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Fire on skin: First Aid Treatment for Thermal Burns


First Aid Treatment for Thermal Burns

Call 911 if:

  • The burn penetrates all layers of the skin.
  • The skin is leathery or charred looking, with white, brown, or black patches.
  • The person is an infant or a senior.


For All Burns

1. Stop Burning Immediately

  • Put out fire or stop the person’s contact with hot liquid, steam, or other material.
  • Help the person “stop, drop, and roll” to smother flames.
  • Remove smoldering material from the person.
  • Remove hot or burned clothing. If clothing sticks to skin, cut or tear around it.

2. Remove Constrictive Clothing Immediately

  • Take off jewelry, belts, and tight clothing. Burns can swell quickly.

Then take the following steps:

For First-Degree Burns (Affecting Top Layer of Skin)

1. Cool Burn

  • Hold burned skin under cool (not cold) running water or immerse in cool water until the pain subsides.
  • Use compresses if running water isn’t available.

2. Protect Burn

  • Cover with sterile, non-adhesive bandage or clean cloth.
  • Do not apply butter, oil, lotions, or creams (especially if they contain fragrance). Apply a petroleum-based ointment two to three times per day.

3. Treat Pain

4. When to See a Doctor

Seek medical help if:

  • You see signs of infection, like increased pain, redness, swelling, fever, or oozing.
  • The person needs tetanus or booster shot, depending on date of last injection. Tetanus booster should be given every 10 years.
  • The burn blister is larger than two inches or oozes.
  • Redness and pain last more than a few hours.
  • The pain gets worse.
  • The hands, feet, face, or genitals are burned.

5. Follow Up

For Second-Degree Burns (Affecting Top 2 Layers of Skin)

1. Cool Burn

  • Immerse in cool water for 10 or 15 minutes.
  • Use compresses if running water isn’t available.
  • Don’t apply ice. It can lower body temperature and cause further pain and damage.
  • Don’t break blisters or apply butter or ointments, which can cause infection.

2. Protect Burn

  • Cover loosely with sterile, nonstick bandage and secure in place with gauze or tape.

3. Prevent Shock

Unless the person has a head, neck, or leg injury, or it would cause discomfort:

  • Elevate feet about 12 inches.
  • Elevate burn area above heart level, if possible.
  • Cover the person with coat or blanket.

4. See a Doctor

  • The doctor can test burn severity, prescribe antibiotics and pain medications, and administer a tetanus shot, if needed.

For Third-Degree Burns

1. Call 911

2. Protect Burn Area

  • Cover loosely with sterile, nonstick bandage or, for large areas, a sheet or other material that that won’t leave lint in wound.
  • Separate burned toes and fingers with dry, sterile dressings.
  • Do not soak burn in water or apply ointments or butter, which can cause infection.

3. Prevent Shock

Unless the person has a head, neck, or leg injury or it would cause discomfort:

  • Elevate feet about 12 inches.
  • Elevate burn area above heart level, if possible.
  • Cover the person with coat or blanket.
  • For an airway burn, do not place pillow under the person’s head when the person is lying down. This can close the airway.
  • Have a person with a facial burn sit up.
  • Check pulse and breathing to monitor for shock until emergency help arrives.

4. See a Doctor

  • Doctors will give oxygen and fluid, if needed, and treat the burn.

Burns: Types, Symptoms & Treatment


What is a burn?

A burn occurs when heat, chemicals, sunlight, electricity or radiation damages skin tissue. Most burns happen accidentally. There are different degrees of burns. Your healthcare provider determines the seriousness (degree) of a burn based on the depth of the burn and the amount of affected skin. Burns can be painful. Left untreated, a burn can lead to infection.

How common are burns?

Close to half a million people go to the emergency department every year with burn injuries. Children are at high risk for accidental burns. Every day, more than 300 children receive emergency treatment for burn injuries.

Who might get a burn?

Accidental burns can happen to anyone, although children, teenagers and older people are most at risk. These age groups are more prone to burn injuries from cooking, such as spilling a boiling pan of water onto skin. Children and teens are also more likely to mess around with lighters, matches and fireworks or get sunburns.

What are the types of burns?

Healthcare providers classify burns by degrees of severity. Your provider will evaluate the extent of skin damage. Burn degrees include:

  • First-degree burns are mild (like most sunburns). The top layer of skin (epidermis) turns red and is painful but doesn’t typically blister.
  • Second-degree burns affect skin’s top and lower layers (dermis). You may experience pain, redness, swelling and blistering.
  • Third-degree burns affect all three skin layers: epidermis, dermis and fat. The burn also destroys hair follicles and sweat glands. Because third-degree burns damage nerve endings, you probably won’t feel pain in the area of the burn itself, rather adjacent to it. Burned skin may be black, white or red with a leathery appearance.

Symptoms and Causes

What causes burns?

Many things can cause a burn. Thermal sources, including fire, hot liquids, steam and contact with hot surfaces, are the most common causes of burns. Other causes include exposure to:

  • Chemicals, such as cement, acids or drain cleaners.
  • Radiation.
  • Electricity.
  • Sun (ultraviolet or UV light).

What are the signs of burns?

Burn symptoms vary depending on the severity or degree of the burn. Symptoms are often worse during the first few hours or days after the burn. Burn symptoms include:

Diagnosis and Tests

How are burns diagnosed?

Your healthcare provider will examine the burn to determine the degree or severity. This process involves estimating the percentage of the body affected by the burn and its depth. Your provider may classify the burn as:

  • Minor: First- and second-degree burns that cover less than 10% of the body are considered minor and rarely require hospitalization.
  • Moderate: Second-degree burns that cover about 10% of the body are classified as moderate. Burns on the hands, feet, face or genitals can range from moderate to severe.
  • Severe: Third-degree burns that cover more than 1% of the body are considered severe.

Management and Treatment

How are burns managed or treated?

Burn treatment varies depending on the cause and severity. You need to keep all burns clean and apply proper bandages/dressing depending on the severity of the wounds. Treating the person’s pain is key: inadequate control can interfere with wound care.

Continue to check wounds for signs of infection and other long term issues, such as scarring and tightening of the skin over joints and muscles, which makes them difficult to move.

Treatments by burn type include:

  • First-degree burns: Run cool water over the burn. Don’t apply ice. For sunburns, apply aloe vera gel. For thermal burns, apply antibiotic cream and cover lightly with gauze. You can also take over-the-counter pain medication.
  • Second-degree burns: Treatment for second- and first-degree burns is similar. Your healthcare provider may prescribe a stronger antibiotic cream that contains silver, such as silver sulfadiazine, to kill bacteria. Elevating the burned area can reduce pain and swelling.
  • Third-degree burns: Third-degree burns can be life-threatening and often require skin grafts. Skin grafts replace damaged tissue with healthy skin from another of the uninjured part of the person’s body. The area where the skin graft is taken from generally heals on its own. If the person does not have enough skin available for a graft at the time of injury, a temporary source of graft can come from a deceased donor or a human-made (artificial) source but these will eventually need to be replace by the person’s own skin. Treatment also includes extra fluids (usually given intravenously, with an IV) to keep blood pressure steady and prevent shock and dehydration.

What are the complications of burns?

Third-degree burns that are deep and affect a large portion of skin are very serious and can be life-threatening. Even first- and second-degree burns can become infected and cause discoloration and scarring. First-degree burns don’t cause scarring.

Potential complications of third-degree burns include:


How can I prevent a burn?

Burns have many accidental causes. You can take these steps to reduce the risk of burns:

  • Wear sunscreen.
  • Set your home’s hot water heater below 120 degrees Fahrenheit.
  • Always test the water in a shower or bath before getting in or bathing a child.
  • Lock up chemicals, lighters and matches.
  • Use the stove’s back burners as much as possible when cooking, turn handles of pots and pans where they won’t be bumped and don’t leave the stove unattended.
  • Don’t hold a child when you’re near hot objects, such as the stove.
  • Set safeguards around a fireplace and never leave a child unattended.
  • Install and regularly test smoke detectors in your home.
  • Stock your home with fire extinguishers and know how to use them.
  • Cover electrical outlets.

Outlook / Prognosis

What is the prognosis (outlook) for people with burns?

With proper treatment, most first- and second-degree burns heal over two to three weeks. Depending on the burn severity, you may have some scarring, which may fade over time. People recovering from third-degree burns need physical and occupational therapy to maintain joint mobility and improve function. Some people develop post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) or depression after a burn event. Thanks to medical advancements, many people who have burns covering even up to 90% of their bodies survive .

Living With

When should I call the doctor?

You should call your healthcare provider if you experience:

  • Burns on the hands, feet, face or genitalia.
  • Burns that don’t improve after two weeks.
  • Blistering.
  • Severe pain.
  • Fever, yellow or green discharge, or other signs of infection.
  • Signs of PTSD or depression.

What questions should I ask my doctor?

