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Fiber men: Benefits of Fiber – Pure for Men


Benefits of Fiber – Pure for Men

Dietary fiber: Essential for a healthy diet

Eat more fiber. You’ve probably heard it before. But do you know why fiber is so good for your health?

Dietary fiber — found mainly in fruits, vegetables, whole grains and legumes — is probably best known for its ability to prevent or relieve constipation. But foods containing fiber can provide other health benefits as well, such as helping to maintain a healthy weight and lowering your risk of diabetes and heart disease.

Selecting tasty foods that provide fiber isn’t difficult. Find out how much dietary fiber you need, the foods that contain it, and how to add them to meals and snacks.

What is dietary fiber?

Dietary fiber, also known as roughage or bulk, includes the parts of plant foods your body can’t digest or absorb. Unlike other food components, such as fats, proteins or carbohydrates — which your body breaks down and absorbs — fiber isn’t digested by your body. Instead, it passes relatively intact through your stomach, small intestine and colon and out of your body.

Fiber is commonly classified as soluble, which dissolves in water, or insoluble, which doesn’t dissolve.

  • Soluble fiber. This type of fiber dissolves in water to form a gel-like material. It can help lower blood cholesterol and glucose levels. Soluble fiber is found in oats, peas, beans, apples, citrus fruits, carrots, barley and psyllium.
  • Insoluble fiber. This type of fiber promotes the movement of material through your digestive system and increases stool bulk, so it can be of benefit to those who struggle with constipation or irregular stools. Whole-wheat flour, wheat bran, nuts, beans and vegetables, such as cauliflower, green beans and potatoes, are good sources of insoluble fiber.

Most plant-based foods, such as oatmeal and beans, contain both soluble and insoluble fiber. However, the amount of each type varies in different plant foods. To receive the greatest health benefit, eat a wide variety of high-fiber foods.

Benefits of a high-fiber diet

A high-fiber diet has many benefits, which include:

  • Normalizes bowel movements. Dietary fiber increases the weight and size of your stool and softens it. A bulky stool is easier to pass, decreasing your chance of constipation. If you have loose, watery stools, fiber may help to solidify the stool because it absorbs water and adds bulk to stool.
  • Helps maintain bowel health. A high-fiber diet may lower your risk of developing hemorrhoids and small pouches in your colon (diverticular disease). Some fiber is fermented in the colon. Researchers are looking at how this may play a role in preventing diseases of the colon.
  • Lowers cholesterol levels. Soluble fiber found in beans, oats, flaxseed and oat bran may help lower total blood cholesterol levels by lowering low-density lipoprotein, or “bad,” cholesterol levels. Studies also have shown that high-fiber foods may have other heart-health benefits, such as reducing blood pressure and inflammation.
  • Helps control blood sugar levels. In people with diabetes, fiber — particularly soluble fiber — can slow the absorption of sugar and help improve blood sugar levels. A healthy diet that includes insoluble fiber may also reduce the risk of developing type 2 diabetes.
  • Aids in achieving healthy weight. High-fiber foods tend to be more filling than low-fiber foods, so you’re likely to eat less and stay satisfied longer. And high-fiber foods tend to take longer to eat and to be less “energy dense,” which means they have fewer calories for the same volume of food.

Another benefit attributed to dietary fiber is prevention of colorectal cancer. However, the evidence that fiber reduces colorectal cancer is mixed.

How much fiber do you need?

The Institute of Medicine, which provides science-based advice on matters of medicine and health, gives the following daily fiber recommendations for adults:

Fiber: Daily recommendations for adults

Age 50 or younger Age 51 or older
Institute of Medicine
Men 38 grams 30 grams
Women 25 grams 21 grams

Your best fiber choices

If you aren’t getting enough fiber each day, you may need to boost your intake. Good choices include:

  • Whole-grain products
  • Fruits
  • Vegetables
  • Beans, peas and other legumes
  • Nuts and seeds

Refined or processed foods — such as canned fruits and vegetables, pulp-free juices, white breads and pastas, and non-whole-grain cereals — are lower in fiber. The grain-refining process removes the outer coat (bran) from the grain, which lowers its fiber content. Enriched foods have some of the B vitamins and iron back after processing, but not the fiber.

Fiber supplements and fortified foods

Whole foods rather than fiber supplements are generally better. Fiber supplements don’t provide the variety of fibers, vitamins, minerals and other beneficial nutrients that foods do.

Another way to get more fiber is to eat foods, such as cereal, granola bars, yogurt, and ice cream, with fiber added. The added fiber usually is labeled as “inulin” or “chicory root.” Some people complain of gassiness after eating foods with added fiber.

However, some people may still need a fiber supplement if dietary changes aren’t sufficient or if they have certain medical conditions, such as constipation, diarrhea or irritable bowel syndrome. Check with your doctor before taking fiber supplements.

Tips for fitting in more fiber

Need ideas for adding more fiber to your meals and snacks? Try these suggestions:

  • Jump-start your day. For breakfast choose a high-fiber breakfast cereal — 5 or more grams of fiber a serving. Opt for cereals with “whole grain,” “bran” or “fiber” in the name. Or add a few tablespoons of unprocessed wheat bran to your favorite cereal.
  • Switch to whole grains. Consume at least half of all grains as whole grains. Look for breads that list whole wheat, whole-wheat flour or another whole grain as the first ingredient on the label and have least 2 grams of dietary fiber a serving. Experiment with brown rice, wild rice, barley, whole-wheat pasta and bulgur wheat.
  • Bulk up baked goods. Substitute whole-grain flour for half or all of the white flour when baking. Try adding crushed bran cereal, unprocessed wheat bran or uncooked oatmeal to muffins, cakes and cookies.
  • Lean on legumes. Beans, peas and lentils are excellent sources of fiber. Add kidney beans to canned soup or a green salad. Or make nachos with refried black beans, lots of fresh veggies, whole-wheat tortilla chips and salsa.
  • Eat more fruit and vegetables. Fruits and vegetables are rich in fiber, as well as vitamins and minerals. Try to eat five or more servings daily.
  • Make snacks count. Fresh fruits, raw vegetables, low-fat popcorn and whole-grain crackers are all good choices. An occasional handful of nuts or dried fruits also is a healthy, high-fiber snack — although be aware that nuts and dried fruits are high in calories.

High-fiber foods are good for your health. But adding too much fiber too quickly can promote intestinal gas, abdominal bloating and cramping. Increase fiber in your diet gradually over a period of a few weeks. This allows the natural bacteria in your digestive system to adjust to the change.

Also, drink plenty of water. Fiber works best when it absorbs water, making your stool soft and bulky.

Should I be eating more fiber?

You probably know the basics about fiber: it’s the part of plant foods that your body cannot digest, and there are two types — soluble fiber and insoluble fiber. Both types of fiber are good for us.

Soluble fiber dissolves in water, forming a gel. It is the form of fiber that helps lower cholesterol levels, reduce the risk of heart disease, and regulate blood sugar levels. Soluble fiber is found in black beans, lima beans, Brussels sprouts, avocado, sweet potato, broccoli, turnips, and pears.

