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Full male anatomy: The male reproductive system | Anatomy Snippets

The male reproductive system | Anatomy Snippets

Do you know what is the smallest cell found in the human body? ?️‍♀️

It’s the simply super spermatozoon! This is the sperm cell, and the main function of the male reproductive system is the production and transportation of these remarkably complex metabolic, locomotive and genetic machines. Let’s take a closer look!

The male reproductive organs, labelled in Complete Anatomy

The production of sperm (spermatogenesis) begins in the testes. These ovoid organs are found just behind the penis, suspended in the scrotum by the spermatic cord. This environment is key in maintaining a temperature of 34°C for optimum sperm production.
Together, the testes can form up to 120 million sperm each day. That’s the equivalent of about 1,200 sperm per heartbeat! ❤️

The testes are composed of up to 900 coiled seminiferous tubules which are each about half a metre in length and are responsible for the formation of sperm. Sperm development within these tubules takes about 50-60 days. From there, the sperm is emptied into the epididymis where it matures for about 14 days, and is stored until it is ready to be ejaculated.

During ejaculation, the sperm is transported from the epididymis by peristaltic contractions of the ductus deferens towards the urethra. Along the way, the sperm is joined by seminal fluid from the seminal vesicles, and fluids from the prostate and bulbo-urethral glands. These fluids are collectively known as semen. Sperm actually only makes up about 10% of the total semen volume, but that 10% includes about 200 million individual cells.

Along with the production of the sperm, the testes also function to produce male sex hormones such as testosterone. These hormones are essential for the growth of male genitals and sperm production. A healthy male can produce up to 6 milligrams of testosterone each day, however, after the age of 30 this dramatically declines. ⏰

Stay tuned for an exclusive sneak peek of the sperm cell microanatomy model, coming soon to Complete Anatomy 2020.

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Medical Textbooks Use White, Heterosexual Men As A ‘Universal Model’ — ScienceDaily

Images of white men predominate in western anatomy textbooks, which present them as a “universal model” of the human being. This is the main conclusion of a study that has analysed 16,329 images from 12 manuals currently recommended by 20 of the most prestigious universities in Europe, the United States and Canada.

Where features are the same for both sexes, three times as many male bodies as female ones were illustrated in the six anatomical textbooks and six texts studied (14% compared to 4%, while in the remaining images it was not possible to deduce the gender of the body), according to the study that will be presented by its author, María José Barral, a medicine professor at the University of Zaragoza, at the Women, Health and Gender Forum, being held today and tomorrow.

“Each body has individual features, and the more you see the more points of reference you have – this is an advantage in clinical practice,” the researcher told SINC. “We’re not dealing only with diseases, but people with diseases.”

The six North American manuals studied used male bodies in 17% of cases and female ones in 5% to illustrate “neutral body parts”, while the six European ones used male images 12% of the time and female ones only 2%.

People of Caucasian ethnicity were the only ones represented in nine of the 12 manuals (all the European ones and half the North American ones), and were in the majority in the other three. Only one of the textbooks studied showed “parity in male and female images” and represented other ethnicities, although Caucasians still predominated.

False associations

The central nervous system was presented exclusively using male bodies in the six European manuals and in one of the North American ones. There was not one female image of the lower limbs in four of the manuals (three European and one North American), nor of the upper ones in eight of them (five European and three North American).

In some books, the circulatory system was mainly illustrated in female bodies while the nervous system was presented in males, with the locomotive system equally divided. The researcher raises the question of whether this is due to thought being considered a male attribute and nutrition a female one.

“Sociocultural contamination is evident in some of the images,” she said, such as the fluctuating size of women’s bodies in line with changing fashions, or the representation of social stereotypes.

Most of the hands illustrated are male. Barral asks whether this is intended to show that “manipulation, a sign of our species’ evolution” is a male feature.

“Medical research in terms of the diagnosis, treatment and prevention of diseases has been focused on this model of white, heterosexual men, who are a minority on this planet, and this does not reflect true diversity,” the researcher said.

The scientist says many of the doses for pharmaceutical drugs have been calculated using this body model as a basis, without taking differences into account, and that this is only now being corrected. “You are prescribed a dose for another body,” she stressed. “Using only one body type as a model and treating the rest as variations is dangerous for health,” she told SINC.

