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Florastor use: Florastor Oral: Uses, Side Effects, Interactions, Pictures, Warnings & Dosing

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Uses, Side Effects, Interactions & Pill Images


  • BIO00000: This medicine is a white, oblong, capsule imprinted with “Florastor” and “250”.

IMPORTANT: HOW TO USE THIS INFORMATION: This is a summary and does NOT have all possible information about this product. This information does not assure that this product is safe, effective, or appropriate for you. This information is not individual medical advice and does not substitute for the advice of your health care professional. Always ask your health care professional for complete information about this product and your specific health needs.

Probiotics contain different types of micro-organisms such as yeast (saccharomyces boulardii) and bacteria (such as lactobacillus, bifidobacterium). Micro-organisms (flora) are naturally found in the stomach/intestines/vagina. Some conditions (such as antibiotic use, travel) can change the normal balance of bacteria/yeast. Probiotics are used to improve digestion and restore normal flora.Probiotics have been used to treat bowel problems (such as diarrhea, irritable bowel), eczema, vaginal yeast infections, lactose intolerance, and urinary tract infections.Probiotics are available in foods (such as yogurt, milk, juices, soy beverages) and as dietary supplements (capsules, tablets, powders). Different products have different uses. Check the label for information on uses for your particular product.Some diet supplement products have been found to contain possibly harmful impurities/additives. Check with your pharmacist for more details regarding the particular brand you use.The FDA has not reviewed this product for safety or effectiveness. Consult your doctor or pharmacist for more details.

Follow all directions on the product package. Refer to the label directions for your specific product to see if the dose should be swallowed whole, chewed, sprinkled onto food or mixed with liquid. If you have any questions, ask your doctor or pharmacist.Some probiotic products may contain live bacteria (such as bifidobacteria). Antibiotics may prevent these products from working well. Take any product containing live bacteria at least 2 to 3 hours before or after taking antibiotics. Follow the directions for your specific product.If you are taking this product for diarrhea due to antibiotics, do not use it if you have a high fever or for more than 2 days, unless directed by your doctor. You may have a serious problem that requires medical treatment.If your condition persists or worsens, or if you think you may have a serious medical problem, seek immediate medical attention.

An increase in stomach gas or bloating may occur. If this effect persists or worsens, notify your doctor or pharmacist promptly.Tell your doctor right away if any of these unlikely but serious side effects occur: signs of infection (such as high fever, chills, persistent cough).A very serious allergic reaction to this product is rare. However, seek immediate medical attention if you notice any of the following symptoms of a serious allergic reaction: rash, itching/swelling (especially of the face/tongue/throat), severe dizziness, trouble breathing.This is not a complete list of possible side effects. If you notice other effects not listed above, contact your doctor or pharmacist.In the US -Call your doctor for medical advice about side effects. You may report side effects to FDA at 1-800-FDA-1088 or at www.fda.gov/medwatch.In Canada – Call your doctor for medical advice about side effects. You may report side effects to Health Canada at 1-866-234-2345.

Before using this product, tell your doctor or pharmacist if you are allergic to it; or if you have any other allergies. This product may contain inactive ingredients, which can cause allergic reactions or other problems. Talk to your pharmacist for more details.If you have any of the following health problems, consult your doctor or pharmacist before using this product: diarrhea lasting more than 2 days (especially if you also have a high fever), weakened immune system (such as due to chemotherapy, HIV infection), recurring vaginal infections, recurring urinary tract infections.Liquid products, foods, powders, or chewable tablets may contain sugar and/or aspartame. Caution is advised if you have diabetes, phenylketonuria (PKU), or any other condition that requires you to limit/avoid these substances in your diet. Ask your doctor or pharmacist about using this product safely.Before having surgery, tell your doctor or dentist about all the products you use (including prescription drugs, nonprescription drugs, and herbal products).During pregnancy, this product should be used only when clearly needed. Discuss the risks and benefits with your doctor.It is unknown whether this product passes into breast milk. Consult your doctor before breast-feeding.

Drug interactions may change how your medications work or increase your risk for serious side effects. This document does not contain all possible drug interactions. Keep a list of all the products you use (including prescription/nonprescription drugs and herbal products) and share it with your doctor and pharmacist. Do not start, stop, or change the dosage of any medicines without your doctor’s approval.Some medications that may interact with certain probiotics include: antibiotics, antifungals (such as clotrimazole, ketoconazole, griseofulvin, nystatin).

If someone has overdosed and has serious symptoms such as passing out or trouble breathing, call 911. Otherwise, call a poison control center right away. US residents can call their local poison control center at 1-800-222-1222. Canada residents can call a provincial poison control center.

Keep all regular medical and laboratory appointments.Some brands may also contain other ingredients, such as fiber or inulin. Ask your doctor or pharmacist if you have questions about the ingredients in your brand.

If you miss a dose, take it as soon as you remember. If it is near the time of the next dose, skip the missed dose. Take your next dose at the regular time. Do not double the dose to catch up.

Different types of probiotics may have different storage needs. Some may require refrigeration while others should not be refrigerated. Check the product package for instructions on how to store your product. If you have any questions about storage, ask your pharmacist. Keep all medications away from children and pets.Do not flush medications down the toilet or pour them into a drain unless instructed to do so. Properly discard this product when it is expired or no longer needed. Consult your pharmacist or local waste disposal company.

Information last revised June 2020. Copyright(c) 2021 First Databank, Inc.

Florastor Daily Probiotic Supplement Vegetable Capsules, 250mg

Florastor Daily Probiotic Supplement Vegetable Capsules, 250mg – 30 ct

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From the Manufacturer

PRODUCT DETAILS

Item No. 0385185

Florastor is a daily probiotic supplement that strengthens your digestive balance and strengthens a healthy immune system. Florastor is the ONLY probiotic with Saccharomyces boulardii lyo CNCM I-745 a unique yeast-based probiotic strain that is backed by over 65 years of safe use and supported by more than 600 published studies. Florastor works differently than bacterial-based probiotics. It flushes out bad bacteria while boosting the good bacteria to restore your natural flora and digestive balance. With 70% of the immune system residing in the digestive tract, it’s important to make digestive health a priority. Florastor supports the immune system by actively stimulating the production of Immunoglobulin A (IgA) – the primary antibody in the digestive system that helps to promote overall health and defend against infection. Florastor exclusive strain has a 10x larger cell size than bacterial probiotics for more gut protection. Because of the unique strain, Florastor is proven to work even during antibiotic use. All ingredients are gluten-free, non-GMO, require no refrigeration, and are available in vegetarian capsules. Florastor protects your gut by helping to flush out bad bacteria so that good bacteria can flourish, and digestive balance restored. With over 65 years of use and research, Florastor remains one of the most trusted probiotic brands worldwide.

  • 10X Larger Cells for More Gut Protection
  • Flushes out bad bacteria
  • Boosts good bacteria
  • Stimulates Immunity
  • #1 Selling Probiotic in Class Worldwide
  • *These statements have not been evaluated by the Food and Drug Administration. These products are not intended to diagnose, treat, cure or prevent any disease.

MORE INFORMATION

More Information
Product Name Florastor Daily Probiotic Supplement Vegetable Capsules, 250mg – 30 ct
Package Count 30
Container Type box
Form Capsule
Dosage 2
Dosage UOM capsule(s)
Country of Manufacture France
Nutritional/Supplemental Facts

See Image

Best For Digestive Health
Ingredient Preference Gluten Free, Vegetarian, Non-GMO
Allergy Option Allergen Free
Prop 65 No

HOW TO USE

2 capsules 1-2 times daily

INGREDIENTS

Saccharomyces boulardii lyo CNCM I-745 250mgLactose 32.5mg

SAFETY

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Saccharomyces boulardii (Florastor) oral dosage forms

What is this medicine?

SACCHAROMYCES boulardii (SAK a roe MYE sees boo LAR dee eye) is a supplement. It is used to help the normal balance of bacteria in the colon. The FDA has not approved this supplement for any medical use.


How should I use this medicine?

Take this medicine by mouth. Follow the directions on the package labeling, or take as directed by your health care professional. Do not take this medicine more often than directed.

Capsules: Swallow capsules whole or mix contents of capsule with water, apple juice or other non-carbonated drinks. Capsule contents can also be added to apple sauce and other soft foods. Do not add to hot beverages.

Granules: Mix contents of packet with water, apple juice, or other non-carbonated drinks. For babies, may add to formula after warmed. Can also be added to apple sauce and other soft baby foods. Do not add to hot beverages.

Chewable tablets: Chew tablet completely before swallowing. Can be crushed and sprinkled on tongue. Can also be added to water, apple juice, or other non-carbonated drinks or apple sauce or other soft foods. Do not add to hot beverages.

Contact your pediatrician regarding the use of this medicine in children. Special care may be needed. This medicine is not recommended for children or infants unless prescribed by a doctor.


What side effects may I notice from receiving this medicine?

Side effects that you should report to your doctor or health care professional as soon as possible:

  • allergic reactions like skin rash, itching or hives, swelling of the face, lips, or tongue
  • breathing problems
  • fever
  • nausea, vomiting
  • unusually weak or tired

Side effects that usually do not require medical attention (report to your doctor or health care professional if they continue or are bothersome):

  • constipation
  • increased thirst
  • mild gas


What may interact with this medicine?

  • medications for fungal infections, such as fluconazole, itraconazole, ketoconazole, nystatin, or voriconazole.


What if I miss a dose?

If you miss a dose, take it as soon as you can. If it is almost time for your next dose, take only that dose. Do not take double or extra doses.


