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Intestinal gas Causes – Mayo Clinic

Excess upper intestinal gas can result from swallowing more than a usual amount of air, overeating, smoking or chewing gum. Excess lower intestinal gas can be caused by eating too much of certain foods, by the inability to fully digest certain foods or by a disruption in the bacteria normally found in the colon.

Foods that cause excess gas

Foods that cause gas in one person might not cause it in another. Common gas-producing foods and substances include:

  1. Beans and lentils
  2. Vegetables such as cabbage, broccoli, cauliflower, bok choy and Brussels sprouts
  3. Bran
  4. Dairy products containing lactose
  5. Fructose, which is found in some fruits and used as a sweetener in soft drinks and other products
  6. Sorbitol, a sugar substitute found in some sugar-free candies, gums and artificial sweeteners
  7. Carbonated beverages, such as soda or beer

Digestive disorders that cause excess gas

Excessive intestinal gas — belching or flatulence more than 20 times a day — sometimes indicates a disorder such as:

  1. Celiac disease
  2. Colon cancer
  3. Constipation
  4. Crohn’s disease (a type of inflammatory bowel disease)
  5. Diabetes
  6. Dumping syndrome
  7. Eating disorders
  8. Functional dyspepsia
  9. Gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD)
  10. Gastroparesis (a condition in which the muscles of the stomach wall don’t function properly, interfering with digestion)
  11. Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD)
  12. Intestinal obstruction
  13. Irritable bowel syndrome
  14. Lactose intolerance
  15. Ovarian cancer
  16. Pancreatic insufficiency
  17. Peptic ulcer
  18. Ulcerative colitis (a type of inflammatory bowel disease)

Causes shown here are commonly associated with this symptom. Work with your doctor or other health care professional for an accurate diagnosis.

 

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  • Definition
  • When to see a doctor

July 13, 2021

Show references

  1. Gas. American Gastroenterological Association. https://gastro.org/practice-guidance/gi-patient-center/topic/gas/?hilite=%27intestinal%27%2C%27gas%27. Accessed April 7, 2021.
  2. Gas-related complaints. Merck Manual Professional Version. https://www.merckmanuals.com/professional/gastrointestinal-disorders/symptoms-of-gastrointestinal-disorders/gas-related-complaints?query=gas-related%20complaints. Accessed April 7, 2021.
  3. Abraczinskas D. Overview of intestinal gas and bloating. https://www.uptodate.com/contents/search. Accessed April 7, 2021.
  4. Symptoms and causes of gas in the digestive tract. National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases. https://www.niddk.nih.gov/health-information/digestive-diseases/gas-digestive-tract/symptoms-causes. Accessed April 7, 2021.
  5. AskMayoExpert. Gas and bloating. Mayo Clinic; 2021.
  6. Inflammatory bowel disease. American College of Gastroenterology. https://gi.org/topics/inflammatory-bowel-disease/#tabs2. Accessed April 10. 2021.
  7. Wilkinson JM, et al. Gas, bloating, and belching: Approach to evaluation and management. American Family Physician. 2019; https://www.aafp.org/afp/2019/0301/p301.html. Accessed April 12, 2021.

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Digestive Gas & Flatulence: Common Causes & Treatments

Gas is a normal result of the foods you eat. As your digestive system does its thing, it makes gas.

Usually, you get rid of gas through your mouth (burping) or through your anus (flatulence). People gas about 20 times a day. It’s an ordinary occurrence, but it can be painful and embarrassing.

You make gas in two ways: when you swallow air, and when the bacteria in your large intestine help digest your food.

Undigested food moves from the small intestine to the large intestine. Once it gets there, the bacteria go to work, making hydrogen, carbon dioxide, and methane, which then leave your body.

Not everyone will get gas from the same foods.

You also swallow air when you eat and drink. This helps make gas. You usually release swallowed air by burping it. Whatever isn’t released by burping goes into the small or large intestine, where it’s released as flatulence.

Which Foods Are Most Likely to Cause Gas?

You’re most likely to get gas by eating carbs, which are found in foods like:

  • Beans
  • Vegetables (especially broccoli, cabbage, and onions)
  • Fruits
  • Dairy products
  • Whole-grain foods
  • Soft drinks
  • Fruit drinks

What Are the Symptoms of Gas?

In addition to burping and flatulence, you may feel bloated. You could also have pain in your belly or sides. That pain could be mistaken for something else, like a heart attack or appendicitis.

Could Gas Be a Sign of a Medical Problem?

Chronic belching may be a sign of trouble in your upper digestive tract, like ulcers or gastroesophageal reflux disease. You may hear this called GERD.

Many things cause bloating, including:

  • Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS)
  • Colon cancer
  • Crohn’s disease
  • A hernia
  • Constipation
  • Lactose intolerance 
  • Celiac disease

How Are Gas-Related Illnesses Diagnosed?

Since diet is the main cause of gas, your doctor will want to know about the foods you eat and your symptoms. They may ask you to keep a record of what you eat and drink to help them identify foods that cause you trouble. They may also ask you to keep track of how often you pass gas.

You may have to stop eating certain foods. For example, if lactose intolerance is believed to be the cause, you’ll probably have to cut down on dairy.

If bloating is a problem, your doctor may examine you to rule out different things.

If you have chronic belching, your doctor will look for signs that you swallow a lot of air. If they think you do, they’ll look for a cause. They may get an X-ray of your esophagus, stomach, and upper small intestine – they may call it your GI tract — to rule out disease.

What Are the Treatments for Gas?

Gas problems are treated by changing your diet and by training yourself to swallow less air. There are also prescription and over-the-counter medications that can help.

Changing your diet will mean getting rid of the foods that cause gas. Unfortunately, this may also result in you having fewer nutritious foods. Ask your doctor to help you build a diet that’s healthy but doesn’t cause much gas.

Over-the-counter medications include:

  • Antacids — especially those that contain simethicone
  • Probiotics — used to help kill bad bacteria and add good bacteria to the digestive tract
  • Lactase products such as Lactaid and Dairy Ease — may help people with lactose intolerance
  • Beano — contains the enzyme that helps digest sugars in beans and many other vegetables

Your doctor may prescribe drugs to help move food through your digestive system. Medicines that do that may also move gas through quicker.

What Can I Do to Swallow Less Air and Reduce Gas?

To swallow less air, you can try:

  • Cutting out gum or hard candy
  • Eating more slowly
  • Making sure any dentures you wear fit properly
  • Not drinking through straws

Farting in Sleep: Causes and How to Stop

Aside from being a potential source of embarrassment, passing gas is common and usually harmless. Most people pass gas between 13 and 21 times per day. Flatulence during the night is generally due to diet and lifestyle, although there are some digestive disorders that can cause excess gas.

Can You Fart in Your Sleep?

People commonly fart in their sleep, although they usually are not aware of it. Research suggests pressure in the anal sphincter muscle fluctuates in cycles throughout the day. This muscle is more relaxed during sleep, and it controls whether or not gas present in the large intestine is released. This muscle also spontaneously relaxes multiple times per hour in the morning. As a result, passing gas overnight or in the morning is common.

If you want to fart less during the night, it helps to understand what gas is, why humans pass gas, and what factors lead to excessive gas. By making lifestyle changes or addressing underlying health issues, you may be able to reduce your nighttime or morning flatulence.

What Is Gas?

Gas is air found in the digestive tract. This air can exit as flatulence or belching. When it exists as flatulence, people often call it gas. What we simply refer to as gas is actually a mixture of multiple gases, including nitrogen, hydrogen, carbon dioxide, methane, and oxygen.

In addition to these, a few gases that make up less than 1% of what we expel are responsible for the smells that make passing gas offensive. The odor-causing gases include ammonia, skatole, and hydrogen sulfide.

Causes of Farting in Your Sleep

People fart in their sleep for the same reasons they fart while awake. Gas found in the intestines comes from three sources: air being swallowed, stomach acid becoming neutralized, and bacteria in the intestines creating hydrogen and methane. Gases created by intestinal bacteria generally account for about 75% of flatulence. This gas may be expelled at any time, while a person is awake or asleep.

