murmurs that hadn’t been present before
  • Joint pain without inflammation

How is rheumatic fever diagnosed?

No single test can confirm a diagnosis of rheumatic fever.

It is important that your doctor make sure that your symptoms aren’t caused by gout, sickle cell anemia, leukemia, embolic bacterial endocarditis, drug reactions or arthritis, all of which can have symptoms similar to those of rheumatic fever.

Your doctor will usually do a physical examination and take your medical history. During the exam, the doctor will look for achy, painful joints, swelling, rashes or lumps on your skin and shortness of breath. They will check your heart for murmurs that weren’t there before.

If the heart is involved, it is important that your doctor distinguish whether the symptoms you are experiencing are caused by rheumatic carditis instead of birth defects of the heart that also cause heart murmurs. Additionally, juvenile rheumatoid arthritis can sometimes begin suddenly and affect the heart in ways similar to that of rheumatic fever.

An electrocardiogram (EKG) may show abnormal heart rhythms.

Because a diagnosis of rheumatic fever requires evidence that you have had a recent strep infection, your doctor may order a blood test to check for antibodies to streptococcal bacteria.

How is rheumatic fever treated?

Treatment will vary depending on the symptoms, how severe they are and whether there is damage to the heart. Generally, treatment consists of getting rid of any remaining strep bacteria and treating the symptoms.

Treatment may include:

  • Limiting your activity to manage joint pain, chorea or symptoms of heart failure.
  • Pain relievers such as codeine or nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDS) such as aspirin to relieve mild joint pain. More aggressive pain relievers may be needed if the pain is severe.
  • NSAIDs such as aspirin to control inflammation if you have carditis.
  • Corticosteroids such as prednisone for severe carditis, especially if it is associated with symptoms of heart failure.
  • Antibiotics such as penicillin to assure that no streptococcal bacteria are left behind. It may be necessary to take antibiotics for years to prevent another attack of rheumatic fever. Without this precaution, additional attacks of rheumatic fever are common for three to five years after the first infection.

People who develop valve disease will need to take antibiotics before having dental work, oral surgery or surgery involving the chest and lungs, the intestines or the genital or urinary tracts.

Key points

  • Rheumatic fever is a complication of a strep throat. About three people out of every 10 who have a strep throat infection develop rheumatic fever.
  • One common and potentially dangerous effect of rheumatic fever is damage to the valves of the heart.
  • No single test can confirm a diagnosis of rheumatic fever.
  • Generally, treatment consists of getting rid of any remaining strep bacteria and treating the symptoms.

Next steps

Tips to help you get the most from a visit to your healthcare provider:

  • Know the reason for your visit and what you want to happen.
  • Before your visit, write down questions you want answered.
  • Bring someone with you to help you ask questions and remember what your provider tells you.
  • At the visit, write down the name of a new diagnosis, and any new medicines, treatments, or tests. Also write down any new instructions your provider gives you.
  • Know why a new medicine or treatment is prescribed, and how it will help you. Also know what the side effects are.
  • Ask if your condition can be treated in other ways.
  • Know why a test or procedure is recommended and what the results could mean.
  • Know what to expect if you do not take the medicine or have the test or procedure.
  • If you have a follow-up appointment, write down the date, time, and purpose for that visit.
  • Know how you can contact your provider if you have questions.

© 2000-2021 The StayWell Company, LLC. All rights reserved. This information is not intended as a substitute for professional medical care. Always follow your healthcare professional’s instructions.

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Flu (influenza) – Better Health Channel

What is the flu (influenza)?

The flu (or influenza) is a highly contagious viral infection of the respiratory tract that can cause severe illness and life-threatening complications (including pneumonia). It affects people of all ages. The flu is spread by contact with fluids from coughs and sneezes that contain the flu virus.

It is estimated that flu contributes to more than 3,300 deaths in Australia each year.

Even healthy people can sometimes die from the flu. For vulnerable Victorians, like young children, the elderly, pregnant women and people with a weakened immune system or chronic medical condition, the flu can have serious and devastating outcomes. 

Symptoms of flu

The most common symptoms of the flu are:

  • sudden appearance of a high fever (38°C or more)
  • a dry cough
  • body aches (especially in the head, lower back and legs)
  • feeling extremely weak and tired (and not wanting to get out of bed).

Other symptoms can be:

  • chills
  • aching behind the eyes
  • loss of appetite
  • sore throat
  • runny or stuffy nose.

Having the flu is even more likely if you have been in contact with someone who already has it.

Diagnosing flu

Flu, and other kinds of viruses, can only be confirmed by a doctor after a nose or throat swab has returned positive results. 

Treatment is similar for any ‘flu-like’ illness, but a diagnosis is useful in helping health officials track disease patterns and frequency. It is also required where complications have developed.

Difference between flu and COVID-19

The symptoms of COVID-19 and flu can be similar. 

If you are unwell with flu-like symptoms, contact the COVID-19 hotline on 1800 675 398 (24 hours, 7 days a week) or your GP to check if you require COVID-19 testing.

The symptoms to watch out for are:

  • loss or change in sense of smell or taste
  • fever
  • chills or sweats
  • cough
  • sore throat
  • shortness of breath
  • runny nose.

Some people may also experience headache, muscle soreness, stuffy nose, nausea, vomiting and diarrhoea.

What to expect with the flu

Symptoms of the flu hit very quickly and may last several weeks. A bout of the flu typically follows this pattern:

  • Days 1–3: Sudden appearance of fever, headache, muscle pain and weakness, dry cough, sore throat and sometimes a stuffy nose.
  • Day 4: Fever and muscle aches decrease. Hoarse, dry or sore throat, cough and possible mild chest discomfort become more noticeable. You may feel tired or flat.
  • Day 8: Symptoms decrease. Cough and tiredness may last one to two weeks or more.

What about flu complications?

In some cases of the flu, severe illness, and complications (such as pneumonia and bronchitis) can develop. This can result in hospitalisation and even death. 

The flu can also make some existing medical conditions worse. 

People at higher risk of severe complications associated with the flu include:

  • pregnant women
  • people aged over 65
  • Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people
  • children under 5 years
  • people with chronic medical conditions.

How can I avoid the flu?

Getting a flu shot every year is recommended for all people from 6 months. Many people in the above groups are eligible for free flu vaccination each year (in autumn) under the National Immunisation Program. 

While not 100% effective, the vaccine provides a high level of protection and can reduce symptoms in those still getting sick.