Dismantling male/ female dichotomies

The researcher also points out that using female bodies to illustrate body parts that are identical in both sexes is a recent development. “Up until virtually the 1990s, male Caucasians were used exclusively to represent anatomical bodies, with female bodies appearing only in fragments to represent their sexual organs.”

Barral points out that these biased views persist, with an image appearing in the popular science magazine Mente y Cerebro as late as 2003 that made the female brain appear to come between that of a child and an adult male in the evolutionary process.

Biological dichotomies and stereotypical male and female sexual behaviour are omnipresent in scientific texts, even though the scientific evidence does not support this, since diversity is the norm in nature, says the researcher.

Barral explains that when these dichotomies arise, the hierarchisation of “more and less evolved” also tend to appear, and that such biases become increasingly radicalised between the original research to the point where it appears in the manuals.

The scientist concludes that the model of white, heterosexual males is described as the apex of evolution in some scientific texts.

Full Male Anatomy model | 3dMediSphere

Available 3D FILES for download:
– full_male_anatomy_3ds_max_vray_with_textures – 3ds Max 2013 with V-Ray 3.60 shaders, camera, lights, render settings with textures
– full_male_anatomy_blender – Blender
– full_male_anatomy_cinema – Cinema 4D
– full_male_anatomy_lightwave – LightWave
– full_male_anatomy_maya – Maya
– male_cartilage_tissue_obj – OBJ
– male_connective_tissue_obj – OBJ
– male_integumentary_system_obj- OBJ
– male_lymphatic_system_obj – OBJ
– male_muscular_system_obj – OBJ
– male_nervous_system_obj – OBJ
– male_organs_obj – OBJ
– male_skeletal_system_obj – OBJ
– male_vascular_system_obj – OBJ
– full_male_anatomy_3ds_max_vray – 3ds Max 2013 with V-Ray 3.60 shaders, camera, lights, render settings without textures
– textures_part_01 – textures
– textures_part_02 – textures
– textures_part_03 – textures

Information about 3ds Max 2013 file
The scene was created in 3ds max 2016 and saved as 3ds max 2013

SCENE contains 436 objects.

You can download the full list of objects in preview section in file ‘objects_textures_list_full_male_anatomy.txt’


– Model at world center and real scale:
Metric = millimeters
1 unit = 1 millimeters


– Quads and tris
– All Parts have no overlaping Unwrap UVW
– This model contains poles (more than 5 edges that converge to a single vertex)


– 3ds Max formats without subdivision
Polys 1085610
Vert   1080804

TEXTURES (116 in total):

All textures have high resolution
You can download the full list of textures in preview section in file ‘objects_textures_list_full_male_anatomy. txt’

RENDERER USED for the product imagery:

– Vray 3.60
– render parameters are available, you can render it directly

3D model Ultimate Complete Male and Female Anatomy 3DSmax and Maya VR / AR / low-poly

*a portion of the proceeds from this product will be donated to the American Cancer Society to help find a cure for cancer. Thank you for your support *

Ultimate Complete Male/Female Combo

Completely optimized for Maya and 3DSMax

The most complete Full Body Female Anatomy asset available. Over 600 muscles and all major systems. Includes full body skeletal system with connective tissue, muscular system, circulatory system, nervous system, lymphatic system, digestive system, respiratory system, and urogenital system. Includes OBJ for maximum compatibility.

-Transparency sliders allow custom levels of transparency per system.
-All systems can be toggle on or off.
-Can Isolate any muscle, including deep tissue muscle and see the correct origin and insertion onto the underlying skeleton
-Several x-Ray Body shaders can be toggled on or off to see how the skin is positioned over the muscles and bones.
-Built-in control sliders allow for model to be rotated 360 degrees without disrupting lighting.
*Please note that the character itself is not rigged, only the advanced controls to view and isolate the systems and their transparency.