Although everyone experiences gas, certain individual factors impact how much gas a person’s body creates.

Foods and Drinks

Consuming certain foods and drinks make your body more likely to produce gas. Researchers call these foods flatulogenic, because they increase flatulence. Foods that may increase gas include:

  • Artificial sweeteners
  • Carbonated drinks, like soda and sparkling water
  • Beans, soy beans, corn, and peas
  • Breads, cereals, and pastries
  • Cabbage, broccoli, Brussels sprouts, and cauliflower
  • Onions, leeks, and garlic
  • Prunes and figs

Experts note that different people experience gas after eating different foods. Not everyone will pass more gas after consuming items on this list, and some people might find that foods not on the list cause gas for them. Also, adding more fiber to your diet might cause more gas initially, but that could taper off as your body adjusts. Fruits and vegetables contain large amounts of fiber, while meat and dairy do not contain any fiber.

People who have food sensitivities or intolerances may experience more gas when they consume foods they cannot properly digest. For example, those with lactose intolerance may pass more gas after having foods that contain lactose, such as milk or cheese.

Lifestyle Factors

In addition to aspects of your diet, other things you do might increase the amount of gas you pass:

  • Taking antibiotics
  • Chewing gum, especially with artificial sweeteners
  • Eating quickly
  • Smoking cigarettes
  • Wearing loose dentures

Medical Issues

Multiple digestive disorders and conditions can cause excessive gas:

  • Irritable Bowel Syndrome (IBS): IBS involves abnormalities in how the gut and brain connect, but the digestive system itself looks normal. In addition to excess gas, people with IBS often experience abdominal pain, diarrhea, or constipation. About 12% of people in the U.S. have IBS.
  • Small Intestinal Bacterial Overgrowth (SIBO): People experiencing this disorder either have an overgrowth of bacteria in general or of a certain type of bacteria in the small intestine. As a result, they experience more gas than normal along with other symptoms, like diarrhea.
  • Crohn’s Disease: In this inflammatory bowel disease, a person develops inflammation in their digestive tract. Usually the inflammation is in the small intestine, but it can occur anywhere in the digestive system. The cause of Crohn’s is unknown, but it is an autoimmune disorder, meaning the immune system attacks healthy tissue.
  • Ulcerative Colitis: Ulcerative colitis is an inflammatory bowel disease similar to Crohn’s, but with inflammation that usually occurs in the large intestine rather than the small intestine. In addition to gas, a person with this disease may experience abdominal pain, diarrhea, bloody stool, and other symptoms.
  • Celiac Disease: Celiac disease is a genetic autoimmune disease in which a person’s small intestines are damaged as a result of consuming gluten, a type of protein. Wheat, rye, and barley contain gluten. In addition to gas, a person may experience diarrhea, pain, irritability, or depression. Treatment requires a person to go on a gluten-free diet.
  • Colorectal or Stomach Cancer: Cancer is when abnormal cells grow in parts of the body, sometimes disturbing or destroying nearby healthy cells. If cancer causes a blockage in the digestive tract, excessive gas may occur.

Menstrual Cycle

People who menstruate are more likely to experience bloating and gas at certain points in the monthly menstrual cycle. The menstrual cycle is typically a period of 24 to 38 days, and menstruation is around three to five days during which the uterine lining sheds. The menstrual cycle can exacerbate IBS symptoms, which may cause more bloating and gas during menstruation.

Premenstrual syndrome (PMS) is a group of symptoms that start around a week before a person’s period begins. More bloating and gas may also occur during PMS.

Tips for Reducing Nighttime and Morning Gas

There are actions you can take to reduce morning and evening gas. The following lifestyle interventions may help:

  • Avoid talking while eating and drinking as it can prompt you to swallow air.
  • Stop chewing gum and eating hard candy.
  • Avoid drinking carbonated drinks.
  • Do not drink beverages through a straw.
  • Sit down to eat and chew slowly.
  • Quit smoking.
  • Eat small, frequent meals.

If these tips do not help, you may want to see your doctor. You can talk to your doctor about possibly reducing or eliminating foods that cause gas from your diet. It is important to be careful when making dietary changes, because many foods that cause gas are part of a healthy diet, and you do not want to switch to a diet that does not meet your nutritional needs.

You can also discuss over-the-counter medications for gas with your doctor. There are also medications available that reduce the odor of gas. If you have lactose intolerance, you may want to consider taking lactase when eating dairy products. Also, probiotics and some dietary supplements might help reduce gas, but you should talk to your doctor before starting them.

Make an appointment with your doctor if your gas is accompanied by other symptoms, such as weight loss, blood in stool, or a feeling of having gas in your chest. Your doctor can ask questions and order tests to determine if you are dealing with an underlying disorder.

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A to Z: Flatulence, Eructation, and Gas Pain (for Parents)

May also be called: Intestinal Gas, Gas in the Digestive Tract, Gas

Flatulence (FLA-chuh-lents), eructation (eh-ruk-TAY-shun), and gas pain are signs of excess gas in the digestive tract.

More to Know

Flatulence is the medical term for passing gas through the anus. Eructation is the medical term for belching, burping, or passing gas through the mouth. Gas pain is often referred to as bloating. Any of these conditions can be a sign of a larger than normal amount of gas in the digestive tract. Gas, made up of carbon dioxide, oxygen, nitrogen, hydrogen, and sometimes methane and sulfur, is always present in the digestive tract, but too much can be embarrassing and sometimes painful.

Gas gets into the digestive tract in two ways. First, people swallow air when they eat, drink, chew gum, or suck on a hard candy. Second, bacteria that live in the digestive tract make gas as they break down certain foods in the large intestine. Extra air can get into the digestive tract from eating or drinking too fast, drinking soda and other carbonated drinks, or smoking. Some foods – especially vegetables, beans, fruits, whole grains, and dairy products – reach the large intestine undigested before the bacteria break them down. Too much of those foods can give a person excess gas.

Flatulence and eructation are normal ways of passing excess gas, but if they happen too often they can be signs of a digestive disorder. A person with excess intestinal gas may have celiac disease, lactose intolerance, irritable bowel syndrome, or gastroesophageal (GAS-tro-ih-saw-fuh-JEE-ul) reflux disease (GERD). If a child passes a lot of gas it may also be a sign that he or she is constipated. Treating and preventing the constipation may help reduce the gas.

Intestinal gas issues are usually treated by avoiding foods that make symptoms worse, changing certain eating habits, and taking medications that reduce gas and control symptoms.

Keep in Mind

In most cases, flatulence, eructation, and gas pain are normal responses to excess gas that should clear up on their own. If they’re severe or they go on for too long, however, these conditions should be checked out by a doctor. Identifying the cause of excess gas and taking steps to avoid it is often enough to control the condition.

All A to Z dictionary entries are regularly reviewed by KidsHealth medical experts.

Flatulence | healthdirect

On this page

What is flatulence?

Flatulence is the passing of wind (air or gas) from the intestine and through the anus. It is often accompanied by a sound and smell. Flatulence is commonly called farting, breaking or passing wind, or flatus.

Most people pass wind between 7 and 12 times a day. But excessive flatulence can be uncomfortable and embarrassing, and can sometimes indicate a medical problem.

What symptoms are associated with flatulence?

There are usually no symptoms when flatulence is at a normal level. You might not even notice when you pass wind for much of the time. But if you have excessive flatulence, you might:

  • break wind more often
  • have pain, bloating or rumbling in the abdomen
  • notice that your farts are loud and smelly

What are the causes of flatulence?

When food is broken down and digested in the intestines, some gases are created — that is normal. The average person creates more than 2 litres of gas every day.

The amount of gas you create is influenced by what you eat and drink. Several high-fibre foods, carbonated drinks and artificial sweeteners can cause excessive flatulence. It can also be caused by:

  • fresh and dried fruits, such as apples, pears and raisins
  • nuts and seeds
  • beans and peas and some other vegetables
  • eating dairy if you have lactose intolerance
  • medical conditions like irritable bowel syndrome
  • medications such as some antibiotics, cholestyramine and orlistat
  • food additives
  • swallowing air if you are anxious, or if you eat quickly, smoke or chew gum

Gas can also be caused by problems with the gut, such as:

  • constipation
  • diarrhoea
  • lactose intolerance (not being able to digest dairy foods)
  • gluten intolerance (not being able to digest foods that contain wheat, barley, oats and rye)

How can I reduce flatulence?