Insoluble fiber passes through the digestive system relatively intact, adding bulk to stools. It is the form of fiber that prevents constipation and regulates bowel movements, removing waste from the body in a timely manner. Insoluble fibers are found in whole wheat flour, wheat bran, cauliflower, green beans, and potatoes.

Despite these health benefits, most Americans get less than half the suggested amounts of daily fiber. The popularity of very-low-carbohydrate diets like the ketogenic or “keto” diet, the Atkins diet, and the Whole 30 diet, which may unintentionally decrease fiber consumption, hasn’t helped matters.

It may be time to give fiber another look.

New evidence confirms protective effect of fiber

A new analysis of almost 250 studies confirmed on a large scale that eating lots of fiber from vegetables, fruits, and whole grains can decrease your risk of dying from heart disease and cancer. Those who ate the most fiber reduced their risk of dying from cardiac disease, stroke, type 2 diabetes, and/or colon cancer by 16% to 24%, compared to people who ate very little fiber. The study also concluded that more fiber is better. For every additional 8 grams of dietary fiber a person consumed, the risk for each of the diseases fell by another 5% to 27%. Risk reductions were greatest when daily intake of dietary fiber was between 25 and 29 grams.

Two observational studies showed that dietary fiber intake is also associated with a decreased risk of death from any cause. Those eating the highest amount of fiber reduced their risk of dying by 23% compared to those eating the least amount of fiber. In these studies, the associations were more evident for fiber from cereals and vegetables than from fruit.

Weight control is another benefit of high-fiber diets. By helping you feel full longer after a meal or snack, high-fiber whole grains can help you eat less. In one large study, adults who ate several servings of whole grains a day were less likely to have gained weight, or gained less weight, than those who rarely ate whole grains.

Fiber: how much is enough?

On average, American adults eat 10 to 15 grams of total fiber per day, while the USDA’s recommended daily amount for adults up to age 50 is 25 grams for women and 38 grams for men. Women and men older than 50 should have 21 and 30 daily grams, respectively.

In general, it’s better to get your fiber from whole foods than from fiber supplements. Fiber supplements such as Metamucil, Citrucel, and Benefiber don’t provide the different types of fiber, vitamins, minerals, and other beneficial nutrients that whole foods do.

When reading a food label, choose foods that contain more fiber. As a rule of thumb, choose cereals with 6 or more grams of fiber per serving, breads and crackers with 3 or more grams per serving, and pasta with 4 or more grams per serving. Another strategy is to make sure that a whole-grain food has at least 1 gram of fiber for every 10 grams of carbohydrate. If you look for a 1:5 ratio, that is even better.

Ignore the marketing on front of the package labels. Just because a bread is labeled “multigrain” or “12 grain” does not mean it is a whole grain. The grains could be refined and the bread may be low in fiber. When you look at the ingredient list, make sure “whole” is the first ingredient.

Easy ways to get more fiber in your diet

Here are some strategies to increase fiber in your diet:

  • Start your day with a bowl of high-fiber cereal.
  • Add vegetables, dried beans, and peas to soups.
  • Add nuts, seeds, and fruit to plain yogurt.
  • Make a vegetarian chili filled with different types of beans and vegetables.
  • Add berries, nuts, and seeds to salads.
  • Try snacking on vegetables such as cauliflower, broccoli, carrots, and green beans. Serve them with a healthy dip such as hummus or a fresh salsa.
  • Eat more whole, natural foods and fewer processed foods.

A few important tips as you increase your fiber:

  • Do so gradually to give your gastrointestinal tract time to adapt.
  • Increase your water intake as you increase fiber.
  • If you have any digestive problems, such as constipation, check with your physician before dramatically increasing your fiber consumption.

Take a positive approach to eating more high-fiber foods. Beyond reducing risk of chronic disease, eating a variety of whole foods that contain good sources of fiber can be an easy and enjoyable way to keep you fuller longer and help control your weight. Fiber can expand your horizons with different tastes and textures, and can be a bonus to your health.

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Fiber: How Much Is Too Much? – Guide to Daily Fiber

A popular TV commercial shows a woman eating broccoli and other fiber-rich foods throughout the day, depicting how difficult it seems to get the recommended daily levels of fiber. In truth, a lot of people just don’t bother. Yet to the other extreme, it’s possible to get too much fiber or eat too much at once, which can lead to unpleasant side effects.

So just how much fiber do you need? The national fiber recommendations are 30 to 38 grams a day for men and 25 grams a day for women between 18 and 50 years old, and 21 grams a day if a woman is 51 and older. Another general guideline is to get 14 grams of fiber for every 1,000 calories in your diet. Achieving these goals is beneficial to your overall health, and fiber helps you feel fuller longer.

For many people, it can be a challenge to get that much fiber in a typical American diet. Most people top out at an average of 15 grams per day, regardless of how many calories they eat. But if you’re going overboard with a high-fiber diet plan, you could be putting yourself at risk for problems like stomach cramps, constipation, and even nutritional deficiency.

“High levels (of fiber) can also interfere with absorption of some minerals, such as iron, and some antioxidants, such as beta-carotene. It’s rare, though, for people in this country to be getting too much fiber,” says registered dietitian Brie Turner-McGrievy, Ph.D., R.D., of the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill.

Getting the Right Amount of Fiber

Of course, it’s possible to feel like you’re getting too much fiber, either because of how you’re eating your fiber, or because you’ve dramatically increased your fiber intake too quickly. Here are some tips for getting more fiber without unpleasant side effects:

  • Space out portions. “Spreading out your fiber intake throughout the day will allow you to avoid some of the gastrointestinal discomforts that a large amount of fiber may present,” says Dr. Turner-McGrievy. Try to include fiber-rich foods in every meal and snack, but don’t feel like you have to overdo it.
  • Increase slowly. A new commitment to healthy eating could make you want to achieve those daily fiber goals quickly, but when it comes to ingesting fiber, it’s a good idea to take your time. You want to give your gut the chance to get used to the new amounts of fiber you’re eating. This will decrease some of the digestive side effects you see with a sudden increase, Turner-McGrievy says. Plan to take about two weeks to reach your goal, and pay attention to discomfort along the way. If you do experience any discomfort, it may be a sign that you shouldn’t add any more fiber just yet.
  • Hydrate. Fluid and fiber go hand in hand: The more fiber you eat, the more fluid you need. “We need to make sure we drink an appropriate amount of water along with our fiber intake to allow for proper digestion,” says Turner-McGrievy. Remember that juices, soups, and other liquids count.

If your diet is largely made up of whole foods, including lots of vegetables, beans, fruits, and whole grains, you could easily meet or even slightly exceed the daily recommended fiber intake. But fiber intake isn’t necessarily a “more is better” situation once you’ve met the daily requirement. Taking significantly more fiber than is recommended won’t magically improve your health, and could actually make you feel worse.

Fiber: How to Increase the Amount in Your Diet

Fiber is a substance found in plants. Dietary fiber is a type of carbohydrate we eat. Eating the right amount of fiber has been shown to have a range of health benefits. It helps you feel full longer, which can curb overeating and weight gain. Eating fiber-rich foods aids in digestion and the absorption of nutrients.

Foods that are high in fiber can help treat certain issues. These include constipation, irritable bowel syndrome (IBS), and diverticulitis. Dietary fiber can reduce your risk of coronary heart disease, stroke, type 2 diabetes, and some cancers. It also may lower your cholesterol.