-Real World Scale (Female 5′ 10′) (Male 6′ 2′)
-Every object is select-able and named / grouped properly for easy organization
-Realistic Textures
-Clean edge-loop based topology (no n-gons, minimal triangles)
-Light set up ready to Render

(4096×4096) Arm_Color.tif_
(8192×8192) Body_Color.tif
(4096×4096) Brain_Color.tif

(4096×4096) ConnectiveTissue_Color.tif
(4096×4096) ConnectiveTissue_NormalMap. tif

(4096×4096) Digestive_Color.tif
(2048×2048) EyeIris_Color.tif

(2048×2048) EyeSclera_Color.tif
(2048×2048) Genital_Color.tif

(4096×4096) Heart_Specular.tif
(4096×4096) Heart_Texture.tif

(4096×4096) Leg_Color.tif
(4096×4096) Liver_Color,tif

(4096×4096) Lungs_Color.tif
(1024×1024) Mandibile_Color.tif

(2048×2048) Mandibular_Teeth_Color.tif
(2048×2048) Maxilary_Teeth_Color.tif
(4096×4096) Muscles_Arm.tif
(4096×4096) Muscles_Face_Color.tif
(4096×4096) Muscles_Leg_Color.tif
(8192×8192) Muscle_Torso_Color.tif
(4096×4096) Pelvis_Color.tif

(8192×8192) Ribs_Color.tif
(8192×8192) Skeleton_Torso_Color.tif
(8192×8192) Skin_Color.tif

(8192×8192) Skin_Displacement.tif
(4096×4096) Skull_Color.tif

(2048×2048) Spleen_Color.tif
(2048×2048) Tracheal_Color.tif

_(4096×4096) Urogenital_Color.tif

Please note that these are two separate 3DS Max files and two separte Maya files. This combo pack allows you to save money compared to downloading the files individually.

An OBJ file has been added to increase compatibility. Please note that the OBJ contains the entire model (hierarchy free) with all Color Maps assigned and a .mtl file. Advanced xRay shaders, control rigs, and displacement maps are not supported. On Combo packs, there will be 2 separate OBJ files, one for each character.

An FBX file has been added to increase compatibility. Please note that the FBX contains the entire model (with hyerarchy and layers in tack) with all Color Maps assigned. Advanced xRay shaders, control rigs, and displacement maps may not supported by all software.
On Combo packs, there will be 2 separate FBX files, one for each character.

Female Reproductive System (for Teens)

What Is Reproduction?

Reproduction is the process by which organisms make more organisms like themselves. But even though the reproductive system is essential to keeping a species alive, unlike other body systems, it’s not essential to keeping an individual alive.

In the human reproductive process, two kinds of sex cells, or gametes (GAH-meetz), are involved. The male gamete, or sperm, and the female gamete, the egg or ovum, meet in the female’s reproductive system. When sperm fertilizes (meets) an egg, this fertilized egg is called a zygote (pronounced: ZYE-goat). The zygote goes through a process of becoming an embryo and developing into a fetus.

The male reproductive system and the female reproductive system both are needed for reproduction.

Humans, like other organisms, pass some characteristics of themselves to the next generation. We do this through our genes, the special carriers of human traits. The genes that parents pass along are what make their children similar to others in their family, but also what make each child unique. These genes come from the male’s sperm and the female’s egg.

What Is the Female Reproductive System?

The external part of the female reproductive organs is called the vulva, which means covering. Located between the legs, the vulva covers the opening to the vagina and other reproductive organs inside the body.

The fleshy area located just above the top of the vaginal opening is called the mons pubis. Two pairs of skin flaps called the labia (which means lips) surround the vaginal opening. The clitoris, a small sensory organ, is located toward the front of the vulva where the folds of the labia join. Between the labia are openings to the urethra (the canal that carries pee from the bladder to the outside of the body) and vagina. When girls become sexually mature, the outer labia and the mons pubis are covered by pubic hair.

A female’s internal reproductive organs are the vagina, uterus, fallopian tubes, and ovaries.

The vagina is a muscular, hollow tube that extends from the vaginal opening to the uterus. Because it has muscular walls, the vagina can expand and contract. This ability to become wider or narrower allows the vagina to accommodate something as slim as a tampon and as wide as a baby. The vagina’s muscular walls are lined with mucous membranes, which keep it protected and moist.