There is no simple solution to excessive flatulence since foods affect people’s digestion differently. A useful approach is to work out which foods seem to cause the problem for an individual, and either to avoid them altogether or cut back. But be aware that high-fibre foods form part of a healthy diet.

The low FODMAP diet can help control flatulence and bloating if you have irritable bowel syndrome.

You can also decrease flatulence by avoiding chewing gum, fizzy drinks, foods with artificial sweeteners and smoking. Relaxing when you eat and eating slowly can also help.

You could discuss with your doctor or pharmacist whether to take over-the-counter antacids or activated charcoal tablets. This may benefit some people.

When should I see my doctor?

You should see your doctor if you have severe flatulence, especially if you also have other digestive problems, such as constipation, diarrhoea, vomiting, abdominal pain, bloating, weight loss or blood in the stool.

Flatulence – MyDr.com.au

Flatulence, also known as ‘breaking wind’, ‘passing wind;’ or farting, is an excess of gas in the intestines. Flatulence can be an embarrassing problem for some people.

How much gas is normal?

It is normal for gas in the digestive tract to be passed out through the rectum (as flatus) on average between 14 and 25 times a day, depending on your diet. A high fibre diet will produce more gas than a diet containing less fibre. The normal amount of gas produced per day ranges from 250 mL to 2500 mL.

Symptoms of flatulence

Some symptoms that can accompany excessive flatulence include:

  • bloating and discomfort;
  • belching; and
  • pain in the abdomen.

What causes flatulence?

Possible causes of flatulence include:

  • High-fibre diet: A diet containing foods high in soluble fibre.
  • Increase in fibre: A sudden increase in the amount of fibre in the diet.
  • Swallowing excessive air: It’s normal to swallow some air, but excessive swallowing of air can be due to chewing gum, sucking pens or pencils, smoking and not taking the time to chew food slowly. ;
  • Medical conditions. Some medical conditions, such as coeliac disease, lactose intolerance, Crohn’s disease or ulcerative colitis.
  • Lack of digestive enzymes. If a person is lacking in the enzymes needed for digestion, undigested food passes into the intestine and then bacteria break it down releasing gases.
  • Long transit time through the intestine. This gives bacteria more chance to ferment the waste products, producing unpleasant gas.
  • Medicines. Some medicines may cause flatulence as a side-effect, e.g. statins, varenicline (Champix) – the anti-smoking medicine, and some laxatives.
  • FODMAP (Fermentable Oligosaccharides, Disaccharides, Monosaccharides and Polyphenols) intolerance. Some people are sensitive to foods containing FODMAPs and will produce a lot of gas when the FODMAPs are fermented by bacteria in the large bowel.

Foods causing wind

Reactions to different foods may vary from person to person. Some foods that may cause flatulence include:

  • vegetables such as cabbage, cauliflower, broccoli, onions, asparagus and brussels sprouts;
  • fruits such as peaches, apples and pears;
  • fizzy drinks;
  • foods containing the sugar lactose, such as dairy products like milk;
  • sugar-free confectionery and chewing gum, which contain sorbitol;
  • whole grains such as bran and wheat; and
  • beans and pulses.

Swallowing excess air

Swallowing excess air is a cause of flatulence and may be caused by:

  • chewing gum;
  • smoking;
  • ill-fitting false teeth;
  • eating too quickly or talking while eating; and
  • anxiety and stress.

Medical conditions

Medical conditions in which digestion of foods is impaired, such as Crohn’s disease, ulcerative colitis and coeliac disease, often result in excess wind being produced in the gut.

Also, people who lack, or have deficiencies in, the enzyme that breaks down lactose in the gut will find that they produce excess gas when they consume foodstuffs containing lactose. These foods include milk and dairy products. This condition is known as lactose intolerance.

What makes it smell?

As bacteria in the large intestine ferment your food, they produce gases. Nitrogen, oxygen, carbon dioxide, hydrogen and methane make up 90 per cent of the gases and are odourless (have no smell). The remaining 10 per cent consists of other gases.

Any odour in the gases, which are subsequently released as flatus, is caused by sulphur-containing gases, such as hydrogen sulphide (rotten egg gas), released by the bacteria.

People differ in the composition of the bacterial populations in their intestines, and this affects how a person breaks down foods in their intestine, and the gases produced. So not everyone reacts in the same way to the same food.

Self-help to reduce flatulence

There are a number of measures you can try if you are suffering from embarrassing  or excessive flatulence.

Charcoal tablets or activated charcoal tablets. These tablets are available over the counter from pharmacies. Charcoal has the ability to bind and trap other substances and then remove them from the body. Charcoal can absorb gas in the bowel, thus helping with the symptoms of excessive flatulence. People who are on other medications should not take charcoal tablets, because of the risk of the charcoal binding the medication and removing it from the body, making it less effective or not effective at all.

Avoid dairy if you are lactose intolerant. If you are lactose intolerant, avoid foods containing lactose, such as dairy foods.

Antacids can help to reduce flatulence. Some antacids contain simethicone (e.g. De-Gas, Dulcogas) which breaks down the surface tension of gas bubbles, allowing them to break down. You can get antacids over the counter or from your local pharmacist.

Dietary modification. You may get some relief from excessive flatulence by modifying your diet to include fewer foods that contain compounds which result in excessive flatus for you. Common culprits are onions, lentils and beans.

Avoid sugar-free chewing gum and sweets. These often contain sorbitol – which is a sweetener that can cause flatulence.

When to see a doctor about your flatulence

If you are experiencing excessive flatulence, talk to your doctor or dietitian. They can advise you on medications and lifestyle changes — such as eliminating certain foods from your diet — that may help alleviate the problem, and can help rule out other serious intestinal problems.

Signs that you should seek medical advice are persistent  or severe flatulence, especially if it’s associated with vomiting, constipation or diarrhoea, heartburn, persistent bloating, weight loss or blood in your stool.

Are there any diagnostic tests for excessive flatulence?

There are no specific investigations for excessive flatulence. Your doctor will probably take a history of your symptoms, and may even ask you to record your symptoms in a diary, along with any other relevant information. Your doctor may want to do tests to try to eliminate any health conditions as the cause of your excessive flatulence.

1. NHS Choices. Flatulence. http://www.nhs.uk/Conditions/Flatulence/Pages/Introduction.aspx (accessed Feb 2016).

2. Mayo Clinic. Intestinal gas. http://www.mayoclinic.org/symptoms/intestinal-gas/basics/definition/sym-20050922 (accessed Feb 2016).

Why Seniors Pass Gas and What You Can Do About It

Flatulence (i.e., farting) can be a troublesome occupational hazard for caregivers of the elderly. An excessively gassy elder can leave a caregiver torn between respecting their dignity and wanting to get some fresh air. Even if you can dismiss the noise and ignore the smell, for seniors, there’s always that nagging fear that excess gas may indicate a messy accident or even a serious digestive problem.

What Causes Flatulence in the Elderly?

Fortunately for most seniors, passing gas is typically benign and normal. Slight changes in digestion are relatively normal as we age, but there are some symptoms to look for that may indicate an underlying medical issue. If your loved one’s flatulence is accompanied by abdominal pain or distention, weight loss, diarrhea, or decreased appetite, it’s important to make an appointment with their doctor. These symptoms may signify intestinal malabsorption brought on by a variety of potential causes, such as inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), celiac disease, small intestinal bacterial overgrowth, chronic mesenteric ischemia or irritable bowel syndrome. Remedying these and other underlying digestive conditions will require a thorough gastrointestinal workup.

The good news is that flatulence is more often caused by less serious and more easily treated factors. Some of the following conditions could be responsible for your loved one’s excessive “wind.”

