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Fever chills and diarrhea: What Is Norovirus Infection? Symptoms, Contagious Period & Treatment


Rotavirus (for Parents) – Nemours Kidshealth

What Is Rotavirus?

Rotavirus is a common virus that infects the linings of the intestines. It causes vomiting and diarrhea, especially in babies and young children. Childcare centers are a common site of infection outbreaks.

Rotavirus immunizations are recommended for most children, and can prevent many rotavirus infections.

What Are the Signs & Symptoms of Rotavirus?

Kids with a rotavirus infection have:

They also might have a cough and runny nose. As with all viruses, though, some rotavirus infections cause few or no symptoms, especially in adults.

Sometimes the diarrhea is so severe that it can quickly lead to dehydration. A child who’s dehydrated might:

  • be thirsty
  • be cranky
  • be restless
  • be very tired
  • have sunken eyes
  • have a dry mouth and tongue
  • have dry skin
  • have a sunken soft spot (fontanelle) in a baby
  • make fewer trips to the bathroom to pee
  • in infants, have a dry diaper for several hours

Is Rotavirus Contagious?

Yes, rotavirus passes easily from one person to another. Infections are common during the winter and spring months, especially in group settings like childcare centers.

The virus passes in the stool (poop) of infected people before and after they have symptoms. Kids can become infected if they put their fingers in their mouths after touching a contaminated surface, like a toy. Usually this happens when kids don’t wash their hands often enough, especially before eating and after using the toilet.

People who care for kids, including health care and childcare workers, also can spread the virus, especially if they don’t wash their hands after changing diapers.

What Problems Can Happen?

Each year in the U.S., rotavirus infections:

  • cause about 3 million cases of diarrhea
  • lead to 55,000 hospitalizations for diarrhea and dehydration in children younger than 5 years old

Severe infections, called rotavirus gastroenteritis, are the leading cause of severe, dehydrating diarrhea in infants and young children.

These infections cause relatively few U.S. deaths. But rotavirus-related diarrhea causes more than half a million deaths worldwide every year, especially in developing countries.

How Is Rotavirus Treated?

Babies and toddlers who are dehydrated may need treatment in a hospital. They’ll get intravenous (IV) fluids to bring the body’s fluid and salt levels back to normal. Most older kids can be treated at home.

Your doctor may need to test your child’s blood, pee, or stool to confirm that the diarrhea is being caused by rotavirus and not by bacteria. Antibiotics only work against illnesses caused by bacteria. So, the doctor will not prescribe antibiotics to treat a rotavirus infection.

Home Treatment

To prevent dehydration, follow your doctor’s advice about what your child should eat and drink. Your doctor may suggest that you give your child special drinks that replace body fluids, especially if the diarrhea has lasted for more than 2 or 3 days.

Kids with mild diarrhea who are not dehydrated should eat as usual but drink more fluids. Avoid fruit juices and soft drinks, which can make diarrhea worse. Those with mild to moderate dehydration should drink small amounts of an oral rehydration solution often. They can go back to eating as usual when they’re better. Breastfed children continue breastfeeding throughout.

A child who is vomiting will need to eat smaller amounts of food more often. Don’t give your child over-the-counter medicines for vomiting or diarrhea unless your doctor recommends them.

Can Rotavirus Be Prevented?

The rotavirus vaccine can prevent many causes of rotavirus. The vaccine is a liquid given by mouth to babies at ages 2 and 4 months, and again at 6 months, depending on the vaccine brand.

Washing hands well and often is the best way to limit the spread of rotavirus infection. Kids with rotavirus should stay home from childcare until the diarrhea is gone.

When Should I Call the Doctor?

Call the doctor if your child has signs of a rotavirus infection, such as:

  • watery diarrhea
  • fever
  • nausea
  • vomiting

Call right away if your child has signs of dehydration.

Viral Diarrhea (Infant/Toddler)

Diarrhea caused by a virus is called viral gastroenteritis. Many people call it the “stomach flu,” but it has nothing to do with influenza. This virus affects the stomach and intestinal tract. It usually lasts 2 to 7 days. Diarrhea means passing loose watery stools 3 or more times a day.

Your child may also have these symptoms:

The main danger from this illness is dehydration. This is the loss of too much water and minerals from the body. When this occurs, body fluids must be replaced. This can be done with oral rehydration solution. Oral rehydration solution is available at drugstores and most grocery stores. Sports drinks are not equivalent to oral rehydration solutions. Sports drinks contain too much sugar and too few electrolytes.

Antibiotics are not effective for this illness.

Home care

Follow all instructions given by your child’s healthcare provider.

If giving medicines to your child:

  • Don’t give over-the-counter diarrhea medicines unless your child’s healthcare provider tells you to.

  • You can use acetaminophen or ibuprofen to control pain and fever. Or, you can use other medicine as prescribed.

  • Don’t give aspirin to anyone under 18 years of age who has a fever. This may cause liver damage and a life-threatening condition called Reye syndrome.

Your child is considered contagious for as long as he or she has diarrhea. To prevent the spread of illness:

  • Remember that washing with soap and water and using alcohol-based sanitizer is the best way to prevent the spread of infection.

  • Wash your hands before and after caring for your sick child.

  • Clean the toilet after each use.

  • Dispose of soiled diapers in a sealed container.

  • Keep your child out of day care until he or she is cleared by the healthcare provider.

  • Wash your hands before and after preparing food.

  • Wash your hands and utensils after using cutting boards, counter-tops and knives that have been in contact with raw foods.

  • Keep uncooked meats away from cooked and ready-to-eat foods.

Giving liquids and feeding

The main goal while treating vomiting or diarrhea is to prevent dehydration. This is done by giving small amounts of liquids often. Liquids are the most important thing. Don’t be in a rush to give food to your child.

If your baby is breastfed:

  • Keep breastfeeding. Feed your child more often than usual.

  • If diarrhea is severe, give oral rehydration solution between feedings.

  • As diarrhea eases, stop giving the rehydration solution and go back to your normal breastfeeding schedule.

If your baby is bottle-fed:

  • Give small amounts of fluid at a time, especially if your child is vomiting. An ounce or two (30 to 60 mL) every 30 minutes may improve symptoms. Start with 1 teaspoon (5 mL) every 5 minutes and increase gradually as tolerated.

  • Give full-strength formula or milk. If diarrhea is severe, give oral rehydration solution between feedings.

  • If giving milk and the diarrhea is not getting better, stop giving milk. In some cases, milk can make diarrhea worse. Try soy or rice formula.

  • Don’t give apple juice, soda, or other sweetened drinks. Drinks with sugar can make diarrhea worse.

  • If your child is doing well after 24 hours, resume a regular diet and feeding schedule.

  • If they start doing worse with food, go back to clear liquids.

If your child is on solid food:

  • Keep in mind that liquids are more important than food right now. Don’t be in a rush to give food.

  • Don’t force your child to eat, especially if he or she is having stomach pain, cramping, vomiting, or diarrhea.

  • Don’t feed your child large amounts at a time, even if your child is hungry. This can make your child feel worse. You can give your child more food over time if he or she can tolerate it.

  • Give small amounts at a time, especially if the child is having stomach cramps or vomiting.

  • If you are giving milk to your child and the diarrhea is not going away, stop the milk. In some cases, milk can make diarrhea worse. If that happens, use oral rehydration solution instead. This sensitivity to milk usually resolves as the intestine heals.

  • If diarrhea is severe, give oral rehydration solution between feedings.

  • If your child is doing well after 24 hours, try giving solid foods. These can include cereal, oatmeal, bread, noodles, mashed carrots, mashed bananas, mashed potatoes, applesauce, dry toast, crackers, soups with rice noodles, and cooked vegetables.

  • For a baby over 4 months, as he or she feels better, you may give cereal, mashed potatoes, applesauce, mashed bananas, or strained carrots, during this time. A baby over 1 year may have crackers, white bread, rice, and other complex starches, lean meats, yogurt, fruits, and vegetables. Low fat diets are easier to digest than high fat diets.

  • If your child starts doing worse with food, go back to clear liquids.

  • You can resume your child’s normal diet over time as he or she feels better. If the diarrhea or cramping gets worse again, go back to a simple diet or clear liquids.

Follow-up care

Follow up with your child’s healthcare provider, or as advised. If a stool sample was taken or cultures were done, call the healthcare provider for the results as instructed.

Call 911

Call 911 if your child has any of these symptoms:

When to seek medical advice

Call your child’s healthcare provider right away if any of these occur:

  • More than 8 diarrhea stools within 8 hours

  • Continued severe diarrhea for more than 24 hours

  • Blood in stool

  • Refusal to drink or feed

  • Dark urine or no urine for  or dry diaper for 4 to 6 hours, no tears when crying, sunken eyes, or dry mouth

  • Fussiness or crying that can’t be soothed

  • Unusual drowsiness

  • New rash

  • Diarrhea lasts more than 1 week on antibiotics

  • Fever (see Fever and children, below)

Fever and children

Always use a digital thermometer to check your child’s temperature. Never use a mercury thermometer.