The vagina serves three purposes:

  1. It’s where the penis is inserted during sexual intercourse.
  2. It’s the pathway (the birth canal) through which a baby leaves a woman’s body during childbirth.
  3. It’s the route through which menstrual blood leaves the body during periods.

A very thin piece of skin-like tissue called the hymen partly covers the opening of the vagina. Hymens are often different from female to female. Most women find their hymens have stretched or torn after their first sexual experience, and the hymen may bleed a little (this usually causes little, if any, pain). Some women who have had sex don’t have much of a change in their hymens, though. And some women’s hymens have already stretched even before they have sex.

The vagina connects with the uterus, or womb, at the cervix (which means neck). The cervix has strong, thick walls. The opening of the cervix is very small (no wider than a straw), which is why a tampon can never get lost inside a girl’s body. During childbirth, the cervix can expand to allow a baby to pass.

The uterus is shaped like an upside-down pear, with a thick lining and muscular walls — in fact, the uterus contains some of the strongest muscles in the female body. These muscles are able to expand and contract to accommodate a growing fetus and then help push the baby out during labor. When a woman isn’t pregnant, the uterus is only about 3 inches (7.5 centimeters) long and 2 inches (5 centimeters) wide.

At the upper corners of the uterus, the fallopian tubes connect the uterus to the ovaries. The ovaries are two oval-shaped organs that lie to the upper right and left of the uterus. They produce, store, and release eggs into the fallopian tubes in the process called ovulation (pronounced: av-yoo-LAY-shun).

There are two fallopian (pronounced: fuh-LO-pee-un) tubes, each attached to a side of the uterus. Within each tube is a tiny passageway no wider than a sewing needle. At the other end of each fallopian tube is a fringed area that looks like a funnel. This fringed area wraps around the ovary but doesn’t completely attach to it. When an egg pops out of an ovary, it enters the fallopian tube. Once the egg is in the fallopian tube, tiny hairs in the tube’s lining help push it down the narrow passageway toward the uterus.

The ovaries (pronounced: OH-vuh-reez) are also part of the endocrine system because they produce female sex

hormonessuch as estrogen (pronounced: ESS-truh-jun) and progesterone (pronounced: pro-JESS-tuh-rone).

How Does the Female Reproductive System Work?

The female reproductive system enables a woman to:

  • produce eggs (ova)
  • have sexual intercourse
  • protect and nourish a fertilized egg until it is fully developed
  • give birth

Sexual reproduction couldn’t happen without the sexual organs called the gonads. Most people think of the gonads as the male testicles. But both sexes have gonads: In females the gonads are the ovaries, which make female gametes (eggs). The male gonads make male gametes (sperm).

When a baby girl is born, her ovaries contain hundreds of thousands of eggs, which remain inactive until puberty begins. At puberty, the pituitary gland (in the central part of the brain) starts making hormones that stimulate the ovaries to make female sex hormones, including estrogen. The secretion of these hormones causes a girl to develop into a sexually mature woman.

Toward the end of puberty, girls begin to release eggs as part of a monthly period called the menstrual cycle. About once a month, during ovulation, an ovary sends a tiny egg into one of the fallopian tubes.

Unless the egg is fertilized by a sperm while in the fallopian tube, the egg leaves the body about 2 weeks later through the uterus — this is menstruation. Blood and tissues from the inner lining of the uterus combine to form the menstrual flow, which in most girls lasts from 3 to 5 days. A girl’s first period is called menarche (pronounced: MEH-nar-kee).

It’s common for women and girls to have some discomfort in the days leading to their periods. Premenstrual syndrome (PMS) includes both physical and emotional symptoms that many girls and women get right before their periods, such as:

PMS is usually at its worst during the 7 days before a girl’s period starts and disappears after it begins.

Many girls also have belly cramps during the first few days of their periods caused by prostaglandins, chemicals in the body that make the smooth muscle in the uterus contract. These involuntary contractions can be dull or sharp and intense.

It can take up to 2 years from menarche for a girl’s body to develop a regular menstrual cycle. During that time, her body is adjusting to the hormones puberty brings. On average, the monthly cycle for an adult woman is 28 days, but the range is from 23 to 35 days.

What Happens If an Egg Is Fertilized?