6 Reasons Gassiness Increases With Age

  • Lactose intolerance: Lactose intolerance increases as we age. This is a common issue with a relatively simple solution. First, try removing lactose-containing dairy products from your loved one’s diet for a week or so and see if things improve. If a senior still craves dairy products despite being lactose intolerant, yogurt may be a less problematic option compared to cheese and milk. Lactose-free milk and other dairy products are also available. Lactaid (lactase enzyme) tablets might help aid digestion of a favorite dairy items to some degree as well.
  • Fructose intolerance: Symptoms of fructose sensitivity can be witnessed after your loved one eats certain fruits, products containing fruit juice, or foods that contain high fructose corn syrup like soda.
  • Foods that can cause gas in just about anyone: If eaten in significant amounts, cruciferous vegetables (e.g. broccoli, cabbage, Brussels sprouts), legumes (e.g. beans and lentils), potatoes, onions, wheat and whole grains can cause gassiness due to the presence of fiber and certain indigestible starches.
  • Medications: Older adults take many medications, and digestive issues like flatulence are common side effects of some commonly prescribed drugs. Culprits include blood pressure medications, certain narcotic pain relievers and antibiotics. Check your loved one’s medication inserts to see if flatulence is listed as a side effect and talk to their doctor about switching to a more digestion-friendly drug.
  • Swallowing too much air: Dentures and difficulty chewing and swallowing food (known as dysphagia) can cause an elder to accidentally swallow air during normal activities, which is then released as gas. While this may not be an entirely preventable problem, it might help to make sure your loved one’s dentures fit properly and that they have access to soft, easy-to-eat foods.
  • Slower digestion: Advancing age may cause an elder’s digestive tract to slow down, resulting in constipation and flatulence. If constipation is also an issue, encourage your loved one to drink more water and eat fiber-rich foods.

Additional Strategies for Minimizing Gas

Dietary and lifestyle modifications are the best ways to eliminate this issue. Simethicone (found in common over-the-counter products like Gas-X), Bean-O (alpha-galactosidase) and activated charcoal are typically ineffective as a long-term solution. If your loved one is experiencing discomfort and bloating, oral probiotics may be a useful addition to their daily routine.

The underlying issue may be that there is a deficit of “good bacteria” that normally lives in the colon. The success of probiotic treatment for flatulence really depends on the probiotic strain. There is a wide variety of types, or strains, of bacteria that support good digestive health. Discovering the right combination of strains for your loved one will take a bit of independent research and some trial and error, but all are available over the counter.


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Probiotics are sometimes taken in conjunction with prebiotics—non-digestible foods that can help probiotic bacteria grow and work more effectively. However, keep in mind that taking a large amount of prebiotics can also cause gas to worsen. It’s all about balance.

Eliminating dietary triggers is the first step in dealing with troublesome flatulence. If your loved one isn’t uncomfortable or bothered by these digestive symptoms, then a “fix” may not be necessary. Many seniors simply aren’t as aware or in control of their bodily functions compared to younger generations. Just be sure to keep an eye out for other more serious symptoms that might point to an underlying digestive problem.

90,000 Causes of flatulence: facts and myths

Flatulence is one of the most common symptoms of indigestion. On the air of the Russia 1 channel, the leading programs “On the Most Important” Mikhail Politseimako and Sergei Agapkin, together with a gastroenterologist Sergei Vyalov, analyzed several popular facts about flatulence and decided which of them are really trustworthy and which are not.

Normally, a person releases gases about 14 times a day.”If flatulence, for example, every hour, then this, of course, is overkill. If flatulence swells the stomach so much that it increases in size, this is also an alarming call. Even if flatulence is accompanied not only by a feeling of puffiness, but also bursting from the inside out, as if the stomach wants to explode, this is also an alarming symptom, “explained the gastroenterologist, hepatologist Sergei Sergeevich Vyalov.

Causes of flatulence

Incorrect power supply. Most of the gaseous substances are found in the intestines.Lack of vegetables, fruits and fiber-rich plant foods in the diet leads to stool disorder. Try to eat at least 500 g of fruit per day!

Ingestion of excess air in the gastrointestinal tract when eating. Stress and anxiety accelerate bowel movements! Chew food thoroughly, drink slowly, try not to speak while eating! If you have a tendency to gas production, drink water at least half an hour before meals!

Inflammatory bowel disease.Ulcerative colitis or Crohn’s disease are serious bowel disorders. If, when eating more fiber, gas formation increases, then we can talk about the presence of mild inflammation or irritation in the intestines.

Helicobacter pylori. The waste products of this bacterium cause inflammation and damage to the stomach lining. The mucous barrier and the production of hydrochloric acid are disrupted, which leads to disruption of the functioning of acid-producing cells. Bacteria in the small intestine begin to multiply actively, gas formation occurs, which leads to constant bloating.Get tested for Helicobacter pylori!

Facts and myths

Raw vegetables and bran will cause flatulence. Raw vegetables tend to be slightly more gas and bloating than cooked vegetables.

Taking antibiotics or other medications. Some antibiotics also kill germs in the intestines, leading to bloating and gas. However, for example, the drug amoxicillin in combination with clavulanic acid causes asthmatic diarrhea, but does not affect the microflora.

Flatulence and dysbiosis are synonyms. Dysbacteriosis in the overwhelming majority of cases is accompanied by flatulence. An imbalance in the composition of the intestinal microflora can cause ulcerative colitis.

90,000 Flatulence, as a sign of “pancreatic” problems

Without a doubt, everyone is familiar with flatulence. But, if in some cases, the symptom carries nothing but psychological discomfort. That, in others – signals about digestive disorders.So how do you distinguish between what is permissible and what is pathological? And what is the connection between flatulence and the “health” of the pancreas?

“Gas” standards

Calculating the volume of separated intestinal gases in a domestic environment is actually an impossible task. But, normally, this figure reaches 2.5 liters per day.

The point is that the digestive system is in direct contact with the air of the environment. And therefore, part of the gas enters the intestines when swallowing, when eating.

“Gas” is also added by intestinal bacteria, which form it in the course of their vital activity.

At the same time, the prevailing normal saccharolytic microbiota (lacto-, bifidobacteria, streptococci and others) mostly uses carbohydrates not absorbed in the small intestine for food, and lactic and acetic acids, carbon dioxide , water and hydrogen.

Carbon dioxide is further converted by other bacteria, and hydrogen is absorbed into the bloodstream and excreted through the lungs.

However, if the amount of undigested carbohydrates increases significantly (for example, with an excess of sweets, lactase deficiency or pancreatic amylase deficiency), the concentration of hydrogen, acids and, accordingly, gases that have an acidic odor also increase.

Some representatives of the intestinal microbiota do not use carbohydrates as food, but sulfur-containing compounds, in particular proteins. With the formation, at the same time, of hydrogen sulfide, ammonia and cadaverine.

“Gases” at the same time acquire a pronounced putrid or rotten smell. And the reason for this problem is often the lack of proteolytic (cleaving proteins to amino acids) enzymes of the pancreas.

When flatulence is no longer “safe”

As already noted, the formation and release of intestinal gas is a normal and inevitable phenomenon.However, only if their volume and characteristics do not cause either psychological or physical discomfort.

If flatulence bothers regularly or is “background”, accompanied by abdominal pain and / or changes in frequency (diarrhea or constipation) and character (for example, “fat” stools), as well as general weakness and fatigue – should be excluded at least , enzymatic insufficiency of the pancreas, as one of the most common causes of flatulence.

It is worth noting the fact that vivid clinical signs of pancreatic insufficiency appear when the enzyme deficiency reaches approximately 90% of the norm.And up to this level – the symptoms are often “mild”, unstable and associated with the nature of the diet.

How to check

Changes in the coprogram can indicate pathology:

  • neutral fats,
  • muscle fibers with striations,
  • increase in the amount of extracellular
  • or the appearance of intracellular starch,
  • presence of iodophilic flora

However, they can only serve as indirect signs of “pancreatic” trouble, since they also accompany a number of other digestive disorders.

A more “specialized” study of the functional state of the gland is the analysis of feces for pancreatic elastase. Since this proteolytic enzyme goes through the entire digestive tract practically unchanged.

A decrease in elastase in feces is the most reliable sign of pacreatic insufficiency. Moreover, not only in relation to the elastase itself, but also to the rest of the enzymes of the gland, even in the earliest stages of pathology.