For infants and toddlers, be sure to use a rectal thermometer correctly. A rectal thermometer may accidentally poke a hole in (perforate) the rectum. It may also pass on germs from the stool. Always follow the product maker’s directions for proper use. If you don’t feel comfortable taking a rectal temperature, use another method. When you talk to your child’s healthcare provider, tell him or her which method you used to take your child’s temperature.

Here are guidelines for fever temperature. Ear temperatures aren’t accurate before 6 months of age. Don’t take an oral temperature until your child is at least 4 years old.

Infant under 3 months old:

  • Ask your child’s healthcare provider how you should take the temperature.

  • Rectal or forehead (temporal artery) temperature of 100.4°F (38°C) or higher, or as directed by the provider

  • Armpit temperature of 99°F (37.2°C) or higher, or as directed by the provider

Child age 3 to 36 months:

  • Rectal, forehead (temporal artery), or ear temperature of 102°F (38.9°C) or higher, or as directed by the provider

  • Armpit temperature of 101°F (38.3°C) or higher, or as directed by the provider

Child of any age:

  • Repeated temperature of 104°F (40°C) or higher, or as directed by the provider

  • Fever that lasts more than 24 hours in a child under 2 years old. Or a fever that lasts for 3 days in a child 2 years or older.

Diarrhea – familydoctor.org

  • Diagnosis

    You may have GASTROENTERITIS (stomach flu).

    Self Care

    Drink plenty of water, eat a bland diet (smaller, more frequent meals that include non-spicy foods) and see your doctor if you develop and find blood or mucous in your diarrhea or vomit.

  • Diagnosis

    Your diarrhea may be a side effect or adverse reaction caused by the medicine.

    Self Care

    Talk to your doctor about the antibiotic or medicine you’re taking. He or she may be able to prescribe a medicine that won’t cause diarrhea. However, don’t stop taking your current medicine unless your doctor tells you.

  • Diagnosis

    Your symptoms may be caused by LACTOSE INTOLERANCE. People who have this condition have trouble digesting the sugar in milk and other dairy products.

    Self Care

    If you think you have LACTOSE INTOLERANCE, talk to your doctor. Your doctor may recommend taking lactase enzyme tablets or drops to help prevent problems. Also, avoid eating or drinking foods and beverages that make you sick.

  • Diagnosis

    You may have FOOD POISONING. Other symptoms of FOOD POISONING may include headache, fever, chills, and weakness.

    Self Care

    Most problems caused by FOOD POISONING will clear up within 12-48 hours. In the meantime, drink plenty of fluids to avoid dehydration. Children should be given an oral rehydration solution (ORS). Avoid solid foods until the diarrhea goes away. A simple way to make a home-based ORS is to boil a cup of white rice until the rice has completely overcooked and split and the water is cloudy. Keep the water and throw out the mushy rice. The water replaces the electrolytes lost in diarrhea.

    If your symptoms last longer than 48 hours, or you’re very uncomfortable, call your doctor.

  • Diagnosis

    You may have TRAVELER’S DIARRHEA, which is caused by contaminated food or drink.

    Self Care

    Over-the-counter medicines may help relieve your symptoms. Drink plenty of fluids, but avoid alcohol, caffeine, and dairy products. If your symptoms persist or if you have blood or mucous in your diarrhea, call your doctor.

  • Diagnosis

    You may have a condition that affects the intestines, such as DIVERTICULOSIS or DIVERTICULITIS.

    Self Care

    See your doctor. A diet high in FIBER and water may help relieve your symptoms.

  • Diagnosis

    You may have GASTROENTERITIS (stomach flu).

    Self Care

    Get plenty of rest. Children who have GASTROENTERITIS should be given an oral rehydration solution (ORS) to prevent dehydration. A simple way to make a home-based ORS is to boil a cup of white rice until the rice has completely overcooked and split and the water is cloudy. Keep the water and throw out the mushy rice. The water replaces the electrolytes lost in diarrhea.

    Ease back into eating with bland foods and clear liquids.

    Contact your doctor if you have a high fever (greater than 101.5°F), your symptoms last for more than 10 days, or if you are unable to tolerate liquids for more than 2 days.

  • Diagnosis

    You may have a form of BACTERIAL DIARRHEA or a parasite (GIARDIA).

    Self Care

    Call your doctor promptly. Be sure to drink plenty of fluids to prevent dehydration. Avoid caffeine.

  • Diagnosis


    Self Care

    Call your doctor promptly.

  • Diagnosis

    These could be symptoms of a problem such as an INTESTINAL OBSTRUCTION or blockage.

    Self Care

    See your doctor right away, or go to the nearest emergency room.

  • Diagnosis

    MALABSORPTION problems, such as CELIAC DISEASE, can cause food-related diarrhea. Food sensitivities can also cause similar symptoms.

    Self Care

    Avoid the foods that make you sick, and discuss the problem with your doctor. Keep a food diary (writing down what and when you eat and when symptoms develop) to help determine patterns or triggers for your symptoms.

  • Diagnosis


    Self Care

    See your doctor. He or she will determine what treatment is right for you. Drink plenty of fluids, and avoid foods that make your symptoms worse.

  • Diagnosis


    Self Care

    Gradually increase the amount of fiber in your diet if constipation is the main issue, and drink plenty of fluids. If you see blood in your stools, call your doctor.

  • Diagnosis

    You may have a FECAL IMPACTION, a large mass of dry, hard stool that is trapped in the rectum.

    Self Care

    See your doctor.

  • Self Care

    For more information, please talk to your doctor. If you think your problem is serious, call your doctor right away.

  • Diarrhea | MedlinePlus

    What is diarrhea?

    Diarrhea is loose, watery stools (bowel movements). You have diarrhea if you have loose stools three or more times in one day. Acute diarrhea is diarrhea that lasts a short time. It is a common problem. It usually lasts about one or two days, but it may last longer. Then it goes away on its own.

    Diarrhea lasting more than a few days may be a sign of a more serious problem. Chronic diarrhea — diarrhea that lasts at least four weeks — can be a symptom of a chronic disease. Chronic diarrhea symptoms may be continual, or they may come and go.

    What causes diarrhea?

    The most common causes of diarrhea include

    • Bacteria from contaminated food or water
    • Viruses such as the flu, norovirus, or rotavirus . Rotavirus is the most common cause of acute diarrhea in children.
    • Parasites, which are tiny organisms found in contaminated food or water
    • Medicines such as antibiotics, cancer drugs, and antacids that contain magnesium
    • Food intolerances and sensitivities, which are problems digesting certain ingredients or foods. An example is lactose intolerance.
    • Diseases that affect the stomach, small intestine, or colon, such as Crohn’s disease
    • Problems with how the colon functions, such as irritable bowel syndrome

    Some people also get diarrhea after stomach surgery, because sometimes the surgeries can cause food to move through your digestive system more quickly.

    Sometimes no cause can be found. If your diarrhea goes away within a few days, finding the cause is usually not necessary.

    Who is at risk for diarrhea?

    People of all ages can get diarrhea. On average, adults In the United States have acute diarrhea once a year. Young children have it an average of twice a year.

    People who visit developing countries are at risk for traveler’s diarrhea. It is caused by consuming contaminated food or water.

    What other symptoms might I have with diarrhea?

    Other possible symptoms of diarrhea include

    • Cramps or pain in the abdomen
    • An urgent need to use the bathroom
    • Loss of bowel control

    If a virus or bacteria is the cause of your diarrhea, you may also have a fever, chills, and bloody stools.

    Diarrhea can cause dehydration, which means that your body does not have enough fluid to work properly. Dehydration can be serious, especially for children, older adults, and people with weakened immune systems.

    When do I need to see a health care provider for diarrhea?

    Although it is usually not harmful, diarrhea can become dangerous or signal a more serious problem. Contact your health care provider if you have

    • Signs of dehydration
    • Diarrhea for more than 2 days, if you are an adult. For children, contact the provider if it lasts more than 24 hours.
    • Severe pain in your abdomen or rectum (for adults)
    • A fever of 102 degrees or higher
    • Stools containing blood or pus
    • Stools that are black and tarry

    If children have diarrhea, parents or caregivers should not hesitate to call a health care provider. Diarrhea can be especially dangerous in newborns and infants.

    How is the cause of diarrhea diagnosed?

    To find the cause of diarrhea, your health care provider may

    • Do a physical exam
    • Ask about any medicines you are taking
    • Test your stool or blood to look for bacteria, parasites, or other signs of disease or infection
    • Ask you to stop eating certain foods to see whether your diarrhea goes away

    If you have chronic diarrhea, your health care provider may perform other tests to look for signs of disease.

    What are the treatments for diarrhea?