You may want to ask your healthcare provider:

  • What degree is the burn?
  • What is the best treatment for this burn?
  • What steps can I take to lower the risk of infection?
  • What steps can I take to lower the risk of scarring?
  • What steps can I take to lower the future risk of accidental burns?
  • Should I look out for signs of complications?

A note from Cleveland Clinic

Burns happen accidentally. Children and older adults are at highest risk. All deep burns require treatment to prevent infection and scarring. Third-degree burns are the most serious type and can be life-threatening. However, first- and second-degree burns are more painful. If you or a loved one has a blistering burn, prompt medical attention can aid healing. Talk to your healthcare provider about ways to lower your family’s risk of accidental burns.

Burn Treatment & Prevention Tips for Families

​There are many different causes of serious burns in children, including sunburn, hot water or other hot liquids, and those due to fire, electrical contact, or chemicals. All of these can cause permanent injury and scarring to the skin.

Immediate Treatment Steps for Burns:  

  1. As quickly as possible, soak the burn in cool water. Don’t hesitate to run cool water over the burn long enough to cool the area and relieve the pain immediately after the injury. Do not use ice on a burn. It may delay healing. Also, do not rub a burn; it can increase blistering.

  2. Cool any smoldering clothing immediately by soaking with water, then remove any clothing from the burned area unless it is stuck firmly to the skin. In that case, cut away as much clothing as possible.

  3. If the injured area is not oozing, cover the burn with a sterile gauze pad or a clean, dry cloth.

  4. If the burn is oozing, cover it lightly with sterile gauze if available and immediately seek medical attention. If sterile gauze is not available, cover burns with a clean sheet or towel.

  5. Do not put butter, grease, or powder on a burn. All of these so-called home remedies actually can make the injury worse. For anything more serious than a superficial burn, or if redness and pain continue for more than a few hours, consult a physician. All electrical burns and burns of the hands, mouth, or genitals should receive immediate medical attention. Chemicals that cause burns also may be absorbed through the skin and cause other symptoms. Call the Poison Help Line (1-800-222-1222) or your pediatrician after washing off all the chemicals.

If your pediatrician thinks the burn is not too serious, he or she may show you how to clean and care for it at home using medicated ointments and dressings. When treating a burn at home, watch for any increase in redness or swelling or the development of a bad odor or discharge. These can be signs of infection, which will require medical attention. See First Aid for Burns: Parent FAQs for more information

Under the following circumstances, hospitalization may be necessary:

  • If the burns are third degree.

  • If 10% or more of the body is burned.

  • If the burn involves the face, hands, feet, or genitals, or involves a moving joint.

  • If the child is very young or fussy, and therefore too difficult to treat at home.

How to Safeguard Your Family from Fires, Scalding & Burns:  

  • Install smoke detectors in hallways outside bedrooms, the kitchen, living room, and near the furnace, with at least one on every floor of the house. Test them every month to be sure they work. It is best to use alarms that have long-life batteries, but if these are not available, change batteries at least annually on a specific date that you’ll remember (such as January 1 of each year). Consider investing in an alarm that allows you to record your own voice calling to your children by name; these new alarms may be more effective in rousing sleeping children than alarms with loud beeping tones.

  • Practice home fire drills. Make sure every family member and others who care for your children in your home know how to leave any area of the home safely in case of a fire.

  • Have several working fire extinguishers readily available and familiarize yourself with how to use them. Place fire extinguishers around the home where the risk of fire is greatest, such as in the kitchen, furnace room, and near the fireplace.

  • Teach your children to crawl to the exits if there’s smoke in the room. They will avoid inhaling the smoke by staying below it.

  • Purchase a safety ladder if your home has a second story, and teach your children how to use it. If you live in a high-rise building, teach your children the locations of all exits and make sure they understand never to use the elevator in a fire. It can become trapped between floors or open on a floor where the fire is burning.

  • Agree on a family meeting point outside the house or apartment so you can make certain everyone has gotten out of the burning area.

  • Teach your children to stop, drop, and roll on the ground if their clothing catches fire.

  • Avoid smoking​ indoors.

  • Do not leave food cooking on the stove unattended.

  • Lock up flammable liquids in the home. It is best to store them outside the home, out of children’s reach, and away from heat or ignition sources.

  • Protect your child from tap water scalds. Adjust your water heater so the hottest temperature at the faucet is no more than 120 degrees Fahrenheit (48.9 degrees Celsius) to prevent scald burns. See 5 Bathroom Safety Tips for Infants & Young Children.

  • Don’t plug appliances or other electrical equipment into extension cords if they place too much “amperage” or load on the cord, thus creating a potentially unsafe situation. See Electric Shock Injuries in Children for more information.

  • Keep matches and lighters away from children, locked and out of reach.

  • Avoid all fireworks, even those meant for consumer use.

Additional Information:

The information contained on this Web site should not be used as a substitute for the medical care and advice of your pediatrician. There may be variations in treatment that your pediatrician may recommend based on individual facts and circumstances.

Burns – Diagnosis and treatment


If you go to a doctor for burn treatment, he or she will assess the severity of your burn by examining your skin. He or she may recommend that you be transferred to a burn center if your burn covers more than 10 percent of your total body surface area, is very deep, is on the face, feet or groin, or meets other criteria established by the American Burn Association.

Your doctor will check for other injuries and might order lab tests, X-rays or other diagnostic procedures.


Most minor burns can be treated at home. They usually heal within a couple of weeks.

For serious burns, after appropriate first aid and wound assessment, your treatment may involve medications, wound dressings, therapy and surgery. The goals of treatment are to control pain, remove dead tissue, prevent infection, reduce scarring risk and regain function.

People with severe burns may require treatment at specialized burn centers. They may need skin grafts to cover large wounds. And they may need emotional support and months of follow-up care, such as physical therapy.

Medical treatment

After you have received first aid for a major burn, your medical care may include medications and products that are intended to encourage healing.

  • Water-based treatments. Your care team may use techniques such as ultrasound mist therapy to clean and stimulate the wound tissue.
  • Fluids to prevent dehydration. You may need intravenous (IV) fluids to prevent dehydration and organ failure.
  • Pain and anxiety medications. Healing burns can be incredibly painful. You may need morphine and anti-anxiety medications — particularly for dressing changes.
  • Burn creams and ointments. If you are not being transferred to a burn center, your care team may select from a variety of topical products for wound healing, such as bacitracin and silver sulfadiazine (Silvadene). These help prevent infection and prepare the wound to close.
  • Dressings. Your care team may also use various specialty wound dressings to prepare the wound to heal. If you are being transferred to a burn center, your wound will likely be covered in dry gauze only.
  • Drugs that fight infection. If you develop an infection, you may need IV antibiotics.
  • Tetanus shot. Your doctor might recommend a tetanus shot after a burn injury.

Physical and occupational therapy

If the burned area is large, especially if it covers any joints, you may need physical therapy exercises. These can help stretch the skin so that the joints can remain flexible. Other types of exercises can improve muscle strength and coordination. And occupational therapy may help if you have difficulty doing your normal daily activities.

Surgical and other procedures

You may need one or more of the following procedures:

  • Breathing assistance. If you’ve been burned on the face or neck, your throat may swell shut. If that appears likely, your doctor may insert a tube down your windpipe (trachea) to keep oxygen supplied to your lungs.
  • Feeding tube. People with extensive burns or who are undernourished may need nutritional support. Your doctor may thread a feeding tube through your nose to your stomach.
  • Easing blood flow around the wound. If a burn scab (eschar) goes completely around a limb, it can tighten and cut off the blood circulation. An eschar that goes completely around the chest can make it difficult to breathe. Your doctor may cut the eschar to relieve this pressure.
  • Skin grafts. A skin graft is a surgical procedure in which sections of your own healthy skin are used to replace the scar tissue caused by deep burns. Donor skin from deceased donors or pigs can be used as a temporary solution.
  • Plastic surgery. Plastic surgery (reconstruction) can improve the appearance of burn scars and increase the flexibility of joints affected by scarring.

Lifestyle and home remedies

To treat minor burns, follow these steps:

  • Cool the burn. Hold the burned area under cool (not cold) running water or apply a cool, wet compress until the pain eases. Don’t use ice. Putting ice directly on a burn can cause further damage to the tissue.
  • Remove rings or other tight items. Try to do this quickly and gently, before the burned area swells.
  • Don’t break blisters. Fluid-filled blisters protect against infection. If a blister breaks, clean the area with water (mild soap is optional). Apply an antibiotic ointment. But if a rash appears, stop using the ointment.
  • Apply lotion. Once a burn is completely cooled, apply a lotion, such as one that contains aloe vera or a moisturizer. This helps prevent drying and provides relief.
  • Bandage the burn. Cover the burn with a sterile gauze bandage (not fluffy cotton). Wrap it loosely to avoid putting pressure on burned skin. Bandaging keeps air off the area, reduces pain and protects blistered skin.
  • Take a pain reliever. Over-the-counter medications, such as ibuprofen (Advil, Motrin IB, others), naproxen sodium (Aleve) or acetaminophen (Tylenol, others), can help relieve pain.
  • Consider a tetanus shot. Make sure that your tetanus booster is up to date. Doctors recommend that people get a tetanus shot at least every 10 years.