Anyone in these at-risk groups with flu-like symptoms should see their doctor as soon as possible.

The original recommended timing between receipt of the 2 vaccines was a preferred minimum interval of 2 weeks (14 days).

Based on the latest medical advice the preferred minimum interval between vaccinations for COVID-19 and the flu is now 7 days.

I think I have the flu – should I see a doctor?

Most people who are generally healthy won’t need to see their doctor for the flu. Their immune system will fight the infection and symptoms will usually clear up on their own.

If you think you have the flu, try to rest, maintain a good fluid intake, and manage your symptoms. This will help you recover and prevent dehydration.

If you do need to see a GP for your symptoms, make sure you call ahead first so they can make sure there’s no one in an at-risk group around when you have your appointment. 

When to seek medical attention

See your doctor if you have any concerns. Seek immediate medical attention if you experience any of the following symptoms:

  • difficulty breathing
  • chest pain
  • sudden dizziness
  • confusion
  • severe vomiting
  • fever with a rash.

How can I avoid giving the flu to other people?

It is important we all play our part in helping fight the flu and to protect our health system. 

Aside from getting your flu shot, follow these 3 simple steps to stop the spread of the flu: 

Step 1 – Cough or sneeze into your elbow

If you feel a cough or sneeze is coming on, make sure to cough or sneeze into your elbow. It’s a part of your body less likely to touch other surfaces and will help stop the spread of nasty germs.

Step 2 – Wash your hands thoroughly and regularly

  • Our hands are one of the top spreaders of viruses. The flu virus is carried in almost invisible droplets from saliva, sneezes, coughs, and runny noses. 
  • Flu viruses can live on surfaces such as lift buttons or handrails for up to 48 hours and are spread when people touch an infected surface. 
  • Wash your hands thoroughly and often with soap and water for at least 20 seconds – especially if you have been in a public place, or after blowing your nose, coughing, sneezing or using the toilet. If soap and water are not readily available, use a hand sanitiser containing at least 60% alcohol. 

When to Call Your Doctor- Flu, Fever, and Coughing | Beaumont

Getting sick seems inevitable. For some people, colds and coughs are a standard part of life. For most people, a cold or the flu will pass quickly without any serious complications. But how do you know when it’s time to call your doctor if you have the flu, a fever, or a cough?

The flu

The medical word for the flu is influenza. Each year, multiple strains of influenza circulate and make people sick. Most people recover fully in one to two weeks, but many people get seriously ill and need to be hospitalized – estimates are about 200,000 people stay in the hospital every year to treat influenza. Tens of thousands of US citizens die each year from the flu and its complications. 

Normal flu symptoms

Normal flu symptoms typically come on quickly. You may be feeling fine, then suddenly, you feel awful. Your symptoms may include:

  • High fever
  • Body aches
  • Fatigue or feeling tired
  • Sore throat
  • Dry cough
  • Nasal congestion
  • Headache

Should I call the doctor if I think I have the flu?

If you have flu symptoms, the best time to contact your primary care doctor is within the first two days of symptoms. This is because you may be able to take an antiviral medication to help reduce your symptoms and decrease the number of days you’ll feel sick. Those medications need to be started within 48 hours of the onset of your symptoms to be most effective. 

If you are at high risk for complications of the flu, it’s always a good idea to call your doctor as soon as you think you might have the flu. Tell the office you have flu symptoms and are at high risk, and they may get you in for a visit, prescribe an antiviral medication, or refer you to an urgent care center to be seen.

  • You should always call the doctor if you experience any of the following symptoms.
    • Shortness of breath
    • Wheezing
    • Coughing up thick, green or yellow phlegm
    • A fever higher than 100.4 degrees F
  • Seek emergency care if you are:
    • Having difficulty breathing
    • Choking
    • Having difficulty swallowing
    • Coughing up blood or pink phlegm 

How to treat the flu at home

If you get the flu, you should stay home and rest. You should also stay away from others while you’re contagious so you don’t spread the flu to them. To treat symptoms, try the following:

  • Drink plenty of clear liquids, like water, Gatorade, tea, or broth. 
  • Get lots of rest. Don’t feel bad if you sleep for much of the day and night. It’s a good way to help your body recover.
  • Take over-the-counter medications for body aches, headache, or fever, such as acetaminophen (Tylenol) or ibuprofen (Motrin).
  • If you have congestion, consider taking decongestants or antihistamines.
  • Use cough drops or a cough suppressant if you have a bothersome cough.


A fever is a body temperature over 100.4 degrees F. It’s a way for the body to fight off viruses and bacteria that invade it. Fevers also stimulate the body’s inflammatory response, and this response starts working to protect affected areas and prevent the spread of invading viruses and bacteria so the body can begin healing.

While fevers are the body’s natural response to illness, they still may need to be treated. Here are some guidelines for fever care and when to seek medical treatment.

  • If an adult’s temperature is above 102, he or she should call the doctor.
  • Go to the emergency room if fever is accompanied by:
    • Seizures
    • Difficulty breathing
    • Confusion
    • Difficulty waking up
  • If a child’s temperature is 104 or above, take him or her to the emergency room right away.
  • If an adult’s temperature is between 100.4 and 103 F, consider going to urgent care. If you have a fever with the following symptoms, seek care right away:
    • Rash
    • Headache
    • Diarrhea
    • Vomiting

If you have any fever for more than a couple days, even a low-grade temperature, call your doctor. 

How to treat a fever at home

  • Take fever reducing medication, such as acetaminophen or ibuprofen. (Please note: You shouldn’t ever give a child aspirin.)
  • Drink lots of fluids or eat popsicles.
  • Take a lukewarm bath.
  • Place a cold washcloth on the forehead.
  • Rest.


Coughing is a frequent symptom of people who have a cold or the flu. Most coughs will go improve after a week or so and won’t cause any long-term effects. However, a cough can sometimes be a sign of a serious illness, like pneumonia. 

If your cough lasts more than ten days, call your doctor. It’s also important to seek medical attention if you have any of the following symptoms along with a cough:

  • Coughing up thick mucus that is green, yellow, pink, or bloody
  • Wheezing or shortness of breath
  • A fever of more than 100 degrees F
  • A cough that makes it difficult to talk 
  • Chest pain

There are some home care remedies that can help ease your cough and dry throat. If you have a cough, try:

  • Using cough drops
  • Putting honey in tea or eat a spoonful of honey by itself (do not give honey to children under one year of age)
  • Taking a steamy shower or using a vaporizer to add moisture to the air
  • Drinking lots of fluids, especially warm, clear fluids like broth or tea

If you have a cough, don’t smoke and stay away from people who smoke.