Path to improved health

The amount of fiber you should get from your daily diet depends on your age and gender. Men 50 years of age and younger should consume at least 38 grams of fiber per day. Men older than 50 years of age should get at least 30 grams of fiber daily. Women 50 years of age and younger should consume at least 25 grams of fiber per day. Women older than 50 years of age should get at least 21 grams of fiber daily.

The following changes can increase the fiber in your diet.

1. Eat at least 2 cups of fruits and 2 ½ cups of vegetables each day. This can include:

  • 1 artichoke
  • 1 medium sweet potato
  • 1 small pear
  • ½ cup of green peas
  • ½ cup of berries, such as raspberries or blackberries
  • ½ cup of prunes
  • ¼ cup figs or dates
  • ½ cup of spinach
  • 1 medium apple
  • 1 medium orange

2. Replace refined white bread with whole-grain breads and cereals. Choose brown rice instead of white rice. Eat the following foods:

  • 100% whole-wheat bread
  • oatmeal
  • brown rice
  • bran muffins
  • bran or multiple-grain cereals, cooked or dry
  • popcorn (unbuttered)
  • almonds

3. Check nutrition fact labels for the amount of dietary fiber. Try to get 5 grams of fiber per serving.

4. Add ¼ cup of wheat bran (miller’s bran) to foods. You can put it in cooked cereal, applesauce, or meat loaf.

5. Eat ½ cup cooked beans, such as navy, kidney, pinto, black, lima, or white beans.

Things to consider

Try not to add too much fiber to your diet at once. You may get symptoms such as bloating, cramping, or gas. You can prevent these by increasing your fiber slowly. Start with one of the changes listed above. Wait several days to a week before making another. If one change doesn’t seem to work for you, try a different one. Be sure to drink more fluids as you increase the amount of fiber you eat. Fluids help your body digest fiber. Try to drink 8 glasses a day, totaling at least 64 ounces a day. Choose no- or low-calorie beverages, such as water, unsweetened tea, or diet soda. 

Questions to ask your doctor

  • How much fiber is too much?
  • Should I take a supplement to increase my fiber intake?

Copyright © American Academy of Family Physicians

This information provides a general overview and may not apply to everyone. Talk to your family doctor to find out if this information applies to you and to get more information on this subject.

Federal Guidelines for Fiber for Men & Women | Healthy Eating

By Erin Coleman, R.D., L.D. Updated December 27, 2018

According to the U.S. Department of Agriculture, adults in the United States consume about half of the recommended intake for fiber. Since fiber plays a role in weight management, lack of dietary fiber may be one cause of high rates of overweight and obesity in the United States. A study published in a 2010 edition of the “American Journal of Clinical Nutrition” found that higher fiber intakes help prevent weight and waist-circumference gains.

Fiber Guidelines, Men

Men require more fiber than women, since they generally require more calories each day to maintain a healthy body weight. Adequate intake levels, or minimum daily requirements, for fiber are based on a man’s age. Older adults require less fiber because calorie requirements decrease with age. According to the Institute of Medicine, adequate intake levels for fiber are 38 grams per day for men ages 19 to 50 and 30 grams of fiber each day for men ages 50 and older.

Fiber Guidelines, Women

Federal fiber guidelines for women are slightly lower than for men. Adequate fiber intake levels are 25 grams per day for women ages 19 to 50 and 21 grams of fiber per day for those ages 50 and older, according to the Institute of Medicine. Women older than age 49 require less fiber because they require fewer calories each day for weight maintenance.

Soluble Fiber

Soluble fiber plays a role in reducing high cholesterol levels and heart disease risks. According to the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, men and women should consume at least 5 to 10 grams of soluble fiber each day and preferably 10 to 25 grams to help lower high LDL cholesterol levels. Soluble fiber is mainly found in oats, barley, psyllium seeds, fruits and legumes.

High-Fiber Foods

Many high-fiber foods contain soluble and insoluble fiber, which are both beneficial for weight management. High-fiber foods can increase satiety and help you feel full for a longer period of time. A 2005 review article published in the journal “Nutrition” reports that increasing high-fiber foods can improve weight-loss success and help achieve a healthy body weight. High-fiber foods include whole grains, fruits, vegetables, legumes, nuts and seeds.

Daily Fiber Intake for Men | Healthy Eating

By Matthew Lee Updated December 14, 2018

According to the 2010 Dietary Guidelines for Americans, most people do not eat enough fiber. The typical American’s daily intake is approximately 15 grams per day. Regardless of your age or physical activity level, this is less than half of the average man’s daily needs. To boost your daily intake, the Dietary Guidelines recommend that you eat more beans, peas, vegetables, fruits and whole-grain foods.

Factors Affecting Intake

There are two factors affecting a man’s daily fiber intake: age and activity level. As a general rule, your recommended fiber intake decreases with age and increases with your physical activity level. The Dietary Guidelines divide activity levels into three groups: sedentary, moderately active and active. Sedentary individuals do not obtain regular exercise outside of day-to-day activities. In comparison, moderately active individuals regularly meet the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention’s guidelines of 150 minutes of moderate-intensity physical activity per day, such as walking at a fast pace. Active individuals regularly exceed these guidelines, whether through longer activity durations or higher intensity exercise.


The 2010 Dietary Guidelines for Americans suggest that you eat at least 14 grams of dietary fiber per 1,000 calories. Using the recommended caloric intakes in the Guidelines, sedentary men between the ages of 19 and 30 should eat 33. 6 to 36.4 grams of fiber per day. These values increase to 36.4 to 39.2 grams for moderately active and 42 grams or more for active men. Between the ages of 31 and 50, you should eat 30.8 to 33.6 grams, 33.6 to 36.4 grams or 39.2 to 42 grams of fiber per day depending on your level of physical activity. These values drop further after the age of 50, with respective values of 28 to 30.8, 30.8 to 33.6 and 33.6 to 39.2 grams of fiber per day for sedentary, moderately active and active men.

Soluble and Insoluble

The two main types of fiber differ in whether or not they dissolve in water. Soluble fiber easily binds with water to form a gel-like substance in your intestines. In contrast, insoluble fiber passes through your digestive system intact. These properties result in different physiological effects. Both types add volume to food without adding calories, thus helping you to feel full on fewer calories. Insoluble fiber adds bulk to your stool and speeds digestion, thus helping to prevent and treat constipation. Soluble fiber lowers total and LDL, or “bad,” blood cholesterol levels, thus reducing your risk of developing cardiovascular disease. By slowing digestion, soluble fiber also decreases the rate of glucose absorption and helps to maintain blood glucose levels.


In general, whole grains, legumes and vegetables are good sources of both types of fiber. Although they also contain small amounts of soluble fiber, good sources of insoluble fiber include wheat bran, whole-wheat flour, celery, zucchini, green beans, cauliflower and avocados. Similarly, good sources of soluble fiber typically include small amounts of insoluble fiber. However, foods such as oat bran, lentils, peas, almonds, chia seeds, carrots, broccoli and prunes are much higher in soluble than insoluble fiber. To ensure that you obtain the benefits of both types of fiber, you should regularly use sources of both soluble and insoluble fiber to meet your daily needs.