Where should I keep my medicine?

Keep out of the reach of children.

Store at room temperature under 25 degrees C (77 degrees F). Keep granule packets or capsules closed until time of use. Throw away any unused medicine after the expiration date.


What should I tell my health care provider before I take this medicine?

They need to know if you have any of these conditions:

  • chronic disease
  • have a central venous catheter
  • immune system problems
  • an unusual or allergic reaction to Saccharomyces boulardii, Brewer’s yeast or other yeast, lactose or milk (Florastor brand contains lactose), other foods, dyes, or preservatives
  • pregnant or trying to get pregnant
  • breast-feeding


What should I watch for while using this medicine?

See your doctor if your symptoms do not get better or if they get worse.

If you have allergies to milk or you are sensitive to lactose, do not use the Florastor brand supplement. Florastor contains lactose.


NOTE:This sheet is a summary. It may not cover all possible information. If you have questions about this medicine, talk to your doctor, pharmacist, or health care provider. Copyright© 2020 Elsevier

Efficacy and safety of the probiotic Saccharomyces boulardii for the prevention and therapy of gastrointestinal disorders

Therap Adv Gastroenterol. 2012 Mar; 5(2): 111–125.

Theodoros Kelesidis

Department of Medicine, Division of Infectious Diseases, David Geffen School of Medicine, UCLA, Los Angeles, CA, USA

Charalabos Pothoulakis

Inflammatory Bowel Disease Center, Div. of Digestive Diseases, David Geffen School of Medicine, UCLA, Los Angeles, CA 90095, USA

Corresponding author.This article has been cited by other articles in PMC.

Abstract

Several clinical trials and experimental studies strongly suggest a place for Saccharomyces boulardii as a biotherapeutic agent for the prevention and treatment of several gastrointestinal diseases. S. boulardii mediates responses resembling the protective effects of the normal healthy gut flora. The multiple mechanisms of action of S. boulardii and its properties may explain its efficacy and beneficial effects in acute and chronic gastrointestinal diseases that have been confirmed by clinical trials. Caution should be taken in patients with risk factors for adverse events. This review discusses the evidence for efficacy and safety of S. boulardii as a probiotic for the prevention and therapy of gastrointestinal disorders in humans.

Keywords: efficacy, gastrointestinal disorders, probiotic, Saccharomyces boulardii, safety

Introduction

There is increasing evidence that the gastrointestinal microflora is a major regulator of the immune system, not only in the gut, but also in other organs [Gareau et al. 2010]. The nonpathogenic yeast Saccharomyces boulardii has been prescribed in the past 30 years for prophylaxis and treatment of diarrheal diseases caused by bacteria. Importantly, S. boulardii has demonstrated clinical and experimental effectiveness in gastrointestinal diseases with a predominant inflammatory component, indicating that this probiotic might interfere with cellular signaling pathways common in many inflammatory conditions. The goal of this study is to review the clinical evidence for efficacy and safety of S. boulardii in the prevention and treatment of gastrointestinal disorders with diverse etiology.

Saccharomyces boulardii as a probiotic

An increasing number of potential health benefits are being attributed to probiotic treatments [Gareau et al. 2010; Szajewska et al. 2006]. However, only a limited number have been confirmed in well-designed and conducted randomized controlled trials (RCTs) and even less in the pediatric population. S. boulardii is a live yeast used extensively as a probiotic and often marketed as a dietary supplement [McFarland, 2010]. Several mechanisms of action have been identified directed against the host as well as pathogenic microorganisms and include regulation of intestinal microbial homeostasis, interference with the ability of pathogens to colonize and infect the mucosa, modulation of local and systemic immune responses, stabilization of the gastrointestinal barrier function and induction of enzymatic activity favoring absorption and nutrition ( and ) [Czerucka et al. 2007; Im and Pothoulakis, 2010; Pothoulakis, 2009].

Table 1.

Mechanisms of action of Saccharomyces boulardii.

Action of Saccharomyces boulardii References
Luminal action

A) Antimicrobial activity
 1) Inhibition of growth of bacteria and parasites [Chen et al. 2006; Czerucka et al. 1994; Czerucka and Rampal, 2002; Dahan et al. 2003; Dalmasso et al. 2006a; Gedek, 1999a; Rigothier et al. 1994; Rodrigues et al. 1996; Mumy et al. 2008; Wu et al. 2008]
 2) Reduction of gut translocation of pathogens [Herek et al. 2004; Geyik et al. 2006]
 3) Neutralization of bacterial virulence factors [Buts et al. 1994; Jahn et al. 1996]
 4) Suppression of host cell adherence that interferes with bacterial colonization [Czerucka et al. 2000; Rodrigues et al. 1996; Wu et al. 2008]
B) Antitoxin effects
 1) Inhibition of toxin receptor binding sites [Buts et al. 2006; Castagliuolo et al. 1996, 1999; Czerucka et al. 2000; Tasteyre et al. 2002; Wu et al. 2008]
 2) Stimulation of antibody production against Clostridium difficile toxin A [Brandao et al. 1998; Qamar et al. 2001]
 3) Direct proteolysis of the pathogenic toxins/Secretion of enzymatic proteins [Buts et al. 2006; Castagliuolo et al. 1996; Pothoulakis et al. 1993]
  a) Produces a serine protease that cleaves C. difficile toxin A [Pothoulakis et al. 1993]
  b) Produces 63 kDa phosphatase that destroys the endotoxin of pathogenic Escherichia coli [Buts et al. 2006; Castagliuolo et al. 1996]
  c) Produces a 120 kDa protein that reduces the effects of cholera toxin [Czerucka et al. 1994]
C) Cross-talk with normal microbiota
When S. boulardii is given to antibiotic-exposed mice or patients with diarrhea, normal microbiota is re-established rapidly [Buts et al. 1986, 1999, 2006; Buts, 2009; Swidsinski et al. 2008]

Trophic action on the intestinal mucosa

 1) Reduces the number of infected cells and stimulates the growth and differentiation of intestinal cells in response to trophic factors [Barc et al. 2008; Swidsinski et al. 2008]
 2) Prevents apoptosis and synthesis of TNFα [Czerucka et al. 2000; Dahan et al. 2003; Dalmasso et al. 2006b]
 3) Reduces mucositis [Buts et al. 1986, 1999, 2006; Buts, 2009]
 4) Restores fluid transport pathways [Schneider et al. 2005]
 5) Stimulates protein and energy production and restores metabolic activities in colonic epithelial cells [Czerucka et al. 2007; Szajewska et al. 2007; Zanello et al. 2009]
 6) Secretes mitogenic factors that enhance cell restitution [Canonici et al. 2011]
 7) Enhances release of brush-border membrane enzymes [Buts et al. 1998, 2002; Schneider et al. 2005]
 8) Stimulates the production of glycoproteins in the brush border [Buts et al. 1990]
 9) Stimulates production of intestinal polyamines [Buts et al. 1986, 1994, 1999, 2002; Jahn et al. 1996; Schneider et al. 2005]
 10) Restores normal levels of colonic short chain fatty acids (SCFAs) [Buts et al. 1994; Sezer et al. 2009; Breves et al. 2000]
 11) Stabilizes gastrointestinal barrier function and strengthens enterocyte tight junctions [Czerucka et al. 2007; Dahan et al. 2003; Szajewska et al. 2007; Wu et al. 2008; Zanello et al. 2009]
 12) Reduces crypt hyperplasia and cell damage in colitis models [Wu et al. 2008]
 13) Decreases intestinal permeability in Crohn’s disease patients [Garcia et al. 2008]

Regulation of immune response

A) By acting as an immune stimulant
S. boulardii effects on innate immunity
 1) Triggers activation of complement and migration of monocytes and granulocytes [Caetano et al. 1986]
 2) Enhances the number of Küpffer cells in germfree mice [Rodrigues et al. 2000]
S. boulardii effects on adaptive immunity
 1) Enhances the mucosal immune response and secretory IgA intestinal levels [Buts et al. 1990; Czerucka et al. 2007; Generoso et al. 2011; Szajewska et al. 2007; Zanello et al. 2009]
 2) Enhances systemic immune response and levels of serum IgG to C. difficile toxins A and B. [Czerucka et al. 2007; Qamar et al. 2001]
 3) Contributes to earlier production of IFN-γ and IL-12 [Rodrigues et al. 2000; Thomas et al. 2009]
 4) Stimulates regulatory T cells [Jahn et al. 1996]
 5) Inhibits dendritic cell-induced activation of T cells [Dalmasso et al. 2006a]
 6) Modifies migration of lymphocytes in a chronic inflammatory bowel disease model [Dalmasso et al. 2006a]
 7) Modifies lymphocyte adherence to endothelial cells, improves cell rolling and adhesion [Dalmasso et al. 2006a]
B) By reducing pro-inflammatory responses and promoting mucosal anti-inflammatory signaling effects
 1) Decreases expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines (IL-8, IL-6, IL-1β, TNF-α and IFN-γ) [Dahan et al. 2003; Dalmasso et al. 2006a, 2006b; Mumy et al. 2008; Sougioultzis et al. 2006]
 2) Increases expression of the anti-inflammatory cytokine IL-10 [Generoso et al. 2011]
 3) Interferes with NF-κB-mediated signal transduction pathways, in immune and colonic epithelial cells [Buts, 2009; Dahan et al. 2003; Mumy et al. 2008; Pant et al. 2007; Sougioultzis et al. 2006]
 4) Blocks activation of ERK1/2 and MAP kinases [Chen et al. 2006; Kyne et al. 2001; Mumy et al. 2008; Sougioultzis et al. 2006]
 5) Decreases NO and inhibits production of inducible NOS [Girard et al. 2005]
 6) Modulates T cell migratory behavior and increases trapping of T helper cells into mesenteric lymph nodes [Dalmasso et al. 2006a; Fidan et al. 2009; Sougioultzis et al. 2006; Thomas et al. 2009]
 7) Stimulates production of anti-inflammatory molecules in human colonocytes such as PPAR-γ [Chen et al. 2006; Lee et al. 2005, 2009; Mumy et al. 2008]

Table 2.