Whether your burn was minor or serious, use sunscreen and moisturizer regularly once the wound is healed.

Coping and support

Coping with a serious burn injury can be a challenge, especially if it covers large areas of your body or is in places readily seen by other people, such as your face or hands. Potential scarring, reduced mobility and possible surgeries add to the burden.

Consider joining a support group of other people who have had serious burns and know what you’re going through. You may find comfort in sharing your experience and struggles and meeting people who face similar challenges. Ask your doctor for information on support groups in your area or online.

Preparing for your appointment

Seek emergency medical care for burns that are deep or involve your hands, feet, face, groin, buttocks, a major joint or a large area of the body. Your emergency room physician may recommend examination by a skin specialist (dermatologist), burn specialist, surgeon or other specialist.

For other burns, you may need an appointment with your family doctor. The information below can help you prepare.

List questions you want to ask your doctor, such as:

  • Do I need treatment for the burn?
  • What are my treatment options and the pros and cons of each?
  • What are the alternatives to the primary approach that you’re suggesting?
  • Can I wait to see if the burn heals on its own?
  • Do I need prescription medication, or can I use over-the-counter medications to treat the burn?
  • What results can I expect?
  • What skin care routines do you recommend while the burn heals?
  • What kind of follow-up, if any, will I need?
  • What changes in my skin might I expect to see as it heals?

What to expect from your doctor

Your doctor is likely to ask you a number of questions, such as:

  • How did the burn occur?
  • Do you have other symptoms?
  • Do you have underlying health conditions, such as diabetes?
  • What at-home burn treatments have you used, if any?
  • Have you noticed any changes in the appearance of the burn?

Burns and Wounds | Johns Hopkins Medicine

Burns are a type of painful wound caused by thermal, electrical, chemical, or electromagnetic energy. Smoking and open flame are the leading causes of burn injury for older adults. Scalding is the leading cause of burn injury for children. Both infants and the older adults are at the greatest risk for burn injury.

What are the different types of burns?

There are many types of burns caused by thermal, radiation, chemical, or electrical contact.

  • Thermal burns. These burns are due to heat sources which raise the temperature of the skin and tissues and cause tissue cell death or charring. Hot metals, scalding liquids, steam, and flames, when coming into contact with the skin, can cause thermal burns.

  • Radiation burns. These burns are due to prolonged exposure to ultraviolet rays of the sun, or to other sources of radiation such as X-ray.

  • Chemical burns. These burns are due to strong acids, alkalies, detergents, or solvents coming into contact with the skin or eyes.

  • Electrical burns. These burns are from electrical current, either alternating current (AC) or direct current (DC).

The skin and its functions

The skin is the largest organ of the body and has many important functions. It is made up of several layers, with each layer having a specific functions:




The epidermis is the thin, outer layer of the skin with many layers including:

  • Stratum corneum (horny layer)
    This layer is made up of cells containing the protein keratin. it keeps body fluid in while keeping external substances out. As the outermost layer, it continuously flakes off.

  • Keratinocytes (squamous cells)
    This layer is made up of living cells that are maturing and moving toward the surface to become the stratum corneum.

  • Basal layer
    This layer is where new skin cells divide to replace the old cells that are shed at the surface.

The epidermis also contains melanocytes, which are cells that produce melanin (skin pigment).


The dermis is the middle layer of the skin. The dermis contains the following:

  • Blood vessels

  • Lymph vessels

  • Hair follicles

  • Sweat glands

  • Collagen bundles

  • Fibroblasts

  • Nerves

The dermis is held together by a protein called collagen, made by fibroblasts. This layer also contains nerve endings that conduct pain and touch signals.




The subcutis is the deepest layer of skin. The subcutis, consisting of a network of collagen and fat cells, helps conserve the body’s heat and protects the body from injury by acting as a “shock absorber.”

In addition to serving as a protective shield against heat, light, injury, and infection, the skin also:

What are the classifications of burns?

Burns are classified as first-, second-, or third-degree, depending on how deep and severely they penetrate the skin’s surface.

  • First-degree (superficial) burns
    First-degree burns affect only the epidermis, or outer layer of skin. The burn site is red, painful, dry, and with no blisters. Mild sunburn is an example. Long-term tissue damage is rare and usually involves an increase or decrease in the skin color.

  • Second-degree (partial thickness) burns
    Second-degree burns involve the epidermis and part of the dermis layer of skin. The burn site appears red, blistered, and may be swollen and painful.

  • Third-degree (full thickness) burns
    Third-degree burns destroy the epidermis and dermis. Third-degree burns may also damage the underlying bones, muscles, and tendons. When bones, muscles, or tendons are also burned, this may be referred to as a fourth-degree burn. The burn site appears white or charred. There is no feeling in the area since the nerve endings are destroyed.

Burns that are more severe and extensive need specialized treatment. Because the age of a burn victim and the percentage of the body’s surface area that has been burned are the most important factors affecting the outlook of a burn injury, the American Burn Association recommends that burn patients who meet the following criteria should be treated at a specialized burn center:

  • Individuals with partial-thickness burns over 10% or more of the total body surface area (TBSA)

  • Any age with full-thickness burns

  • Burns of the face, hands, feet, or groin, or genital area, or burns that extend all the way around a portion of the body

  • Burns accompanied by an inhalation injury affecting the airway or the lungs

  • Burn patients with existing chronic conditions such as diabetes, high blood pressure, heart disease, kidney disease, or multiple sclerosis

  • Suspected child or elder abuse

  • Chemical burn

  • Electrical injury 

The effects of burns

A severe burn can be a seriously devastating injury — not only physically but emotionally. It can affect not only the burn victim, but the entire family. Persons with severe burns may be left with a loss of certain physical abilities, including loss of limb(s), disfigurement, loss of mobility, scarring, and recurrent infections because the burned skin has decreased ability to fight infection. In addition, severe burns can penetrate deep skin layers, causing muscle or tissue damage that may affect every system of the body.

Burns can also cause emotional problems such as depression, nightmares, or flashbacks from the traumatizing event. The loss of a friend or family member and possessions in the fire may add grief to the emotional impact of a burn.

The burn rehabilitation team

Because so many functions and systems of the body can be affected by severe burns, the need for rehabilitation becomes even more crucial.

Many hospitals have a specialized burn unit or center and some facilities are designated solely for the rehabilitation of burn patients. Burn patients need the highly specialized services of medical professionals who work together on a multidisciplinary team, including the following:

  • Physiatrists

  • Plastic surgeons

  • Internists

  • Orthopedic surgeons

  • Infectious disease specialists

  • Rehabilitation nurses who specialize in burn care

  • Psychologists/psychiatrists

  • Physical therapists

  • Occupational therapists

  • Respiratory therapists

  • Dietitians

  • Social workers

  • Case managers

  • Recreation therapists

  • Vocational counselors

The burn rehabilitation program

Burn rehabilitation starts during the acute treatment phase and may last days to months to years, depending on the extent of the burn. Rehabilitation is designed to meet each patient’s specific needs; therefore, each program is different. The goals of a burn rehabilitation program include helping the patient return to the highest level of function and independence possible, while improving the overall quality of life — physically, emotionally, and socially.

To help reach these goals, burn rehabilitation programs may include the following:

  • Complex wound care

  • Pain management

  • Physical therapy for positioning, splinting, and exercise

  • Occupational therapy for assistance with activities of daily living (ADLs)

  • Cosmetic reconstruction

  • Skin grafting

  • Counseling to deal with common emotional responses during convalescence, such as depression, grieving, anxiety, guilt, and insomnia

  • Patient and family education and counseling

  • Nutritional counseling

Advances in the understanding and treatment of burns, state-of-the-art burn units and facilities, comprehensive burn rehabilitation services, and integrated medical care have all contributed to the increase in the survival rate and recovery of burn patients.

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Burns: What to Expect When You’re on Fire

As an engineer, you may work in the most interesting and dangerous situations in the modern world. Fires, explosions, and high-voltage electricity are tools of the trade. Implementing and refining safety procedures reduced workplace fatalities by more than 90% over the last century, but they do still occur.

What happens when accidents happen? What should you expect when you catch fire?

First things first:  EngineerJobs is not qualified to offer medical advice and we don’t claim to be. Our job is to inform and entertain readers, not to diagnose or treat patients. If you or a colleague are on fire, injured, or otherwise in need of medical attention, please close your browser window and contact emergency medical personnel.


How Bad is It?

The severity of a burn depends on the depth of damage to the skin; the deeper the damage, the worse the burn. We used describe burns by degrees, with first being the mildest (sunburn) and fourth the most severe (charcoal). Medical professionals now grade burns in terms of ‘thickness’, which is more straightforward. The three classes of burn under this system are superficial, partial thickness, and full thickness injuries to the skin.