Fiber | Young Men’s Health

Fiber is a type of carbohydrate found in foods like fruits, vegetables, grains, beans, and nuts. Since fiber gets digested in a different way than other carbohydrates, it helps you feel full after eating it.

There are two types of fiber: soluble and insoluble. Both types of fiber are good for you and are associated with health benefits. Soluble fiber helps to get rid of LDL (“bad”) cholesterol in your body, lowering total cholesterol and reducing your risk for heart disease. Soluble fiber can also improve blood sugar control, lower your risk for cancer, and help to prevent diarrhea by adding bulk to stools. Insoluble fiber helps move food through the digestive system, which prevents you from being constipated. If you regularly eat different kinds of fruits, vegetables, and whole grains, you are likely getting both kinds of fiber.

What foods have fiber in them?

Fiber gives plants their structure, so all foods that come from plants contain some amount of fiber. Here are some top fiber-containing foods:

  • Legumes such as lentils, beans, and peas
  • Whole grains such as barley, oats, brown rice, and whole wheat products (bread, pasta, crackers)
  • Nuts and seeds, including almonds, peanuts, and pistachios
  • Whole wheat cereals such as bran flakes, shredded wheat, and other cereals
  • Fruits such as apples (with skin), pears (with skin), oranges, and bananas
  • Berries such as blueberries, blackberries, and strawberries
  • Vegetables including broccoli, Brussels sprouts and carrots
  • Starchy vegetables such as corn and potatoes with skin

The list of foods above might sound familiar if you have ever been given suggestions for a healthy, balanced diet. Examples of foods that do not contain much fiber include: animal products such as meat, fish, cheese, yogurt, and milk, and highly processed foods such as white bread, chips, candy, and sugary foods and drinks. There are also products that have extra fiber added such as Fiber-One® bars and Activia® yogurt with fiber. While these products can be a healthy part of a balanced diet, try to get your fiber mainly from natural plant sources.

How much fiber do I need?

  • Young Women
    • Age 9-18: should get about 26 grams of fiber each day
  • Young Men
    • Age 9-13: should get about 31 grams of fiber each day
    • Age 14-18: should get about 38 grams of fiber each day

How do I know how much fiber food contains?

You can find the dietary fiber content of foods on nutrition facts labels, under “total carbohydrates”. Any serving of food with over 5g of fiber is considered ‘high fiber’. A few ingredients you may see on a food label’s ingredients list that mean it has added sources of fiber are inulin, psyllium husk, chicory root, guar gum and cellulose.

It’s not as hard as you might think to meet your fiber needs! Here is a sample day that would give you more than 30 grams of fiber:


  • 1 cup mini shredded wheat cereal with milk and 1/2 cup blueberries



  • 2 slices of whole grain bread with turkey, lettuce, and tomato, glass of milk



  • Black bean burrito with brown rice, salsa, and cheese
  • Small spinach salad

Will eating fiber-rich foods make me gassy or constipated?

Many foods that are part of a healthy diet such as veggies, fruits and whole grains naturally mix with the bacteria in your stomach to cause a reaction, which makes gas. You can usually avoid this by increasing your fiber intake slowly, over time. If you still find gassiness to be a problem, you can talk to your health care provider about taking an over-the-counter enzyme before meals, such as Beano®. Eating too much fiber too quickly can give you a stomach ache, so make sure to start slow and drink plenty of water.


Everyone knows that each person has an individual muscle composition, that is, only his inherent combination of muscle cells (fibers) of different types in all skeletal muscles. But there are several classifications of these types of fibers and they do not always coincide. What classifications are now accepted?
Muscle fibers are divided:

1. White and red

2. Fast and slow

3. Glycolytic, intermediate and oxidative

4.For high-threshold and low-threshold

Let’s analyze everything in detail.

White and red. In cross-section, the muscle fiber can have a different color. It depends on the amount of myoglobin muscle pigment in the muscle fiber sarcoplasm. If the content of myoglobin in the muscle fiber is large, then the fiber has a reddish-brown color. If myoglobin is low, then it is pale pink. In humans, almost every muscle contains white and red fibers, as well as weakly pigmented fibers.Myoglobin is used to transport oxygen inside the fiber from the surface to the mitochondria; accordingly, its amount is determined by the number of mitochondria. By increasing the number of mitochondria in the cell with special training, we increase the amount of myoglobin and change the color of the fiber.

Fast and slow. They are classified by the activity of the enzyme ATPase and, accordingly, by the rate of muscle contraction. The activity of this enzyme is inherited and cannot be trained. Each fiber has its own constant activity of this enzyme.The release of the energy contained in ATP is carried out thanks to ATP-ase. The energy of one ATP molecule is enough for one turn (stroke) of the myosin bridges. The bridges disengage from the actin filament, return to their original position, engage with the new actin site, and take a stroke. The single stroke speed is the same for all muscles. ATP energy is mainly required for decoupling. The next stroke requires a new ATP molecule. In fibers with high ATP-ase activity, ATP breakdown occurs faster, and per unit time there is a greater number of bridges strokes, that is, the muscle contracts faster.

Glycolytic, intermediate and oxidative. They are classified by the oxidative potential of the muscle, that is, by the number of mitochondria in the muscle fiber. Let me remind you that mitochondria are cellular organelles in which glucose or fat is broken down to carbon dioxide and water, resynthesizing ATP, which is necessary for the resynthesis of creatine phosphate. Creatine phosphate is used to resynthesize myofibrillar ATP molecules, which are essential for muscle contraction. Outside the mitochondria, the muscle can also break down glucose to pyruvate with ATP resynthesis, but this produces lactic acid, which acidifies the muscle and causes it to fatigue.

On this basis, muscle fibers are divided into 3 groups:

1. Oxidizing muscle fibers. In them, the mass of mitochondria is so great that a significant increase in it during the training process no longer occurs.

2. Intermediate muscle fibers. In them, the mass of mitochondria is significantly reduced, and lactic acid accumulates in the muscle during work, but rather slowly, and they get tired much more slowly than glycolytic ones.

3. Glycolytic muscle fibers.They have a very small amount of mitochondria. Therefore, they are dominated by anaerobic glycolysis with the accumulation of lactic acid, which is why they got their name. (Anaerobic glycolysis is the breakdown of glucose without oxygen to lactic acid and ATP; aerobic glycolysis, or oxidation, is the breakdown of glucose in the mitochondria with the participation of oxygen to carbon dioxide, water and ATP.)

Non-exercising people usually have fast fibers – glycolytic and intermediate, and slow ones are oxidative. However, with proper training to increase endurance, intermediate and part of the glycolytic fibers can be made oxidative, and then they, without losing strength, will cease to be tired.

High threshold and low threshold. They are classified according to the level of the excitability threshold of motor units. The muscle contracts under the action of a nerve impulse, which is of an electrical nature. Each motor unit (MU) includes a motor neuron, an axon, and a collection of muscle fibers. The number of MUs in a person remains unchanged throughout life.Motor units have their own threshold of excitability. If the nerve impulse sent by the brain is below this threshold, the DE is passive. If the nerve impulse has a threshold value for this MU or exceeds it, the muscle fibers contract. Low-threshold MUs have small motoneurons, a thin axon, and hundreds of innervated slow muscle fibers. High-threshold MUs have large motoneurons, a thick axon, and thousands of innervated fast muscle fibers.