Mechanisms of action of Saccharomyces boulardii in specific infections.

Action of Saccharomyces boulardii References
Clostridium difficile infection

1) Inhibits toxin A-mediated diarrhea, intestinal inflammation and histological damage by reducing toxin A-receptor binding [Castagliuolo et al. 1996; Pothoulakis et al. 1993]
2) Releases a protease that cleaves C. difficile toxins and toxin intestinal receptors [Castagliuolo et al. 1996; Pothoulakis et al. 1993]
3) Stimulates specific intestinal antitoxin A immunoglobulin levels [Castagliuolo et al. 1996, 1999; Pothoulakis et al. 1993]
4) Inhibits IL-8 production and activation of the MAP kinases Erk1/2 and JNK/SAPK induced by C. difficile toxin A in human colonocytes [Chen et al. 2006; Qamar et al. 2001]
5) Significantly fewer animals challenged with C. difficile died if given S. boulardii compared with controls [Castex et al. 1990; Elmer and Corthier, 1991; Rodrigues et al. 1996; Toothaker and Elmer, 1984]

Helicobacter pylori infection

Alters the structure of H. pylori [Vandenplas et al. 2009]

Vibrio cholerae infection

1) Inhibits the effect of V. cholerae toxin and hydroelectrolytic secretions by reducing cAMP activity [Vidon et al. 1986; Czerucka et al. 1994]
2) S. boulardii and the mammalian CT receptors could be structurally and functionally similar and the yeast binds CT [Brandao et al. 1998; Czerucka et al. 1994]

Amebic dysentery

1) Reduces the number of red cells adhering to amoebae [Rigothier et al. 1994]
2) Decreases the number of amoebae bearing red cells [Rigothier et al. 1994]

Infection with EHEC

1) S. boulardii modifies host signaling such as NF-κB-associated pathways activated by bacterial invasion with EHEC [Dahan et al. 2002, 2003]
2) Addition to T84 colonocyte monolayers diminishes MLC phosphorylation and decreases transepithelial resistance in response to EHEC [Dahan et al. 2002, 2003]

Infection with EPEC

1) Modifies EPEC infection and acts as a receptor decoy for EPEC [Buts et al. 2006; Canil et al. 1993; Czerucka et al. 2000; Gedek, 1999b]
2) Reduces the number of intracellular EPEC [Buts et al. 2006; Canil et al. 1993; Czerucka et al. 2000; Gedek, 1999b]
3) Blocks transepithelial resistance and permeability changes, reverses impaired ZO-1 distribution and delays apoptosis of epithelial cells in response to EPEC [Buts et al. 2006; Canil et al. 1993; Czerucka et al. 2000; Gedek, 1999b]
4) Dephosphorylates LPS from Escherichia coli strain O55B5 [Buts et al. 2006; Canil et al. 1993; Czerucka et al. 2000; Gedek, 1999b]

The multiple prophylactic and therapeutic effects of this probiotic yeast in inflammatory gastrointestinal diseases underline the efficacy of S. boulardii in enteric diseases. This efficacy in the prevention and the treatment of acute and chronic gastrointestinal diseases is determined by many factors () and has been assessed in several clinical trials ().

Table 3.

Properties of Saccharomyces boulardii that can determine the efficacy of S. boulardii.

Properties of Saccharomyces boulardii References
1) Survives passage to its target organ (most commonly the colon): although much of the oral dose is destroyed (usually stool levels are 100–1000 times lower than the oral dose), surviving oral doses have been found to be effective (usually at levels over 108 organisms/gram stool) [Gorbach, 2000]
2) Survives at body temperature (37°C): unique advantage of being one of the few yeasts that do best at human body temperatures [Graff et al. 2008b]
3) In lyophilized form, S. boulardii survives gastric acid and bile [Graff et al. 2008b]
4) As is the case with all yeasts, S. boulardii is naturally resistant to antibiotics [Graff et al. 2008b]
5) S. boulardii is resistant to proteolysis [Buts, 2009]
6) S. boulardii exists in the competitive milieu of the intestinal tract [Buts, 2009]
7) S. boulardii levels are higher in patients with disturbed intestinal microbiota (due to antibiotic exposure) compared to patients without antibiotic exposure [Klein et al. 1993]
8) When given orally, achieves steady-state concentrations within three days and is cleared within 3–5 days after it is discontinued [Blehaut et al. 1989; Elmer et al. 1999b]
9) Some types of fiber (psyllium) increased S. boulardii levels by 22%, while other types of fiber (pectin) showed no effect. [Elmer et al. 1999a]

Table 4.

Clinical efficacy of Saccharomyces boulardii in acute and chronic diseases.

Acute diseases
1) Antibiotic-associated diarrhea
2) Clostridium difficile infection
3) Acute diarrhea
4) Persistent diarrhea
5) Enteral nutrition-related diarrhea
6) Traveler’s diarrhea
7) Helicobacter pylori infection

Chronic diseases

1) Crohn’s disease
2) Ulcerative colitis
3) Irritable bowel syndrome
4) Parasitic infections
 a) Amebic colitis
 b) Giardiasis
 c) Blastocystis hominis
5) Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-related diarrhea

Factors that determine efficacy of

Saccharomyces boulardii as a probiotic

The efficacy of S. boulardii as a probiotic involves many factors, including the intrinsic properties of the yeast (), its pharmacokinetics (), product to product variation, and stability, number of strains used in the probiotic preparation and dose of the probiotic used.

There are many different Saccharomyces products commercially available sold as probiotics and S. boulardii is usually available in capsules of either lyophilized or heat-dried preparations [McFarland, 2010]. The choice of a high-quality probiotic product is one of the most important factors that determine efficacy of the probiotic. The quality of these products from different sources may vary and many of the commercially available products may lack regulated quality control programs [Marcobal et al. 2008; Martins et al. 2005; Masco et al. 2005; Weese, 2003]. Even if the label states it contains S. boulardii, a variation in efficacy may occur due to lower than stated dose or inaccurate strain composition [Martins et al. 2009]. Selecting high-quality probiotic products can be difficult without access to specific quality control assays for commercially available probiotic products. Selecting products from companies that sponsor original clinical trials may indicate a higher degree of commitment to high-quality products [McFarland, 2010].

The stability of the probiotic product may significantly affect its potency over time. Lyophilized products are stable at room temperature, have the advantage of portability and maintain high viability counts over prolonged periods [Graff et al. 2008a]. Heat-dried preparations must be refrigerated and may not be stable at room temperature [McFarland, 2010]. A study of S. boulardii products found a lyophilized product outperformed three heat-killed S. boulardii preparations in terms of pharmacokinetics and higher number of viable cells [Schwenzer, 1998].

All of the RCTs using S. boulardii have utilized a single-strain preparation. Although mixtures of probiotics containing S. boulardii are available on the market, no RCTs have been performed showing that these mixtures are superior to the single-strain preparations. Preclinical studies in animal models have found promising results in probiotic mixtures containing S. boulardii [Bisson et al. 2010]. However, possible antagonism between the different probiotics may attenuate the therapeutic responses of the probiotic strains [Kajander et al. 2008].

Finally, the dose of S. boulardii used can also affect the efficacy of this probiotic [McFarland, 2010]. Different doses of S. boulardii used in different studies may explain some of the discrepancies in the efficacy and outcomes between these studies. Unfortunately, the dose of S. boulardii used is not reported consistently in all studies while in other studies the dose used is reported heterogeneously between different studies (e.g. number of organisms per 100 ml or number of organisms per day or colony forming units [cfu] per day or grams per day) [McFarland, 2010]. This heterogeneity limits meta-analyses and further analysis of the effect of dose of S. boulardii on its efficacy.

Clinical efficacy of

Saccharomyces boulardii as a probiotic in acute gastrointestinal conditions

S. boulardii has been tested for clinical efficacy in several types of acute gastrointestinal conditions, including antibiotic-associated diarrhea (AAD), Clostridium difficile infection (CDI), acute diarrhea, enteral nutrition-related diarrhea, traveler’s diarrhea and Helicobacter pylori infection.

Antibiotic-associated diarrhea

AAD is defined as otherwise unexplained diarrhea that occurs in association with the administration of antibiotics [Bartlett, 2002]. Measures to prevent AAD include the use of probiotics. Of the 10 controlled trials in adults using S. boulardii for the prevention of AAD, 8 (80%) showed significant efficacy for the prevention of AAD [McFarland, 2010]. The protective effect of S. boulardii and the significant relative reduction in AAD compared with controls ranged between 7.4% and 25% [McFarland, 2010]. Other studies failed to demonstrate a significant protective effect of S. boulardii and this may be secondary to short or no follow-up after antibiotic exposure [McFarland, 2009]. Two RCTs have assessed the ability of S. boulardii to prevent AAD in children and the relative significant increase in prevention of AAD in the S. boulardii group compared with controls ranged between 7.6% and 30.1% [Can et al. 2006; Kotowska et al. 2005].