    Diarrhea is treated by replacing lost fluids and electrolytes to prevent dehydration. Depending on the cause of the problem, you may need medicines to stop the diarrhea or treat an infection.

    Adults with diarrhea should drink water, fruit juices, sports drinks, sodas without caffeine, and salty broths. As your symptoms improve, you can eat soft, bland food.

    Children with diarrhea should be given oral rehydration solutions to replace lost fluids and electrolytes.

    Can diarrhea be prevented?

    Two types of diarrhea can be prevented – rotavirus diarrhea and traveler’s diarrhea. There are vaccines for rotavirus. They are given to babies in two or three doses.

    You can help prevent traveler’s diarrhea by being careful about what you eat and drink when you are in developing countries:

    • Use only bottled or purified water for drinking, making ice cubes, and brushing your teeth
    • If you do use tap water, boil it or use iodine tablets
    • Make sure that the cooked food you eat is fully cooked and served hot
    • Avoid unwashed or unpeeled raw fruits and vegetables

    NIH: National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases

    Causes, Symptoms and Treatment Options

    Medically reviewed by Drugs.com. Last updated on Feb 25, 2020.

    What is Gastroenteritis In Adults?

    Gastroenteritis is an inflammation of the intestines that causes diarrhea, abdominal cramps, nausea, loss of appetite, and other symptoms of digestive upset. In adults, the two most common causes of gastroenteritis are viral and bacterial infections:

    • Viral gastroenteritis — In otherwise healthy adults, viral infections of the digestive tract are often responsible for mild episodes of gastroenteritis. These viral infections include the Norwalk virus, rotaviruses, adenoviruses and other agents.

      The viruses are very contagious, and usually spread from one person to another on unwashed hands, or by close contact with an infected person, such as sharing food or eating utensils. Viral gastroenteritis often spreads very easily in institutions and other situations where people live in close quarters, such as prisons, nursing homes, cruise ships, schools, college dorms and public campgrounds.

      The viruses also can be spread when someone either touches an infected person’s stool or touches surfaces contaminated with infected stool. For this reason, health care professionals and child care workers have an especially high risk of viral gastroenteritis, particularly if they do not wash their hands thoroughly after dealing with soiled diapers, bedpans or bathroom fixtures.

      In some circumstances, the agents that cause viral gastroenteritis also can be carried in water or food, especially in drinking water or commercial shellfish that have been contaminated by sewage runoff. Infected food handlers who don’t follow proper sanitary procedures also can spread viral gastroenteritis in meals served in restaurants and cafeterias.

    • Bacteria — Salmonella, shigella, Campylobacter jejuniE. coli and many other types of bacteria can cause gastroenteritis. They can be spread by close contact with an infected person, or by drinking or eating infected food or water. In some cases, the disease is caused by a toxin that is produced by bacteria growing on food that has been prepared or stored improperly. If a person eats this germ-filled food, symptoms of gastroenteritis are triggered either by the bacteria themselves or by their irritating byproducts. Symptoms from a toxin usually begin within a few hours. Symptoms from the bacteria can occur within a few days.

    Each year in the United States, millions of people develop gastroenteritis by eating contaminated food, while millions more suffer from mild bouts of viral gastroenteritis. In otherwise healthy adults, both forms of gastroenteritis tend to be mild and brief, and many episodes are never reported to a doctor. However, in the elderly and people with weakened immune defenses, gastroenteritis sometimes can produce dehydration and other dangerous complications. Even in robust adults, certain types of aggressive bacteria occasionally cause more serious forms of food poisoning that can cause high fever and severe gastrointestinal symptoms, such as bloody diarrhea.


    In adults, symptoms of gastroenteritis typically include mild diarrhea (fewer than 10 watery stools daily), abdominal pain and cramps, low-grade fever (below 101° Fahrenheit), headache, nausea and sometimes vomiting. In some cases, there can be bloody diarrhea.


    Your doctor will ask whether you recently have been exposed to anyone who has diarrhea, or whether you have recently eaten at a restaurant or social function where the food was left at room temperature for prolonged periods. If you can remember eating a meal within the last week that smelled or tasted strange, be sure to mention it to your doctor.

    Since gastroenteritis is especially common where sanitation is poor, your doctor also will ask whether you have recently traveled to an underdeveloped country or to any location where the drinking water is not tested routinely. This includes rural streams, lakes or swimming holes in the United States.

    In most cases, your doctor can diagnose mild gastroenteritis based on your symptoms, your history of exposure to spoiled food, impure water or someone with diarrhea, and the results of your physical examination.

    Rarely, special laboratory testing may be needed if you have unusually severe symptoms, such as:

    • A fever over 101° Fahrenheit
    • Severe diarrhea (more than 10 watery stools daily)
    • Signs of significant dehydration (dry mouth, intense thirst, weakness)
    • Stool that contains blood or pus

    This testing usually involves taking one or more stool samples to be tested in a laboratory for the presence of bacteria (especially campylobacter, salmonella, or E. coli), or examined for microscopic parasites.

    Expected Duration

    Most cases of mild, uncomplicated gastroenteritis last one to seven days.


    To help prevent gastroenteritis, you can:

    • Wash your hands frequently, especially after using the toilet, changing diapers or caring for someone who has diarrhea.
    • Wash your hands before and after preparing food, especially after handling raw meat.
    • Wash diarrhea-soiled clothing in detergent and chlorine bleach. If bathroom surfaces are contaminated with stool, wipe them with a chlorine-based household cleaner.
    • Cook all meat thoroughly before you eat it, and refrigerate leftovers within two hours.
    • Make sure you don’t transfer cooked foods onto unwashed plates that held raw meat.
    • Wash kitchen countertops and utensils thoroughly after they have been used to prepare meat.
    • Never drink unpasteurized milk or untreated water.
    • Drink only bottled water or soft drinks if you travel to an area where sanitation is poor. In these areas, also avoid ice, uncooked vegetables or fruit that you have not peeled yourself.


    In otherwise healthy adults, most cases of mild gastroenteritis go away within a few days. You can try the following suggestions until your symptoms subside:

    • To prevent dehydration, drink plenty of fluids — water, soft drinks, sports drinks, broth or over-the-counter, oral rehydration fluids. If you are too nauseated to drink several ounces at once, try taking many smaller sips over a longer period.
    • Once your nausea starts to subside, gradually resume a normal diet. Begin with clear soups, broth or sweetened gelatin desserts, and then build up to rice, rice cereal and more substantial foods. Temporarily avoid milk products and foods that contain wheat flour (bread, macaroni, pizza), since your digestive tract may be unusually sensitive to them for a few days. Also temporarily avoid high-fiber foods, such as fruits, corn and bran.
    • Use over-the-counter antidiarrhea medicines cautiously.
    • Rest in bed.

    If you have symptoms of severe gastroenteritis, your doctor may prescribe medications to ease your nausea, vomiting and diarrhea; intravenous fluids for symptoms of severe dehydration; and antibiotics if stool tests confirm that a serious bacterial infection is causing your gastroenteritis.

    When To Call A Professional

    Call your doctor promptly if you have symptoms of gastroenteritis together with any of the following:

    • A fever above 101° Fahrenheit
    • Blood or pus in your stool
    • Diarrhea that lasts more than one week
    • Symptoms of significant dehydration, including dry mouth, intense thirst, and weakness
    • A history of recent travel to a developing country or to any area where sanitation is poor
    • Any medical condition that either weakens the immune system or is treated with immune-suppressing medication

    Also, call your doctor promptly if you are taking oral medication for a chronic medical condition and you are either too nauseated to swallow your medicine or have vomited after taking it.


    Overall, the outlook is excellent. Almost all adults with mild gastroenteritis recover completely without complications.

    External resources

    National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases (NIAID)


    National Center for Infectious Diseases


    American College of Gastroenterology (ACG)


    Further information

    Always consult your healthcare provider to ensure the information displayed on this page applies to your personal circumstances.

    Medical Disclaimer

    Dealing with Flu: Stay Home or See a Doctor?

    The flu is miserable. If you’ve ever had it, you know how brutal it can be: the headache, the fever, the chills.

    But sometimes, it’s more than miserable—it’s a medical emergency.

    Most people recover from the flu at home, but some need a doctor’s care. So how do you know whether to seek help?

    First, check your symptoms against this list of flu symptoms:

    • Fever (not always present)
    • Cough
    • Sore throat
    • Runny or stuffy nose
    • Body aches
    • Headache
    • Chills
    • Fatigue
    • Sometimes diarrhea and vomiting

    Recovering at Home

    If your symptoms are mild and you choose to recover at home, don’t go to work or other public places where you can pass the flu to others. According to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, you need to stay home at least 24 hours after you have become fever-free without the aid of medicine.