Dengue Fever (DF) Clinical Signs and Symptoms

The disease manifests as a sudden onset of severe headache, chills, pain upon moving the eyes, and low backache. Painful aching in the legs and joints (myalgias and arthralgias—severe pain that gives it the nick-name break-bone fever or bonecrusher disease) occurs during the first hours of illness. The temperature rises quickly as high as 40° C, with relative low heart rate (bradycardia) and low blood pressure (hypotension). The dengue rash is characteristically bright red petechiae and usually appears first on the lower limbs and the chest (see figure 2). The glands (lymph nodes) in the neck and groin are often swollen. In some patients, it spreads to cover most of the body. There may also be gastritis with some combination of associated abdominal pain, nausea, vomiting, or diarrhea. Some cases develop much milder symptoms which can be misdiagnosed as influenza, chikungunya, or other viral infection when no rash is present. The classic dengue fever lasts about six to seven days, with a smaller peak of fever at the trailing end of the disease (the so-called biphasic pattern). Clinically, the platelet count will drop until the patient’s temperature is normal.

Recognition of Dengue fever

– Sudden onset of high fever

– Severe headache (mostly in the forehead)

– Pain behind the eyes which worsens with eye movement

– Body aches and joint pains

– Nausea or vomiting

Figure 2: Typical dengue fever symptoms, patients with dengue fever rash

Dengue virus infections are sometimes confused with chikungunya viral infection, because both diseases can present with high temperatures and myalgias (muscle pain) in people living in or returning from tropical areas (see figure 2, and also diagnosis of Dengue and Chikungunya). Although these diseases share similar clinical features, prominent and prolonged joint pains are more consistent with chikungunya, whereas haemorrhage is more common in cases of dengue virus infection.

Figure 2: Comparisment of Dengue, Zika and Chikungunya symptoms. You can also download the original image in high resolution as jpg, tiff or powerpoint file.

90,000 Attention malaria

Malaria is a parasitic tropical disease characterized by attacks of fever, anemia and an enlarged spleen. There are 4 types of malaria: tropical, three-day, four-day, and oval malaria. The most difficult is tropical. Malaria is transmitted from a sick person to a healthy person when female mosquitoes suck blood. There are two more ways of infection – through blood transfusion and intrauterine, when a woman with malaria infects her unborn child. The parasites that got into the human body during the bite of malaria mosquitoes circulate in the blood, and then are brought into the liver, in the cells of which they develop.

The incubation (latent) period of development of parasites ranges from seven days to three years. This amplitude depends on the type of malaria; in tropical malaria, the incubation period is short. The disease begins with symptoms of general intoxication (weakness, weakness, severe headache, chills). Then there are repeated attacks of fever, the body temperature rises to 40 degrees and above, lasts for several hours and is accompanied by chills and heavy sweating at the end of the attack.If there is a clear recurrence of such attacks after a certain time – every day (every other day or two days), you should think about the possible illness of malaria and immediately seek medical help.

Tropical malaria is the most severe form of malaria. The incubation period ranges from 8 to 16 days. 3-4 days before the development of clinical symptoms, headache, fatigue, nausea, and decreased appetite may occur. The initial manifestations are characterized by severe chills, a feeling of heat, and severe headache.In some cases, attacks of malaria occur without chills. Fever at the onset of the disease can be constant without severe attacks, which makes diagnosis difficult. If diagnosed late and treatment is delayed, tropical malaria will take on a “malignant course. ” The risk of developing “malignant” malaria is especially increased if treatment is delayed for more than 6 days from the onset of the disease. Mortality in tropical malaria ranges from 10 to 40%, depending on the time of initiation of treatment, the correct selection of antimalarial drugs and the equipment of the clinic.Children, pregnant women, and non-immune adults are more likely to develop severe tropical malaria. Cerebral malaria is the most common complication of tropical malaria and is characterized by convulsions, rigidity, and retinal hemorrhages.

Malaria parasites are found in the blood of a sick person and can only be detected by examining the blood under a microscope. Treatment of this dangerous disease is carried out taking into account the type of pathogen and its sensitivity to chemotherapy.

In order to prevent malaria, it is necessary to start taking antimalarial drugs in advance of leaving for malaria-endemic countries in Africa, Southeast Asia, and South America.


Date: 09.09.2019 17:42

Hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome (HFRS or, popularly, mouse fever) is a natural focal infection. This means that the pathogen parasitizes in the body of wild animals and together with them forms foci of the disease that exist in nature indefinitely. Natural foci of HFRS are geographically located in the forest-steppe zone and forests of Samarskaya Luka, confined to the massifs of deciduous forests and occupy a significant part of the region’s territory (about 60% of the region’s area).


The causative agent of the disease is a virus, the main carrier of which is the bank vole, the most numerous mouse-like rodent up to 10 cm in length, the fur on the back is colored red-brown.

The disease in voles occurs in a latent form in the form of a virus carrier. Transmission of infection between rodents is carried out through gamasid mites. The higher the number of forest mouse-like rodents, the more actively the virus is transmitted from animal to animal, capable of surviving in ticks at low temperatures and sensitive to high temperatures.When boiled, it dies after 2 minutes. It lasts up to 2 months in milk and dairy products.


Human infection occurs by airborne dust through inhalation of dried feces of infected rodents upon contact with grass and hay where they live. Possible foodborne contamination through food and hands contaminated with rodent excreta. Infections most often occur during a short stay on vacation in the forest when collecting brushwood, deadwood, medicinal herbs, berries, mushrooms, when working in gardens, vegetable gardens and summer cottages, at the place of residence, in houses located near the forest, in production related to work in or near the forest, in the countryside, when transporting hay and straw, etc. etc.

HFRS diseases occur throughout the year. The lowest incidence rate occurs in February-April, in May the number of cases increases and reaches a maximum in September-October, then a gradual decline occurs. The nature of seasonality is determined by the number and species composition of rodents, the degree and frequency of contact of the population with the source of infection. The incidence rate in different years depends both on the number of rodents and on climatic and social factors (forest development).

Once in the human body, the HFRS virus affects the central nervous system, blood vessels, and internal organs.

The duration of the latent incubation period lasts from 7 to 35 days, usually 2-3 weeks.