As you can see, two of the presented classifications are unchanged throughout a person’s life, regardless of training, and two directly depend on training.In the absence of a motor regime, for example, in a coma, or a long stay in a cast, even slow muscle fibers lose their mitochondria and, accordingly, myoglobin and become white and glycolytic.

Therefore, at present in sports science it is considered wrong to say: “training aimed at hypertrophy of fast muscle fibers”, or “hyperplasia of myofibrils in slow muscle fibers”, although 10 years ago it was considered acceptable even in specialized scientific publications.Now, if we are talking about the training effect on CF, then we use only the classification according to the oxidative potential of the muscle. The classifications are the same for non-exercising and for representatives of speed-strength and strength sports, where the goal is to raise the maximum weight in a single repetition. In sports requiring endurance, the classifications will not be the same.

For clarity, I will give a somewhat exaggerated, although theoretically quite possible example. I will make a reservation right away that all the numbers are conditional, and they should not be taken literally.Imagine an athlete who has the best bench press result of 200 kg (without equipment), he can bench 180 kg 3 times, 150 kg 10 times. The results show that the oxidative potential of the muscles is very low. The fiber ratio is, suppose, 90% fast, 10% slow. According to the oxidative potential, 75% glycolytic, 15% intermediate and 10% oxidative. The athlete achieves the best success in increasing muscle mass when he works in the press for 6 repetitions. The weight of the bar is large enough to recruit 75% of glycolytic fibers, and their oxidative potential is so low that 6 reps are enough for the necessary muscle acidification.

But for some reason this athlete decided to maximize his endurance and for two months, 2-3 times a day, worked daily to increase mitochondria in glycolytic and intermediate CF. You can read more about this technique in the 5th issue of “FM”, in my article “Endurance Training”. Plus, the athlete still maintained his strength potential, performing 1-2 repetitions with a near-maximum weight once every 7-10 days. Two months is enough for the maximum saturation of the muscles with mitochondria.After two months, the athlete conducts testing. It shows that it now has 5% glycolytic fibers, 70% intermediate and 25% oxidative. That is, glycolytic became intermediate, except for 5% of the highest threshold, and intermediate became oxidizing. According to the activity of ATP-ase, the ratio naturally did not change, as well as 90% fast and 10% slow. He squeezed 200 kg for 1 time, myofibrils did not grow from such training, and he did not give the result to fall, using MMU in training. He squeezed 180 kg 8 times, and 150 kg 25 times.A huge number of new mitochondria “ate” lactic acid, preventing the muscles from acidifying, which significantly increased their functionality.
Now for our athlete to increase muscle mass, working for 6 repetitions will give almost nothing. It uses only 5% of the remaining glycolytic fibers in the desired mode.

Now he will have to work at least 15 repetitions per set in order to achieve the acidification of the muscles necessary for muscle growth. And, in addition, to include static-dynamic exercises in training, since only they contribute to the hypertrophy of oxidative muscle fibers, of which he now has 25%, and it is no longer advisable to ignore them.

As we can see, the same person is forced to use completely different training programs for hypertrophy of their fast muscle fibers after a change in their oxidative potential! That is why it is considered incorrect to talk about the training effect on fiber types using the classification according to the ATP-za activity. Only classification by muscle oxidative capacity!

The amazing world of the navel: where does wool come from?

  • Jason Goldman
  • BBC Future

Photo author, Getty

Photo caption,

Perhaps the formation of umbilical pellets helps to cleanse the navel of bacteria

Why do some people have a navel during the day stays clean, while others have to remove a fluffy lump from it every night? The answer to this question was searched by the correspondent

BBC Future .

Here’s what you need to know about umbilical pellets – hairballs that form in the belly button – most commonly seen in hairy middle-aged men, especially those who have recently gained weight.

These are the conclusions reached by Dr. Karl Krushelnicki from the University of Sydney. Dr. Karl, as his fans call him, hosts a science radio show. One of the listeners once asked him where the umbilical pellets come from. Krushelnicki thought about it and decided to conduct an Internet study, according to the results of which he concluded that umbilical hair is found mainly in middle-aged men with a lot of body hair.For this research in 2002, he was awarded the Shnobel Prize, awarded “for achievements that make you laugh first and then think.”

In addition to the online study, Krushelnitsky and a group of colleagues collected umbilical wool samples from volunteers and asked them to wash the hair around the navel. It turned out that water treatments really prevent the formation of pellets.

Dr. Karl and his colleagues may not be the world’s leading experts in this field, but their explanation for the formation of umbilical hair is at least intuitive.The hair around the navel, in their opinion, plays the role of a one-sided ratchet – it picks up the smallest fibers of tissue from the inside of the garment and moves them to the navel.

The older the clothes, the smaller the pellets

Krushelnicki is not the only one who is interested in the mechanism of umbilical hair formation. In 2009, researcher Georg Steinhauser of the Technical University of Vienna wrote an article on the same topic in the journal Medical Hypotheses. For reasons known only to him, Steinhauser collected his own umbilical pellets every night for three years.Although he assures him that he is clean enough and takes a shower every day, at the end of the day, a ball of fur invariably forms in Steinhauser’s navel.

In total, Steinhauser collected 503 of these spools with a total weight of less than a gram. On average, each lump weighed 1.82 mg, although seven samples exceeded 7.2 mg, with the 9.17 milligram giant being the winner.

Author of the photo, Getty

Caption to the photo,

The color of the umbilical wool, as a rule, corresponds to the predominant color of the villi of which it is composed

” wore on every particular day, “wrote Steinhauser.Moreover, the size of the pellets was smaller when wearing suit shirts, as well as old T-shirts – in the latter case, this is probably due to the fact that very few fibers remained on the fabric.

Steinhauser came to the same conclusion as Krushelnicki: the hair growing around the navel is responsible for the formation of pellets. He suggested that it is the hairs that collect the villi from the clothes, and then direct them to the navel. “Hair scales act like fish hooks,” the researcher wrote.

When Steinhauser shaved the hair around the navel, he found that, as with Dr. Karl’s volunteers, this was enough to stop the process of umbilical hair formation.

But Steinhauser went even further. He analyzed the chemical composition of the pellet that had formed in his navel after wearing a white 100% cotton T-shirt. If the sample consisted entirely of T-shirt fluff, analysis would show only cellulose in the pellet. However, the researcher discovered the presence of other particles – dust, skin flakes, fat and protein cells, and sweat.

Apparently, the hairs on the belly do not care what to hook. Based on these results, Steinhauser concluded that those of us who “produce” umbilical hair should have cleaner navels in general, since other types of contamination are also eliminated in the process of removing the pellets.

Although not all scientists devote their efforts and time to studying the causes of the formation of umbilical pellets (perhaps Krushelnitsky and Steinhauser are generally the only researchers interested in this topic), now at North Carolina State University, serious research is being carried out in order to understand what else can be found in the human navel.