If a female and male have sex within several days of the female’s ovulation, fertilization can happen. When the male ejaculates (when semen leaves the penis), a small amount of semen is deposited into the vagina. Millions of sperm are in this small amount of semen, and they “swim” up from the vagina through the cervix and uterus to meet the egg in the fallopian tube. It takes only one sperm to fertilize the egg.

About 5 to 6 days after the sperm fertilizes the egg, the fertilized egg (pronounced: zygote) has become a multicelled blastocyst. A blastocyst (pronounced: BLAS-tuh-sist) is about the size of a pinhead, and it’s a hollow ball of cells with fluid inside. The blastocyst burrows itself into the lining of the uterus, called the endometrium. The hormone estrogen causes the endometrium (pronounced: en-doh-MEE-tree-um) to become thick and rich with blood. Progesterone, another hormone released by the ovaries, keeps the endometrium thick with blood so that the blastocyst can attach to the uterus and absorb nutrients from it. This process is called implantation.

As cells from the blastocyst take in nourishment, another stage of development begins. In the embryonic stage, the inner cells form a flattened circular shape called the embryonic disk, which will develop into a baby. The outer cells become thin membranes that form around the baby. The cells multiply thousands of times and move to new positions to eventually become the embryo (pronounced: EM-bree-oh).

After about 8 weeks, the embryo is about the size of a raspberry, but almost all of its parts — the brain and nerves, the heart and blood, the stomach and intestines, and the muscles and skin — have formed.

During the fetal stage, which lasts from 9 weeks after fertilization to birth, development continues as cells multiply, move, and change. The fetus (pronounced: FEE-tis) floats in amniotic (pronounced: am-nee-AH-tik) fluid inside the amniotic sac. The fetus gets oxygen and nourishment from the mother’s blood via the placenta (pronounced: pluh-SEN-tuh). This disk-like structure sticks to the inner lining of the uterus and connects to the fetus via the umbilical (pronounced: um-BIL-ih-kul) cord. The amniotic fluid and membrane cushion the fetus against bumps and jolts to the mother’s body.

Pregnancy lasts an average of 280 days — about 9 months. When the baby is ready for birth, its head presses on the cervix, which begins to relax and widen to get ready for the baby to pass into and through the vagina. Mucus has formed a plug in the cervix, which now loosesn. It and amniotic fluid come out through the vagina when the mother’s water breaks.

When the contractions of labor begin, the walls of the uterus contract as they are stimulated by the pituitary hormone oxytocin (pronounced: ahk-see-TOE-sin). The contractions cause the cervix to widen and begin to open. After several hours of this widening, the cervix is dilated (opened) enough for the baby to come through. The baby is pushed out of the uterus, through the cervix, and along the birth canal. The baby’s head usually comes first. The umbilical cord comes out with the baby. It’s clamped and cut close to the navel after the baby is delivered.

The last stage of the birth process involves the delivery of the placenta, which at that point is called the afterbirth. After it has separated from the inner lining of the uterus, contractions of the uterus push it out, along with its membranes and fluids.

Androgen insensitivity syndrome – NHS

Androgen insensitivity syndrome (AIS) affects the development of a person’s genitals and reproductive organs.

The 2 types of AIS are called complete androgen insensitivity syndrome (CAIS) and partial androgen insensitivity syndrome (PAIS).

The genitals of a person with CAIS appear female.

The genitals of a person with PAIS may appear as female or male. Sometimes PAIS is discovered because a baby’s genitals are not as expected for a baby boy or baby girl.

There are specialist healthcare psychologists who can help people with AIS understand their bodies and sex development.

The sex development of people with AIS means they will not be able to become pregnant or make their partner pregnant. However, there is help and advice on other ways to become parents if that is wanted.

What causes AIS?

AIS is caused by a genetic alteration that is passed along the female line to the child.

Although people with AIS have XY (usual male pattern) chromosomes, the body does not respond to testosterone (the sex hormone) fully or at all. This prevents the sex development of a typical male.

A penis does not form or is underdeveloped. This means the child’s genitals may develop as female, or are underdeveloped as male.

The child may have have fully or partially undescended testicles. But there will be no womb or ovaries.