A recent meta-analysis of the 10 randomized, controlled trials in adults found that S. boulardii was significantly protective for AAD with a pooled relative risk (RR) of 0.47 (95% confidence interval [CI] 0.35–0.63, p < 0.001) [McFarland, 2010]. Finally, in another meta-analysis from five trials involving 1076 subjects, a significantly protective effect of S. boulardii was found (pooled RR = 0.43, 95% CI 0.23–0.78) [Szajewska and Mrukowicz, 2005]. However, although many meta-analyses have concluded that probiotics are effective for preventing AAD [McFarland, 2009], most probiotic meta-analyses have focused on one type of disease indication (e.g. antibiotic associated diarrhea) with a variety of probiotic strains. Thus, we summarized data from meta-analyses that are focused only on the use of S. boulardii in preventing AAD and conclude that this probiotic is efficacious for this indication.

Clostridium difficile infection

Probiotics represent a promising approach as an adjunctive therapy for CDI. A meta-analysis of six RCTs of different probiotics, including S. boulardii showed that probiotics had a significant efficacy to prevent subsequent recurrences of CDI (RR = 0.59, 95% CI 0.41–0.85, p = 0.005) [McFarland, 2006]. However, due to the limited number of trials, no meta-analysis was conducted for one probiotic strain.

Several pieces of evidence suggest that S. boulardii represents the most effective probiotic that can prevent or, together with other agents, treat antibiotic-associated diarrhea and recurrent CDI [McFarland, 2006] through many mechanisms ().

Animal models of CDI respond to this yeast and case reports or small case series of patients with recurrent CDI treated with S. boulardii showed improvement [McFarland, 2010].

The significant relative reduction in recurrent CDI in adults taking S. boulardii compared with controls was evaluated in two RCTs and ranged between 19% and 33.3% [McFarland et al. 1994; Surawicz et al. 2000]. There are only very limited data from one small observational trial in children suggesting that S. boulardii may be effective in CDI [Buts et al. 1993]. However, according to guidelines no compelling evidence exists to support routine use of probiotics for prevention or treatment of CDI [Cohen et al. 2010] especially since some of these studies did not control the dose or duration of either vancomycin or metronidazole for treatment of CDI [McFarland et al. 1994] and since scarce data exist on the use of S. boulardii for recurrent CDI in humans.

Acute diarrhea

Two RCTs using S. boulardii showed that this probiotic may be effective in treating acute adult diarrhea due to a variety of causes and can significantly lower diarrhea severity score compared with controls [Hochter et al. 1990; Mansour-Ghanaei et al. 2003]. Unfortunately, since the number of trials in this area is small and the etiologies were different in the two trials, only limited conclusions can be reached.

A recent RCT conducted in 100 hospitalized children showed that S. boulardii treatment for 5 days significantly reduces the mean duration of acute diarrhea and frequency of stools, and normalizes stool consistency [Htwe et al. 2008]. One RCT regarding the efficacy of S. boulardii for the prevention of acute diarrhea involved 100 children with acute watery diarrhea and reported a significant difference in the incidence of diarrheal episodes in the group receiving S. boulardii compared with the control group during 2 months follow up [Billoo et al. 2006].

A meta-analysis based on 5 RCTs (619 participants) [Billoo et al. 2006; Kurugol and Koturoglu, 2005; Villarruel et al. 2007] indicated that S. boulardii significantly reduces the duration of acute childhood diarrhea and the risk of prolonged diarrhea compared with control [Szajewska et al. 2007]. A meta-analysis of seven RCTs (944 participants) showed a reduction in the duration of acute childhood diarrhea by approximately 1 day in those treated with S. boulardii compared with placebo [Szajewska and Skorka, 2009]. The absence of blinding as well as other factors such as ambulatory care may explain why S. boulardii had no effect in a European RCT [Canani et al. 2007]. In summary, the findings from RCTs and guidelines from professional pediatric societies indicate that S. boulardii may be an effective adjunct therapy in managing acute gastroenteritis in children [Guarino et al. 2008].

Persistent diarrhea

Results from two clinical trials indicate that S. boulardii improves outcomes in children with persistent diarrhea [Castaneda et al. 1995; Gaon et al. 2003]. The relative significant reduction in persistent diarrhea in the S. boulardii group compared with controls was approximately 50% [Castaneda et al. 1995]. These results indicate that S. boulardii is useful in the management of persistent diarrhea in children. However, studies with larger populations are needed to determine whether S. boulardii therapy alone is also effective in children with persistent diarrhea.

Enteral nutrition-related diarrhea

Diarrhea is a significant problem in patients on total enteral nutrition (TEN) and may involve changes in intestinal short chain fatty acids (SCFAs) [Schneider et al. 2005]. Schneider and colleagues reported a significant increase in SCFAs in 10 enteral-fed patients receiving S. boulardii compared with 15 healthy controls [Schneider et al. 2005]. S. boulardii-induced increase of fecal SCFA concentrations may explain the preventive effects of this yeast on TEN-induced diarrhea [Schneider et al. 2005]. In three RCTs the relative significant reduction in enteral nutrition-related diarrhea in the S. boulardii group compared with controls ranged between 5% and 8.2% [Bleichner et al. 1997; Schlotterer et al. 1987; Tempe et al. 1983]. More studies are needed to elucidate the mechanisms of how S. boulardii can prevent TEN-induced diarrhea.

Traveler’s diarrhea

A meta-analysis of 12 RCTs of various probiotics (including S. boulardii) for the prevention of traveler’s diarrhea found a significant reduction in the risk of traveler’s diarrhea when probiotics are used (RR = 0.85, 95% CI 0.79–0.91) [McFarland, 2007]. The relative significant reduction in traveler’s diarrhea in the S. boulardii group compared with controls in two RCTs ranged between 5% and 11% [Kollaritsch et al. 1989, 1993]. These limited numbers of studies indicate that probiotics may be more effective in preventing traveler’s diarrhea, rather than treating diarrhea once it becomes symptomatic.

Helicobacter pylori infection

A recent meta-analysis involving 14 RCTs (1671 patients) evaluated the role of probiotics in H. pylori eradication [Tong et al. 2007]. In patients with H. pylori infection, probiotic supplementation improved eradication rates and reduced treatment-related side effects and individual symptoms [Tong et al. 2007]. In this meta-analysis, only one RCT evaluated S. boulardii and found that it decreased the risk of diarrhea when given concomitantly to patients receiving triple eradication therapy for H. pylori [Duman et al. 2005]. S. boulardii induces morphologic changes in H. pylori cells consistent with cellular damage [Vandenplas et al. 2009] and was shown to cause reduction in H. pylori colonization in infected children by 12% [Gotteland et al. 2005]. Of four RCTs testing S. boulardii in H. pylori infections, two were in children [Gotteland et al. 2005; Hurduc et al. 2009] and two in adults [Cindoruk et al. 2007; Cremonini et al. 2002]. Although there was no significant difference in H. pylori eradication between the S. boulardii and placebo groups, a significantly lower relative rate of AAD (16.1–25%) was observed. In a recent meta-analysis, the H. pylori eradication rate in the triple therapy group was 71% and increased significantly to 80% with S. boulardii supplementation [Szajewska et al. 2010]. Thus, S. boulardii may not be effective in eradicating H. pylori itself, but it is effective in reducing the side effects of the standard triple therapy.

Clinical efficacy of

Saccharomyces boulardii as a probiotic in chronic diseases

S. boulardii has been tested for clinical efficacy in several types of chronic diseases including Crohn’s disease, ulcerative colitis, irritable bowel syndrome (IBS), parasitic infections and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-related diarrhea.

Crohn’s disease

Recently, the use of probiotics for maintaining remission from active disease in patients with Crohn’s disease was given a ‘C’ recommendation rating level by a panel of experts evaluating the efficacy of the supplements, mostly due to a scarcity of data [Floch et al. 2008]. In a small pilot study of 31 patients with Crohn’s disease in remission all patients continued their maintenance medications and were randomized to either S. boulardii for 3 months or placebo [Garcia et al. 2008]. Those treated with S. boulardii were found to have a significant reduction in colonic permeability compared with those given placebo, thus reducing the risk of bacterial translocation in these patients [Garcia et al. 2008]. Two RCTs tested S. boulardii for patients with Crohn’s disease [Guslandi et al. 2000; Plein and Hotz, 1993]. In a small randomized study of 20 patients with Crohn’s disease all patients continued their maintenance medications and were randomized to either S. boulardii for 7 weeks or placebo. Patients treated with S. boulardii were significantly improved compared with the placebo group [Plein and Hotz, 1993]. Finally, in a study of 32 patients with Crohn’s disease who were in remission, significantly fewer patients treated with S. boulardii (6%) relapsed than the control group (38%) [Guslandi et al. 2000]. Further studies to establish the efficacy of S. boulardii in treatment of Crohn’s disease are needed.

Ulcerative colitis

Probiotics have been used as an adjunct treatment in an attempt to induce remission in patients with active ulcerative colitis flares [Cain and Karpa, 2011]. In a small pilot study of 25 adults with mild to moderate ulcerative colitis that were treated with a combination of mesalazine and S. boulardii for 4 weeks, most (68%) of the patients responded to the probiotic treatment [Guslandi et al. 2003]. This pilot study had a promising result, but the implications were uncertain as patients were treated for only a short time, were not followed up for subsequent disease flare ups, and no control group was included. In a small pilot study of 6 patients with ulcerative colitis, a therapeutic regimen including S. boulardii and rifaximin for 3 months seemed effective in preventing early flare ups of ulcerative colitis [Guslandi, 2010]. Further controlled studies on a larger number of patients treated for longer periods with this probiotic agent are warranted. Overall, based upon current consensus, the level of evidence for use of probiotics either to maintain remission or induce remission of ulcerative colitis symptoms is presently limited to a ‘C’ rating [Floch et al. 2008].