The disease begins suddenly – with chills, fever, severe headaches, aching muscles and joints, loss of appetite and general weakness.Subsequently, vomiting, nausea, dizziness, insomnia join.

The high temperature lasts 3-5 days, then gradually decreases. During this period, pain in the lower back and abdomen appears, i.e. the most pronounced signs of kidney damage. Some patients have nose and stomach bleeding, skin rash and hemorrhages in the sclera of the eyes, short-term visual impairment in the form of impaired ability to distinguish details of surrounding objects. The patient is worried about thirst, at the same time, due to impaired renal function, urine output decreases.

If you do not consult a doctor for medical help in a timely manner, severe forms of the disease can develop, posing a serious danger to human life.


HFRS prevention measures are aimed, first of all, at eliminating any kind of human contact with murine rodents, with their secretions, burrows, at protecting food and drinking water from contamination by them, preventing rodents from entering living quarters and premises for temporary stay of people.

To protect yourself from infection with the HFRS virus, you must remember to observe personal hygiene!

When visiting the forest:

§ you can not catch and take in the hands of rodents;

§ in no case should you leave food on the ground and in other places accessible to rodents;

§ Do not eat food that has been spoiled or contaminated by rodents;

§ avoid spending the night in haystacks, stacks of straw, huts, abandoned buildings;

§ when camping in the forest, choose dry, not overgrown with bushes, preferably in pine or birch forests;

§ do not use last year’s hay or straw for bedding; do not smoke or eat with unwashed hands.

When living in houses located in the immediate vicinity of the forest or when leaving for garden and summer cottages:

§ it is necessary to ensure that rodents do not penetrate into the living quarters, in a timely manner to close the ventilation openings with grilles with small cells;

§ regularly carry out rodent-extermination work using poisoned baits or mechanical traps, especially during the period of mass migration of mouse-like rodents from the forest closer to the dwelling;

§ all types of work related to the formation of dust should be carried out in a 4-layer moistened gauze bandage, specially selected clothing, gloves;

§ It is necessary to regularly clean the area adjacent to home buildings from household waste, dead wood, dead wood; do not leave it dumped in heaps, where small mouse-like rodents can also settle, but take it to authorized dumps;

§ When purchasing baits, you need to pay attention to the presence of clear instructions for use and the presence of state registration of the drug.

If signs of illness appear: fever, pain in the lumbar region, muscles, a decrease in the amount of urine excreted and a change in its color, consult a doctor immediately, it is dangerous to self-medicate.

Materials provided by the Office of the Federal Service

on supervision in the field of consumer protection

and human well-being in the Samara region

Tick-borne encephalitis

Tick-borne encephalitis is a viral infection that affects the central nervous system.The disease causes persistent neurological, psychiatric complications and can lead to death. In nature, the tick-borne encephalitis virus is carried by ticks, its foci are recorded in Siberia, the Far East, the Urals, Belarus, and the central regions of Russia. Most often, outbreaks of the disease are observed from May to July, in some areas – additionally in August and September.

Tick-borne encephalitis virus enters the human body in natural conditions.There are two routes of infection – directly through the bite of an ixodid tick or through the consumption of raw milk from infected goats and cows. The tick-borne encephalitis virus is found in insect saliva. Therefore, in the case of the first type of infection, the virus is transmitted at the time of the bite. Even if a tick can be detected and removed immediately, the risk of infection remains, and if you crush the tick on the skin, the risk increases even more, since the virus can penetrate through the wounds. In different areas, the number of infected ticks is not the same, so not every tick bite is dangerous.Infection through goat and cow milk can be avoided altogether if the milk is boiled before use. The incubation period of the tick-borne encephalitis virus lasts 10 – 12 days. The course of the disease depends on the subtype of tick-borne encephalitis.

With the European tick subtype, the onset of the disease can be easily confused with a number of other diseases – the patient complains of malaise, muscle pain, headache, nausea and vomiting, and is disgusted with food. This period lasts 2 – 4 days, after which remission occurs for 8 days.Then, in 20 or 30% of patients, a second phase follows with clearly pronounced signs of damage to the nervous system. The patient goes into a fever, has a severe headache, his neck muscles harden. These symptoms can be supplemented by impaired consciousness, sensory disturbances, uncontrolled motor skills and paralysis.

The second subtype of tick-borne encephalitis – Far East – is more severe, often leading to deaths. The temperature rises to 38 – 39 ° C, there is a sharp headache, nausea, sleep disturbances.Literally after 3 – 5 days, symptoms of damage to the nervous system appear.

Forms of tick-borne encephalitis

In clinical practice, 4 forms of the disease are distinguished:

Feverish. Tick-borne encephalitis virus does not affect the central nervous system, only symptoms of fever appear, namely high fever, weakness and body aches, loss of appetite, headache and nausea. The fever can last up to 10 days.Cerebrospinal fluid does not change, symptoms of damage to the nervous system are absent. The forecast is the most favorable.

Meningeal. Against the background of fever, headache, vomiting, photophobia, the muscles of the neck and occiput begin to harden. A lumbar puncture can detect signs of inflammation in the cerebrospinal fluid.

Meningoencephalitic. Characterized by damage to brain cells, which are characterized by impaired consciousness, mental disorders, convulsions, weakness in the limbs, paralysis.

Poliomyelitis. Characterized by damage to the neurons of the cervical spinal cord and resembles poliomyelitis. The patient has permanent paralysis of the muscles of the neck and arms, which leads to disability.

Diagnosis of tick-borne encephalitis

The difficulty in diagnosing tick-borne encephalitis lies in the fact that it is impossible to make a diagnosis based on external symptoms alone. Outwardly, the ailment resembles a tumor of the central nervous system, purulent processes in the brain, poliomyelitis, vascular pathology of the brain, meningoencephalitis, coma, influenza, hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome.All these conditions require urgent and special treatment, so the doctor should conduct additional research.

Tick-borne encephalitis is indicated by epidemic data, for example, a visit to the forest. The most reliable results are given by a lumbar puncture, a study of the cerebrospinal fluid – they show the presence and nature of damage to the central nervous system. To determine tick-borne encephalitis, tests for antibodies to tick-borne encephalitis, blood tests and cerebrospinal fluid by polymerase chain reactions (PCR) are required.


The main method of treating tick-borne encephalitis remains symptomatic therapy and the fight against complications. The patient is prescribed bed rest, antipyretic drugs, corticosteroids, and supportive therapy.