Women who carry the genetic alteration will not have AIS themselves, but there’s a 1 in 4 chance each child they have will be born with AIS.

Read more about the causes of AIS.

Types of AIS

There are 2 main types of AIS, which are determined by how much the body is able to use testosterone.

These are:

  • complete androgen insensitivity syndrome (CAIS) – where testosterone has no effect on sex development, so the genitals are entirely female
  • partial androgen insensitivity syndrome (PAIS) – where testosterone has some effect on sex development, so the genitals are often not as expected for boys or girls

PAIS is usually noticed at birth because the genitals appear different.

CAIS can be more difficult to spot, as the genitals usually look like those of any other girl. It’s often not diagnosed until puberty, when periods do not start and pubic and underarm hair does not develop.

Read more about the symptoms of AIS and diagnosing AIS.

Living with AIS

Children with AIS and their parents are supported by a team of specialists, who will offer ongoing care.

The team will help you understand your child’s sex development. In the case of PAIS, they will talk to you about why they recommend raising your child as a boy or a girl.

Children with PAIS will be brought up either as girls or boys, depending mostly on the extent to which their body responds to hormones (androgens), including testosterone.

You and the specialist team will decide together what you think is in the best interests of your child.

Most children with CAIS are raised as girls.

Once you have learned about your child’s sex development, and understand how their body will grow and develop, the specialist team can explain the treatment options your child might have in the future.

Read more about how AIS is treated.

Support and advice

You and your child will be offered psychological support to help you understand and cope with the diagnosis of AIS.

Children may not need psychological support while they’re very young. But they will need to grow up understanding their body and how it works.

You’ll be given advice about talking to your child about AIS at all ages.

You may also find it helpful to get in touch with a support group, such as DSD Families.

Gender identity and gender dysphoria

Most children with AIS continue to feel they are the gender they grew up with.

In a few cases, older children and adults with AIS feel their gender identity does not match the gender they’ve been raised as. This is known as gender dysphoria.

People with gender dysphoria often have a desire to live as a member of the opposite sex or as non-binary.

They may want treatment to make their physical appearance more consistent with their gender identity or how they choose to identify.

If your child is diagnosed with AIS, you should be told about issues of gender identity.

National Congenital Anomaly and Rare Disease Registration Service

If your child has AIS, your clinical team will pass information about them on to the National Congenital Anomaly and Rare Disease Registration Service (NCARDRS).

The NCARDRS helps scientists look for better ways to prevent and treat AIS. You can opt out of the register at any time.

Page last reviewed: 17 March 2021
Next review due: 17 March 2024

90,000 Anatomy is the queen of sciences. Something like corn in the unplowed field of man’s ideas about himself … – Gazeta.Ru

Anatomy is the queen of sciences. Something like corn in the unplowed field of man’s ideas about himself. Only thanks to anatomy it is easy to convince yourself that you are the crown of civilization, a perfect creature who, unlike a kangaroo, can independently play the xylophone, sit in parliament and cook daily cabbage soup. A good knowledge of anatomy generally leads a person to the brilliant heights of the world outlook.Even after taking a cursory look at himself or scratching some organ for the sake of interest, a person begins to figure out what is growing from him, why it is needed and how to use it, if tomorrow, God forbid, there is war, diarrhea or scrofula.

So you and I, the reader, should approach the issues of anatomy more carefully, with interest, in order, perhaps, to reveal in ourselves secret, previously unknown abilities. Or, conversely, forget about them forever, so as not to be known as psychopaths.

Let’s start, of course, with the head, for it is the head that is often found in the upper part of any upright person.This is a special elongated growth that has a unique advantage over the rest of the body. For example, it is customary to photograph only a person’s head for a passport, since the head, and not the heels and armpits, bear the specific name, surname and patronymic of a citizen of the country. Attention is precisely that people want to attract heads when they decide to say hello to their contemporary, drink beer or unload a wagon of sulfur.

– Hello, Kolya, – it is customary to say then to the head.

– Great you too, Polycarp, – the head answers, if, of course, it was not confused with anything.