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90,000 Gas in a dog: causes, diagnosis, treatment

Flatulence in dogs is common and poses a health hazard. If gas formation torments the pet constantly, it is possible that the animal has volvulus, displacement of internal organs. If treatment is not started on time, this problem will further lead to serious disruptions in the activity of the cardiovascular and respiratory systems, and in severe cases – to death.

Flatulence: causes of occurrence

Gases are formed during meals in small quantities and are normally released naturally. However, under the influence of some negative factors, they accumulate and penetrate into the intestines, which leads to flatulence.

Bloating in pets can be caused by:

  • air entering the esophagus during feed absorption;

  • unbalanced diet, predominance of fiber-rich foods in the menu, abrupt change of feed, overeating, consumption of hot food;

  • food allergies;

  • worm infestation;

  • dysfunctions of the pancreas;

  • inflammatory diseases in the gastrointestinal tract;

  • constipation;

  • pathologies of the liver and other internal organs;

  • infectious diseases;

  • low mobility.

What is the danger of flatulence? Accumulating in the intestines, gases cause intoxication. The assimilation of toxins and slags takes place, which enter the body with blood flows.

Clinical picture of gas formation

It is not difficult to determine flatulence in a dog. The animal has rumbling, abdominal cramps, pain syndrome. The number of bowel movements increases, while mucus and blood are visible in the feces. Vomiting often occurs and, as a result, dehydration.Depletion of the body occurs.

The dog loses weight, while the abdomen remains swollen and tight, painful on palpation.

Diagnostics and treatment

In order to make a correct diagnosis, in addition to reading the medical history and examining the animal, the veterinarian conducts the necessary diagnostic tests. These include:

  1. General and biochemical blood test – to establish a possible inflammatory process in the intestine.

  2. Stool analysis – to detect undigested proteins and fats and to exclude intestinal invasion.

  3. X-ray with contrast – in case of suspicion of intestinal obstruction, tumors.

Therapy includes measures aimed at eliminating diseases that caused flatulence, activating the gastrointestinal tract, and normalizing the intestinal microflora.

To normalize the number of intestinal microorganisms, the use of probiotics is shown, the dosage depends on the individual characteristics of the dog’s body, the severity of the condition.

To activate the gastrointestinal tract, conservative treatment is used. It includes taking enzyme preparations, as well as medicines that normalize the digestion process in general and the production of enzymes in particular.

To eliminate bloating, the stomach is washed with a probe through which sorbents are introduced.If the condition of the animal is very serious, it is advisable to pierce the abdominal cavity with a needle through which the accumulated gas exits.

Carminative drugs are used to reduce pressure in the abdominal cavity.

After removing gases from the digestive system, in order to normalize microflora, beneficial bacteria are introduced into the intestines, which are contained in probiotics, natural yoghurts.

Dog food for flatulence

During the period of treatment and recovery, proper feeding is of great importance.It is advisable to include in the diet food that has the ability to gently envelop the walls of the stomach and create a protective barrier against the influence of negative factors. Flax seeds, rice porridge in water or liquid broth are very useful in this regard.

A decoction of chamomile has healing properties, which has an antiseptic and anti-inflammatory effect and has a beneficial effect on the gastrointestinal tract. However, not every dog ​​wants to drink a healing infusion. In this case, the decoction can be injected with a syringe or added to liquid food (one tablespoon per day).

The food of the dog should be fractional – 4-6 times a day, so that there is no overeating, the volume of portions is reduced. It is important that the dog chews the food thoroughly and does not swallow it whole. Place the bowl at the level of the animal’s head. Exclude milk, fish, legumes, cereals (except rice and buckwheat), treats, dry food from the diet.

For a speedy recovery of the dog, the walking time should be increased. When walking the dog, let the owner make sure that the pet does not eat spoiled food.

90,000 Intestinal neurosis: symptoms and treatment, prevention

Sources of information

1 Golovenko O.V., Mikhailova T.L., Makarchuk P.A. Syndrome of flatulence: causes and treatment options. Pharmateca, 2009 (2): 17-22.
2 Ivashkin V.T., Shelygin Yu.A., Baranskaya E.K., Belousova E.A., Beniashvili A.G., Vasiliev S.V., Golovenko A.O., Golovenko O.V. ., Grigoriev E.G., Kostenko N. V., Lapina T.L., Loranskaya I.D., Lyashenko O.S., Maev I.V., Poluektova E.A., Rumyantsev V.G., Timerbulatov V.M., Trukhmanov A.S., Fomenko O.Yu., Khalif I.L., Chashkova E.Yu., Sheptulin A.A., Shifrin O.S., Yanovoy V.V. Clinical guidelines of the Russian Gastroenterological Association and the Association of Coloproctologists of Russia for the diagnosis and treatment of irritable bowel syndrome.Ros jurn gastroenterol hepatol coloproctol, 2017; 27 (5): 76-93.
3 Mayev I.V., Bordin D.S., Eremina E.Yu., Ilchishina T.A., Kaibysheva V.O., Osipenko M.F., Okhlobystina O.Z., Simanenkov V.I. ., Khalif I.L., Cheremushkin S.V., Sabelnikova E.A. Irritable bowel syndrome. Modern aspects of epidemiology, pathogenesis and treatment (review). Experimental and Clinical Gastroenterology. 2018; 158 (10): 68–73.
4 Makhov V., Sokolova A. Flatulence: from pathogenesis to treatment.Doctor, 2010 (3): 20-24.
5 Galeisya E.N., Lychkova A.E. Nervous regulation of the colon. Experimental and Clinical Gastroenterology, 2013 (8): 54-60.
6 Practice Guidelines of the World Gastroenterological Organization. Irritable bowel syndrome: a global perspective, 2015.
7 Ivashkin V.T., Maev I.V., Baranskaya E.K. et al. Recommendations of the Russian Gastroenterological Association for the diagnosis and treatment of cholelithiasis RZHGK 2016; 3: 64-80 2.
8 Instructions for the medical use of the drug Duspatalin of the Ministry of Health of the Russian Federation dated 07/13/2021.
9 UK National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence. Irritable bowel syndrome in adults: diagnosis and treatment of irritable bowel syndrome in primary health care. Clinical practice guidelines, March 2017.
10 E.P. Yakovenko et al. Abdominal pain: mechanisms of formation, a rational approach to the choice of therapy.Breast cancer supplement “Diseases of the Digestive System” No. 2 dated 01.09.2009. with. 48

RUS2208246 (v1.0) Registration number: LP-001454.
The material was developed with the support of Abbott Laboratories LLC in order to
informing patients about the disease.
The information in the material does not replace the advice of a specialist
health care. See your doctor.

90,000 Flatulence in children: help and treatment

Bowel flatulence is often confused with childhood colic.From a medical point of view, there is no “equal” sign between these phenomena, from a practical point of view, it is, in general, the same thing. When a child is worried about flatulence, he is capricious, cries loudly, twists his legs and refuses to eat. The baby is worried about acute abdominal pains. Premature babies suffer from them more often than those born on time. Their digestive system is even more immature, and the musculature of the walls of the stomach and intestines is very poorly developed. Like colic, bloating begins to bother babies from birth, but significantly decreases (or disappears altogether) by 3-4 months, when the baby gets stronger.

Causes of flatulence in infants

Aerophagia. This is the name given to swallowing air while feeding. The baby may not pick up the nipple or breast correctly, cry while feeding, rush, or the mother may not hold the bottle correctly. As a result, the baby “grabs” air, it enters the intestines and causes the formation of gas. Therefore, it is very important to establish the correct feeding process.

Immaturity of microflora. The baby is still very small, his body is just learning to work, the microbiocenosis (microflora) has not formed. Flatulence will pass with age. If the problem is troubling an older toddler, pay attention to the child’s reaction to complementary foods or a change in formula. If your baby is unwell, consult a doctor to relieve his condition.

Diet of a nursing mother. Gas in the infant’s intestines can be caused by foods that the mother ate. A nursing woman needs to be more careful about her diet.It is worth using dairy products, fresh fruits and vegetables, legumes, cabbage, yeast bread, baked goods, nuts with caution. It is better to exclude carbonated drinks altogether.