Your skin is a complex organ with a number of tasks to perform, but for this discussion we’ll limit ourselves to three layers of skin and three critical functions. Our model skin is composed of epidermis, dermis, and subcutaneous layers, and its tasks are to prevent infection, maintain body temperature, and keep the body from drying out. As a burn works its way through the three layers of skin, these functions degrade or cease entirely. Failing to hold fluids inside the body or maintain a consistent temperature will kill you in the short term, while opening the body to infection kills in the medium to long term.

Superficial burns (first degree) only affect the epidermis, the outermost layer of skin. The epidermis is typically around 1mm thick, thinnest on the eyelids and thickest on the soles of the feet. These burns are red, dry, and painful. Unless they’re seriously extensive, or you have a complicating medical issue, superficial burns are rarely dangerous and typically heal without medical intervention. Sunburns and mild scalding injuries are the most common examples you’ll come across.

Partial thickness burns (second degree) reach down to the dermis, which is the second layer of skin. It’s roughly forty times thicker than the epidermis and houses most of your touch- and heat-sensitive nerves.   Superficial partial thickness burns are wet and blistery, with reddened skin; deep partial thickness burns may feature either bloody blisters, or none, and appear moist, waxy, and red. As your sweat glands, the majority of your blood vessels, and the connective tissue keeping your skin together run through this layer, extensive damage here qualifies as a Serious Problem.

Full thickness burns (third degree) have destroyed the epidermis and dermis, damaging the subcutaneous layer and, likely, underlying organs or musculature. The center of the burn, at the surface, is dry and appears charred and leathery (“eschar”). The full thickness burn isn’t itself painful, as the dermal nerves are destroyed, but the injury will likely be surrounded by painful areas of partial and superficial thickness burns. Full thickness burns with injury to underlying muscles or organs are life-threatening, emergency situations. The deepest areas of the burn are dead, the cells which normally replace damaged skin tissue are dead, and the area surrounding the burn (the ‘zone of stasis’) could go either way.


Minor, Moderate, or Major Burns

Each of class of burn can be either minor, moderate, or major. Location and extent are the two determining factors, though being very young or very old immediately upgrades the injury.

Two loose rules to keep in mind as you determine the extent of surface coverage: a human’s palm is around 1% of their total surface area and each side of the torso is roughly 9%.

Minor burns typically heal on their own and can be either superficial burns, partial thickness burns of less than 15% of the body surface area, or full thickness  burns (without underlying injury) of less than 2% of surface area. Moderate burns require medical attention and consist of either partial thickness burns of15-25% or full thickness burns of between 2-10% of total surface area.

Major burns are more complicated and need attention at a specialized burn unit. Partial thickness burns over more than 25% of your body, or full thickness burns over greater than 10%, qualify as major burns, but there are a number of other factors to consider. Major burns are a life-threatening emergency.

Some factors upgrade a burn to major, regardless of extent. Any burn involving an inhalation injury is automatically a major burn (inflammation will block the airway almost immediately), as are burns involving the hands, major joints, face, genitals, perineum, or which cross another traumatic injury, such as a fracture. Electrical burns are typically treated as major burns, as the damage is mostly likely internal (along the path of least resistance at time of injury) and even relatively low voltages can be wreck havoc on vital organ systems. Circumferential full thickness burns, forming a ring around an extremity or the torso, have specific complications requiring immediate surgery in a specialized burn unit.


How Bad Can It Get?

As with many injuries, it’s rarely the immediate damage that kills you, but the body’s hysterical overreaction to trauma. Briefly: fluid shifts to the site of the burn, which will cause either moderate swelling or the complete breakdown of your metabolism at the cellular level.

First, the skin will be unable to perform its three critical functions, exposing muscles and organs to infection, allowing fluid to leak out of the body from extracellular space, and degrading your ability to regulate body temperature. The first failure will kill you later, the latter two can kill you within minutes to hours after injury.

When heat is applied to human flesh, it cooks. Its proteins warp and denature, triggering a domino effect which ends in the release of secondary cytokines, which in turn increase the permeability of blood vessels. This causes an inflammation response, as the tissue around the burn swell with fluid escaping the vascular system. (Red blood cells are too large to leak out in this way, but become sluggish as fluid drains from the capillaries.)

Inflammation responses to smaller injuries are adaptive, as they speed access of immune cells and repair mechanisms to the affected area. With deep partial thickness burns of more than ten percent total surface volume, however, the shift of fluid volume gets out of hand. Your burned skin can’t keep the fluids inside your body, where they belong, and you begin to drain out through the injured site.

With circumferential burns, the leathery, burned eschar will function like a tourniquet, cutting off circulation as the surrounding tissues swell with fluid. Increased pressure and lack of oxygen, in turn, lead to compartment syndrome, with permanent damage to any tissue ‘downstream’ of the burn. Circumferential burns to the torso can similarly stop breathing by preventing expansion of the chest. A surgeon can cut expansion joints through the damaged tissue (escharotomy) to avoid these complications.

With inhalation injuries, where the airway itself is burned, the inflammation response may block your airway while your lungs fill with fluid.

With more severe burns, the inflammation response isn’t localized. Your whole body will begin venting fluid into extracellular space, then out through your damaged skin. Dehydration is even more rapid, with circulatory shock to follow.

As the volume of fluid in the blood vessels decreases, your red blood cells flow sluggishly. Decreased blood flow means less oxygen, so the heart drives itself into tachycardia to compensate (consuming more scarce oxygen and generating more acidic waste). Your breathing becomes rapid and shallow, again to compensate, but the buildup of carbon dioxide will only trigger acidosis and further organ damage.

Sensing a crisis, your body will constrict blood flow to all but the heart, lungs, and brain. The rest of your body tries to get along anaerobically, but the decreased fluid volume from inflammation, the acidosis from rapid breathing and decreased blood flow, and pure starvation begins to cause massive organ damage, then failure. Body temperature can crash at this point, do to a combination of shock and the failure of the skin to regulate temperature.

The lack of oxygen in your mitochondria will eventually lead to ATP breaking down into free adenosine, which escapes along a now-familiar route into extracellular space and out through the skin. Known as the refractory stage of shock, recovery at this point is impossible. Even if provided sufficient oxygen and nutrition to support metabolism, your body could make no use of it. It simply takes too long to rebuild ATP (about 2% of baseline demand per hour) and the requisite structures will starve and die before regaining the ability to feed themselves.


How to Survive a Burn

Before we discuss first aid for burn victims, please take a moment and reread the disclaimer which opens this article. Then read this one, too:  EngineerJobs is not providing medical advice or training, is not qualified to provide medical advice or training, and will not be held responsible if you treat this article as sufficient substitute for medical advice or training.

That said:  suppose you, or a colleague, are on fire and wish to survive.

First, deal with any immediate hazards. If you or the victim are on fire, put it out. The mantra is stop, drop, and roll. Stop running (it just fans the flames), drop to the ground (where the cleanest air is), and roll around to smother the fire. If the victim can’t move, don’t roll them; smother the fire with a blanket or jacket if no water is available. Remove yourselves from the area if possible, staying low to minimize carbon monoxide and smoke inhalation (see inhalation injuries, previous section. These are emergencies.)

Now, quickly check over the victim. Are they conscious? How’s their breathing? You want to see what kind of burn they’ve received and how bad it is. Minor burns rarely require medical attention, moderate burns should get checked out as soon as possible, and major burns are a critical emergency.

Pay attention to the airway; is the skin of their face singed, especially around the noise and mouth? This may indicate an inhalation injury and a serious problem. Even if there are only minor burns to the exterior of the victim, damage to the lungs and airway is an emergency.

Call 911 (or your regional equivalent). We cannot underscore this enough:  calling for help is more important that anything you can do in terms of first aid. As soon as you’ve an idea what’s going on, either call 911 or have a bystander do it while you administer first aid.

Minor burns rarely require hospitalization or emergency medical personnel. Cool the area with water to  pull out the heat and discourage inflammation. Do not use ice water, or submerge the injury in ice water, as freezing temperatures will do more harm than good. Never use oils or creams and never, never pop a blister in the epidermis; that just opens a pathway for infection.

Minor burns should be covered with a loose, sterile dressing to keep them clean. Avoid putting pressure on the wound, which is a common mistake (direct pressure is for bleeding, not burns). Drink plenty of water and have your doctor check it out in a day or two if it doesn’t seem to be healing or if there are signs of infection.

As an untrained person, it’s safest to treat moderate burns as though they were major. Major burns are major problems and you really, really don’t want to be wrong. Your task, as a first responder, is not so much to treat the injury as support the victim until the professionals arrive.  There’s not much for you to do, but the stakes are much higher.

Check the victim for breathing and circulation. If they aren’t breathing, you can’t find a pulse, or both, begin CPR. This takes precedence over treating the burn.