Irritable bowel syndrome

Recent evidence suggests a role of the microflora in IBS pathogenesis [Parkes et al. 2008]. A meta-analysis of 20 RCTs including 1404 subjects found a pooled RR for improvement in global IBS symptoms in 14 probiotic treatment arms (RR = 0.77, 95% CI 0.62–0.94) [McFarland and Dublin, 2008]. In a double-blind trial of S. boulardii versus placebo in the treatment of IBS patients, the probiotic agent significantly improved the quality of life, but did not improve intestinal symptoms [Choi et al. 2011]. These findings are inconsistent with those reported in double-blind, RCTs performed earlier in France [Bennani, 1990; Maupas et al. 1983]. Along these lines, a recent retrospective analysis suggested that addition of S. boulardii to mebeverine can provide superior results in IBS treatment and that the probiotic agent does exert beneficial effects on the quality of life and IBS symptoms [Guslandi, 2011]. More trials using S. boulardii for IBS are required to allow solid conclusions for its use in this condition.

Parasitic infections

Little is known about the efficacy of S. boulardii against protozoal infections but this probiotic seems to have a beneficial effect in amebiasis, giardiasis and infection with Blastocystis hominis. In adults, co-administration of lyophilized S. boulardii with conventional treatment in acute amebic colitis significantly decreased the duration of symptoms and cyst carriage after 4 weeks [Mansour-Ghanaei et al. 2003]. A prospective RCT in patients with amebic colitis showed that addition of S. boulardii to metronidazole enhanced clearance of cysts and decreased the mean duration of diarrhea, fever and abdominal pain [Dinleyici et al. 2009].

In a small clinical study of symptomatic children with Blastocystis hominis infection S. boulardii had potential beneficial effects in symptoms and number of parasites [Dinleyici et al. 2011].

The combination therapy of S. boulardii in addition to metronidazole in patients with giardiasis resulted in a disappearance of Giardia cysts 2 weeks after start of the treatment in contrast to 17.1% of patients treated with 10 days metronidazole as monotherapy who still had Giardia lamblia cysts in the stool [Besirbellioglu et al. 2006]. In another clinical trial of 40 children who received tinidazole for giardiasis of 3 or 4 weeks duration, the percentage of children with only one to three bowel movements per day was significantly higher in the S. boulardii group compared with the placebo group (65% versus 15%) [Castaneda et al. 1995]. However, all of the studies regarding use of S. boulardii for treatment of parasitic infections are small and the reported results need to be confirmed by larger studies.

HIV-related diarrhea

Patients with HIV-associated diarrhea seem to be one group that requires a higher than typical dose of S. boulardii. In a blinded, placebo-controlled study in 11 HIV-positive patients who had chronic diarrhea, lower doses of S. boulardii were not as effective compared with 6 patients who reported that diarrhea was controlled while taking 3 g/day S. boulardii after 1 month [Elmer et al. 1995]. In a RCT of 35 adult patients with acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) and chronic diarrhea, 61% of patients given S. boulardii had their diarrhea resolved compared with patients on placebo (12%) [Saint-Marc et al. 1991]. Further confirmation on whether higher doses of S. boulardii may benefit patients with HIV-related diarrhea is needed since this observation is based on very limited data.

Safety of

Saccharomyces boulardii as a probiotic

Although no adverse effects were observed in any of the clinical trials with S. boulardii, the administration of S. boulardii is not without risk. A recent systematic review documented that probiotic products such as S. boulardii, have been shown to increase the risk of complications in specific patient groups such as immunocompromised subjects [Whelan and Myers, 2010]. Saccharomyces fungemia is the most severe complication secondary to administration of the probiotic especially in patients with severe general or intestinal disease who had an indwelling catheter [Hennequin et al. 2000].

Up to now, almost 100 cases of S. boulardii-associated fungemia have been reported [Vandenplas et al. 2009]. The origin of the fungemia is thought to be either a digestive tract translocation or a contamination of the central venous line by the colonized hands of health workers [Hennequin et al. 2000; Herek et al. 2004]. Indeed, the simple act of opening a packet of S. boulardii can produce air contamination that may pose environmental risk especially for immunocompromised patients [Hennequin et al. 2000]. Once the diagnosis is made, fungemia with S. boulardii can effectively be treated with antimycotic medication, although treatment failure with fluconazole has been reported [Burkhardt et al. 2005].

A rare gastrointestinal allergic reaction was also recently reported after S. boulardii was given to an infant with a prior diagnosis of food protein-induced enterocolitis syndrome [Hwang et al. 2009].

Overall, S. boulardii is safe for use in otherwise healthy populations and fungemia with S. boulardii has not been reported, to the best of the authors’ knowledge, in immunocompetent patients. Caution should be taken in patients with risk factors for adverse events (e.g. patients with central venous catheters or increased bacterial translocation) [Venugopalan et al. 2010]. Institutional guidelines are needed to address the potential safety issues related to S. boulardii use [Venugopalan et al. 2010].

Conclusions

Several clinical trials and experimental studies displayed the role of S. boulardii as a good biotherapeutic agent allowing to prevent and/or treat several gastrointestinal diseases. S. boulardii mediates effects which resemble the protective effects of the normal healthy gut flora. Although the administration of S. boulardii can be associated with fungemia, no adverse effects were observed in any of the clinical trials. Caution should be taken in patients with risk factors for adverse events, such as immunocompromised patients. Larger prospective, placebo controlled clinical trials could elucidate the mechanisms of action of the yeast and suggest new therapeutic applications.

Footnotes

This research received no specific grant from any funding agency in the public, commercial, or non-profit sectors.

Dr Kelesidis has no conflicts of interest to declare. Dr Pothoulakis was a paid consultant with Merck and Optimer Pharmaceuticals and a paid speaker for the Postgraduate Institute for Medicine

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Florastor Reviews – Does Florastor Work & Worth The Money?

Florastor is a product designed to balance and maintain the body’s flora with its unique strain of yeast as the active ingredient.

Overview Of Florastor

Florastor is a probiotic dietary supplement formulated to support the body’s intestinal flora. Like many other probiotics, Florastor is designed to be used as a treatment for conditions like Irritable Bowel Syndrome (IBS), diarrhea, lactose intolerance, cholesterol problems, and yeast infections, among others.

As these conditions are common, there is a thriving market for probiotics, with many claiming to treat these conditions and many other issues effectively.

Are these claims true? Do these probiotics work as claimed? Possibly. And in this article, we will review Florastor, one of such probiotics promising users several benefits. We will look at details like the ingredients, user reviews, benefits, drawbacks and side effects, and pricing to help you arrive at a decision quicker.

If you’ve had any experience with Florastor, let us know how it worked for you in the comment section below. Also, share any questions or thoughts you may have at the end of the review.

How Does Florastor Work?

Florastor is yeast-based and is designed to support the immune system and help the body better absorb nutrients among other claimed benefits. Its main ingredient is Saccharomyces Boulardii Iyo, a yeast present on the skin of mangosteens and lychees.

Unlike many other probiotics often unable to withstand the stomach juice, thus affecting their effectiveness, Florastor’s bacteria are highly resistant.

In some studies, saccharomyces boulardii iyo was shown to check the growth of E.coli and Salmonella, two very harmful bacteria, and this it did by serving as a temporary flora and inhibiting pathogenic bacteria[1] tackling issues like diarrhea, bloating, and clostridium.

To make this probiotic, the brand employs a patented dehydration process known as lyophilization. This process has been shown to enhance the stability and bioavailability of often unstable and poorly bioavailable compounds to balance the body’s bacteria levels and improve the overall health of the digestive tract.

Who Is The Manufacturer Of Florastor?

Florastor is manufactured and sold by Biocodex, a French pharmaceutical company. Their products have been marketed in Europe and the US for over 60 and almost ten years, respectively. The brand also makes a kiddies’ Florastor formula with a tutti-frutti flavor.

Today, the product is sold in many countries around the world, though retailed more commonly by major retailers like Costco, Walgreens, Wal-Mart, Amazon, and CVS.

Florastor Review – Health Web Magazine Image

What Are The Ingredients In Florastor?

This product has only 1 active ingredient:

Boulardii Iyo (250mg) – The strain (boulardii Iyo CNCM I-745[2] ) used in this probiotic has been extensively studied. In some of these studies, it was found to create a favorable environment and serve as food for friendly gut bacteria.

The strain was also found to eliminate bacteria and toxins while protecting the lining of the digestive tract. In another study, an improvement was observed in the actions of white blood cells and other immune cells[3].

Other ingredients in the formulation include magnesium stearate, hydroxypropylmethylcellulose, lactose, and titanium dioxide.

What Are The Benefits Of Florastor?

  • Made through a dehydration process for quality-retention even without refrigeration.
  • All-natural and suitable for vegans and vegetarians.
  • The key ingredient has been researched extensively, lending credibility to claims by the brand.
  • Manufactured by a known pharmaceutical company with decades of experience.
  • It is still effective even when the user is on antibiotics, according to the company.

What Are The Drawbacks Of Florastor?

  • The strain used may not be suitable for people with reduced immune function as the risk of developing a widespread fungal infection is significantly higher.
  • The product may contain soy in trace amounts and so may not be suitable for those with a soy allergy.
  • It is not suitable for those with lactose intolerance.
  • The company does not provide money-back guarantees and free trials.