Untimely bowel movement. Under such conditions, gases accumulate, this gives the baby more and more discomfort.

How to help a baby with flatulence?

Help your baby to empty his bowels.Massage of the tummy is effective (make circular movements around the navel in a clockwise direction), gymnastics (press the baby’s legs bent at the knees to his tummy, then straighten them), a warm bath will help (it is good to add a decoction of chamomile or a string to it). If gentle methods don’t work, you can use an enema or a gas tube. Remember to act with extreme caution!

With flatulence, children’s teas with medicinal herbs – fennel, chamomile, dill, anise and caraway seeds – help. You can buy dill water at the pharmacy in the department for the production of medicines (keep in mind that it is stored in the refrigerator and no more than 10 days).

To prevent gas formation, make sure that the baby is eating in a calm environment, not distracted, not in a hurry. Before feeding the baby, it is useful to put it on the tummy for 5 minutes (this is a kind of massage). After the baby has eaten, hold it in a “column” so that the excess air comes out along with the belching.

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90,000 Abdominal pain – DMG Clinic

Abdominal pain is a symptom familiar to everyone from early childhood.

The reasons for the appearance of such pain can be a wide variety of diseases and their nature can also be different (sharp and dull pain, pulsating, like colic, cutting, aching, etc.). Localization of pain can be in the upper or lower abdomen or in the hypochondrium on the right or left.

Most common causes of abdominal pain:

  • Acute abdominal pain. The cause of such complaints may be acute cholecystitis or hepatic colic.In addition, renal colic or acute appendicitis can manifest itself this way. In the event of the appearance of loose stools, m. suspected irritable bowel syndrome or ulcerative colitis.
  • Sharp abdominal pain. Such symptoms may include acute appendicitis, intestinal infections, food poisoning, etc.
  • Aching pain in the side. If such pain appears in the right side, cholecystitis, right-sided renal colic or pyelonephritis can be suspected. Left-sided pain may indicate renal colic on the left.
  • Drawing pains in the lower abdomen. In women, such pain can be the cause of diseases of the pelvic organs (uterus, appendages, etc.) and the bladder. In men, this can be a manifestation of chronic prostatitis or cystitis.
  • Low back pain radiating to the abdomen. This pain can be caused by kidney disease (pyelonephritis, glomerulonephritis, kidney tumor, and urolithiasis).

Pain and bloating with overeating and gas

Normally, when overeating, a person may experience abdominal pain and flatulence (gas formation). Additional symptoms may include stomach heaviness and discomfort. Sometimes abdominal distention can cause sharp cutting and short-term abdominal pains. In such cases, the pain can go away on its own within a day or several hours. As a rule, such pain does not require any special treatment.
For the prevention of stomach discomfort and flatulence, with meals, you can take 2-3 tablets of the drug, which facilitates digestion and reduces bloating.

Abdominal pain in diseases of the abdominal organs

Abdominal pain is the most common syndrome in diseases of the abdominal organs (stomach, intestines, liver, gallbladder, kidneys, uterus and uterine appendages in women, prostate in men, bladder).Complaining about abdominal pain is a sign in which the patient should see a doctor.

The main causes of acute abdominal pain

Main causes of abdominal pain:

  • Intestinal infections
  • Food poisoning
  • Irritable bowel syndrome
  • Gastritis and peptic ulcer
  • Pancreatitis
  • Cholecystitis
  • Hepatitis
  • Injury to the abdomen
  • Peritonitis (inflammation of the peritoneum)
  • Intestinal obstruction
  • Appendicitis
  • Renal colic
  • Hepatic colic
  • Pyelonephritis
  • Cystitis
  • Inflammation of the uterine appendages (adnexitis)
Abdominal pain due to acute intestinal infection or food poisoning

Food poisoning or acute intestinal infection are the most common causes of acute abdominal pain. Pain may be accompanied by nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, and fever. The nature of the pain is cramping, can spread to the entire abdomen.

Pain with irritable bowel syndrome

Pain in irritable bowel syndrome is the second most common pain. The patient complains of cramping severe pain in the abdomen, which is combined with the urge to defecate. Chronization of the disease can lead to chronic diarrhea or constipation.

Abdominal pain with gastritis and gastroduodenitis

Gastritis and gastroduodenitis are characterized by superficial damage to the mucous membrane of the stomach and duodenum.Exacerbation of gastroduodenitis is expressed in aching and sharp pains in the upper abdomen, which intensify after eating.

Abdominal pain in gastric ulcer (PUD) and duodenal ulcer (DU)

The main symptom of peptic ulcer disease is abdominal pain. Most often, the patient feels dull aching pains in the upper and middle abdomen. The localization of abdominal pain directly depends on the affected part of the intestinal tract. With gastric ulcer, pain most often occurs after eating and subside within 1-2 hours after eating.With a duodenal ulcer, abdominal pain can appear on an empty stomach, more often at night or in the morning, and subside after eating.

In case of perforation of the ulcer or duodenal ulcer, the stomach wall ruptures and the gastric juice penetrates into the abdominal cavity. Such a formidable complication is accompanied by severe (dagger-like) acute abdominal pain that appears suddenly. The patient assumes a forced position, with the legs brought to the abdomen (fetal position). Most often, when an ulcer perforates, the pain is in the right side with a gradual spread to the entire abdomen.

Abdominal pain during exacerbation of chronic pancreatitis

Chronic pancreatitis is a chronic inflammation of the tissues of the pancreas. Such pains are most often aching and are located in the navel, epigastrium or in the left hypochondrium, can be of a shingles nature. The reason for the exacerbation of chronic pancreatitis and the appearance of such pain is usually after eating fatty or spicy foods.

Abdominal pain in acute pancreatitis

Acute pancreatitis histologically looks like massive destruction of pancreatic tissue.Acute pancreatitis is characterized by severe abdominal pain that manifests itself in the upper abdomen and is shingles in nature. Additional signs of pancreatitis include severe vomiting, bloating, decreased blood pressure, and pallor. Acute pancreatitis appears after a diet disorder, alcohol abuse or toxic poisoning.

Abdominal pain with peritonitis

Peritonitis, most often, is a formidable complication of diseases of the abdominal organs (appendicitis, perforated stomach ulcer, acute pancreatitis).With peritonitis, severe abdominal pain appears clinically, aggravated by movement. Localization of pain can begin from a specific affected organ with spread to the entire abdomen. Additional signs include fever, bloating, and hemodynamic disturbances.

Pain with peritonitis:

  • Pathology of the liver and gallbladder – pain radiates to the right shoulder
  • Pathology or trauma of the spleen – irradiation to the left shoulder
  • Pancreatitis – back pain
  • Diseases of the urinary tract – the spread of pain in the sides and lower abdomen
Abdominal pain with kidney disease

In pyelonephritis and glomerulonephritis, aching one-sided with pyelonephritis and bilateral pain in the abdomen with glomerulonephritis is often observed. Pain sensations are in the lower back and in the depths of the abdomen. Fever and discoloration of urine are usually additional symptoms.

Renal colic with urolithiasis is manifested as a result of blockage of the exit from the kidney with a stone. Pain manifestations are pronounced: intense cutting pain in the side on the side of the lesion, radiating to the lower abdomen and to the genital area.
Additional symptoms may include a change in the color of urine (redness and cloudiness), a decrease in the volume of excreted urine to a complete absence (anuria).

Abdominal pain in diseases of the bladder and genital organs

Cystitis (inflammation of the walls of the bladder) is characterized by sharp or pulling pains in the lower abdomen, radiating to the genitals and aggravated by urination. Additional signs of cystitis are fever, cloudy urine, and frequent urge to urinate.

For diseases of the genital organs in women (endometritis, adnexitis, etc. ), abdominal pain of varying severity, often aching, and pulling in the lower abdomen, extending to the genital area, lower back and perineum.With an exacerbation of chronic inflammatory diseases in women, pulling pains in the lower abdomen may be accompanied by an increase in temperature.