Loosen any restrictive clothing, especially watches or rings. When swelling occurs, a ring or a watch may become a tourniquet, or a tight shirt a corset. Do not pull clothing or accessories out of a burn,  as this will cause serious damage and needless agony.   Exceptions are made for objects retaining a dangerous amount of heat, which will continue to damage the victim if left in place. The principle of least harm applies.

Flush the area with water, if available, but do not use moist dressings or immerse the burned area in water. As the skin is damaged, temperature regulation is degraded. Anything that steadily drops the body temperature courts the fatal irony of hypothermia. Cover the burn with a loose, sterile cloth of a material which won’t leave lint or threads in the wound. Infection risk is high and cleaning a major burn is agonizing.

If possible, elevate the burned area above the heart, to slow the inflammation response.

Finally, it’s best to treat for shock before it sets it. Get the victim comfortable and warm, with their legs elevated above the heart, and turn them on their side if possible. If moving the legs or rolling the victim risks further injury, don’t do it.) If the victim can swallow, encourage them to drink water. Remember that circulatory shock and runaway inflammation are the likely killers, so elevating the legs and getting fluids into the victim can make a real difference.

As you wait for emergency personnel, keep your eye on the victim’s breathing and circulation. Be ready to begin CPR, if needed.


EngineerJobs wants you to receive proper medical care. Do not tweet us @EngineerJobs if you are currently on fire or require urgent medical care.


Image Credit: Nestor Galina

Burns & scalds – Injuries & first aid

How long it takes to recover from a burn or scald depends on how serious it is and how it’s treated. If the wound becomes infected, seek further medical attention.

Burns that don’t need medical attention

If your burn or scald is mild and treated at home, it normally heals without the need for further treatment. Read more about first aid for burns and scalds.

While the skin heals, keep the area clean and don’t apply any creams or greasy substances. Don’t burst any blisters as this can lead to infection.

If you’ve scalded the inside of your mouth by drinking something hot, try to avoid things that can irritate the scalded area, such as hot and spicy food, alcohol and smoking, until the area heals.

Mild burns or scalds that only affect the uppermost layer of skin (superficial epidermal burns) usually heal in about a week without any scarring.

Burns that need medical attention

If you have a burn or scald that requires medical treatment, it will be assessed to determine the level of care required.

The healthcare professional treating you will:

  • assess the size and depth of the burn by examining the area
  • clean the burn, being careful not to burst any blisters
  • cover the burn with a sterile dressing – usually a pad and a gauze bandage to hold it in place
  • offer you pain relief if necessary – usually paracetamol or ibuprofen

Depending on how the burn happened, you may be advised to have an injection to prevent tetanus, a condition caused by bacteria entering a wound. For example, a tetanus injection may be recommended if there’s a chance soil got into the wound.

Your dressing will be checked after 24 hours to make sure there are no signs of infection. It will be changed after 48 hours, and then every three to five days until it’s completely healed.

Minor burns affecting the outer layer of skin and some of the underlying layer of tissue (superficial dermal burns) normally heal in around 14 days, leaving minimal scarring.

If the burn is severe, you may be referred to a specialist. In some cases, it may be necessary to have surgery to remove the burnt area of skin and replace it with a skin graft taken from another part of your body. 

More severe and deeper burns can take months or even years to fully heal, and usually leave some visible scarring.


Expert opinion is divided over the management of blisters that are caused by burns. However, it’s recommended that you shouldn’t burst any blisters yourself.

If your burn has caused a blister, you should seek medical attention. The blister will probably remain intact, although some burns units at hospitals follow a policy of deroofing blisters. Deroofing means removing the top layer of skin from the blister.

In some cases, a needle may be used to make a small hole in the blister to drain the fluid out. This is known as aspiration and may be carried out on large blisters or blisters that are likely to burst.

Your healthcare professional will advise you about the best way to care for your blister and what type of dressing you should use.

Exposure to the sun

During the first few years after a burn, you should try to avoid exposing the damaged skin to direct sunlight as this may cause it to blister. It’s especially sensitive during the first year after the injury. This also applies to a new area of skin after a skin graft.

It’s important to keep the area covered with cotton clothing. If the burn or scald is on your face, wear a peaked cap or wide-brimmed hat when you’re out in the sun. Total sun block – for example, one with a sun protection factor (SPF) of 50 – should be used on all affected areas.

The area can be exposed to sunshine again around three years after the injury, but it’s still very important to apply a high-factor sun cream (SPF 25 or above) and stay out of the midday sun.

90,000 Streptoderma in children – causes, symptoms, diagnosis and treatment of streptoderma in a child in Moscow at the SM-Doctor clinic


General information
Symptoms in children

Streptoderma is a dermatological disease characterized by the appearance of purulent rash and blisters on the skin.The disease is treated by a pediatrician and a dermatologist. Since the pathology is infectious, it is more common in children attending kindergartens and schools.


Streptoderma is a disease caused by streptococci. The defeat of the skin is characterized by the appearance of a rash. Blisters, abscesses form on the surface of the skin, which itch and cause discomfort.

Streptoderma in children is acute and chronic. The first is characterized by an aggressive course with severe symptoms.Chronic is characterized by periodic exacerbations and periods of subsiding of the inflammatory process.

By the depth of the lesion, superficial, deep and intertriginous streptoderma is distinguished (the rash develops in the skin folds). Each of the forms has its own characteristics.

Streptoderma symptoms

Streptoderma in children proceeds with severe symptoms:

  • temperature rise to 39 ° C;
  • intoxication;
  • enlarged lymph nodes.

The condition of the skin differs depending on the form of the disease:

  • Superficial. First, red spots appear on the skin. After 2-3 days, they transform into bubbles with a cloudy liquid inside. The blisters grow up to 2 cm in diameter, then burst. In their place, yellow crusts are formed. Subsequently, the skin in this place heals, and the disease spreads further.
  • Dry. This form is more common in boys. White and pink spots up to 5 cm in diameter form on the skin.They are located on the face, neck, ears, arms and legs, and gradually become covered with a scab. Scars may remain after healing. These areas remain lightened, do not tan under the sun.
  • Streptococcal jam. The disease affects the corners of the mouth, occurs with a lack of vitamin B. Microcracks appear on the skin, which hurt and bleed. They then turn into crusty pustules. It hurts the child to open his mouth, eating becomes difficult. Less commonly, streptococcal seizures occur in the corners of the nose or eyes.
  • Panaritium. If the periungual ridges are affected by streptococcus, panaritium occurs. It is more common in babies who are used to biting their nails. Over time, the abscesses open up.
  • Streptococcal diaper rash. This form of the disease is typical for infants. Bubbles form in the folds of the skin. Gradually merge. When opened, they reveal pink, weeping surfaces.

Knowing how streptoderma begins in children, parents will be able to consult a dermatologist in time and start treatment.If you delay going to the doctor, the disease becomes chronic, and it becomes very difficult to achieve a complete cure.

Causes of streptoderma

The causative agent of the disease is group A streptococcus. The bacterium infects the surface of the skin. But not every encounter with a microorganism leads to the development of a disease. Infection manifests itself if there are aggravating factors:

  • cuts, abrasions, cracks and other lesions on the skin, into which pathogens easily penetrate;
  • non-compliance with hygiene rules;
  • weak immunity;
  • endocrine pathologies;
  • concomitant dermatological diseases;
  • 90,023 stresses;

  • vitamin deficiency;
  • washing the skin too often, as a result of which the protective film is washed off;
  • intense exposure to low or high temperatures;
  • intoxication;
  • violation of blood flow.

If at least one of the listed causes of streptoderma in children is present, the likelihood of developing pathology increases significantly.

Diagnostics of streptoderma

The external symptoms of streptoderma in children are very similar to those of other dermatological diseases (urticaria, eczema, atopic dermatitis, etc.). In addition to visual examination and clarification of the epidemiological situation, microscopy and bacterial sowing of the affected areas of the skin can be performed to establish a diagnosis.

However, laboratory tests are rarely required. An experienced dermatologist will determine streptoderma by visual examination.

Treatment of streptoderma

Even if the initial examination was carried out by a pediatrician, a dermatologist should prescribe the treatment of streptoderma in children. A specialist in this profile is aware of drugs with a narrow spectrum of action that will help to quickly cope with the disease.

The first step is to transfer the child to a therapeutic diet that restricts sweet, fatty and salty foods.The course of therapy involves the refusal of bathing: water procedures contribute to the spread of the disease. It is recommended to wash healthy areas with chamomile broth, and not to touch inflamed areas.

It is important for a sick child to choose the right clothes. Synthetic and wool items should be excluded from the wardrobe. These tissues cause discomfort and spread the disease.

The blisters formed on the skin are recommended by doctors to be opened with a sterile needle, then to process the opening erosion with brilliant green 2 times a day.The areas of the skin that are not infected with bacteria are wiped with a boric solution. Weeping erosions are lubricated with silver nitrate or resorcinol.