    While you’re at home, make sure to rest and drink a lot of fluids. The following supplies can help you minimize the spread of flu and feel better:

    • Nonprescription pain relievers, fever reducers, decongestants, anti-diarrheal medication and cough drops
    • Alcohol–based hand sanitizer
    • Thermometer
    • Facial tissues
    • Canned or instant soups (low-sodium is better)
    • Toilet paper
    • Laundry detergent (you’re going to want to wash those blankets you’re using)
    • Household cleaners (make sure to wipe down surfaces, including door handles)
    • Soap (wash your hands a lot and encourage anyone you live with to do the same)

    Seeing a Doctor

    If your symptoms are moderate to severe or you’re at higher risk of developing flu-related complications, you may want to see your doctor. People at higher risk include children younger than 5 and adults 65 and older, pregnant women, residents of nursing homes, and people with chronic illnesses such as asthma, lung disease and heart disease.

    Your doctor will assess your symptoms and may prescribe an . If you can’t see your doctor promptly or the office is closed, you can visit an urgent care clinic to be treated for flu.

    When Flu Becomes an Emergency

    Some people who get the flu get very sick, and it can sometimes be fatal. Thousands of people each year die of flu-related complications. Seek immediate emergency medical attention—call 911—if you’re experiencing any of the following symptoms:

    • Difficulty breathing or shortness of breath
    • Pain or pressure in the chest or stomach
    • Sudden dizziness
    • Confusion
    • Severe or persistent vomiting
    • Flu-like symptoms that improve but then return with fever and worse cough

    Have the flu and need to see a doctor? UNC Health Care offers urgent care clinic locations in Wake County and Orange County. Or find a primary care doctor near you.

    What Is Gastroenteritis? Symptoms, Causes, Diagnosis, Treatment, and Prevention

    Gastroenteritis will usually run its course and go away on its own. There’s no specific medical treatment for viral gastroenteritis.

    If you have a bacterial infection, your doctor might prescribe antibiotics. (1,2)

    Physicians usually don’t suggest that you take antidiarrheal treatments because they can prolong the infection, especially in children. But these medicines may be beneficial in some cases. (1)

    When Should You See a Doctor for Gastroenteritis?

    Determining when you should see a doctor for your gastroenteritis depends on your age.

    For adults, you should see a doctor if you:

    • Have a fever higher than 104 degrees F
    • Can’t keep liquids down for 24 hours
    • Have been vomiting blood or have been vomiting for more than two days
    • Have bloody bowel movements
    • Have signs of dehydration, such as decreased urination, dark-colored urine, dry skin, thirst, or dizziness (2)

    For babies and children, you should see a doctor if your child:

    • Has a fever of 102 degrees F or higher
    • Seems to be in pain or discomfort
    • Has bloody or severe diarrhea
    • Has signs of dehydration, such as dry diapers, lack of tears when crying, dry mouth, drowsiness, or a sunken fontanel
    • Has vomiting that lasts more than several hours
    • Is unusually irritable, lethargic, or unresponsive (2)

    Self-Care for Gastroenteritis

    Certain steps can help improve symptoms of gastroenteritis and prevent dehydration. You might want to try:

    Letting Your Stomach Settle Taking a break from eating solid foods for a few hours at a time may alleviate your stomach troubles.

    Avoiding Certain Foods and Substances Stay away from caffeine; alcohol; dairy products; and fatty, sugary, or spicy foods until you start to feel better.

    Eating Bland Foods Plain foods are less likely to irritate your digestive system. Crackers, toast, bananas, gelatin, rice, potatoes, and chicken are some good choices.

    Staying Hydrated Try to drink plenty of liquids. You might want to suck on ice chips or take small sips of water. Clear sodas, broths, and noncaffeinated sports drinks can keep you hydrated. Children might need an oral rehydration solution, which is available at most pharmacies, according to American Family Physician. (7) If you’re breastfeeding or formula-feeding a baby, continue to feed the child as usual.

    Getting Lots of Rest Gastroenteritis can zap your energy. Be sure to rest when you can and get a good night’s sleep. (2)

    Prevention of Gastroenteritis

    Certain precautions may lower your chances of getting gastroenteritis. These include the following:

    Wash your hands often. Proper hygiene, which consists of frequent hand-washing, is one of the best ways to avoid catching a virus. Wash your hands for at least 20 seconds with soap and water after you go to the bathroom and before you eat or prepare food. Be sure to wash around your cuticles, under your fingernails, and in the creases of your hands. Also, teach your kids to wash their hands after using the toilet.

    Sanitize. Use an alcohol-based hand sanitizer or wipe if you can’t wash your hands.

    Keep areas clean. If someone you’re living with has gastroenteritis, be sure to disinfect all surfaces with a bleach-based cleanser. Try using a ratio of 2 cups of bleach to 1 gallon of water.

    Avoid contaminated foods or water. Don’t eat or drink any foods that may make you sick, such as raw or undercooked meats. Consume only pasteurized dairy products and apple juice. Rinse all produce well before preparing or eating it.

    Don’t share personal items. Avoid drinking from the same glass, can, or bottle as others and sharing utensils or towels.

    Stay away from others. If people you know are sick, try to keep your distance from them. If you’re sick, stay away from people, and don’t prepare food for anyone while you’re sick or for two days afterward.

    Vaccinate children. A vaccine is available in some countries, such as the United States, to protect babies from rotavirus. It’s typically administered during a baby’s first year of life.

    Examine your child’s day care facility. Make sure the center has separate diaper-changing and eating areas. There should also be a sink to wash hands near the changing table. (2,5)

    Tips to Prevent Gastroenteritis While Traveling

    Many people develop gastroenteritis when they visit other countries. This usually happens because they drink unclean water or eat contaminated foods. This is commonly called traveler’s diarrhea.

    When you’re traveling, use sealed, bottled water to drink and brush your teeth. Avoid ice cubes, as they can contain contaminated water.

    Be sure to wash or sanitize your hands often while you’re out and about.

    Also, play it safe when it comes to the foods you eat. It’s a good idea to avoid raw foods, such as veggies, peeled fruits, and salads. Steer clear of undercooked meat and fish, too. (2)

    90,000 Abdominal pain and loose stools

    Abdominal pain with diarrhea most often indicates an intestinal infection. There are a lot of causative agents of such diseases, and they enter the body through dirty hands, water (when swimming in contaminated water bodies), when eating infected food.

    The main signs of intestinal infection, in addition to loose stools, are frequent vomiting and fever, fever. Intestinal infections are very unpleasant diseases for humans. Constant diarrhea and vomiting lead to rapid dehydration, general weakness and poor health.

    What diseases cause diarrhea and abdominal pain:

    • Dysentery: The incubation period lasts 1-2 days. Then there is a fever (40 and above), painful cramps in the abdomen. Watery diarrhea up to 10-30 times a day. The feces contain mucus and blood. The patient has a constant urge to defecate.
    • Rotavirus infection: The incubation period is up to 5 days. Vomiting is a mandatory symptom of infection.There is general intoxication, fever, runny nose and swelling. There is abundant liquid yellow-green stools, pain in the upper and middle parts of the abdomen.
    • Salmonellosis: incubation period – from several hours to several days. The patient’s temperature rises (up to 39 o). There is vomiting, cramping abdominal pain, watery and foul-smelling loose stools.
    • Staphylococcal food poisoning: first signs appear 2-4 hours after infection.There is a high temperature (38-38.5), chills, severe paroxysmal pain in the abdomen. The patient often vomits, diarrhea is not always present.

    Symptoms such as abdominal pain and diarrhea are present in many other intestinal diseases: paratyphoid fever, cholera, intestinal yersiniosis, etc. Do not think that many of these diseases have long been eliminated: their causative agent can be easily found at a resort in the tropical zone. Therefore, always wash your hands and food thoroughly, do not eat foods you do not know.

    Intestinal infections have a favorable prognosis with adequate medical care. Therefore, if you have symptoms of infection, call your doctor. Correct treatment will allow you to quickly and without complications cope with the disease.

    Be healthy!

    Viral Gastroenteritis (Children 2–5 years old)

    In most cases, the cause of diarrhea and vomiting in children is a virus. This is a viral gastroenteritis. Many people call this “stomach flu,” but it has nothing to do with the flu.This virus infects the stomach and intestinal tract. The disease lasts 2 to 7 days. Diarrhea means loose or watery stools that are different from your baby’s normal bowel movements.

    The child may also have the following symptoms:

    • Abdominal pain or cramps

    • Nausea

    • Vomiting

    • Loss of stool control

    • Blood

      Fever and chills stool

    The main danger of this disease is that it leads to dehydration.This is the loss of a large amount of water and mineral salts by the body. In such cases, the loss of fluid by the body must be replenished. This is done with oral rehydration solution. These solutions are available from pharmacies and most grocery stores without a prescription.

    Antibiotics are ineffective for this disease.

    Home Care

    Follow your pediatrician’s directions.

    If you are giving medicines to your child:

    • Do not use over-the-counter diarrhea medicines unless prescribed by your doctor.

    • For pain and fever, acetaminophen or ibuprofen can be used. Or another medicine as prescribed.