In some cases, the victim is injected with an anti-mite immunoglobulin. But this cannot be considered a panacea: by the time the symptoms of tick-borne encephalitis are clearly visible, the body will already begin to produce its own immunoglobulin.

Prevention of tick-borne encephalitis

The only way to avoid getting sick is to create conditions under which the risk of infection will be reduced to zero. In natural conditions, anti-epidemic measures are taken to clear forests, aerial pollination of territories. Before visiting forests in a potentially dangerous period, mushroom pickers, workers at logging sites, participants in search parties use overalls, lubricate collars and cuffs with odorous substances, and after visiting the forest, they carefully examine their clothes and body in order to detect ticks in time.However, the best measure for the prevention of tick-borne encephalitis was and remains vaccination.

Vaccination against tick-borne encephalitis is shown to everyone, and those who live in epidemic foci or stay in them are required! Vaccination is carried out according to the main or emergency scheme. The main scheme of vaccination against tick-borne encephalitis is carried out with repeated vaccination after 1 – 3, 9 – 12 months and is repeated every 3 years. The first dose is administered in the fall, the second in the winter.

According to the emergency scheme, tick-borne encephalitis vaccination includes two injections with a break of two weeks.The scheme is used for vaccination in the spring and summer. It is worth remembering that an emergency vaccination scheme against tick-borne encephalitis is effective only for one season, after 9 – 12 months it is necessary to give a third injection to the urgently vaccinated ones.

If bitten by a tick

First aid for tick bites.

Due to the presence of analgesic and hemostatic substances in the mites’ saliva, tick bites are practically painless and invisible.The tick bites through the skin and sucks the victim’s blood. With a careful examination of the skin, you can find a small black dot – this is the abdomen of a sucked tick. When trying to tear off the tick from the wound, only the abdomen can come off and the head of the tick can remain deep in the wound.

The most common localization of tick bites:
– the scalp;
– auricles;
– neck;
– clavicle;
– armpits;
– chest;
– hands;
– back;
– groin.
It should be borne in mind that the likelihood of contracting tick-borne encephalitis, tick-borne borreliosis and other infections transmitted by ticks depends on the amount of virus that penetrates during the tick “bite” (that is, the time during which the tick was in a sucked state) – the earlier you remove the ingested parasite , all the better.

For tick bites, take the following measures:
Do not panic, do not try to shake off or pull out the tick with your hand, this can lead to its rupture, while part of the tick (head) will remain in the skin and it will be extremely problematic to pull it out.
The sucked tick must be removed immediately, and in no case should its head be allowed to come off and remain in the human body. Quick removal of a stuck tick can prevent transmission of the pathogen.
In order to remove the tick as best as possible, grab it with tweezers at the beginning of the head and only then pull.
Before trying to pull off a tick, you can moisten it with soapy water or alcohol.

How to remove a tick from a wound correctly?
There are two ways to remove stuck-on mites:

one.The first method: grasping the tick with tweezers or fingers wrapped in gauze (even better protected with rubber gloves), it is removed with slow, smooth twisting movements. It is convenient to remove ticks with curved tweezers or a surgical clamp, in principle any other tweezers will do. In this case, the tick must be grabbed as close to the proboscis as possible, then it is carefully pulled up and at the same time rotated around its axis in a convenient direction. Usually, after 1-3 turns, the tick is removed entirely together with the proboscis.If you try to pull out the tick, then there is a high probability of its rupture.

2. The second method: if there are no tweezers or special devices for removing ticks at hand, then the tick can be removed using a thread. A strong thread is tied into a knot, as close as possible to the tick proboscis (between the base of the head and the human skin), the tick is removed by pulling it up. Sudden movements are unacceptable. There are special devices for removing ticks. These devices have an advantage over clamps or tweezers, since the body of the tick is not squeezed, squeezing the contents of the tick into the wound is excluded, this reduces the risk of contracting tick-borne infections.The Uniclean Tick Twister has proven itself well – this device for removing ticks can be purchased in Russia.
If the tick has sunk deeply and cannot be removed, then you can drop a drop of paraffin from the melting candle on the place where the tick is inserted (the paraffin will clog the outlet, block the access of air to the tick, and the parasite will soon suffocate, disappear from the tissues, and it can be easily removed from whole wounds) or a drop of alcohol (alcohol vapors irritate the tick, it cannot suck and it is easier to remove it after that).
Removal of the tick must be done with caution, without squeezing its body, since it is possible to squeeze the contents of the tick together with pathogens into the wound. It is important not to tear the tick apart when removing it – the remaining part in the skin can cause inflammation and suppuration. It should be borne in mind that when the head of the tick is torn off, the process of infection can continue, since there is a significant concentration of tick-borne encephalitis virus in the salivary glands and ducts.
The place of the tick bite must be treated with alcohol, iodine or brilliant green.Direct contact with the tick should be excluded due to the danger of transmission of infection (it is better to wear gloves before removing the tick). After removing the tick, wash your hands thoroughly with soap and water.
Even if the tick bite was short-lived, the risk of contracting tick-borne infections is not excluded.
A tick can be the source of a fairly large number of diseases, therefore, after removing a tick, save it for testing for tick-borne infections (tick-borne encephalitis, tick-borne borreliosis, if there is a possibility for other infections), usually this can be done in an infectious diseases hospital.
The tick should be placed in a small glass bottle along with a piece of cotton wool slightly moistened with water. Be sure to close the bottle with a tight cap and store it in the refrigerator.

90 024 90 000 symptoms, treatment, phases, diagnosis, causes, prevention

Rheumatism: symptoms, treatment, phases, prevention, causes

Rheumatism is a connective tissue disease associated with inflammation of organs and body systems.Rheumatism is often associated with joint pain and rheumatoid arthritis, but this is only part of the symptoms of the disease. Rheumatic fever affects the tissues of the heart muscle, skin, blood vessels, brain and nervous system. Joint pain dulls most of the symptoms, so the person does not feel other disorders of the body.

Joint damage

Joint inflammation in rheumatism is expressed in three types.

  1. The defeat of the large and medium joints.
  2. Affected joints without serious deformity.
  3. A rapid form of joint damage – pain passes from one joint to another.

As a rule, with rheumatism, the joints do not change shape, but they can swell and increase in size. As a result, mobility is impaired and sharp pains begin in the arms and legs.

Damage to cardiac activity

Cardiac abnormalities are manifested by murmurs, arrhythmias, tachycardia and a decrease in blood pressure, which leads to heart failure.