Rob Dunn, an associate of the Department of Biology, together with the University Center for Behavioral Biology, established the Belly Button Diversity Project.In 2011, Dunn and colleagues collected samples of umbilical wool from more than 500 volunteers at the Science Online conference in Raleigh, North Carolina, and at the Darwin Day event at the city’s Museum of Natural Sciences. The researchers were not interested in the villi – they wanted to study the microflora of the navel. “The navel is one of the closest habitats to us, but it remains relatively poorly understood,” the scientists said.

Since that very first study (and since then researchers have collected additional samples), Dunn’s team has discovered a staggering microbiological diversity of the navel – truly a storehouse of microscopic life forms.

Adaptation to life in the navel

In the first batch of 60 samples, scientists found at least 2368 species of microorganisms. They suspect that the real figure is likely to be even higher. But the number of bacteria found is more than twice the diversity of bird or ant species inhabiting North America.

However, most of the detected species are rare – 2,128 of them were found in the navels of five or less experimental subjects. In fact, the largest number of bacteria species was present in the navel of a single volunteer.

Photo author, Getty

Photo caption,

Umbilical pellets are also formed in those who shower every day

Despite such an amazing diversity, the vast majority of bacteria living in human navels belong to only a few species. Although the researchers were unable to find a single species of bacteria that would be typical of the umbilical flora of all subjects, eight species were found in the navels of at least 70% of the volunteers. The total number of organisms of these species was almost half of the total number of all bacteria found.

Researchers have also discovered three types of archaea – bacteria that are commonly found in extreme environments. Interestingly, two of the three species were found in the navel of the same volunteer, who confessed to not taking a shower in several years.

Where did such a variety of umbilical flora come from? Dunn’s team suspects that eight of the most common species of bacteria have adapted to life on human skin – or perhaps in the navel itself – while other species only occasionally visit the distant umbilical shores.

Scientists draw an analogy with the diversity of fish species at the mouth of a river. Permanent inhabitants have adapted to this environment, while other species, which can swim in the river for a short time, are not adapted to long-term survival in local conditions. Likewise, a disproportionate number of certain species of trees in rainforests adapt to the local climate. Other species, although capable of growing in tropical soil, are not able to form colonies.

Although the wide variety of microorganisms makes it impossible to predict which types of bacteria will be found in the navel of an individual person, researchers are able to tell which species are most common.

So even if pellets do not form in your navel, you should not be sad – it is still a very densely populated area, life is in full swing there.

Do men have cellulite?

Many women know firsthand what orange peel skin is.This aesthetic problem can occur at almost any age, regardless of weight and body structure.

Cellulite is not a disease per se. It can be more or less noticeable, almost invisible or pronounced.

Most often, this cosmetic problem is the result of a violation of lymph flow and blood circulation in the vessels of the deep layers of the skin.

Cosmetic defect or disease?

Several stages of cellulite development are clinically determined:

  • smooth skin relief, fluid stagnation causes local swelling;
  • slight irregularities, uneven compaction of the tissues of fatty deposits appear;
  • stagnation of fluid, blood circulation worsens (swelling compresses blood vessels), when squeezed, irregularities of the “orange peel” are clearly visible, bruises may appear;
  • changes are noticeable with the naked eye, significant irregularities do not go away even with relaxed muscles, hard nodules (“cellulite stones”) appear, painful sensations when pressed, the skin darkens, acquires a reddish-bluish tint.

Despite the separation of stages and the presence of symptoms, cellulite is not a medical concept. There is no such disease, doctors use the term “gynoid lipodystrophy”. It is rather a cosmetic defect that does not affect well-being in any way.

Does cellulite occur in the stronger sex?

Cellulite in the overwhelming majority of cases is a woman’s problem. In men, the distribution of subcutaneous fat is different.

This can be explained by the structural features of the fat layer and other hormonal status.The subcutaneous tissue layer in men and women consists of collagen fibers.

In women, they are located in the same direction perpendicular to the skin. This allows fatty tissue to accumulate, stretching the skin. The hormone estrogen is responsible for the formation of these “strategic reserves”. The skin is elastic, easily stretched: nature provides for the period of pregnancy and the accumulation of a supply of nutrients by the female body.

In men, collagen fibers are arranged crosswise to form cells.They are not as easily stretchable as women. In addition, the male body produces little estrogen. Fat deposits can also accumulate in the cells, but they are not so noticeable, the denser skin hides small irregularities of the adipose tissue. Therefore, visually, cellulite in men is not detected.

Thin skin in women cannot hide seals and irregularities in fat accumulations. In men, on the contrary, there is dense skin and a relatively even distribution of subcutaneous fat.

Male cellulite is a very rare occurrence

But cellulite is still found in the male half of humanity.In men who are inclined to be overweight, “according to the female type,” who abuse beer, the body activates the production of the female hormone estrogen. The hormonal balance is disturbed, cellulite appears in places with a large accumulation of fatty deposits. But most often, even with overweight, men’s skin remains smooth.

Anatomy of the prostate

The prostate gland is an androgen-dependent unpaired organ of the male reproductive system. The function of the prostate is to maintain spermatogenesis in the seminiferous tubules of the testicles, to ensure the transport of spermatozoa along the vas deferens and ejaculation, as well as the formation of sexual desire.

Shape and size . The prostate has the shape of an irregular ball, resembling a chestnut, the base of which is turned upward. The size of the prostate gland varies greatly depending on the age of the man. The vertical size of the prostate is on average 30 mm, frontal – 40 mm, sagittal – 20 mm. The mass of the gland in sexually mature men under 30 is about 16 grams. Normally, the prostate has an elastic consistency.

Location .The prostate gland is located below the bladder between the pubic symphysis and the rectum. The base of the prostate, which is tilted slightly forward and downward, is almost completely fused with the bottom of the bladder. The posterior part of the gland is covered with the vas deferens and seminal vesicles. On the border between the posterior surface of the organ and its base, there is a frontal groove. Through it, two vas deferens enter the prostate, which open into the lumen of the prostate urethra on the sides of the seminal tubercle.From below, the gland is fixed by the fibers of the anterior muscle tissue that lifts the rectum. In front, the prostate connects to the pubic symphysis through the pubic-prostate ligament.

Building . In the prostate, the apex, base, anterior, posterior and inferolateral surfaces are distinguished. The gland has a right and left lobe, which are interconnected by the middle lobe, or isthmus. It is limited to the places of entry into the cavity of the gland of the vas deferens.The isthmus of the prostate adjoins the bottom of the bladder and protrudes into its lumen, forming a “tongue”, which is practically not pronounced in young men, and in old age can significantly increase and lead to urination disorders. The lateral lobes of the prostate normally protrude slightly into the lumen of the anus, through which the gland can be felt during a rectal examination.

Blood supply . In the prostate gland there are arteries, which are branches of the middle rectal inferior cystic blood vessels.Around the prostate is a plexus of wide veins, which is associated with similar plexuses of the urethra and the end of the intestine.

Lymphatic drainage . The lymphatic vessels of the prostate are located along the vas deferens. They run along the lateral walls of the pelvis to the internal and external iliac lymph nodes, as well as along the anterior surface of the sacrum towards the sacral lymph nodes.

Innervation .Nerves are located in the prostate gland, which are composed of postganglionic sensitive parasympathetic and sympathetic fibers. Nerves go to the prostate from the lower hypogastric plexus. On the surface of the gland, the fibers form the prostate plexus.