    • Aspirin as an antipyretic agent is contraindicated in children under 18 years of age. Taking it can lead to severe liver damage and a life-threatening condition called Reye’s syndrome.

    To prevent the spread of disease:

    • Remember that alcohol-based soaps and disinfectants are the best way to prevent the spread of infection.

    • Wash your hands before and after caring for your sick child.

    • Clean the toilet after each use.

    • Dispose of contaminated diapers in an airtight container.

    • Keep your child out of contact with others until the healthcare provider says it.

    • Wash your hands before and after cooking.

    • Wash your hands and utensils after using cutting boards, countertops and knives that have come into contact with raw food.

    • Keep raw meat away from cooked and ready-to-eat foods.

    • Keep in mind that people with diarrhea or vomiting should not prepare food for others.

    How to Water and Feed Properly

    The main goal in treating vomiting or diarrhea is to prevent dehydration. To do this, the child should often consume liquids in small portions.

    • Keep in mind that liquid is more important than food now.Give a small amount of fluid at a time, especially if the child has stomach cramps or vomiting.

    • For diarrhea: If you are giving milk to your baby and the diarrhea persists, give up milk. In some cases, milk can make diarrhea worse. If this happens, use oral rehydration solution. Cut out apple juice, soda, sports drinks, or other sweetened drinks. Sugar drinks can worsen diarrhea.

    • If vomiting: Start with room temperature oral rehydration solution.Give 1 teaspoon (5 ml) every 5 minutes. Even if the child is vomiting, keep giving the solution. Most of the fluid will be absorbed despite vomiting. After 2 hours without vomiting, start with a small amount of milk or formula and other liquids. Increase the amount depending on your tolerance. Do not give your child plain water, milk, formula, or other liquids until the vomiting has stopped. Give more oral rehydration solution as vomiting decreases. Increase the interval between meals.Continue until the child has urine and is no longer thirsty (no interest in drinking). If there is no vomiting within 4 hours, resume feeding with solid food. After 24 hours without vomiting, resume your normal diet.

    • Gradually, you can resume your child’s normal diet as they feel better. Don’t force your child to eat, especially if they have stomach pain or cramps. Do not feed your baby in large portions at a time, even if he is hungry.Tobacco smoke can make your child feel worse. Over time, the child can be given more food as long as it is tolerated. Foods that are permitted include cereals, mashed potatoes, applesauce, banana puree, crackers, dry toast, rice, oatmeal, bread, noodles, pretzels, rice or noodle soups, and cooked vegetables.

    • If symptoms return, return to a simple or no liquid diet.


    See or follow your pediatrician’s instructions.If a stool test or culture smear is taken, see your doctor for results as directed.

    Call 911

    Call 911 if your child has any of these symptoms:

    • Difficulty breathing

    • Confusional

    • Extreme sleepiness or loss of consciousness

    • Problems with walking

    • Rapid heart rate

    • Chest pain

    • Stiff neck

    • Convulsions

    When to seek medical help

    In the following cases, you should immediately see a doctor:

  • Pain in the abdomen increases

  • Constant pain in the lower right abdomen

  • Recurrent vomiting after the first 2 hours of fluid intake

  • Occasional vomiting for more than 24 hours

    • Prolonged severe diarrhea for a long time for more than 24 hours

    • Blood in stool or vomit

    • Decreased ability to eat orally

    • Darkening or no urine for 6-8 hours in older children, 4-6 hours for babies

    • Whims or crying when the child cannot be calm

    • Unusual sleepiness

    • New skin rashes

    • Diarrhea lasts more than 10 days

    • Temperature (seeTemperature & Children below)

    Temperature & Children

    Always use a digital thermometer to measure your baby’s temperature. Never use a mercury thermometer.

    For babies and toddlers, use a rectal thermometer properly. A rectal thermometer can accidentally break a hole (perforate) in the rectum. It can also carry germs out of the stool. For correct use, always follow the manufacturer’s directions. If you feel uncomfortable taking rectal temperature, try another method.At the pediatrician appointment, tell him which method you used to determine the temperature of the child.

    Temperature recommendations. Ear temperature is inaccurate until 6 months. Do not take oral temperature measurements until your child is 4 years old.

    Infants up to 3 months:

    • Ask your doctor about the correct temperature measurement.

    • Rectal or frontal (temporary artery) temperature 38 ° C (100.4 ° F) or higher or as directed by a physician

    • Armpit temperature 37.2 ° C (99 ° F) or higher or as directed by a physician

    Child 3 to 36 months old:

    • Rectal, frontal (temporal artery), or ear temperature 38.9 ° C (102 ° F) or higher, or as directed by a physician

    • Temperature armpits 38.3 ° C (101 ° F) or higher or as directed by a physician

    Child of any age:

    • Repeated temperature 40 ° C (104 ° F) or higher or as directed by a physician

    • Temperature that lasts more than 24 hours in a child under 2 years of age.Or a temperature that lasts 3 days in a child aged 2 years and older.

    What is the difference between rotavirus and norovirus, preventive measures.

    October 2, 2017

    These viruses are different from each other, otherwise they would have the same name. See for yourself by reading the data in the table.







    Pain in the upper abdomen



    Burning in the stomach


    Bitter taste in the mouth





    High temperature


    Weakness and profuse sweating










    Fecal-oral, airborne droplets, when interacting with other people and household items

    Fecal-oral, airborne droplets, when interacting with other people and household items

    Incubation period

    From 10-12 hours to 4 days (usually 24-48 hours after infection)

    From 4 to 77 hours (average 36 hours)

    Duration of illness

    2-3 days

    Diarrhea lasts up to 3 days, in severe cases up to 7 days

    1.Rotavirus – diarrhea and high fever,

    norovirus – vomiting

    The symptoms of these viruses, as we have already seen, are similar, but if there is a difference, then this is symptom number one.

    “In the case of Norovirus , this is vomiting, there may be no high fever at all.

    With rotavirus , diarrhea almost always first appears, which is accompanied by increased body temperature “, instead of diarrhea, there may be vomiting, if it is not there right away, then it may appear a little later.

    2. Rotavirus is bright,

    norovirus – hidden

    Rotavirus usually begins very acutely : diarrhea, fever, vomiting.

    Norovirus is more cunning.

    It all starts with vomiting, but at the same time there is no fever, and most immediately attribute this not to a virus, but to ordinary food poisoning.

    You are regulating your nutrition for a while, it seems to have gotten better, but there is some kind of weakness.

    Several days or even a week pass and vomiting again.

    The temperature usually rises by 3-4 or even on the 7th day of the virus “, that is, if rotavirus manifests itself in all its glory at once, then norovirus – in a wave-like manner, increasing, disguising itself as a violation of the gastrointestinal tract.

    “Therefore, rotavirus can be detected faster, while norovirus gives up to two or three exacerbations, like everything was already fine, 4 days have passed and again vomited 2-3 times.”

    3. Children suffer more from rotavirus,

    norovirus – older children

    This is confirmed by the statistics of the Latvian Center of Infectology.

    Young children under two years of age are more sick with Rotavirus, especially from 6 to 23 months. While Norovirus affects older children, including adolescents.

    4. Rapid dehydration occurs with rotavirus,

    norovirus itself secretes substances that poison the body

    In both cases, the body is prone to dehydration, but the reasons are different.

    In the case of rotavirus, the body loses fluid through diarrhea and vomiting and it is very important to restore it.

    In the case of norovirus, dehydration can occur not only as a result of vomiting, but also if the virus has remained an unidentified object in the body for too long, hiding under various other diseases, the same poisoning.

    5. Rotavirus is more severe than norovirus

    Not always, but as practice shows, children with rotavirus are more often admitted to the hospital than with norovirus.

    “Norovirus is slightly milder, it lasts longer than rotavirus. In case of rotavirus, the hospitalization rate is higher than in case of norovirus”

    General advice on prevention:

    wash your hands often, especially after going to the toilet, before and after preparing food, when changing a diaper, after any contact with a sick infection;

    – thoroughly wash vegetables and fruits bought in a store or at a bazaar;

    – regularly ventilate the room you are in;

    – walk in the fresh air often;

    – avoid visiting crowded places (do not take your child to the store, etc.)etc.)

    – do not take very young children (a month, two, three) on trips abroad, the immune system is not strong and is susceptible to various diseases.

    If the child is sick:

    – do not finish eating or drink after a child who is sick with an intestinal infection, parents often forget about this and get sick themselves;

    – in case of illness, it is imperative to drink, but do not force the child to drink a lot right away – offer him liquid in small portions (2-3 sips, after a few minutes again 2-3 sips, etc.)etc.). In addition, it is recommended to drink Rehydron.

    – food can be taken no earlier than 4 hours after vomiting;

    – Eliminate all dairy products from the diet, including do not cook porridge in milk.