Damage to the nervous system

Impaired coordination, muscle weakness, uncontrolled body movements can be signs of damage to the nervous system in rheumatism. The disease can affect the psyche and the functioning of the speech apparatus.

Damage to the skin and blood vessels

Skin pathologies with a disease of rheumatism are expressed by redness and irritation in the form of rounded spots. Subcutaneous nodules may appear on the arms and legs, which do not cause pain and may disappear even without treatment.

Signs of rheumatism:

  • temperature rise;
  • weakness, dizziness, shortness of breath;
  • joint pain in arms and legs, swelling;
  • back pain;
  • motor limitation;
  • pain and compression in the heart;
  • round red spots on the skin;
  • formations under the skin in the area of ​​the joints;
  • speech disorders.


Rheumatic fever appears as a result of complications after a streptococcal infection – tonsillitis, otitis media, scarlet fever, etc.n. Perceptible symptoms of rheumatism appear after 2 weeks. The disease is more often detected in children from 7 to 15 years old with a hereditary predisposition.

The development of rheumatism is facilitated by:

  • Inadequate or incomplete treatment of streptococcal infection;
  • lack of vitamins and minerals;
  • autoimmune diseases;
  • hypothermia of the body.


Rheumatism is active or inactive.The active phase implies the presence of acute inflammatory processes. The nature of the disease is determined by the duration. Allocate forms:

  • acute – illness 3 months or less;
  • subacute – illness 3-6 months;
  • protracted – the disease is longer than six months;
  • latent – asymptomatic form;
  • recurrent – manifests itself periodically in the form of chronic insufficiency of internal organs.


Rheumatism is diagnosed on the basis of clinical and laboratory indicators: assessment of the functional capabilities of the body, analysis of analyzes, examination with devices and instruments.Depending on the symptoms, the doctor determines the diagnostic methods:

  • blood test: general, for C-reactive protein, for the level of antibodies to streptococcus;
  • goniomeria – a technology for assessing joint mobility by a doctor;
  • study of the state and functioning of the immune system;
  • microscopic examination of synovial fluid from inflamed joints;
  • synovium biopsy;
  • MRI and ultrasound of joints;
  • ECG and ultrasound of the heart;
  • echocardiography;
  • chest x-ray;
  • Thermography using thermal vision.

In the active phase of the disease, it is recommended to stay in bed until the symptoms pass. During the period of the inactive phase, it is necessary to reduce physical activity and not burden the joints. In order not to stimulate immunity to activation during an illness, the doctor prescribes a diet that excludes the use of allergenic foods.


It is possible to prevent the development of rheumatism at an early stage, therefore, if symptoms appear, you should consult a rheumatologist, cardiologist or therapist.If you have a streptococcal infection, you should take treatment seriously so as not to provoke complications. To keep the connective tissues healthy, do not overcool the body, avoid contact with patients with angina and strengthen the immune system as recommended by the doctor. Methods of drug prevention can be checked with the attending physician.

Zika Fever – DZM

Zika Fever is an acute infectious disease caused by the mosquito-borne Zika virus.

Where is it spread

The virus was first detected in rhesus monkeys in Uganda in 1947 as part of the surveillance of the forest form of yellow fever. In 1952, the virus was detected in humans in Uganda and the United Republic of Tanzania. Outbreaks of Zika virus disease have been reported in Africa, the Americas, Asia and the Pacific.

The first outbreaks of Zika virus disease were reported from the Pacific in 2007 and 2013 (Yap Islands and French Polynesia).

In 2015, the Americas saw the largest ever outbreak of Zika virus disease

Zika virus infections have already been reported in more than 60 countries and territories in the North American, South American and Asia-Pacific regions: Barbados, Bolivia, Brazil, Cabo -Verde, Colombia, Ecuador, El Salvador, Fiji, French Guiana, Guadeloupe, Guatemala, Guyana, Haiti, Honduras, Maldives, Martinique, Mexico, New Caledonia, Panama, Paraguay, Puerto Rico, Saint Martin, Samoa, Solomon Islands, Suriname, Thailand, Venezuela, Dominican Republic

In the USA, Sweden, Denmark, Switzerland, Great Britain, there were some imported cases when tourists returned from disadvantaged regions.

On September 1, 2016, a regular meeting of the Emergency Committee was held to consider the current state of problems associated with the Zika virus. The Committee reaffirmed its earlier recommendation not to impose general travel restrictions on and on trade with countries, zones and / or territories where Zika virus transmission occurs.

How is transmitted

The virus is carried by female mosquitoes of the genus Aedes (usually biting in the morning, late afternoon and evening), mainly of the species Aedes aegypti (yellow fever mosquito), Aedes albopictus (Asian tiger mosquito), living in tropical regions.These mosquitoes are also carriers of dengue fever, chikungunya fever and yellow fever.

Man and monkeys are carriers of viruses.

During winter, the risk of local transmission of Zika virus is low due to lack of mosquito activity, and increases in late spring and summer.

The climatic conditions of Russia, Ukraine and Belarus do not allow mosquito vectors to spread on a large scale, since for reproduction they need a constant temperature of 25 degrees around the clock with high humidity. This is only possible in the southern subtropical regions near the sea.

A person becomes infected through the bite of a mosquito or through contact with the blood and other body fluids of an infected person. Sexual transmission of Zika virus has been reported in several countries. Pregnant women can transmit the virus to their baby during pregnancy.

Signs and symptoms of illness

The incubation period for Zika virus illness is not known for certain, probably from several days.

Symptoms of the disease:

  • fever
  • malaise, headache
  • small maculoid rash
  • eye redness
  • pain in muscles and joints

Symptoms usually persist for 9000 days 9000 What are the possible complications

Until now, Zika is considered a fairly mild disease. Only 1 out of 4-5 people showed symptoms of the disease.

No deaths from Zika fever.

Possible neurological complications: encephalitis, myelitis, optic neuritis, meningoencephalitis, Guillain-Barré polyneuropathy.

Also at present, the connection of the transferred Zika fever by pregnant women with the birth of children with microcephaly is recognized. The most dangerous virus and infection with fever in the first trimester of pregnancy, when few people realize their situation. It is during this period that the virus, having penetrated the placenta, infects the brain of the developing fetus.

How is diagnosed

Zika virus disease can be suspected based on clinical symptoms and residence or travel history in an area known to have Zika virus.