90,000 Myositis: description of the disease, causes, symptoms, cost of treatment in Moscow

When one or more skeletal muscles become inflamed, it is called myositis.The disease has a different etiology, symptomatology, nature of the course and localization. The inflammatory process negatively affects the joints, heart, intestines, skin, lungs.

The occurrence of such a disease is rare. In the majority of reported cases, myositis is a systemic disease. This means that all skeletal muscles are involved in the inflammatory process. The most common form is cervical myositis. If we talk about a percentage, then all cases are more than 50%.The second place is taken by myositis of the lumbar spine.

Both adults and children are affected by myositis. In children, in most cases, dermatomyositis is diagnosed. Typically, a child’s age ranges from one to fifteen years. According to statistics, the disease affects more women than men. If a person’s age exceeds 55 years, in most cases, the presence of fibromyositis is detected.

Now myositis is called office disease.This suggests that those people who have sedentary work are at risk. There are situations when the occurrence of myositis is a consequence of professional activity. For example, certain muscle groups and creative people (pianists, violinists) become inflamed.

Myositis can be an independent disease or a consequence of another disease. And also, the pathology can have a mild form and disappear on its own after a short period of time, or it can be difficult and torment a person all his life.

Why does myositis appear

1. Infectious disease. Viral infection is the most common cause of myositis. More rarely, bacterial agents are the cause of muscle inflammation. An infection that is located in the underlying focus, for example, in the tonsils, can spread through the bloodstream to muscle tissue. For example, the appearance of non-purulent myositis is associated with influenza, acute respiratory viral infection, syphilis, tuberculosis, typhus.The cause of the development of purulent myositis is a generalized purulent infection, the provoking factor of which is staphylococcus and streptococcus, osteomyelitis, fungal microorganisms. In such a situation, the disease is difficult, the patient needs surgical treatment.

2. Autoimmune disease. Systemic diseases, especially collagenosis, are accompanied by myositis. The production of antibodies begins, which attack their own tissues, and an inflammatory process develops in the muscles.This form of the disease is characterized by a subacute or chronic course and the presence of severe pain. Myositis in most cases accompanies scleredema, lupus, rheumatoid arthritis.

3. Parasitic invasion. The penetration of parasites into the body can cause the development of myositis. The inflammatory process in the muscles can provoke toxoplasmosis, cysticercosis, trichinosis, echinococcosis. If the parasite has entered the muscle tissue, the inflammatory process will be of a toxic-allergic nature.

4. Postponed trauma. If the muscle fibers are torn, inflammatory edema develops, then the attachment of weakness, painful sensations is observed. When the tear heals, the swelling disappears. As a result, the muscle tissue is replaced by scar tissue, the muscle will become shorter. Minor trauma, hypothermia, muscle cramps, intense physical activity provoke a mild form of myositis. In rare cases, rhabdominosis develops when muscle tissue dies.The cause is dermatomyositis and polymyositis.

5. Professional cost. The development of myositis can often be found in a pianist, violinist, PC operator, driver. The reason is a prolonged load on a certain muscle group, the constant finding of the body in an uncomfortable position. As a result, the muscles do not receive the necessary nutrition, circulatory disorders occur, and a dystrophic process develops.

How does the disease manifest

The main symptom of myositis is muscle weakness.Such a condition can be present in a person constantly and have a pronounced character, or it appears only after a person performs any tests. Muscle strength is not immediately lost. The duration of this process can vary from 3-4 weeks to 6-7 months. The inflammatory process affects the thigh, cervical, shoulder, dorsal muscles. Myositis is characterized by a bilateral symmetrical inflammatory process. The victim cannot lift heavy objects or climb stairs.In some cases, it becomes difficult to raise an arm and dress on your own.

Brachial and pelvic myositis is more difficult for people to transfer. In such patients, a disturbed gait is observed, it is difficult to lift anything even from a table, a person may fall when moving.

In addition, the signs of myositis include:

  • A rash appears.

  • General fatigue increases.

  • The skin is thickened and hardened.

  • There is aching pain, which intensifies during movement.

  • The skin turns red.

  • The zone of the inflammatory process swells.

  • The body temperature rises.

  • Headache often hurts.

  • Exacerbation of myositis is accompanied by pain in the joint.

Such a disease can begin acutely, or it can proceed chronically. The acute form can become chronic. This can happen if ineffective treatment is prescribed or it is completely absent. Acute myositis develops after an injury, severe muscle tension, hypothermia.

The chronic form of the disease is characterized by an undulating course, when painful sensations intensify with a change in the weather, muscle overexertion.In some cases, the mobility of the joint, which is located next to the focus of inflammation, may be limited.

Varieties of the disease

1. Cervical myositis. This type is due to the appearance of a painful syndrome some time after the provoking factor has affected. The pain intensifies when a person tries to turn the neck, tilt the head. Soreness can be reflected in the head, shoulders, back, shoulder blades. This feeling will not disappear even during a calm state and immobility.The skin over the inflammatory focus may turn red. The aggravation of a person’s condition occurs with hypothermia.

2. Spinal myositis. Painful sensations mainly intensify in the morning. At night, swelling increases, muscles spasm. In most cases, painful sensations in the back appear some time after the provoking factor has acted. After the elimination of such a factor, the pain will be present for a long time. Pain intensifies during any physical activity (tilt, turn).

3. Myositis of the upper and lower extremities. This form is less common than the others. Basically, the inflammatory process in the muscles of the arms and legs is characteristic of polymyositis. It is difficult for a person to make various movements, raising his hands up.

4. Thoracic myositis. This is a widespread species. Painful sensations are constantly present. Breathing is accompanied by movement of the chest, which in turn cannot be limited.

5.Ocular myositis. The eye muscles are affected by this type of disease. Soreness increases when a person tries to turn his gaze to the side or up. Swelling of the eyelids occurs, they do not fully open. An unexpressed exophthalmos may develop. With the transition of the disease to a chronic form, restrictive myopathy will develop.

6. Polymyositis. This type of disease develops with a predisposition to systemic disease. According to scientific data, a transferred viral infection, cancer can become the impetus.Specific antibodies are produced, which are directed by the immune system to fight its own tissues. As a result, rhabdomyolysis develops, during which muscle fibers are damaged. With rhabdomyolysis, inflammation begins and can spread to nearby tissues. A person feels pain in the joints, dermatitis, arthritis develops.

7. Neuromyositis. It is a subspecies of polymyositis. There is an inflammation of the muscles, nerves located in the lesion focus.When the disease progresses, the inflammatory process is localized in the distal nerve fibers. The victim has increased sensitivity, acute painful sensations, muscles are stretched, muscle strength decreases, muscle tone decreases, joints begin to ache. As the disease progresses, the painful syndrome intensifies.

8. With polyfibromyositis, muscle tissue is replaced by connective tissue. This is explained by the destruction of muscles, which have been subject to the inflammatory process for a long time.In the place where the muscles were, scar tissue forms. She is nodules that are well felt. When scars appear in the tendons, contractures may appear and muscle mobility may deteriorate. Symptoms of polyfibromyositis: muscle hardening, nodules appear, muscles contract abnormally, range of motion is reduced, and it is difficult to swallow food.