    Do not take your child to the kindergarten, if the first signs of illness appear, go to the doctor – otherwise the child may infect other children in the group and staff.

    Prevention during the period of case registration:

    – Visit public places less

    – Wash your hands often.

    – Buy Hand Sanitizer

    – Carry out a course of treatment with the antiviral drug “Arbidol”, immunomodulators.

    From the mouth of the nurses:

    – Immunity to roto and norovirus is valid for six months after the illness. After this time, a person can become infected again.

    – These diseases are transmitted not only by contact, but also by airborne droplets. So, especially during the winter months, we are practically defenseless.

    – With diarrhea and vomiting per 10 kilograms of weight, a person should drink 1 liter of water, preferably salted.

    – Do not give your child anything to drink immediately after vomiting. Wait five minutes, give a spoonful of water to drink, if vomiting does not recur after 5-10 minutes, continue to give water. It is advisable to do this every 15-20 minutes so that the body is replenished with fluid reserves.

    Be sure to see a doctor if:

    Vomiting and diarrhea in a child does not stop (dehydration in very young children can occur in a matter of hours, do not get carried away with self-medication).

    The temperature rises (it is especially dangerous if the temperature “exceeds” 39 and does not go astray).

    The child’s mouth is dry, his tongue is white.

    The child is inactive, looks tired.

    If, during pinching, the skin sticks and does not return to its original position.

    In fact, all of the above already indicates that the child is in an extremely serious condition.

    Be careful, it is very important to see the edge when you should not jump to the hospital or, on the contrary, when it is simply necessary.

    Malaria prevention – Disease prevention and healthy lifestyle – Budgetary institution of the Khanty-Mansiysk Autonomous Okrug – Ugra

    Prevention of malaria

    (Instruction for the population)

    With the onset of summer, the flow of tourists to countries with a tropical climate increases.

    So that your holiday abroad is not overshadowed by illness, you should be aware of preventive measures for the most common exotic diseases.With the primary symptoms of the disease, they should be recognized in time. It’s about malaria.

    Beware of the bloodsucking!

    Malaria is a parasitic disease with an acute and sometimes protracted course, characterized by the presence of febrile attacks, enlarged liver, spleen, and the development of anemia. The causative agents of malaria belong to the genus Plasmodium. P.vivax. The causative agent of three-day malaria is widespread in Asia, Oceania, South and Central America.P.ovale (ovale malaria) – the causative agent of malaria of the three-day type; its range is mainly limited to Equatorial Africa, with individual cases reported on the islands of Oceania and Thailand. P.malariae – the causative agent of four-day malaria and P.falciparum – the causative agent of tropical malaria are widespread in aquatorial Africa, as well as in some countries of Asia, Oceania, South and Central America.

    Infection with malaria occurs when a person is bitten by a mosquito of the genus Anopheles, which is the carrier of the pathogen.The mosquito itself becomes infected by feeding on the blood of a patient with malaria or a carrier of the genital forms of Plasmodium malaria.

    Awesome chills!

    Malaria is characterized by a period of acute attacks of fever (primary attack) followed by a febrile period. In some untreated or insufficiently treated patients, fever resumes 7-14 or more days within 2-3 months after the termination of the primary attack (early relapses). After an incubation period of varying duration (from 1 to 6 weeks, depending on the type of pathogen), non-immune patients have characteristic chills, headache, low-grade fever, malaise, muscle pain, and sometimes diarrhea (in tropical malaria).

    Malarial attack (paroxysm) proceeds with a change of phases: tremendous chills, fever, sweat. In the chill phase, the skin is pale, cold, rough (“goose”) with a cyanotic tinge. The chill lasts from 10-15 minutes to 2-3 hours and is accompanied by a very rapid rise in temperature (up to 39-40 ° C and above). After a few hours, the fever is replaced by profuse sweating. In general, malarial paroxysm lasts 6-12 hours, and in tropical malaria – up to a day or more. After an attack, a period of temperature normalization begins.It lasts 48 hours for three days of malaria and 72 hours for four days.

    Patients are treated in an infectious diseases hospital with special antimalarial drugs. The success of malaria treatment is largely determined by the timeliness and correct choice of the drug.


    When staying in areas where malaria is common, the following precautions should be taken:

    – sleep in rooms where windows and doors are covered with a net or mesh canopy, preferably impregnated with an insecticide;

    – from dusk to dawn to dress so as not to leave arms and legs open;

    – treat open areas of the body with a repellent, especially while staying outdoors in the evening and at night;
    – prophylactic antimalarial drugs are recommended for people traveling to foci of medium and high endemicity.

    WHO estimates that about 3 billion people live at risk of contracting malaria, almost half of them live in underdeveloped countries in Africa, Southeast Asia and Latin America, where the risk of infection is high.

    Annually, up to 200 million cases of malaria are registered in the world, of which about 660 thousand are fatal.

    Strengthening malaria control measures, primarily preventive measures (the use of permethrin-impregnated canopies that protect against mosquito bites, preventive treatment of children and pregnant women) helps to reduce the burden of the disease.They have reduced malaria deaths globally by 25% since 2000 and by 33% in the African Region.

    The main factors contributing to the spread of malaria in the world are: intensive migration of the population (tourists, seasonal workers, merchants), global climate change (increased air temperature and increased precipitation), resistance of malaria mosquitoes to insecticides and malaria plasmodia to drugs.

    As part of the implementation of the decree of the Chief State Sanitary Doctor of the Russian Federation of December 25, 2007 “On strengthening measures to prevent parasitic diseases and elimination of malaria in the Russian Federation”, effective measures are being taken to eliminate malaria, including to prevent the occurrence of local three-day malaria cases, phenological observation and mosquito control measures, improving the quality of laboratory diagnostics of malaria and preventing deaths from tropical malaria.

    As a result of the measures taken, the incidence of malaria in the Russian Federation over the past six years has decreased from 201 cases. (in 2005) up to 87cl. (in 2012). No local transmission cases were reported in 2012.

    The import of malaria was registered from a number of African countries (Ghana, Guinea, Kenya, Cameroon, Cote d’Ivoire, Liberia, Mozambique, Nigeria, Senegal, Sudan, Sierra Leone, South Africa, Equatorial Guinea), from the countries of South America (Brazil, Guyana), from India, Pakistan, Afghanistan.

    The importation of malaria from neighboring countries (Tajikistan, Azerbaijan, Uzbekistan) has practically stopped due to intensive anti-epidemic and preventive measures carried out in these countries under the leadership and support of the World Health Organization.

    Malaria is a parasitic tropical disease characterized by attacks of fever, anemia and enlarged spleen. There are 4 types of malaria: tropical, three-day, four-day, and oval malaria.The most difficult is tropical. Malaria is transmitted from a sick person to a healthy person when female mosquitoes suck blood. There are two more ways of infection – through blood transfusion and intrauterine, when a woman with malaria infects her unborn child. The parasites that got into the human body during the bite of malaria mosquitoes circulate in the blood, and then are brought into the liver, in the cells of which they develop.

    The incubation (latent) period of development of parasites ranges from seven days to three years.This amplitude depends on the type of malaria; in tropical malaria, the incubation period is short. The disease begins with symptoms of general intoxication (weakness, weakness, severe headache, chills). Then there are repeated attacks of fever, the body temperature rises to 40 degrees and above, lasts for several hours and is accompanied by chills and heavy sweating at the end of the attack. If there is a clear recurrence of such attacks after a certain time – every day (every other day or two days), you should think about the possible illness of malaria and immediately seek medical help.

    Tropical malaria is the most severe form of malaria. The incubation period ranges from 8 to 16 days. Headache, fatigue, nausea, and decreased appetite may occur 3-4 days before the development of clinical symptoms. The initial manifestations are characterized by severe chills, a feeling of heat, and severe headache. In some cases, attacks of malaria occur without chills. Fever at the onset of the disease can be constant without severe attacks, which makes diagnosis difficult. If diagnosed late and treatment is delayed, tropical malaria will take on a “malignant course.”The risk of developing “malignant” malaria is especially increased if treatment is delayed for more than 6 days from the onset of the disease. Mortality in tropical malaria ranges from 10 to 40%, depending on the time of initiation of treatment, the correct selection of antimalarial drugs and the equipment of the clinic. Children, pregnant women, and non-immune adults are more likely to develop severe tropical malaria. Cerebral malaria is the most common complication of tropical malaria, with convulsions, rigidity, and retinal hemorrhages.

    Malaria parasites are found in the blood of a sick person and can only be detected by examining the blood under a microscope. Treatment of this dangerous disease is carried out taking into account the type of pathogen and its sensitivity to chemotherapy.

    Federal Service for Supervision of Consumer Rights Protection and Human Welfare.

    Observe preventive measures!