Confirmation of the presence of Zika virus can only be done by laboratory testing for the presence of Zika virus RNA in blood or other body fluids such as urine, saliva or semen.

A blood test to determine antibodies to the Zika virus is used to decide whether or not there is immunity to it as a result of a previous illness.


Zika virus disease is usually mild and does not require specific treatment. It is possible to use antipyretics (except for acetylsalicylic acid) and pain relievers, detoxification solutions.

People infected with the Zika virus should get plenty of rest and drink enough fluids.

There are currently no drugs for the prevention and specific treatment of Zika, a vaccine is under development.

Follow-up of pregnant women with Zika fever

Visiting countries where there is the possibility of contracting Zika virus before pregnancy does not pose any threat to pregnancy arising after this trip. The Zika virus in the human body does not linger for a long time – no more than 10-20 days, and leaves it on its own, after contact with the virus, immunity to it is developed.

The management of pregnant women with Zika fever is carried out by an infectious disease doctor and obstetrician-gynecologist.

All pregnant women returning from countries where infection with the Zika virus is possible should be laboratory tested, regardless of the presence or absence of clinical symptoms of the disease, if, within 2 weeks after traveling to the above countries, the pregnant woman has symptoms of the disease that are suspicious for Zika fever, you should see your doctor immediately.

If microcephaly is detected in pod or other serious complications in pregnant women who have had Zika fever, at the request of the woman, it is possible to terminate the pregnancy for medical reasons.

In accordance with cl.9.1.1 of the order of the Moscow Health Department of 13.02.2015 No. 97 “On ensuring measures to prevent the introduction and spread of infectious (parasitic) diseases requiring measures for the sanitary protection of the territory of the city of Moscow” hospitalization of patients who arrived from foreign countries, if available they have manifestations of febrile conditions and a rash of unclear etiology – within 21 days after arrival, it is carried out at GBUZ “IKB No. 1 DZM”

In IKB No. 1 there is a specialized box office equipped with the necessary equipment for receiving patients suspected of dangerous infections, and a medical and nursing team with specialized medical training and experience in working with dangerous infections.


The only effective method of preventing infection (other than avoiding travel to countries where infection is possible) is to reduce the likelihood of mosquito bites.

To do this, you can use repellents, wear clothes (preferably light colors) that cover as much of the body as possible, use mosquito nets, including during daytime sleep, close doors and windows, clean, empty or cover containers in which water may collect (such as buckets, cylinders, flower pots, used tires, gutters).

Dermatomyositis (polymyositis) | Clinical Rheumatology Hospital No. 25

Inflammatory myopathies – a group of chronic diseases, the main manifestation of which is muscle weakness resulting from inflammation of the striated muscles. The reasons can be infectious and oncological diseases, degenerative processes, taking medications.In this article, we describe a group of idiopathic inflammatory myopathies, which includes dermatomyositis (polymyositis).

The following types of idiopathic inflammatory myopathies are distinguished:
– Primary polymyositis (PM)
– Primary dermatomyositis (DM)
– Juvenile dermatomyositis
– Myositis associated with other diffuse connective tissue diseases (cross syndrome)
– Myositis in combination with malignant neoplasms
– Myositis with intracellular inclusions

Dermatomyositis (polymyositis) – a disease from the group of diffuse connective tissue diseases, characterized mainly by an inflammatory process in striated and smooth muscles with impaired motor function of these muscles. When the skin is involved in the systemic process, the term “dermatomyositis” is used, in other cases the term “polymyositis” is used.
The incidence of PM / DM ranges from 2 to 10 people per 1 million population. There are 2 age peaks of morbidity: at 10-15 years old and at 45-55 years old. The ratio of men to women is 2: 1.
The cause of these diseases is currently unknown. It is assumed that a viral infection may play the main role in the development of the disease, but numerous studies in this area have not yet been able to confirm this hypothesis.An important link in pathogenesis is also the autoimmune process. In 20% of all of the above myopathies, there is a connection with cancer, and it is DM that occurs more often.
The disease most often begins with malaise, general weakness, fever, weight loss, loss of appetite, skin lesions, followed by a progressive increase in weakness in the proximal muscle groups (shoulders, hips). The disease can develop both slowly (over several weeks and months) and acutely (which is more common in young people).
The main clinical manifestations of idiopathic inflammatory myopathies:
1. Muscle weakness manifests itself in the form of difficulty in combing, getting up from a low chair and bed, getting into a transport, climbing stairs, awkward gait. Sometimes there is difficulty in swallowing, choking, speech impairment. Half of the patients have muscle pain.
2. Skin lesions:
– erythematous (heliotropic) rash, localized on the upper cheekbones, wings of the nose, in the area of ​​the nasolabial fold, on the chest and upper back, in the décolleté.
– erythematous scaly rash over the small joints of the hands, less often over the elbow and knee joints (Gottron’s symptom).
– erythema of the scalp.
– itchy skin.
– redness, peeling and cracks on the skin of the palms (“mechanic’s hand”).
– telangiectasias (“spider veins” – expansion of mainly skin capillaries).
– photodermatitis (hypersensitivity to sunlight).
– livedo mesh.
– heart attacks and swelling of the periungual bed.
* in some patients, skin lesions may precede the development of muscle weakness (over several years) – the so-called. amyopathic myositis.
3. Lung damage:
– weakness of the respiratory muscles can lead to hypoventilation, which, in turn, causes a high risk of pneumonia.
– interstitial lung disease (rapidly progressive fibrosing alveolitis syndrome, interstitial pulmonary fibrosis).
4. Damage to joints manifests itself in the form of symmetrical non-erosive arthritis of small joints of the hands and wrist joints, less often of the knee and elbow.
5. Heart damage can progress slowly and most often arrhythmias and conduction disturbances are detected, less often – cardiomyopathy.
6. Kidney damage occurs very rarely (proteinuria, nephrotic syndrome, acute renal failure on the background of myoglobinuria).
7. Sjogren’s syndrome (dry mucous membranes).
8. Raynaud’s syndrome (spastic reaction of small vessels of the fingers and toes to cold or emotional stress, manifested by a change in the color of the skin).
9. Subcutaneous calcification develops mainly in children.
It is worth highlighting the antisynthetase syndrome, which most often begins acutely with the presence of fever, symmetric non-erosive arthritis, interstitial lung lesions, Raynaud’s syndrome, and mechanic’s hand-type skin lesions. This syndrome is characterized by the detection of antibodies to Jo-1 and other antisynthetase antibodies in the blood, an incomplete response to glucocorticoid therapy, and the onset of the disease more often in the spring.
Also worth noting is myositis with inclusions, which is characterized by:
– the slow development of muscle weakness not only in the proximal, but also in the distal (forearm, lower leg) muscle groups.
– asymmetry of the lesion.
– normal values ​​of muscle enzymes.
– lack of specific antibodies in the blood.
– Poor response to standard basic therapy.
In laboratory research, it is noted:
– an increase in the content of CPK, CF-fraction of CPK, aldolase, LDH, ALT, AST.
– an increase in the concentration of creatinine and urea (rare).
– accelerated ESR, increased C-reactive protein.
– Myoglobinuria.
– antinuclear factor (50-80% of patients).
– myositis specific and antisynthetase antibodies (Jo-1, PL-12, Pl-7, KJ, OJ).
– an increase in the RF level (in less than 50% of patients).
Instrumental research methods:
1. Electroneuromyography (ENMG) is an important method for confirming and clarifying the severity of muscle damage, monitoring the effectiveness of therapy. It is also necessary to exclude neurological pathology.
2. MRI and P-spectroscopy – sensitive methods for the detection of muscle inflammation.
3. ECG – rhythm and conduction disturbance.
4. X-ray examination of the lungs (usually high-resolution CT) is necessary to detect basal pulmonary fibrosis and interstitial pulmonary fibrosis.
5. X-ray examination of the esophagus with barium suspension – to clarify the causes of dysphagia.
A muscle biopsy is necessary to confirm the diagnosis (the most informative biopsy of a muscle involved in the pathological process).
Before making a diagnosis of DM / PM, it is very important to exclude the oncological process (tumor markers, FGDS, colonoscopy, pelvic ultrasound, mammography, etc.).
In the treatment of dermatomyositis (polymyositis), the drug of choice is glucocorticoids at an initial dose of 1-2 mg / kg per day. At the same time, in the future, with a positive clinical and laboratory dynamics, the dose is slowly reduced to a maintenance one. Pulse therapy for this disease is rarely effective, it is more often used with the rapid progression of dysphagia and the development of systemic manifestations (myocarditis, alfeolitis).
Early initiation of treatment is associated with a better prognosis.
In case of insufficient effectiveness of glucocorticoid therapy, cytostatics are prescribed (the drug of choice for interstitial pulmonary fibrosis – cyclophosphamide, in other cases – methotrexate).
Low-dose aminoquinoline drugs are used for maintenance therapy.
The use of intravenous immunoglobulin overcomes resistance (ineffectiveness) to standard therapy.
Plasmapheresis should be used primarily in patients with severe and refractory course.
For the diagnosis of dermatomyositis (polymyositis), consultation with a rheumatologist is mandatory. At the same time, self-medication can lead to the progression of the disease and serious life-threatening complications.
You can consult a rheumatologist to clarify the diagnosis and determine further management tactics at our Clinical Rheumatological Hospital No. 25.