FAQs: Consumer Questions & Answers

In our research for this report, we found that consumers are frequently asking the following questions online in regard to Florastor.
Is Florastor Safe? Warnings & Complaints

There have been no reports or warnings of severe side effects from using the product. A few buyers, however, have complained of mild stomach pain and bloating from use. Like any other medication, reactions to the product can vary. While some may experience minor side effects, many will not.

How Should You Take Florastor?

The brand recommended dosage is two capsules daily, 1 capsule in the morning and another in the evening.

The capsules can be taken in different ways, including swallowing whole with water, opened and swallowed in powder form and washed down with water, dissolved in any non-carbonated, cool, or warm liquid of your choice.

Does Florastor Provide A Free Trial Or Refund Policy?

There is no mention of a free trial, return policy, or a product guarantee on the official website. However, as it is sold on different retail sites, buyers may enjoy these privileges if being offered at the time of purchase.

How Does Florastor Compare To Other Probiotics?

While probiotics are not uncommon, the strain used in the product is. The company claims to be the only one using the particular strain in the whole of North America, and some internet searches seem to back up this claim.

Florastor is also more expensive than most probiotics, and the active ingredient has been extensively studied, and its effects are proven. This is certainly not something we can say for many probiotics available today.

What Are The Side Effects Of Florastor?

Side effects from Florastor’s use are rare, at least so far. A few users complained of stomach pain, bloating, mild constipation, and some complained of thirst, but these symptoms disappeared after a few days of use, according to the Florastor reviews.

Users who may be sensitive or intolerant to lactose or with yeast allergies may want to consult their health professional before use or entirely avoid using this probiotic.

Is Florastor Worth It?

t may be. If you are in search of a proven, positively reviewed, and vegetarian/vegan-friendly probiotic from an experienced drug maker, Florastor may be worth giving a try.

While it may be more expensive than most, it is not unaffordable, and the reviews on it and the well-studied active ingredient seems to justify the cost. So, yes, in our opinion, Florastor may be worth it.

What Are Consumers Saying About Florastor?

Again, the Florastor reviews have been mostly positive. While a few reported a couple of minor reactions, most were pleased with their purchase even though some in the latter group mentioned its relatively high cost.

Should You Use A Probiotic?

Patients frequently ask us whether they should use a probiotic. Probiotics are currently a multi-billion dollar industry, but their benefits aren’t supported by the best science. That being said, they are very safe and may help certain symptoms. Here I’ll answer some common questions:

What Are Probiotics?

Probiotics are living microscopic organisms that when ingested, might benefit your health. Our intestines are filled with trillions of organisms – including bacteria, yeast, and fungi – that may play a role in various diseases, symptoms, and our immune system.

Most Common Probiotics?

  • Lactobacillus: a healthy bacteria, found naturally in the human body. Multiple probiotics on the market contain lactobacillus (Culturelle, VSL#3)
  • Bifidobacterium: one of the major bacteria in our digestive tract. Products include:
  • Saccharomyces: a type of yeast. The main component of Florastor.
  • E. coli Nissle: a harmless form of E. coli bacteria. The main component of Mutaflor.
    What are the possible benefits of probiotics?

There are multiple purported benefits of probiotics. However, very few rigorous studies have examined these benefits. Here’s a brief summary:

  • Constipation: Small, randomized studies have shown a benefit of probiotics containing Lactobacilllus, Bifidobacterium, and E. coli Nissle.
  • Irritable bowel syndrome: Multiple studies have investigated the role of probiotics for IBS. These studies looked at improvement of abdominal pain, bloating, and diarrhea. Some show a benefit, some don’t. The strongest evidence is for Bifidobacterium (Align), but understand that there are major limitations to all of these studies. Overall, we know that approximately 50% of patients with IBS may benefit from probiotics.
  • Infectious diarrhea: Studies show that probiotics may help shorten the symptoms of an infectious diarrhea. Lactobacillus and saccharomyces have been studied the most.
  • Ulcerative colitis: The benefit is unproven, but there is some evidence that particular probiotics (E. coli Nissle) may help keep symptoms in control or possibly treat active colitis (VSL#3). However, probiotics should never be used for the treatment of ulcerative colitis or Crohn’s disease without first consulting your doctor.

Which Probiotic Should I Use?

This is largely a matter of preference and cost. None of the probiotic preparations are FDA approved, nor are they covered by insurance. Read the labels and try to stick with probiotics containing the microorganisms outlined above. Common probiotics that you will see are Align, Culturelle, DanActive, and Florastor, but that does not necessarily mean that one is better (or worse) than another.

Is Eating Yogurt The Same As Taking A Probiotic?

Yes and no. Yogurt does contain “live active cultures,” including lactobacillus. However, they are typically in a lower quantity and may be inactivated by the acidic yogurt environment. Pasteurization may also kill healthy bacteria in yogurt.

Are Probiotics Safe?

Probiotics are generally considered safe. They are normal microorganisms found in our body, and have a long history of use in dairy foods like milk and yogurt. However, it is not known if they are safe for people with severely impaired immune systems or in the elderly. You should always check with your doctor prior to starting a probiotic.

For further information: https://www.gastro.org/patient-center/brochure_Probiotics.pdf

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Proactive Use of Florastor Probiotics Make for Happy, Healthy Holidays

Florastor logo


San Bruno, CA (PRWEB)
December 11, 2013

It’s no surprise, ’tis the season for tummy troubles, especially given that an average holiday meal alone packs in 4,500 calories and a whopping 220 grams of fat.†1. Add sugary, processed treats, liters of alcohol, plus a serious lack of fiber, and it quickly turns into a gut-wrenching situation.

Think of it as the perfect storm: holiday stress, the overindulgence of heavy foods and an increase in alcohol—it all adds up to an intestinal disaster. Florastor, a yeast-based probiotic, not only helps maintain digestive health,†2 but also supports a healthy immune system,†3 to help keep you feeling great throughout the busy holiday season—and beyond.

Why Florastor Is Different

Unlike bacterial-based probiotics like yogurt, yeast-based Florastor doesn’t need refrigeration, making it a convenient holiday travel companion. It also contains 250 mg of Saccharomyces boulardii lyo, found naturally on the skin of the tropical fruits lychee and mangosteen—and is not compromised when using antibiotics.†4 Florastor is an all-natural, vegetarian, and gluten-free capsule. Florastor®Kids comes in a powder packet and is appropriate for children two months and older.†5 The powder contains 250 mg of the same probiotic yeast strain as Florastor and can be dissolved in most drinks or soft foods.

Top Tummy Tips for Healthy Eating

Consider these five healthy holiday tips to help you avoid possible digestive issues over the holidays:

  • Mother Nature knows best: Keep processed foods to a minimum. If Mother Nature wouldn’t recognize it—don’t eat it!
  • Cook it yourself: Seeing “real” food in front of you can help you make better choices and avoid eating high-fat, high-calorie holiday dishes.
  • Read the label: If you had to count the number of ingredients on more than one hand or if you can’t pronounce them, the product probably has little nutritional value.
  • Don’t drink your calories: Sugary drinks are the biggest source of added sugar in the American diet. Drink water to stay hydrated.
  • Add probiotics: Trillions of “good bacteria” reside in the digestive tract, facilitating the absorption of essential nutrients. Yeast-based probiotics help maintain the balance of good bacteria†2, even when we aren’t eating as well as we should.

About Biocodex North America

Biocodex North America is a pharmaceutical company headquartered in San Bruno, California, and Toronto, Ontario, Canada. Biocodex North America is an independent subsidiary of the family-owned, French pharmaceutical company Biocodex. Its products include Florastor, the #1 selling probiotic worldwide,†6 and Totect®, the only treatment approved by the United States Food and Drug Administration for anthracycline extravasation.

Biocodex has partnered with healthcare professionals for more than 60 years with an emphasis on unique, specialized products that focus on patient welfare. Biocodex is a multinational research, development, manufacturing and commercial enterprise operating in more than 100 different countries.

For more information, please visit Florastor.com and Biocodexnorthamerica.com.

*Best-selling probiotic worldwide. Available in over 100 countries. Studied and trusted since 1953.

†These statements have not been evaluated by the Food and Drug Administration.

This product is not intended to diagnose, treat, cure, or prevent any disease.

1. Calorie Control Council.

2. Swidsinski A, Loening-Baucke V, Verstraelen H, Osowska S, Doerffel Y (2008) Biostructure of fecal microbiota in healthy subjects and patients with chronic idiopathic diarrhea. Gastroenterology: 135(2): 568-579.

3. Martins FS, Silva AA, Vieira AT, Barbosa FH, Arantes RM, et al. (2009) Comparative study of Bifidobacterium animalis, Escherichia coli, Lactobacillus casei and Saccharomyces boulardii probiotic properties. Arch Microbiol 191: 623-630.

4. Klein SM, Elmer GW, McFarland LV, Surawicz CM, Levy RH (1993) Recovery and elimination of the biotherapeutic agent, Saccharomyces boulardii, in healthy human volunteers. Pharm Res 10: 1615-1619.