Abdominal pain in diseases of the gallbladder and liver

Chronic cholecystitis during ultrasound of the abdominal organs is manifested by inflammation of the walls of the gallbladder. Most often, exacerbation is accompanied by abdominal pain, which is felt in the right hypochondrium or in the right side. The pains are most often associated with a violation of the diet (fatty and fried foods) and are aching and dull in nature.

Acute cholecystitis is characterized by intense and throbbing pain in the right side, aggravated by pressing on the projection area of ​​the gallbladder. Additional signs of cholecystitis may include nausea, vomiting, and a bitter taste in the mouth.
Severe pain in the right hypochondrium will help to distinguish hepatic colic.

Hepatitis abdominal pain is also felt in the right hypochondrium. Additional signs may include jaundice, nausea, dark urine, and lighter stool.

Diagnosing the causes of abdominal pain can be a lengthy process, and a patient with such complaints should be examined by a physician and surgeon. It is necessary to undergo a whole set of necessary diagnostic tests (ultrasound of the abdominal organs, if necessary, an MRI of the abdominal cavity and a number of laboratory tests) so that the doctor will prescribe the necessary treatment for you.

Experienced surgeon and therapist at DMG- clinic have extensive experience in the diagnosis and treatment of abdominal pain.With the help of advanced European techniques, the surgeon will be able to diagnose the causes of abdominal pain, including an MRI scan, stop the pain and, if necessary, send it for surgery. The specialists of the Department of Surgery and Gynecology will provide high-quality medical care at any stage of the development of the disease.

90,000 Flatulence – causes, diagnosis and treatment

General characteristics

Usually, flatulence (bloating, tympania, swelling) is perceived as an uncomfortable feeling of heaviness, bloating, accompanied by rumbling, belching, sometimes diarrhea or constipation.Possible abdominal pain with intestinal spasm (colic) and gas retention in the intestine, which is more often observed in the second half of the day during the period of the most active digestion. The condition is relieved after a bowel movement. Less often, there is a constant painless release of gases with a different odor, which occurs imperceptibly or with a characteristic sound (flatulence).

When gases accumulate in a certain area of ​​the intestine (local flatulence), the pain syndrome has characteristic features. Gas retention at the level of the splenic flexure of the intestine is accompanied by general bloating, pressure and pain in the left hypochondrium with irradiation to the heart.Tympania, caused by the accumulation of gas in the subhepatic region, is manifested by a feeling of overcrowding and soreness in the right hypochondrium, radiating to the epigastrium, the right scapula, shoulder, half of the neck. Less commonly, there is a cecum syndrome with pain in the right iliac region.

For small intestinal flatulence, general abdominal distension is typical, for large intestinal flatulence, a feeling of fullness in the lateral flanges. In addition to heaving, patients may have dyspepsia in the form of nausea, vomiting, and an unpleasant taste in the mouth.Sometimes digestive asthenia develops with a burning sensation in the precordial region, shortness of breath, complaints of frequent palpitations, interruptions in the work of the heart, insomnia, general weakness, depressed mood. Long-term flatulence disrupts the patient’s usual life, impairs the quality of communications and limits behavioral activity.

Causes of flatulence

Physiological conditions

Although bloating is more likely to indicate gastrointestinal disease, it sometimes occurs due to non-pathological factors.The accumulation of gases can be associated with both their excess formation and retention in the intestine. The most common physiological causes of flatulence are:

  • The use of products that stimulate gas production . Normally, when one full meal is digested, up to 15 liters of gases are formed in the gastrointestinal tract, most of which are absorbed through the intestinal wall. An increase in gas formation is noted when eating black bread, beer, kvass and other fermenting foods, legumes, cabbage, a large amount of carbohydrates, fats.
  • Eating habits . Up to 60% of intestinal gases are swallowed air, which enters the digestive tract when drinking water and swallowing. With a hasty meal, insufficient chewing and rapid swallowing, smoking while eating, more air enters the stomach. Some of it is excreted by belching, the rest of the gas travels to the intestines, causing flatulence.
  • Senile flatulence . Tympania in healthy elderly people is caused by age-related changes in the gastrointestinal tract.After 50-60 years, the intestine lengthens somewhat, and its muscular wall atrophies, which contributes to the retention of gases and chyme in the intestinal lumen. With age, the number of active intestinal glands decreases, against the background of a deterioration in the digestive function of digestive juices, gas formation increases.

Pregnancy

Flatulence most often occurs in the second or third trimesters of gestation and is associated with both increased gas production and delayed evacuation of gases from the intestine.More frequent bloating is reported by at least a third of pregnant women. In addition to heaving, the patients complain of sour belching, heartburn, and constipation. Flatulence during pregnancy, more often than in other conditions, is combined with spastic pain in the lower abdomen and can provoke an increase in the tone of the uterus. The causes of tympania during gestation are:

  • Mechanical compression of the intestine . The enlargement of the uterus during pregnancy is accompanied by an increase in its pressure on other organs of the abdominal cavity.The onset of heaving is often promoted by compression of the blind, less often – the sigmoid colon.
  • Deceleration of intestinal motility . Progesterone, produced by the placenta to preserve gestation, has a relaxing effect on intestinal smooth muscle. A decrease in peristaltic waves during pregnancy provokes constipation and intestinal gas retention.
  • Indigestion . In pregnant women, the load on the liver and pancreas increases.In combination with estrogenic effects, this leads to a change in the composition of bile, pancreatic juice and, as a result, insufficient digestion of food with increased gas formation.
  • Intestinal dysbiosis . The combination of fecal retention in the large intestine, small bowel maldigestion and malabsorption contributes to the disruption of the normal composition of the intestinal biocenosis. In this case, flatulence is the result of insufficient fermentation of dietary fiber.

Infectious diseases

Inflammatory changes occurring in the wall of the small and large intestine under the influence of pathogenic microorganisms are accompanied by a violation of the processes of parietal digestion and absorption.As a result, the diffusion of gases through the intestinal wall worsens, and gas formation in the intestinal cavity increases. Flatulence may be accompanied by:

  • Acute intestinal infections . Tympania with diarrhea, abdominal pain, tenesmus, nausea, vomiting is characteristic of acute gastritis, enterocolitis and colitis caused by various pathogens. Flatulence is observed in dysentery, salmonellosis, rotavirus infection and other diseases with lesions of the gastrointestinal tract.
  • Candidal process .Activation of the fungal flora in patients with reduced immunity provokes bloating, loosening of the stool, and non-localized pain in the abdomen. More often, intestinal candidiasis proceeds in the form of a non-invasive form without affecting the intestinal wall with moderate intoxication and discomfort.
  • Protozoan invasions . Bloating in the acute period of giardiasis manifests itself as part of the gastrointestinal syndrome with dyspepsia and profuse foamy stools, with a long course, weight loss and asthenia prevail.In chronic toxoplasmosis, flatulence is caused by mesenteric adenitis and is usually accompanied by constipation.
  • Helminthiasis . Swelling is possible with various helminthiases. So, for the manifestation of trichocephalosis, salivation, nausea, vomiting, tympania, constipation, alternating with diarrhea are characteristic. With massive helminthic invasion, severe, intractable diarrhea with blood and rectal prolapse is sometimes observed.

Dysbacteriosis is often a prerequisite for the development of flatulence against the background of an infectious intestinal lesion.The colonization of the large intestine with pathogenic microorganisms with a simultaneous reduction in the number of beneficial lacto- and bifidobacteria is accompanied by a violation of the natural processes of food fermentation and activation of fermentation. As a result, gas formation intensifies and tympania develops.