    Infectious Mononucleosis – Cabinet of Infectious Diseases – Departments

    Clinic.patients with the disease begins acutely, there is a significant increase in temperature, headache, weakness, muscle and joint pain, sleep and appetite are disturbed. There may be mild chills that alternate with increased sweating. From the first days of the disease, pain in the throat worsened, which intensifies when swallowing. At the same time, hyperplasia of the lymph nodes and difficulty in nasal breathing are observed. The most vividly listed symptoms become pronounced by the 4th-5th day of illness; in the same period, an increase in the size of the liver and spleen is determined, atypical mononuclear cells appear in the blood.
    In some cases, there may be a subacute onset of the disease with prodromal phenomena: against the background of general malaise, subfebrile body temperature, mild catarrhal changes in the upper respiratory tract are noted.
    In some patients, the leading complaint is abdominal pain, more often in the right iliac region, sometimes nausea and vomiting, bloating, stool retention or diarrhea are observed.
    The disease can develop unnoticed; at the same time, the first symptom that makes the patient see a doctor is an enlarged lymph node

    However, the most characteristic symptoms of infectious mononucleosis are: fever, tonsillitis, generalized lysradenopathy and hepatosppenomealia.

    The temperature response is very variable and can persist from 1-2 days to 3 weeks or longer. In 1/3 of patients in the first days, the body temperature is subfebrile and clearly rises to 38 “C and higher only by the end of the first week of the disease. Higher and prolonged fever is observed in adults and older children. In some patients, there is two- and three-wave fever with periods of apyrexia of several days The average duration of fever is 6-10 days
    There is no typical temperature curve for infectious mononucleosis.The body temperature decreases more often lytically, which coincides with an improvement in the general condition and with a decrease in the severity of other symptoms of the disease. It should be noted that after the main wave of fever, subfebrile body temperature often persists.
    The temperature reaction is combined with other symptoms, primarily with changes in the pharynx. A slight hyperemia in the pharynx and hyperplasia of the tonsils are observed in many patients from the first days of the disease. Often these changes are combined with damage to the nasopharynx.Clinically, this is manifested by difficulty in nasal breathing and a nasal tone of voice. At the same time, there is a significant swelling of the palatine tonsils, which may come into contact with each other. If it is possible to examine the posterior wall of the pharynx, then its edema and hyperemia with symptoms of hyperplasia of the lymphoid tissue are found; in some patients, the back wall of the pharynx may be covered with thick mucus. 3-4 days after the onset of the disease, loose, curdled deposits of various sizes appear on the tonsils, which can be easily removed with a spatula.In some cases, plaque can be localized on the back of the pharynx, at the root of the tongue, and even on the epiglottis. Changes in the pharynx are accompanied by fever. The duration of the lesion of the pharynx is 10-15 days; with timely and adequate treatment, angina passes faster.
    In patients with removed tonsils, the reaction of the lymphoid tissue of the pharynx manifests itself as an increase in the lateral ridges and granules of the posterior pharyngeal wall.
    Temperature reaction and changes in the pharynx are combined with the development of lymphadenopathy.Often all the lymph nodes are enlarged, but the most pronounced is the increase in the cervical lymph nodes, especially those located along the posterior edge of the sternocleidomastoid muscle; they can be in the form of a chain or package. In children of younger preschool age, lymph nodes can form large conglomerates up to 4-6 cm in diameter. In school-age children and adults, lymph nodes increase up to 2-3 cm, creating a “scalloped” outline of the contours of the neck. Sometimes adults may have a slight swelling of the lymph nodes that goes unnoticed.
    Enlarged lymph nodes almost do not cause pain, are not welded together and the surrounding tissue. On palpation, they are “juicy”, densely elastic, mobile. Periadenitis, skin redness and suppurative processes are never observed. Swollen lymph nodes may be the first sign of illness. Streets suffering from chronic tonsillitis, early enlargement of the lymph nodes located at the corner of the mandible.
    At the same time, other groups of lymph nodes – axillary, cubital and inguinal (less often – mesenteric or mediastinal) can be enlarged.With an increase in mediastinal lymph nodes, patients may be bothered by cough, pain in the heart of varying intensity and duration.
    The enlargement of the lymph nodes persists for 1-2 weeks, and sometimes moderate lymphadenopathy is observed for 1.5-2 months more.
    On the 3rd-4th day of illness, the liver and spleen are enlarged. Hepatomegaly is accompanied by a feeling of heaviness in the right hypochondrium, weakness, decreased appetite, sometimes nausea, less often vomiting. Moderate hyperbilirubinemia, increased activity of ALT, thymol test are often noted.l, the number of lymphocytes, monocytes and plasma cells increases, peculiar atypical mononuclear cells appear, characterized by large polymorphism in shape and structure.

    In most cases, atypical mononuclear cells are found in the blood in the early days of the disease, but especially their number increases at the height of the disease. Less often, the appearance of mononuclear cells can be noted on the 8-11th days of the disease. These cells persist for several weeks, but gradually their number decreases.
    Among “white blood” cells, the proportion of mononuclear cells ranges from 10 to 50% and more. In some cases, at the height of the disease, all mononuclear cells can be atypical, and their number correlates with the severity of the disease.
    Infectious mononucleosis in most patients ends with recovery after 2-4 weeks. However, in some patients, lymphadenopathy, hepatosplenomegaly, atypical mononuclear cells in the blood persist for a long time, which indicates a protracted, and possibly chronic course of the infection.The latter is characterized by persistent lymphadenopathy and EBV-hepatitis, splenomegaly, interstitial pneumonia, bone marrow hypoplasia, and sometimes uveitis.

    Disseminated (septic) EBV infection occurs on the background of severe immunosuppression in AIDS patients, during organ transplantation and is characterized by poor outcomes.
    Complications of infectious mononucleosis proceeding against the background of immunodeficiency can be by their nature: hematological (autoimmune hemolytic anemia, thrombocytopenia, granulocytopenia, rupture of the spleen), cardiological (pericarditis, myocarditis) and neurological (meningitis, meningoelitis, meningoelitis).
    Diagnostics. Clinical diagnosis of infectious mononucleosis using hemogram data does not allow definitive verification of the etiology of the disease. For this, immunochemical (ELISA) and molecular biological (PCR, RT-PCR, hybridization) diagnostic methods are currently used. The previously widely used heteroagglutination reactions – Paul-Bunnel, Hoff-Bauer, Lovrik-Wolner have largely lost their significance.
    Treatment. Patients with moderate, severe and complicated forms of infection are hospitalized in an infectious diseases hospital.
    Patients on outpatient treatment are recommended to bed rest, a gentle diet, oral care (rinsing with furacilin solution, iodinol, sodium bicarbonate, etc.), multivitamins with trace elements, herbal remedies with antioxidant and immunostimulating effects (echinacea, licorice root Icelandic tsetraria, coats of arms of arin).

    At febrile body temperature, antipyretic drugs (Panadol, paracetamol, etc.) are prescribed. Desensitizing therapy is performed.Antibiotics are used only when complicated by a secondary bacterial infection (follicular, lacunar tonsillitis, pneumonia). Prescribe antibiotic therapy taking into account the suspected pathogen. In case of infection of the oral cavity, macrolides, penicillins, tetracyclines are used, if necessary in combination with trichopolum, taking into account the possible streptococcal and anaerobic nature of the complication.
    It is not recommended to use chloramphenicol and sulfa drugs due to their adverse effect on bone marrow hematopoiesis.

    Of the antiviral drugs active against EBV, acyclovir is used at a dose of 800 mg 5 times a day orally or 5 mg / kg every 8 hours intravenously.
    In case of ineffectiveness of AC in severe cases of the disease, vidarabine is prescribed at a dose of 7.5-15 mg / kg / day by intravenous drip in a large volume of isotonic solution (1.5-2.5 l) or foscarnet 60 mg / kg 3 times a day intravenous drip followed by a transition to the introduction of the drug at a dose of 90-120 mg / kg / day.
    The use of lobucavir, brivudine and cidofovir for this infection is being investigated.
    The administration of Corti Kosteroid hormones is undesirable.
    Prevention. Hospitalization of patients is carried out according to clinical indications. Anti-epidemic measures in the outbreak are not carried out. After suffering infectious mononucleosis, the patient is undergoing dispensary observation by an infectious disease specialist and hematologist for 6 months, with mandatory laboratory examination (hemogram, liver function tests).
    Since the acute phase of HIV infection has a symptom complex similar to infectious mononucleosis, it is recommended to test convalescents for HIV after 3 and 6 months.

    90,000 Side effects of COVID-19 vaccination

    The appearance of side effects in the range from mild to moderate, for example, an increase in body temperature or muscle pain, is a normal variant and should not cause concern: this indicates a reaction of the immune system to the administration of \ r \ n vaccine, in particular to an antigen (substance that triggers the immune response), as well as preparing to fight the virus. These side effects usually disappear on their own after a few days.

    Common mild to moderate side effects are useful as they indicate the success of the vaccine administration. The absence of side effects does not mean that the vaccine has no effect. It indicates the individual \ r \ n nature of the body’s reactions.