5. Vandenplas Y, Brunser O, Szajewska H (2009) Saccharomyces boulardii in childhood. Eur J Pediatr 168: 253-265.

6. IMS Data 2012.

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Nature protection. Flora. Protection and rational use of forests in green zones of cities. General requirements – RTS-tender

GOST 17.6.3.01-78

Group T58

INTERSTATE STANDARD

Nature protection. Flora

Date of introduction 1979-01-01

INFORMATION DATA

1. DEVELOPED AND INTRODUCED by the State Forestry Committee of the Council of Ministers of the USSR

2. APPROVED AND INTRODUCED BY Decree of the State Committee of the USSR on standards from 10.07.78 N 1851

3. REFERENCE REGULATORY AND TECHNICAL DOCUMENTS

.5 9003

Designation of the NTD referenced

Item number

2.1

4. The limitation of the validity period has been removed according to protocol N 2-92 * of the Interstate Council for Standardization, Metrology and Certification (IUS 2-93)

________________

* V IUS 2- 93 protocol is given without number.- Note “CODE”.

5. EDITION with Amendment No. 1, approved in May 1988 (IUS 8-88).

1. This standard establishes the rules for the protection and rational use of forests when managing green areas of cities located in forest growing zones: taiga, mixed forests, deciduous forests, forest-steppe and steppe.

Definitions of terms used in this standard are provided in the reference annex.

2. Protection and rational use of forests in green zones of cities should include silvicultural, biotechnical, fire-prevention measures and landscaping, ensuring the implementation of health-improving and environmental protection functions of the forest and the organization of recreation for the population, as well as provide for the limitation of secondary forest use.

Protection and rational use of forests in green zones of cities should ensure:

in the forest-park part – preservation and formation of sustainable and decorative plantings suitable for organizing mass recreation of the population;

in the forestry part – the formation of highly productive plantings, contributing to the improvement of the city’s air basin, meeting the need for wood and by-products of the forest, as well as creating a reserve for expanding the forest-park part.

2.1. The territorial organization of green zones of cities should provide for:

division of the green part of the city into forest park and forestry parts in accordance with GOST 17.5.3.01;

allocation of recreation areas for the population and protected areas that ensure the preservation of the ecological balance of the natural complex;

location of forestry production taking into account the health and environmental protection functions of the forest.

2, 2.1. (Modified edition, Amendment N 1).

2.2. Silvicultural activities should include a system of felling and reforestation work.

2.2.1. The system of felling in the forests of green zones of cities should provide for:

in the forest-park part – thinning, landscape and sanitary felling;

in the forestry part – forest management felling, sanitary felling, reforestation felling, reconstruction felling of low-value forest plantations, and in the parts intended for the expansion of the forest-park part – felling aimed at landscape formation.

The age of the stands of the forestry part of the green zones of cities, planned for reforestation felling, is determined taking into account the state of the stands, but not lower than the age class established for the forests of the first group.

(Modified edition, Amendment No. 1).

2.2.2. Reforestation in green areas of cities should be carried out by creating crops that take into account the reforestation conditions and by taking measures to promote natural reforestation.

Near industrial enterprises that emit harmful gases and dust into the atmosphere, forest cultures should be created from tree and shrub species, taking into account their gas resistance and dust-collecting properties.

In the forested part of the green zones of cities, forest cultures should be created taking into account the formation of valuable landscapes and the decorative design of roads, meadows, and forest edges.

2.3. The forests of the green zones of cities must be provided with a system of fire-prevention measures in accordance with the fire safety rules in the forests of the USSR.

2.4. Biotechnical measures carried out in green areas of cities should include:

protection of forests from dangerous pests and diseases;

conservation and enrichment of useful fauna.

2.4.1. In the green zones of cities, forest pathological supervision should be carried out annually.

Protection of forests of green zones of cities from dangerous pests and diseases should be carried out by biological and physical-mechanical methods. In the event of a mass reproduction of dangerous pests and the ineffectiveness of biological and physical-mechanical methods, it is allowed to use chemical plant protection products by ground mechanized and manual methods using chemicals that are non-toxic to humans, birds and beneficial insects.

2.4.2. Biotechnical measures carried out in the forests of green zones of cities for the preservation and enrichment of useful fauna should include:

annual registration, protection and regulation of the number of animals;

hanging artificial bird nests;

feeding animals and birds during an unfavorable period;

Artificial watering holes;

protection and resettlement of ant colonies;

introduction of fruit and berry trees and shrubs that attract useful fauna and create favorable conditions for its habitation;

organization of zones of faunal rest.

To regulate the number of animals and birds that harm forest plantations and useful fauna, it is allowed to capture and shoot them with the provision of safety measures for the resting population.

2.5. In green areas of cities, haymaking is allowed in specially designated areas.

In the forests of the forest-park part of green zones, grazing of livestock, industrial harvesting of medicinal herbs, flowers, tree juices, wild fruits, nuts, mushrooms, berries and technical raw materials are not allowed.

APPENDIX

Reference

Term

Definition

Forest park part

with an economic regime aimed at preserving, creating and forming sustainable forest landscapes and creating favorable conditions for recreation of the population

Forestry part

environmental regulation functions of the forest, the development of forestry production and the creation of a reserve for the expansion of the forest park part

Forest pathological supervision

and the sanitary state of forest plantations, the nature and boundaries of the spread of pests and diseases, centers of their mass reproduction in order to design forest protection measures

Physical and mechanical method of plant protection
from pests and diseases

Extermination of pests and elimination of infected plant areas using mechanical devices or manually

The text of the document is verified against:

official publication

Nature protection.Lands: Sat. GOSTs. –

M .: IPK Standards Publishing House, 2002

Conservation and Use of Germplasm of Wild Flora

Conservation and Use of Germplasm of Kyrgyzstan’s Wild Flora for Management of Genetic-Selectional and Economical Tasks

Tech Area / Field

  • BIO-DIV / Biodiversity / Biotechnology
  • AGR -VTH / Vaccines and Theraupetics / Agriculture
  • BIO-CHM / Biochemistry / Biotechnology

Status
8 Project completed

Registration date
20.01.2003

Completion date
09/19/2008

Senior Project Manager
Weaver LM

Leading Institute
National Academy of Sciences of Kyrgyzstan / Biotechnology Institution, Kyrgyzstan, Bishkek

Coauthors

  • The State University of New Jersey RUTGERS / Biotechnology Center for Agriculture and the Environment / Center for Agriculture and the Environment, Foran Hall, Cook College, USA, NJ, New Brunswick \ nRoyal Botanic Gardens Kew, UK, Kew \ nOrnamental Plant Germplasm Center, USA, OH, Columbus

Brief Description of the Project

Kyrgyzstan is one of the world centers of the origin of culture plants.The floral variety was conditioned by many factors, basic of which is geographical location in mountainous systems of Tian Shan and Pamir Alay (500-5,000 meters above sea level) at the crossroad of migration routes of different floras.

In the country there is significantly noteworthy taxonomic variety – 4,000 species of high plants and high degree of endemism, along with increasing number of those included into the of lists rare and disappearing species (Golovkova, Chubarova, 1988). Species variety of flora in Kyrgyzstan corresponds with 50% of structure of Central Asia, which are species – about 70% and almost 90% are a set of families (Ionov et al., 1992). The flora of Kyrgyzstan is rich not only with variety of species, but also with number of useful plants. According to preliminary data there are more then 1,600 species of them, 550 of them – medical alkaloid and poisonous plants are totaled.

In such extremely various palette of vegetation plant resources are used poorly in the light of insufficient research and absence of the appropriate technologies. In the light of the above-mentioned facts, there is a problem of protection in nature (in situ), rational use, preservation and reproduction of wild flora.The creation of germplasm bank is the most valuable part of the strategy of preservation of a biopersity, representing a potential resource for selection high-efficiency and disease-resist cultural species, decorative, medicinal and other forms. Along with creation of seed bank it is necessary to use methods of plant tissue culture as the most progressive approach to protection of major biological objects. Meristem culture of plants helps accelerate selection works, health of planting material and reception in culture biological active substances, that allowed to not depend on decreasing amount of vegetative nature raw material many manufactures, and in particular, pharmaceutical industry.It is known, that only in USA total cost of medicines produced from plant originally raw materials exceed 3 billion dollars (Mayers, 1983). Use as objects of plants having a rich spectrum of secondary substances and long since used in traditional and official medicine, creates conditions for reception of tissue culture having high biosynthetic potentialities.

In Kyrgyz Republic “Project of strategy and plan of actions on preservation of a biopersity” (Bishkek, 1998) developed by the Environment Protection Ministry one of the major tasks is the creation of a genetic databank of biological objects.However, the practical works in that direction, in which they are offered in the present project, will not be carried out.

The research and practical development in the fields of biotechnology, including cell biology (reception of the healed planting material, high productive stocks, optimization of cultivating conditions, reception of clones of plant tissue culture and double, with pathogen, cultures, etc.) , carried out by us for years in collaboration with Institute of Plant Physiology of Russian Academy of Science can serve as a good basis for performing purpose and tasks of the project.The highly skilled experts – physiologists and biochemists, geobotanics, florists, for realization of GIS-researches – geophysics, cartographers, geologists are involved into performance of the project. Besides the pharmacologists, technologists, chemists, physicians will take part in the project as well.

The purpose of the project – development of methods of preservation and rational use of a biopersity of vegetative resources through creation of genetic databank (germplasm) – collection of a seed material and tissue culture and computer information database and GIS-system base.

During performance of the project the following tasks will be made:

1. The inventory of natural vegetative resources of wild flora is carried out and the estimation of the condition of endemic, rare and disappearing, and also especially economically valuable species of plants in ecosystems of Kyrgyzstan:

– are revealed and are specified areas of distribution of the above-stated groups of plants;
– the recommendations for protection of these plants in nature are offered.

2. Carrying out mapping areas of distribution endemic, rare and disappearing and also especially economically of valuable plants with use of GIS-methods:

– the estimation of modern conditions of researched plants in ecosystem with use of old databases and drawing up new is given;
– the map of areas distribution of the above-stated plants with use GPS and remote aero- and space photos is made.