90,000 3 things in the first-aid kit for colds

The common cold is mainly a seasonal disease that is characteristic of the autumn-winter period, because the cold is already mentioned in the name itself. Of course, you can catch a cold in hot summer, like what we have just experienced. Cold, conditioned air or increased sweating and draft can be the cause. The common cold is caused by a virus in the upper respiratory tract. Its symptoms are fever, fever, mild headache, sore throat, cough, stuffy or runny nose, sneezing, feeling unwell, but in almost all of these cases, except for severe flu or prolonged cold symptoms that do not go away for 10 days, the treatment is very similar.The exception is smokers, who may have a prolonged cold. Healthy adults may have 2-3 episodes of the common cold throughout the year. Children under 6 years of age have a greater risk of getting sick.

What to consider when starting the fight against a cold

1. Strengthening the body’s immunity

· Take vitamin C according to age (adults 1-3 grams per day).

· In the initial stage of the disease, it is better to choose not complex vitamins, which are more intended for prevention, but those that have a more effective and quicker immune-boosting effect – vitamins D 3 , A, B 6 and B 9 .

· Zinc, selenium, copper and iron should be taken vigorously.

· You can also add various plant extracts, drink medicinal herbal teas – black elderberry extract, linden blossom, echinacea, pine buds, Icelandic moss are suitable. They all strengthen the immune system and speed up recovery.

2. Symptom relief

Symptoms – fever, tremors, fever, headache, sore throat, muscles and joints, runny nose, stuffy nose and cough – are relieved and reduced by medication.The most effective are complex chemotherapy drugs, which include three or four drugs that act in a complex against pain and fever, reduce swelling of the nose, soothe cough and strengthen the immune system.

It is VERY IMPORTANT that the pharmacist, in conversation with the patient, finds out what kind of cough he has, because combined chemical preparations may contain:

as a cough suppressant (dextromethorphan) – in the case of dry, irritating cough, which is predominantly in the initial stage,

· and phlegm-thinning and coughing-up agent.

ATTENTION! Combined chemical medicines (especially hot drinks), which are very good at eliminating the symptoms of a cold, but also quickly and strongly affect the cardiovascular system, SHOULD BE VERY CAREFUL TO USE:

· after the age of 50–55;

· patients with diseases of the heart and blood vessels;

for those who suffer from glaucoma;

· patients with bronchial asthma;

· patients with epilepsy;

· patients with impaired liver and kidney function;

if you are allergic to any of the ingredients of the medicine.


Combined chemical medicines CANNOT BE TAKEN TOGETHER:

– with other cold remedies, because this way you can overdose the medication. This both increases the risk of side effects and can cause liver toxicity;

– with grapefruit juice. This is due to its ability to influence various metabolic processes, which in the body are responsible for the transformation and excretion of medicinal substances. In addition, under the influence of grapefruit juice, some of the medicines begin to act faster or stronger, while others are just the opposite. The interaction is most pronounced in a situation where they simultaneously take a medication and eat a grapefruit, but caution is recommended within 72 after eating this fruit. For example, the antitussive agent dextromethorphan, as an antitussive component, is also part of the combined cough remedies. The interaction can be expressed as an undesirable effect on the central nervous system.

3. Fluid intake and rest

Drinking plenty of fluids and staying at home rather than going to work is the surest recipe for a cold.

Complex chemical medicines have an alternative – complex anti-cold remedies that contain only natural substances: plant extracts with vitamins and minerals and substances.

Only vitamin C, zinc and echinacea can help only in the case of very mild colds in perfectly healthy adults.