    Frequent side effects of COVID-19 vaccines

    Administration of COVID-19 vaccines, like any other vaccine, can cause side effects, mainly in the range from mild to moderate, which resolve on their own within a few days.More serious or long-term side effects are possible \ r \ n according to clinical trials. Vaccine use is continuously monitored for adverse events.

    Side effects of COVID-19 vaccines are generally mild to moderate and of short duration. Typical side effects include pain at the injection site, fever, fatigue, headaches, muscle aches, chills and diarrhea. The likelihood of any of these side effects will vary from vaccine to vaccine.

    Vaccines against COVID-19 provide protection only against the SARS-CoV-2 virus, therefore it is necessary to continue to adhere to measures to prevent disease and a healthy lifestyle.

    Rare side effects

    After the vaccine is administered, the patient should be asked to stay at the vaccination site for 15-30 minutes in order to ensure timely medical attention in the event of an immediate reaction. In the event of unexpected \ r \ n side effects or other health problems, such as side effects lasting more than three days, the vaccinated persons should notify the local health care provider.Reported rare side effects \ r \ n of vaccination against COVID-19 include severe allergic reactions such as anaphylactic reactions; however, these reactions are extremely rare.

    National authorities and international organizations, including WHO, closely monitor any side effects associated with the COVID-19 vaccine.

    Long term side effects

    Side effects usually develop within the first few days after the vaccine is given.The first mass vaccination program started in early December 2020, millions of vaccinations have already been made, and the reported \ r \ n side effects period is only a few days.

    Concerns have been raised that COVID-19 vaccines could trigger COVID-19 disease. However, none of the approved vaccines contain a viable viral pathogen of COVID-19, and therefore \ r \ n vaccination against COVID-19 cannot cause infection with COVID-19.

    As a rule, immunity to the SARS-CoV-2 virus, which causes the disease COVID-19, develops within a few weeks. Thus, there is the possibility of contracting the SARS-CoV-2 virus shortly before or after vaccination and COVID-19 illness. This is \ r \ n because not enough time has passed since the vaccination was given to ensure protection.

    If side effects occur after vaccination, it means that the vaccine is working and the immune system is responding as needed.Vaccines are safe and vaccination helps protect against COVID-19.

    “,” datePublished: “2021-03-31T21: 00: 00.0000000 + 00: 00”, “image”: “https://cdn.who.int/media/images/default-source/vaccines- explained / who_ve_topic-9_banner.jpg? sfvrsn = 81363cb3_26 “,” publisher “: {” @ type “:” Organization “,” name “:” World Health Organization: WHO “,” logo “: {” @ type “:” ImageObject “,” url “:” https://www.who.int/Images/SchemaOrg/schemaOrgLogo.jpg “,” width “: 250,” height “: 60}},” dateModified “:” 2021-03- 31T21: 00: 00.0000000 + 00: 00 “,” mainEntityOfPage “:” https: // www.who.int/en/news-room/feature-stories/detail/side-effects-of-covid-19-vaccines”,”@context”:”http://schema.org”,”@type “:” Article “};

    How does the mild form of the new coronavirus manifest


    How does the mild form of the new coronavirus manifest

    How does the mild form of the new coronavirus manifest itself – RIA Novosti, 03/19/2020

    How does the mild manifest form of the new coronavirus

    The majority of those infected with the new coronavirus – 80 percent – have a mild illness.Let’s try to figure out how not to miss the beginning of a dangerous ailment … RIA Novosti, 19.03.2020

    2020-03-19T08: 00

    2020-03-19T08: 00

    2020-03-19T12: 45


    coronavirus in russia

    covid-19 coronavirus



    Federal service for supervision of consumer rights protection and human welfare (Rospotrebnadzor)



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    MOSCOW, March 19 – RIA Novosti. Most of those infected with the new coronavirus – 80 percent – have a mild illness. Let’s try to figure out how not to miss the onset of a dangerous ailment and correctly determine its symptoms. The carrier of the infection is contagious. Scientists believe that the infection is weak in healthy adults, one of the main reasons for its rapid spread. In children, COVID-19 in most cases is generally almost asymptomatic.That is, people, without getting sick themselves, can become carriers of the virus. This is how the epidemic in Germany began. How to recognize the disease The general characteristic symptoms of COVID-19 are given on the website of the Russian Ministry of Health. These are fever, cough (usually dry or with little phlegm), shortness of breath, feeling of tightness in the chest. Sometimes there may be signs of an acute sinus infection or a general feeling of illness without fever. With a mild form of the disease, symptoms disappear after a week or two, in severe cases, they persist for six or more weeks.Mild COVID-19 Mild fever, mild headache, increased fatigue, sore throat, coughing, muscle aches, mild signs of a cold, pallor, chills. Rarely runny nose. How not to confuse COVID-19 with SARS or colds With SARS and colds, unlike COVID-19, the cough is wet, not dry, and there is always a stuffy nose and a runny nose. From similar symptoms – a slight fever and headache from mild to moderate. How not to confuse COVID-19 with influenza, based on information from WHO, says on its website that COVID-19 and influenza are similar: “both cause a respiratory illness with a wide spectrum options – from asymptomatic or mild to severe and death. “But with influenza, there is no shortness of breath or other breathing problems, and the temperature is almost always high, unlike COVID-19. Risk factors The recommendations of the Ministry of Health for medical workers indicate: suspicious symptoms include any clinical manifestations of SARS, bronchitis or pneumonia in combination with epidemiological anamnesis. They can be caused by: In any of these cases, if even mild symptoms of a cold appear, the infection should be called a doctor at home and not self-medicate. Unusual symptoms of COVID-19 in Germany German virologist Hendrik Strick, who observed almost all cases of COVID-19 in Germany, in interview with the Frankfurter Allgemeine Zeitung shared his personal experience.According to the specialist, the typical COVID-19 patient has only mild symptoms. A dry, irritating cough and mild fever were common, with 30 percent of those infected with diarrhea, and some very unusual symptoms, with about two-thirds of people reporting impaired sense of smell and taste. For several days, they noted strange sensations. This suggests that in patients from Germany, the SARS-CoV-2 virus penetrated not only the lungs, but also the gastrointestinal tract.

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    coronavirus in Russia, covid coronavirus -19, biology, health, Federal Service for Supervision of Consumer Rights Protection and Human Welfare (Rospotrebnadzor), WHO, Germany

    MOSCOW, 19 Mar – RIA Novosti. Most of those infected with the new coronavirus – 80 percent – have a mild illness. Let’s try to figure out how not to miss the onset of a dangerous ailment and correctly identify its symptoms.

    The carrier of the infection is contagious

    The fact that the infection is weak in healthy adults, scientists consider one of the main reasons for its rapid spread. In children, COVID-19 in most cases is generally almost asymptomatic. That is, people, without getting sick themselves, can become carriers of the virus.This is how the epidemic in Germany started.

    How to recognize a disease

    General characteristic symptoms of COVID-19 are given on the website of the Russian Ministry of Health. These are fever, cough (usually dry or with little phlegm), shortness of breath, feeling of tightness in the chest. Sometimes there may be signs of an acute sinus infection or a general feeling of illness without fever. With a mild form of the disease, symptoms disappear after a week or two, in severe cases, they persist for six or more weeks.

    March 10, 2020, 13:44 The spread of coronavirus How to distinguish coronavirus infection COVID-19 from the common cold

    Mild form of COVID-19

    Mild fever, mild headache, increased fatigue, sore throat, coughing, muscle aches, light signs colds, pallor, chills. Rarely runny nose.

    How not to confuse COVID-19 with acute respiratory viral infections or colds

    With ARVI and colds, unlike COVID-19, the cough is wet, not dry, and there is always a stuffy nose and a runny nose.Similar symptoms include a slight fever and mild to moderate headache.

    How not to confuse COVID-19 with influenza

    Rospotrebnadzor, based on information from WHO, reports on its website that COVID-19 and influenza are similar: “both cause respiratory disease with a wide range of options – from asymptomatic or mild to severe and death. ” But with the flu, there is no shortness of breath or other breathing problems, and the temperature is almost always high, unlike COVID-19.

    18 March 2020, 20:54

    Think about children. WHO recalled the danger of COVID-19 for children

    Risk factors

    The recommendations of the Ministry of Health for medical workers indicate: any clinical manifestations of ARVI, bronchitis or pneumonia in combination with an epidemiological history are suspicious symptoms. They can be caused by:

    1. 1

      by visiting 14 days before the first signs of infection in epidemiologically unfavorable countries and regions for COVID-19;

    2. 2

      close contacts in the last 14 days with persons with COVID-19, or those who have laboratory confirmed this diagnosis;

    3. 3

      close contact over the past 14 days with persons under surveillance for the novel SARS-CoV-2 coronavirus.

    In any of these cases, if even mild symptoms of a cold appear, the infection should be called a doctor at home and not self-medicate.