If crusts form on the skin, they are treated with antibacterial gels or ointments.

In severe cases, a number of other drugs are prescribed for oral administration:

  • antibiotics of the tetracycline or chloramphenicol series;
  • anti-allergenic medicines;
  • immunostimulants;
  • vitamin complexes;
  • antipyretic drugs.

The list of medications must be agreed with the doctor. Only a specialist knows how to treat streptoderma in children correctly. Self-medication can provoke the transition of pathology to a chronic form. With an adequate course of therapy, the symptoms disappear after 7 days, but after the deep form of pathology is cured, scars remain on the skin. Therefore, it is necessary to see a doctor as early as possible.

Prevention of streptoderma

To reduce the likelihood of developing streptoderma in a child, adhere to the rules of prevention:

  • follow the rules of hygiene;
  • Treat lesions on the skin with antiseptics;
  • Strengthen the immune system with vitamin complexes, good nutrition;
  • Do not wash your child with soap too often;
  • at the first symptoms of any disease, consult your doctor.

Streptoderma is a curable disease, but you need to see a doctor in time. The sooner treatment is started, the easier it is to avoid complications and the transition to a chronic form. You can undergo a high-quality examination of the condition of the skin in the “CM-Doctor” clinic. Qualified pediatric dermatologists will establish the correct diagnosis and prescribe the correct treatment.


Children’s clinic m. Maryina Roscha

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Bozunov Alexey Viktorovich

Pediatric Dermatologist, Pediatric Mycologist

Zueva Ksenia Mikhailovna

Pediatric dermatologist II category, pediatric mycologist, pediatric trichologist

Smoleva Maria Borisovna

Pediatric dermatologist of the highest category, pediatric mycologist, pediatric trichologist, pediatric cosmetologist

Korolkova (Simonovich) Polina Askoldovna

Pediatric Dermatologist, Pediatric Trichologist, Pediatric Mycologist

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Kuleshov Andrey Nikolaevich

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Bagryantseva Maria Evgenievna

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Nekhorosheva Inna Andreevna

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Simakova (Mukhina) Ekaterina Sergeevna

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Uvarova Elena Anatolievna

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Antonova Olga Alexandrovna

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Strazhnikov Ruslan Andreevich

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Bykhanova Olga Nikolaevna

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Zhukova Kristina Igorevna

Pediatric Dermatologist

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90,000 Cat lichen and streptoderma in children are characteristic signs of the beginning of autumn.

Cat lichen and streptoderma in children are characteristic signs of the beginning of autumn.

The children returned home from health camps, summer cottages and villages and … went to see a dermatologist en masse.From my many years of experience I know that there is a season of seasonal diseases.

On the delicate skin of the child, spots of various colors and sizes, and even pustules, appeared. These manifestations are caused by streptococci trapped in wounds from insect bites and scratches. The spots are white and pink, scaly, crusted, with purulent discharge, etc. More often they appear on the skin of the face, back, limbs.

Infection occurs quickly and inevitably: the bite site itches, and the child involuntarily scratches it with dirty hands.Streptococci – globular bacteria – parasitize the body of humans and animals, they are always present on the skin and in large numbers under the nails. In a healthy state, the body copes with them, but as soon as the defenses weaken, the disease is inevitable. If left untreated, deeper lesions can occur.

Streptoderma (streptococcal skin infection) can be treated fairly easily and reliably if not neglected. It is contagious, so you should not postpone the visit to the doctor: the earlier the treatment is carried out, the less complications and infection of other children.

For example, many parents find white spots on their children’s faces. They are often mistakenly called the word “lichen” and are associated with the fact that the guys swim a lot and do not wipe their wet faces with towels (and in fact, this is common sense). In the stratum corneum of the skin of the face, dry streptoderma appears, which disrupts the appearance.

When I meet children smeared with brilliant green or fucorcin on the street, I want to remind their parents: brilliant green and fucorcin are prophylactic agents suitable for treating fresh abrasions in summer cottages.It is useless to treat streptoderma with “paints”. For this, there are very effective ointments that allow you to completely cure a child in 5 days.

However, most often they turn to me with streptoderma of the lower and upper extremities, when abscesses form. The spread of foci is characteristic not deep into the skin, but along the periphery. At the beginning of the last century, this disease was called “Flying Fire”: when this infection appeared in the village, it “passed” through all the children. Sometimes children weakened by hunger and cold even died.Today such a situation is unacceptable, there are excellent medicines that allow you to cure a child even at home. In severe cases (with multiple rashes), antibiotics are prescribed.

In August-September, more than forty people visited my reception, and the wave has not yet passed.

Another disease is characteristic for the beginning of autumn – microsporia, or feline lichen. Animals from basements and other shelters go outside and become sources of infectious disease.Microsporia is manifested by damage to the scalp of a person, in other words, partial baldness. As a rule, parents notice a lesion in a child when it becomes the size of a large coin.

Treatment of microsporia is carried out in a hospital and lasts up to 40 days: the child is completely shaved and treated with ointments, tablets and other means. Such patients are contagious and require constant care and supervision. At home, the defeat of all family members, as well as neighbors and acquaintances is possible.In August, I had 12 people with microsporia at my appointment.

Dear parents, if your child has affected areas of the skin, and you doubt their origin, do not hope that “it will just go away”. Bring your child to the appointment, and the sooner you do it, the easier it will be to cure him.

Mikhail Ermakov,


September 2, 2014


Roman Kurtsyn – on the filming of “Fire” // Watching

“We haven’t filmed anything like this yet,” its creators and first viewers say about the disaster film Fire.You can see how the blockbuster about firefighter heroes turned out in cinemas, and learn about the work on the tape here and now. Actor Roman Kurtsyn tells about the shooting, fiery stunts and dangers on the set.

The disaster film “Fire” was released. Its main characters are rescue firefighters who fight the elements every day. In the spectacular Russian blockbuster, Roman Kurtsyn got the role of Sergei – a former special forces soldier, patriot, joker and conqueror of women’s hearts.How his hero turned out, how he worked in the burning scenery and what dangerous stunts he had to perform on the set, the actor himself said.

Your character in the movie “Fire” – who is he?

– Sergey Zotov is a former special forces soldier, a trained guy who went through the war. He got into the fire brigade for a reason – this is his dream. Sergei is such a daredevil, he remains without scars and burns throughout the film. An absolute breakaway that swallows flames and extinguishes torches with his mouth.

He is a patriot, he even has a tattoo on his heart – the coat of arms of the country. He unconditionally loves our people, our country, and at any moment he is ready to give his life for the sake of saving a team or a stranger.

He also knows martial arts. We will see a very cool fight in the film: it took a long time to prepare, and it was wildly interesting, because it was filmed in one shot – the whole shift was done by this fight.

Will Sergey have a love story?

– He is romantic, loving, constantly meets girls.What’s cool is that my character has true love. At the end of the project, between life and death, in real danger, he realizes that he is in love with one girl. He also loves his mother very much.

The main characters are firefighters working shoulder to shoulder. How does your hero behave as a team?

– He dreams of becoming a commander, but with his character he cannot lead people – it seems to me that with him at the head, everyone would have burned out 15 minutes after they were caught in the fire.He is very emotional, wants to go forward all the time. And then there is Bogdanov’s hero – he “beats” Sergei, stops him. They are best friends, albeit completely different characters. It’s great that in the film we will see the teamwork of two friends who have been together since school.

You talked to the firefighters in preparation for filming. What are your impressions?

– Yes, I talked a lot with the firefighters. It seems to me that 90% of them are ready to sacrifice themselves for the sake of saving a stranger – and this, of course, is amazing.You imagine, when a forest is burning, there are blocks of trees in front of you, a wall of fire – the feeling that it is impossible to survive in these conditions. And they are in no way sharpened to stop the elements.

Such dedication is the main character trait of my hero. He does not think about giving his life for another person or not. He does not have such a question – of course, give it back.

You worked with real fire on set. Was it hard?

– It seems to me that this has never been filmed in the world.We measured the temperature – it went up to 300 degrees. The guys in protective uniforms took off, and I ran in an open T-shirt (my hero gave his jacket to the girl to save her). Our skin melted, our face melted after each shift, as if we had been in a real fire. It was very difficult for me, perhaps, physically, I have never spent so much.

There are many stunts in Fire that didn’t involve stuntmen. What did you have to do on set?

– When I came to the audition for the first time, I told Lesha (director Alexei Nuzhny) that he worked as a fakir at the institute.He put out torches, spat fire – he learned so that he could earn some money. And we came up with a whole scene, how my hero is burned by fire and breathes it.

This reflects Seryoga’s character. Throughout the film, he shows that he is not afraid of anything. He is not afraid of fire either, he exists with it as in a fight. Fire is its enemy: will it win or will it be defeated? We’ll find out at the end when we watch the movie.