9. Lumbar. This is a widespread form of the disease. Painful sensations with lumbar myositis are distinguished by a aching character and not a cessation of intensity even in a calm state.The pain will increase if you press on the lower back, or try to bend over, turn, etc. To distinguish between lumbar myositis and osteochondrosis, kidney disease, intervertebral hernia. The symptoms of the disease, the results of the X-ray examination, magnetic resonance imaging and computed tomography are taken into account. This form of the disease in most cases occurs in the elderly or a person who works in an office.

What must be observed during treatment

1.Warming up the muscles should precede any physical activity. Thanks to this, blood flow is normalized and the heart works faster.

2. Avoid overvoltage. Perform exercises at a pace that will not cause discomfort.

3. Any physical activity should end with good rest.

4. Carry out a smooth increase in tempo.

5. If you feel unwell, the exercise program should be simplified.

How some medicines work

Corticosteroids. The purpose of hormonal drugs is to reduce inflammation. In most cases, the patient is prescribed prednisone. In addition, they may prescribe methylprednisolone, hydrocortisone, triamcinolone, betamethasone, dexamethasone. Taking these drugs in high doses increases the risk of a decreased immune system activity. As a result, you can become infected with another disease. Therefore, the dosage should be calculated by a qualified specialist, taking into account the characteristics of the patient’s body.

Taking azathioprine and methotrexate. These drugs are immunosuppressive. They inhibit the function due to which red blood cells and leukocytes are produced. During their intake, it is necessary to take a general blood test once a month. With the independent use of such drugs, when the wrong dosage is chosen, a person can lose hair, worsen the functioning of the liver. In addition, the appearance of nausea, vomiting, and secondary infections may occur.

Reception of plaquenil.The action of such a drug is able to relieve the inflammatory process, to have an immunosuppressive effect. In most cases, such a remedy is prescribed to an elderly person who has been diagnosed with dermatomyositis.

Reception of gamma immunoglobulins. This drug has been used for many years to treat various diseases. While taking this medication, there is a decrease in the level of enzymes that are present in the blood in large volumes due to the destruction of muscles. Taking this drug is indicated for myositis, the cause of which was a virus.

Taking cyclophosphamide. The patient is prescribed this drug if the disease is in an advanced stage. This is a potent remedy, therefore independent use is strictly prohibited.

Early diagnosis of prostate cancer using prostate-specific antigen | Prostate biopsy is performed under ultrasound control

Prostate cancer is the most common malignant tumor of the genitourinary system in men.As statistics show, this disease is in second place among oncological pathologies that are the cause of death for men over 50 years old.

Like almost any malignant tumor, prostate cancer is very difficult to suspect in the early stages. The patient is not bothered by any symptoms. Most men come to the doctor’s office even when the tumor is in a neglected state, treatment takes more time and effort, and the prognosis is getting worse.

The only way to detect a malignant tumor of the prostate gland in time is to undergo regular screening tests.Diagnosis of prostate cancer includes the determination of a specific tumor marker in the blood – PSA, with an increase in which a biopsy of the prostate is performed. The Urology Clinic of the Moscow State University of Medicine and Dentistry conducts a comprehensive examination of men who have a suspicion of the disease, as well as an annual screening of all men over 50 years of age.

Timely high-quality diagnosis of prostate cancer is an early effective treatment and a more favorable prognosis.

Study of prostate specific antigen

PSA (prostate-specific antigen) is a substance that is normally produced in a small amount by the cells of the prostate gland of a healthy man.If the PSA level in the blood increases greatly, then this may indicate a malignant tumor of the prostate.

Normally, with age, there is an increase in the content of prostate specific antigen in the blood:


PSA content norm

40-49 years

2.5 ng / ml

50-59 years

3.5 ng / ml

60-69 years

4.5 ng / ml

70-79 years

6.5 ng / ml

However, the PSA level in prostate cancer is not an unambiguous indicator by which an accurate diagnosis can be made.For example, the content of this tumor marker in the blood can increase with benign hyperplasia (adenoma), prostatitis (inflammatory lesion of the prostate). A blood test for a marker of prostate cancer only indicates the likelihood of having a malignant neoplasm:

PSA content

Probability of disease

up to 4 ng / ml


4 to 10 ng / ml


more than 10 ng / ml


Therefore, other studies need to be carried out to confirm the disease.

The accuracy of determining PSA in prostate cancer also depends on the equipment of the laboratory in which the study is carried out. Modern equipment, which is used in the Clinic of Urology of the Moscow State University of Medicine and Dentistry, allows you to get a reliable result.

Prostate biopsy

Biopsy is the only method that can reliably diagnose prostate cancer.

During a biopsy, a small piece of tissue from the prostate is removed.He is sent to a laboratory, where the tissue is examined under a microscope, malignant cells are detected, and their number is determined.

In the diagnosis of prostate cancer, the biopsy is highly accurate. But with a small tumor, a false negative result can be obtained. Therefore, the doctor always focuses on the data obtained after conducting other studies.

Most often, prostate biopsy is performed under ultrasound guidance. The doctor performs local anesthesia and inserts an ultrasound probe into the patient’s rectum.A biopsy needle is inserted through a special channel in the transducer. During a quick short injection, the needle is immersed in the prostate gland and a piece of tissue (“column”) remains inside it. He is sent to the laboratory.

The more “bars” you get, the more accurate the result will be. Usually the doctor takes pieces of tissue from the gland from 12 different places. The procedure is practically painless.

The patient is given antibiotics before and after the biopsy to prevent infection of the puncture sites.Over the next few days, the patient may have small impurities of blood in the feces, urine, semen.

Ultrasound of the prostate

Ultrasound of the prostate gland helps to determine its size and configuration.

The procedure is performed in two ways:

Transabdominal ultrasound of the prostate. Similar to any standard abdominal or pelvic ultrasound. The doctor puts the patient on a couch, lubricates his skin with a special gel and places a sensor on it.With transabdominal examination, due to the location of the organ, prostate cancer is not very well visualized on ultrasound. It is impossible to fully assess the size and prevalence of the tumor. The research is rather indicative.

Transrectal ultrasound of the prostate (TRUS of the prostate). For this study, a special sensor is used, which is inserted through the rectum. It has a small diameter (1.5–2 cm), so the manipulation does not cause severe discomfort to the man.Transrectal ultrasound of the prostate is more informative than transabdominal examination, since the prostate is very close to the anterior rectal wall.

Most often, the doctor first performs a transabdominal examination, and then TRUS of the prostate. Simultaneously with conventional ultrasound, dopplerography and duplex scanning can be used – these ultrasound techniques allow us to assess the state of blood flow in the organ itself and in the tumor.

Focus of acinar prostate adenocarcinoma Gleason 3 + 3.Painting GE

Focus of acinar adenocarcinoma of the prostate Gleason 3 + 3 Staining IHC AMACR

Focus of acinar prostate adenocarcinoma Gleason 3 + 3. IHC staining Cytokeratin HMW

Nerve fibers in paraprostatic tissue and prostate capsule IHC stain S100

Parasympathetic nerve fibers in paraprostatic tissue IHC staining Nitric oxide

Sympathetic nerve fibers in paraprostatic tissue, IHC staining Tyrosine hydroxylase

Tactical Body Armor | DuPont ™ Kevlar®

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