Colon pathology

Bloating is one of the characteristic symptoms of colon lesions. Often, swelling is combined with constipation, abdominal pain – diffuse or localized in different parts of the abdomen.The development of flatulence in colonic diseases is usually caused by delayed evacuation or impaired fiber fermentation. Pathological tympania are manifested:

  • Long-term inflammatory processes . For transversitis, sigmoiditis, rectosigmoiditis and other forms of chronic colitis, a combination of excessive gas formation and delayed elimination of the formed gases is characteristic. Constipation and mild pain are typical, the localization of which depends on the affected part of the intestine.The condition improves after a bowel movement.
  • Volumetric neoplasms . In benign colon tumors, there is usually mild bloating and constipation, and symptoms progress slowly. In patients with intestinal polyps, blood in the stool may be detected. Constant flatulence, pain, and progressive obstruction can be some of the first symptoms of colon cancer.
  • Colon enlargement .In patients with megacolon, dolichosigma and other variants of dolichosigma, abdominal swelling is combined with persistent constipation, signs of intestinal intoxication. Gas retention is noted. Soreness is diffuse and local, felt in the navel, left iliac region. On palpation, an intestine overflowing with feces is determined.
  • Violation of the structure of the intestinal wall . Flatulence and non-localized abdominal pain are common symptoms with pneumatosis, intestinal diverticula.The formation of saccular protrusions and air cysts is accompanied by a slowdown in peristalsis and the occurrence of constipation. With stagnation of feces, dysbiosis occurs, gas formation increases with a deterioration in the elimination of gases.

Diseases of the esophagus and stomach

Swelling of the abdomen is often observed in the defeat of the upper digestive tract. Of the diseases of the esophagus, the occurrence of tympania is most influenced by gastroesophageal reflux disease, especially caused by a hernia of the esophageal opening of the diaphragm.Violation of the closure function of the cardia with the throwing of gastric contents into the esophagus is accompanied by a disorder of the autonomic regulation of gastrointestinal motility, a change in secretory and evacuation functions. In addition to flatulence, patients with GERD complain of heartburn, sour belching.

Insufficient digestion of food in the stomach is the leading cause of bloating in gastritis. Entering the intestine of such chyme provokes the development of maldigestion, affects the passage of intestinal contents and its further fermentation in the colon.With duodeno-gastric reflux, biliary reflux gastritis, an aggravating factor becomes an increase in gas formation due to the reaction of acidic gastric juice with alkaline duodenal contents. In such cases, local gastric tympania with intense epigastric pain may occur.

Similar chemical processes occur in the duodenum with gastritis with high acidity, NSAID gastropathy, however, gases accumulate in the small intestine, causing diffuse soreness in the navel and general distension.In the development of flatulence in early dumping syndrome, the exclusion of the gastric phase of digestion and impaired autonomic regulation play a key role. In diseases of the stomach and duodenal ulcer, tympanum is combined with belching with air and sour chyme, other signs of dyspepsia – nausea, vomiting, loss of appetite.

Maldigestion and malabsorption

The symptom of bloating is a characteristic sign of a violation of the processes of cavity and parietal digestion. In addition to stomach diseases, maldigestion is provoked by disorders of pancreatic secretion (enzymatic insufficiency of the pancreas, Schwachman-Diamond syndrome, pancreatitis – reactive, biliary, autoimmune, etc.).), inflammation of the intestinal wall (chronic enteritis, sprue), changes in the composition and secretion of bile in cholecystitis, gallstone disease, biliary dyskinesia, liver pathology (Gilbert’s syndrome, portal hypertension).

Often flatulence develops in patients suffering from lactase deficiency, celiac disease, and other fermentopathies. The inability to digest certain food components leads to a change in the chemical composition of the intestinal contents, disrupts its absorption and fermentation by the saprophytic flora, and activates fermentation processes.Tympania in maldigestion syndrome is often combined with diffuse abdominal pain, unstable stool, discoloration and consistency of stool. The characteristic signs of damage to individual organs are revealed.

Abdominal purulent processes

Bloating caused by suppression of intestinal motility is observed with diffuse and local peritonitis. Increasing flatulence against the background of intense diffuse abdominal pain, hyperthermia and paretic intestinal obstruction is noted in the complicated course of the postoperative period, after childbirth (with obstetric peritonitis).With local purulent-inflammatory processes (chronic appendicitis, interintestinal abscess, adhesions in the small pelvis), the situation is aggravated by the occurrence of mechanical obstacles to the advancement of the chyme.

Flatulence of functional origin

In some patients, the development of tympania is facilitated by disorders of autonomic regulation and psychoemotional causes. Local forms of gastrointestinal neuroses, in the clinic of which there is a swelling of the abdomen, are irritable bowel syndrome and functional diarrhea.Usually, in such pathological conditions, bloating, pain and changes in stool are associated with increased intestinal motility. Functional bloating is possible with neurasthenia, vascular dystonia. The combination of flatulence, pain in the heart and rhythm disturbances is characteristic of gastrocardiac syndrome.

Abdominal wall failure

The likelihood of distention increases with changes in the anatomical structures that define the abdominal cavity. Tympania against the background of visible defects of the abdominal wall (stretching, local protrusions) is possible with diastasis of the rectus abdominis muscle, hernia of the white line, incisional hernias.Flatulence with nausea, vomiting, acute epigastric pain after eating is characteristic of the digestive syndrome with relaxation of the diaphragm. The occurrence of bloating in these cases is facilitated by a violation of intestinal peristalsis, leading to the development of constipation.

Genitourinary diseases

The proximity of the intestines and pelvic organs contributes to reflex disturbance of peristalsis in urogenital pathology. Patients with acute prostatitis and salpingitis present complaints of bloating.The correct diagnosis is facilitated by the combination of abdominal swelling with characteristic discharge from the genitals, pain in the pelvic region. Reflex-caused bloating against the background of back pain occurs in acute pyelonephritis, renal colic. When the kidneys are fused, an additional factor contributing to tympania is intestinal compression.

Endocrine pathology

In women with premenstrual syndrome, swelling, combined with constipation, edema and characteristic psycho-emotional disorders, is due to the relaxing effect of progesterone on the smooth muscles of the intestines and biliary tract.In hypothyroidism, tympania, nausea, vomiting occur due to hypotension of the muscles of the intestinal wall and a decrease in the secretion of enzymes. The sudden onset of spastic abdominal pain, indomitable nausea, flatulence and loose bloody stools are typical of the gastrointestinal form of acute adrenal insufficiency.

Survey

Diagnostic search is often difficult due to the variety of pathological conditions in which flatulence is observed. The initial treatment with this problem is recommended to the local therapist or gastroenterologist.Since bloating is detected in 80-85% of gastroenterological patients, a comprehensive examination begins with methods that allow you to quickly localize the level of gastrointestinal tract lesions, and only after that consultation of other specialists is recommended. The most informative are:

  • Endoscopic examination . A visual examination of the digestive organs is aimed at identifying inflammation, mucosal defects, and tumors. Taking into account the probable pathology, EGDS, colonoscopy, capsule endoscopy are prescribed.According to the indications, an endoscopic biopsy is performed for histological examination of the material.
  • Sonography of the abdominal organs . A survey ultrasound of the abdominal cavity allows you to quickly assess the condition of the parenchymal organs, biliary tract, spleen, blood vessels, detect masses, cysts. If necessary, a separate ultrasound scan of the liver, pancreas, and stomach is performed.
  • X-ray examination . Of the X-ray methods, the most commonly used are plain X-ray of the abdominal cavity, X-ray of the passage of barium through the small and large intestines.For the targeted determination of organ damage, retrograde cholangiopancreatography and X-ray of the stomach are often performed.
  • Environmental Analysis . With a possible connection between flatulence and a violation of gastric, pancreatic, biliary secretion, gastric and duodenal intubation is recommended. Intraesophageal and intragastric pH-metering helps to identify acidity and gastroesophageal reflux.
  • Laboratory analyzes .Most often, biochemical liver tests are performed, the level of pancreatic enzymes in the blood and urine, and the content of pepsinogen in the blood are determined. In addition to the coprogram, feces analyzes for helminth eggs and occult blood, feces sowing for dysbiosis and pathogenic flora are shown.

In case of flatulence, products that cause gassing should be avoided

Symptomatic therapy

Flatulence of alimentary origin significantly decreases or completely disappears after correction of the diet with restriction in the diet of legumes, cabbage, black bread, and other products that increase gas formation in a particular person.Regular meals are recommended in a calm atmosphere, thorough chewing of food, refusal to eat dry food, and physical exercise that is feasible. Until the reasons that provoked tympanum are clarified, with pronounced bloating, the use of carminative fees is effective.