We also came up with this trick. As our heroes run through a forest fire, the burning resin drips from the trees and falls on my hands.The flame lit directly on the skin! Nobody has ever done this in our country. Just me.

Why would a viewer watch the movie “Fire”? What can he teach?

– Now a lot of cataclysms are happening precisely because of people – we are not aware of the strength of man. Maybe after our project people will think about the need to protect forests, nature, the world, which so requires protection.

And of course this film is about a team of firefighters, guys who risk their lives every day to save us.We do not see and do not hear how a forest is burning somewhere far away, someone extinguishes it and does not allow the fire to go to cities or small villages. The work of the rescuers is incredible work and patience. When I plunged into this profession, I realized that they, of course, are real heroes. I would like to pay tribute to the firefighters – for this they made a movie about them. It seems to me that this should have been done for a long time.

90,000 What if a person is on fire?

Cases when the clothes of a person standing next to him or himself catch fire in front of our eyes, are not only in militants.Most often we can encounter this in the kitchen, with careless handling of fire, or in car accidents.

If your clothes catch on fire , don’t run! So the flame will flare up even more. Try to quickly throw off burning clothes. If there is a puddle or snowdrift nearby, take a dip. If they are not there, fall to the ground and roll until you knock out the flames.

If a person’s clothing is on fire, extinguish the fire as soon as possible . It is rather difficult to do this, since the victim loses control of himself from the pain and begins to rush from side to side, thereby increasing the flame.Therefore, first of all, in any way, a burning person must be stopped: either shout out threateningly, or throw him to the ground.

Rip off ignited clothing or extinguish it with water (in winter, cover with snow). If there is no water, throw any clothes or thick cloth over the victim without covering his head so that he does not burn the respiratory tract and does not get poisoned by toxic combustion products. But keep in mind: high temperature affects the skin the more destructive, the longer and more tightly smoldering clothes are pressed against it. If nothing is at hand, roll the burning person on the ground to bring down the flames.

After extinguishing the fire, remove the victim to fresh air, cut the smoldering clothing and remove it, taking care not to damage the scalded surface of the skin. Cover the affected area with a bandage or clean cloth. In case of extensive burns, wrap the victim in a clean sheet, urgently call an ambulance or take him to the nearest medical institution on a stretcher. Give an analgin, baralgin, or aspirin tablet to relieve pain.If the victim does not vomit, constantly give him water.

For burns of the first degree (when the skin has only turned red), cold water, ice or snow are used (for ten minutes) to reduce pain and prevent tissue edema, and then lubricate the affected area with alcohol-based formulations (vodka, cologne, etc.). ), but the bandage is not applied. Several times a day, they are treated with anti-burn aerosols or a thin layer of synthomycin ointment is applied.

For second-degree burns (when blisters have formed, and some of them burst), do not treat the affected areas with alcohol-based formulations, as this will cause severe pain and burning.Apply a sterile bandage or ironed cloth to the burn area. Burned skin should not be lubricated with fat, brilliant green or potassium permanganate. This does not bring relief, but only makes it difficult for the doctor to determine the degree of tissue damage.

90,000 Burns | Symptoms, complications, diagnosis and treatment

Burns can be minor medical problems or life-threatening emergencies. Treatment for burns depends on the location and severity of the injury.Minor burns can usually be treated at home. Deep or widespread burns require immediate medical attention.

People with severe burns often need treatment at specialized burn centers. They may need skin grafts to cover large wounds or to minimize scarring with deep wounds. And they may need emotional support and months of follow-up care, such as physical therapy.

The allocation of a minor burn from a more serious burn is related to the determination of the extent of tissue damage.Below are three classifications of burns :

  • First degree burn. This minor burn only affects the outer layer of the skin (epidermis). May cause redness, swelling, and pain. Usually, treatment takes place with first aid over a period of several days to a week. A sunburn is a classic example of a first degree burn.
  • Second degree burn. This type of burn affects both the epidermis and the second layer of the skin (dermis).May cause red, white, or patchy skin, pain, and swelling. The wound often looks moist. Blisters can develop and the pain can be severe. Deep second-degree burns can cause scarring.
  • Third degree burn. This burn ends up in the fatty layer under the skin. Burnt areas can be charred to black or white. The skin may look waxy. Third-degree burns can damage nerves, causing numbness. A person with this type of burn may also have difficulty breathing or get carbon monoxide poisoning.

Causes of burns may include:

  • Fire
  • Hot liquid or steam
  • Hot metal, glass or other items
  • Electric currents
  • Radiation from X-rays or radiation therapy for cancer treatment
  • Sunlight or UV light from sunlight or solarium
  • Chemicals such as strong acids, alkali, paint thinner or gasoline
  • Other reasons

Deep or widespread burns can lead to numerous complications, including:

  • Infectious disease. Burns can leave the skin vulnerable to bacterial infection and increase the risk of sepsis. Sepsis is a life-threatening infection that travels through the bloodstream and affects your body. It progresses rapidly and can cause shock and organ failure.
  • Low blood volume. Burns can damage blood vessels and cause fluid loss. This can lead to a decrease in blood volume (hypovolemia). All of this prevents the heart from pumping enough blood into the body.
  • Dangerously low body temperature. The skin helps control body temperature, so when most of the skin is damaged, you lose body heat. This increases the risk of dangerously low body temperature (hypothermia). Hypothermia is a condition in which the body loses heat faster than it can produce it.
  • Breathing problems. Breathing in hot air or smoke can burn the airway and cause breathing difficulties. Smoke inhalation damages the lungs and can cause respiratory failure.
  • Scars. Burns can cause scars and ribbed areas caused by overgrowth of scar tissue (keloids).
  • Problems with bones and joints. Deep burns can restrict movement of bones and joints. Scar tissue can form and cause the skin, muscles, or tendons to contract and tighten (contractures).

To reduce the risk of general burns:

  • Never leave items cooked on the stove unattended.
  • Turn the pan handles towards the back of the oven.
  • Keep hot liquids out of the reach of children and pets.
  • Keep electrical appliances away from water.
  • Never use loose clothing that will catch fire over the stove.
  • If you have a small child, block access to heat sources such as stove, open grill, fireplace and heater.
  • Check for hot straps or buckles before placing your child in the car seat.
  • Unplug irons and similar devices when not in use. Keep them out of the reach of children.
  • Cover unused electrical outlets with protective caps.
  • If you smoke, avoid smoking in the home and especially do not smoke in bed.
  • Check smoke detectors and replace batteries regularly.
  • Keep a fire extinguisher on every floor of your home.
  • Keep chemicals, lighters and matches out of the reach of children.
  • Set the water heater thermostat below 120 F (48.9 C) to prevent scalding. Test the bath water before immersing your baby in it.

Treatment for burns depends on the type and extent of the injury. Most minor burns can be treated at home and will usually heal within a few weeks. For severe burns, following appropriate first aid and wound assessment, treatment may include medications, wound dressings, therapy, and surgery. The goals of treatment are to control pain, remove dead tissue, prevent infection, reduce scarring, restore function, and address emotional needs.

You may need months of additional procedures and therapy. This can be done during a hospital stay, on an outpatient basis, or at home. Factors influencing this choice include your wishes, other conditions, and abilities, such as whether you can change dressings yourself.

Movie Fire (2020) watch online in good HD 1080/720 quality

A group of six paratroopers-firefighters are in the epicenter of a forest fire. The group leader, instructor Alexei Sokolov, orders his subordinates to lie on the ground and cover themselves with fireproof blankets.However, one of the firefighters, succumbing to a panic attack, runs into the forest, seeing a gap in the flames. He dies in a fiery trap.

Moscow region. Avialesoohrana base. Sokolov approaches the workplace of his daughter Katya (she works as a dispatcher). The girl is not there. Sokolov puts a chocolate bar on Katya’s table and finds a bunch of flowers there. He asks Katya’s colleague (Tanya) where his daughter is now and who gave her flowers. Tanya says that a young handsome man who is caring for Katya entered them.Sokolov sees a postcard next to a bouquet. It says: meet in the First Hangar.

Sokolov enters the office of the head of Avialesoohrana Vladimir Gromov. He asks what Sokolov is doing at the base when forest fires are raging across the country. Sokolov says that he lost a person, and the minimum number of the group is six people. Gromov offers to take a newcomer to the group. Sokolov declares that he will no longer take the young. Gromov offers Sokolov to resign. Sokolov enters the hangar.There he sees Katya with her boyfriend (Roman Ilyin). They are going to fly to jump with a parachute. Sokolov forbids Katya to do this.

Sokolov is approached by members of his group: Konstantin Zhuravel, Petr Velichuk, Sergey Zotov and Maxim Shustov. They inform Sokolov that his group is supposed to be disbanded due to the lack of completeness. Sokolov is trying to persuade the pilot-observer Valera to take his group on a flight in an incomplete composition. He refuses to violate the instructions.

Zotov comes to the canteen at the base.He asks the barmaid Oksana to correct grammatical errors in the text of the postcard he wants to send to his mother.