3. The practical importance of the selected groups of plant is determined:

– the data of the biochemical analyzes on the contents of biologically active substances are received;
– the decorative species, most valuable to selection works, of plants are selected.

4. The technology of reception of plant tissue (in vitro) is developed:

– the culture medium and of cultivating conditions are selected;
– the data on accumulation biologically active substances in plant tissue culture of researched plants are received.

5. The genetic bank of a most valuable plants selected from wild flora is generated:

– the cryogenic bank of a seed material is created;
– the cryogenic bank of tissue culture is created.

As an outcome of performance of the project the inventory will be carried out and the estimation of a condition of endemic, rare and disappearing and also especially economic valuable species of wild flora is given, and the database in GIS-system is created.The technologies of preservation of a genetic material of the unique vegetative forms and methods of their practical application will be developed.

The received outcome can be used in national and international practice of genetic selection works, and also in pharmacology, medicine, cosmetic and other practical branches of a science and industry.

During performance of the project the realization of works with use field (expeditional), laboratory (experimental), practical and GIS methods is provided.

The project corresponds to the purposes and tasks of ISTC, as in its performance the experts before connected to a defense technique, technology and industry are involved. The researches under the project are directed on the decision of economic and social tasks, namely, development of technologies of reception of production and with preservation of a biopersity – genetic fund of endemic, rare and disappearing, and also especially of valuable economic species of plants …

Within the framework of the project the cooperation with foreign collaborators is supposed: on information interchange during performance of the project, joint discussions of results of researches, realization of seminars and conferences.

90,000 The local species of flora and fauna of Crimea were first studied using a supercomputer – Society

SEVASTOPOL, February 3. / TASS /. Scientists of Sevastopol State University plan to be the first to study animal and plant species found only in Crimea, using bioinformatics methods. The first studies have already been carried out, the genome of the Black Sea mussels has been analyzed, Anastasia Lantushenko, director of the center for collective use “Molecular structure of matter”, told TASS.

“Bioinformatics methods for working with the genomes of various organisms are already being used in the world, but we and our colleagues from the Institute of Biology of the Southern Seas of the Russian Academy of Sciences first applied them to the Black Sea mussels – we analyzed how hypoxia affects the vital activity of marine organisms. We will continue our work further – there are new requests for cooperation from InBYUM, proposals from the Nikitsky Botanical Gardens We also plan to study autochthonous grape varieties (unique varieties growing only in a certain region – approx.TASS) “, – said the scientist.

She explained that the size of the genome is quite large – on average, it is about one terabyte of information.

“It is not yet possible to study the entire genome chain at once and quickly – technology and technology do not allow this. Therefore, first it must be divided into separate fragments, analyzed each of them, and then, using computer science methods, reassembled in the correct sequence. The task is not trivial: work on the first project concerning mariculture took us several months – and to work with such large amounts of data we needed the power of a supercomputer, “Lantushenko clarified.

According to her, by analyzing the genome data, scientists can make a genetic “portrait” of the object under study – bacteria, vine, mollusk, etc. In this case, they will not only see what genes the research object has in general, but also more specific information: which elements of the genome were used more often, which – less often. As a result, researchers can establish what factors and how exactly influenced the development of the selected creature or plant.

“Such studies can be in demand if you need to determine how the growing conditions affect the plant – for example, you planted a vine in a certain place, the harvest will be only in three years, and bioinformatics methods will allow you to get data on its potential more quickly.It is possible to assess the chances of a species for adaptation in a new region: for example, if someone wants to produce Far Eastern aquaculture in Crimea, “the agency’s interlocutor added.

Wedding ceremonies using flowers

Flowers are often used in wedding ceremonies

It is difficult to imagine a wedding without floral decoration, various bouquets, compositions, wreaths and arches. Living gifts of nature always harmoniously fit into the surrounding environment, create a beautiful space.It is not surprising that flowers have long been used for wedding ceremonies. They are able to capture the moment of the reunion of the newlyweds, protect them from the evil eye and damage, make the celebration unforgettable and special.

Wedding bridal bouquet

The image of any bride is complemented by a wedding bouquet that performs several important functions during the wedding ceremony. Flowers must be always alive and combined with the bride’s dress, in accordance with the chosen wedding style. Correctly use white and pink flowers, which are a symbol of purity, purity, youth.Bright bouquets also gained popularity. They look good against the background of a white outfit.

The wedding bouquet in the hands of the bride attracts everyone’s attention

According to the custom, the groom gives the bouquet to the bride before the wedding ceremony. If she accepts him, then she agrees to marry her lover. From this moment, the bride should not let go of a meaningful gift in order not to miss her family happiness and well-being. She can give it to the groom or relatives for a while, put it on the table during a banquet.After the wedding, the bouquet is dried and stored in a place inaccessible to strangers.

The groom gives flowers to the bride as a sign of sincere feelings

Great attention is paid to the flower arrangement in the hands of the bride. There is a ritual associated with throwing a bouquet in a circle of unmarried girlfriends. Whoever caught him will soon go down the aisle. For a favorite custom, a different bouquet should be used, similar to the bridal bouquet. She turns her back on the girls and throws flowers.Another option is that the bride stands in a circle with her eyes closed. She spins, stops, handing the bouquet to a randomly chosen friend.

A fun and memorable ceremony with a wedding bouquet

In ancient times, the wedding bouquet was even more important. The brides made it themselves before the wedding, using available herbs, wild and home flowers. Each plant included in the overall composition had its own meaning, protected from damage, the evil eye, and failures.

Rose Ceremony.

Recently, a rose ceremony has been very popular at weddings, which originated in the UK, where red roses are a symbol of love and passion. It is difficult to imagine a more suitable flower for holding and confirming your feelings. During the wedding, the bride and groom exchange red roses, confirming their love for each other. The buds are dried and stored in the house. They can be placed in a painting, in a closed container and put in a prominent place. When looking at flowers, spouses will remember the feelings that linked their lives together.

Red roses – a symbol of love and passion

Hawaiian ceremony with wreaths

A very beautiful ceremony is held during a Hawaiian wedding. Flowers play an important role in it. Guests gather on the seaside, a bride in a bright dress and a groom in a Hawaiian shirt and shorts. There are many flowers, fruits, fun around. On the neck of the newlyweds, beautiful wreaths of tropical flowers complement the overall impression of the holiday.

Hawaiian wedding with wreaths

The so-called lei are part of the most important wedding ceremony.The priest on the altar ties the hands of the bride and groom with floral bracelets. Then the lovers exchange wreaths as a sign of love and fidelity, sharing happiness among themselves. Then a bright celebration begins, accompanied by rhythmic music, treats are distributed.

Thus, flowers are a symbol of family happiness, love and the promise of fidelity, playing a primary role in wedding ceremonies around the world.

GOST 17.6.3.01-78: Nature protection. Flora. Protection and rational use of forests in green zones of cities.General requirements

GOST 17.6.3.01-78: Nature protection. Flora. Protection and rational use of forests in green zones of cities. General requirements

Terminology GOST 17.6.3.01-78: Nature protection. Flora. Protection and rational use of forests in green zones of cities. General requirements original document:

Forest park part

Part of the area of ​​the green zone of the city used to organize mass recreation of the population with a mode of economy aimed at preserving, creating and forming sustainable forest landscapes and creating favorable conditions for recreation of the population

Forest pathological supervision

Control over the sanitary state of forest plantations, the nature and boundaries of the spread of pests and diseases, centers of their mass reproduction in order to design forest protection measures

Forestry part

Part of the area of ​​the green zone of the city with a mode of economy aimed at ensuring the environmental protection and environmental regulation functions of the forest, the development of forestry production and the creation of a reserve for expanding the forest park part

Physical and mechanical method of protecting plants from pests and diseases

Extermination of pests and elimination of infected plant areas using mechanical devices or manually

Dictionary-reference book of terms of normative and technical documentation.academic.ru.
2015.

  • GOST R ISO 14020-2011: Environmental labels and declarations. Basic Principles
  • GOST R 22.1.06-99: Safety in emergency situations. Monitoring and forecasting dangerous geological phenomena and processes. General requirements

Useful

90,000 Modern planting material. Selection and experience with

VLADIMIR KOLESNIK – a practicing landscape architect, candidate of biological sciences, general director of the Salix Design company.

Vladimir is a landscape architect with vast experience. Among his colleagues, he enjoys special authority, because his projects are distinguished by a truly impeccable quality of performance, thoughtful compositional solution to the smallest detail and masterly use of plants.

Vladimir has an amazing sense of style, its large-scale, impressive gardens are recognizable at first sight. Elegance, harmony of plants, jewelry precision of lines – this is his calling card.

Colleagues often call Vladimir “the king of flower beds” – the process of creating luxurious plant combinations, as a result of which his masterpieces are born, is akin to working on a large piece of art, a painting, or a movie.Vladimir, like no one else, can “paint” a whole picture with living “colors”, which, with all its variability, will delight the beholder continuously, from spring to the coldest days.

Having a colossal knowledge accumulated over the years in the field of plant use, he readily shares it with both beginners and venerable landscape designers who recognize his authority and often turn to him for advice.

At the seminar, which will take place on February 28 at the EC “Eco-Education”, Vladimir will share his principles of selection and combination of plants, tell you how to avoid mistakes in their selection and further use.Much attention will be paid to the survival rate of foreign planting material, the specifics of working with foreign and Russian suppliers of plants.