Sokolov drives up to a group of beginners who are training on the airfield, calls Ilyin and tells him that in five minutes they will fly to extinguish a fire in Karelia near the village of Olkhovo.

Katya, learning that Ilyin is flying away, runs out onto the runway and stops the plane. Young people have time to say goodbye.

Sokolov, sitting in the cabin, performs a ritual.He lights a match: if it burns out quickly, the fire can be extinguished quickly.

The paratroopers are going to jump to the place of extinguishing the fire with parachutes. They offer Ilyin to write a refusal to jump and return to base. But Ilyin also jumps. He lands in the woods, hooked on a branch of a tall tree.

Firefighters set up camp, start extinguishing the fire. Ilyin sees that behind Zotov there is an oncoming fell, he warns him of the danger.

The counter was organized by the residents of Olkhovo, led by their elder Georgich. Nobody warned them that firefighters were working in the forest. As a result, the firefighters’ camp burns down with all the tools and supplies. Sokolov contacts Valera by satellite phone, asks to get provisions and tools.

To save fuel, Valera is transferred to a helicopter piloted by a local pilot (Okopych).

In the morning, on behalf of Sokolov, Zotov, Shustov, Zhuravel and Velichuk go to the village for help.

Remaining in the forest with Ilyin, Sokolov tells him that Katya has vegetative-vascular dystonia, and therefore it is strongly discouraged to fly an airplane and jump with a parachute in order to avoid a panic attack.

Ilyin steals Sokolov’s satellite phone, dials up to Katya and finds out the relationship with her. Ilyin notices that a fire breaks out in the forest again, manages to inform Katya about this and drops the phone into the river, on the bank of which he was talking with the girl. The detachment remains without communication (there is no mobile communication in Olkhovo, no fixed telephones either).

Local residents celebrate a wedding in the village. They share with firemen’s provisions and tools.

One of the residents of Olkhovo (Zoya) is about to give birth.But there was not a single sober driver left in the village. Velichuk is called to take Zoya and her mother to the regional center by bus.

Sokolov comes to the village, he says that the fires are not over yet, so his team will continue to work in the forest. Ilyin comes running, he says that he saw a fire in the forest. Valera and Okopych are dropping refractory blankets from a helicopter. An old helicopter can only take off “like an airplane”, having accelerated on the runway. Therefore, Okopych does not risk landing in Olkhovo.

Ilyin confesses to Sokolov that he lost his satellite phone. Sokolov rips off the fireman’s patch from Ilyin’s sleeve.

Sokolov explains to Georgich that the fire on horseback, the detachment will not be able to extinguish it on their own. We need to urgently evacuate the population. The fire is already approaching the village, so you may not have time to leave Olkhovo with your children. Firefighters attach the old car to the helicopter with cables, put the children on its body, Okopych manages to lift the helicopter. The children are accompanied by Shustov.In flight, one of the cables bursts. Okopych is forced to land in a forest in a clearing. Shustov again fixes the cable, but the helicopter cannot take off. Shustov throws out everything unnecessary from the helicopter, he even drains most of the fuel from the tank, makes the children take off their shoes and outerwear, but the helicopter cannot take off. Then Shustov asks the children to close their eyes and believe in a miracle: imagine that you are already flying. Shustov disembarks from the helicopter, waves goodbye to Valera and Okopych, the car rises into the air, and the firefighter dies in the flames.

The helicopter lands at the airfield. Okopych leads the children to drink tea with honey from his apiary.

Sokolov tells the villagers that they will be able to escape only when they reach the river.

Velichuk is driving a bus through a burning forest. He ordered the women to plug all the cracks in the bus. Having passed the forest, Velichuk leads the bus across the wooden bridge, which is already engulfed in flames. In the middle of the bridge, the logs of the flooring burn through, the bus falls into the gap formed, and hangs over the river.

Zoe begins labor.The child is accepted by her mother. With Velichuk’s help, women with a child manage to get off the bus. Velichuk carries Zoya in his arms. As soon as they move away from the bus, a fuel tank filled with gas explodes.

Sokolov leads people through the forest. Firefighters and villagers are forced to stop in a clearing, surrounded by flames on all sides. One of the villagers carries a reel of cable with him to earn money from the delivery of non-ferrous scrap.

Sokolov finds out from Georgich that two hundred meters remain to the river bank.The cable on the spool should be enough for this distance. Sokolov runs through the blazing forest, unwinding the reel. He gets to the river and tries to signal his comrades by firing a rocket launcher. However, the last round in the flare gun does not fire.

Firefighters are distributing fire blankets to villagers. Not enough for all of them. Ilyin gives his blanket to one of the women.

Sokolov comes out of the forest. He returned from the river bank. Firefighters lead the villagers through the burning forest, using a cable to determine the direction to the river.The weakened Sokolov falls in the forest, Ilyin picks him up, tries to pull him out of the forest onto the river bank.

Ilyin sees an EMERCOM amphibious aircraft flying over the forest.

At the base, Katya persuades Gromov to send heavy amphibious aircraft to Karelia. For some reason, communication with her father’s detachment disappeared, and before that Katya was informed that a strong fire was approaching Olkhovo. Gromov says that Sokolov has been without contact more than once during his career, and everything was fine with him. And the data on the monitor of the control room indicate that there is no fire near Olkhovo.Katya says that they receive data with a four-hour delay. Gromov claims that he now has only two amphibious aircraft at his disposal, and he has a fire near a chemical plant, where a pipeline may explode. Katya reproaches Gromov: factories are more important to you than people.

Katya cunningly lures Gromov out of the office, posing as his deputy, she calls the space monitoring service. Gromov returns to the office. He threatens to fire Katya for such an offense. At this moment, updated data are received from Karelia: a fire is approaching Olkhovo.

Gromov and Katya go to the airfield. Gromov orders the pilots to lift the BE-200 amphibious aircraft into the air. The pilots refuse to do this without a written order. Gromov takes his phone from one of the pilots and slanders him with a message that it was he who made such a decision at his own peril and risk. Returning his phone to the pilot, Gromov says: I’d rather sit down than my people will die.

Katya and Gromov fly to Karelia. The girl manages to cope with the panic attack.

Firefighters and residents of Olkhovo sit on the river bank.

Ilyin removes helmets with flashlights from his head and from Sokolov’s head, alternately throws them into the air. Katya from the plane notices these signals, informs Gromov that there are still people in the forest.

A powerful stream of water falls from the sky onto Ilyin and Sokolov. They lie in a puddle, laughing merrily. Ilyin: Now the Hero will definitely be given. Sokolov: who is this? Ilyin: To me, of course. After all, the one who saves the Hero of Russia is an even greater hero. I’m just kidding.

Gromov and Katya on a boat dock to the shore, where they are met by firefighters and residents of Olkhovo.Ilyin climbs aboard the boat and gently kisses Katya in front of her father’s eyes.

The residents of Olkhovo begin to build a new village on the river bank.

Sokolov and his comrades lay flowers at the monument in honor of the dead firefighters. Now there is a photograph of Shustov.

Velichuk marries Zoya, adopts her child.

Zotov comes to the canteen at the base, Oksana treats him to lunch. Tasty? Highly. Do you love me? Zotov claims that Oksana is his only beloved woman.Zotov was immediately informed that his mother was waiting for him at the checkpoint, who had come to visit her son. Zotov rushes to the checkpoint. His mother asks him: have you even met a girl? Yes, let’s go, I’ll introduce you to her.

Katya and Ilyin board the plane. Sokolov comes up to them, checks how the parachutes are packed. He returns to Ilyin the stripe torn from him to the forest.

Gromov goes to bed on the couch in his office.

Firefighters, led by Zhuravel, are sent on a new mission.Sokolov looks after them and lights a match.

Why does the skin peel off after cleaning? –

Why does my skin peel off after cleaning? – Skip to content

FAQ of aesthetic cosmetology studio on Tsvetnoy Boulevard “Ice Face”

After a cosmetic procedure to cleanse the upper layer of the epidermis, the skin may peel off. This is a normal reaction and depends on both the method of cleansing and the type of skin.

During the cleansing procedure, the cells of the epidermis are regenerated and the dead skin particles are exfoliated.

Most often, superficial peeling is noticeable in those with dry skin types, as well as after acid peeling. But with proper care after the procedure (nutrition and hydration), after a couple of days, everything goes away.

Another reason for peeling is a frequent visit to a beautician for a procedure. If you clean your face more than 1 time a month, it is better to make a longer interval (1.5-2 months) and then you can avoid peeling of the skin.

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Aesthetic cosmetology studio ICE FACE on Tsvetnoy Boulevard

Let’s preserve youth and the beauty of your skin without injections and a scalpel, with a guarantee of the result

Take a simple test for 5 questions, and we will select the ideal procedure that suits your skin

We will give everyone who passed the test a 25% discount on your procedure, alginate face mask for 1500 r .