This, of course, is not all the advantages of the head. For example, if we consider a purely male head, then we will pay attention that it, as a rule, consists of three parts at once – bald head, nape and face. A clever combination of these components makes a man’s life much richer than a woman’s. It is known, for example, that a man’s head cannot always properly understand what is required of it. Then she can be shoved into the face for this, sometimes also called the snout. If she understands something, but it’s hard – to punch her on the back of the head.When she understands everything perfectly, but is silent, then you can kiss her for this on her beloved bald head.

It’s a shame that it is still not entirely clear where the heads of the men came from. On this account in the official anatomy today there are two more or less intelligible hypotheses, however, mutually exclusive. According to one of them, the human head is nothing more than the seashell, which was once inhabited by Beribobel, a prehistoric mollusc of kindness. Occasionally going out to the balcony of the sink, Beribobel smoked, looked into the salt of the ocean and indulged in longing for better times.From time to time he died, giving birth to the pearl of the people’s anger from the sand and saliva.

Coming on land, Beribobel could not bear the suffering and wore out like a class, and the shell was forced to lie on a hillock, blown by the winds of change. As a result, holes formed in it, clinging to which, you can still hear the howling of the abyss, the smell of tobacco and obscenity. The modern human head is no longer suitable for life in the ocean.

Another theory is less romantic. She tends to view the male head as a cedar cone, which has been cut a little in the course of evolution and has lost almost all the nuts.In favor of this consideration, one can cite at least the fact that until now, if you shake your head properly, you feel like something really rattles and itches in it. Perhaps these are the surviving nuts. Or lentils (although where the lentils come from in the cedar cone is still a mystery).

However, in our time, the controversy over the origin of the head has subsided somewhat. For some reason, the important thing is not where the head came from, but what exactly is in it. It is the moss that grows in the human head that is being carefully studied by specialists today.It is assumed that he is endowed with intelligence. That is, the head moss, according to scientists, is capable of independent thinking and assessing the world. In addition, he supposedly controls the work of the whole organism, giving him instructions that correspond to the current moment.

I personally would like to argue with the official anatomy here. Thinking about the reasonableness of a person is, of course, complete nonsense. It is clear to a fool that if the whole head of a person consisted not of moss, but for example, even of an avocado, this would not add to the mind.After all, in order to watch TV, pay taxes, chop wood and take off panties, you must admit that no special avocado is required.

In general, I personally believe that the head not only does not help a person, but even considerably harms his body. Remember: every time your legs gather, for example, to run and run along the path of beauty, your hands decide to reach out and reach for the beautiful, and your eyes decide to stop looking at perfection, nothing comes of it. All this is lost in the moss of the head, gets confused, wanders, until it gets completely bogged down, completely without hope, without love.You used to stand then in the middle of the country. Instead of a head – a growth. Instead of a brain – Beribobel. You stand, simple-haired, and think: “Lord, this is what utter shit all around! At least howl. ”

I’ll tell you what about this, my upright friends. Learn anatomy. And take care of your head. In the end, no matter how difficult it may be for us with her, she is still evidence of the ambiguity of being, a multifaceted tool for learning the truth. This world rests on three components – on the back of the head, bald head and erysipelas, sometimes also called the snout.And there is no need to demand more from the head during life. And after death, good ashtrays are obtained from it. Or candlesticks in case of darkness.

Author – Men’s Health Specialist

90,000 Men’s Rules: Relationships, Sex, Psychology – a new book by Mark Manson

Before figuring out what to say to women, how to amuse and kiss them, where to lead, before learning basic things like clothes, looks, and the first words of conversation , a more important issue should be touched upon. The answer will affect and change all of the above.

What kind of women do you want to date and what kind of relationship do you want to establish with them?

The context is the most important thing here. Whether you’re chatting with a woman in a coffee shop, meeting someone at a business conference or at a blitz date, circumstances matter.

Where and in what situation you meet women, I call demography. This factor is overlooked by almost all current advice for men.And this is amazing: after all, social interactions are always context-driven. This means that the approach to women always depends on the context.

Some manuals give a 40-year-old divorced banker who meets women in an art gallery with the same advice as a 19-year-old who walks into a party at a country house. So silly! These men have completely different priorities, characters, interests and life paths. And they will meet women in these places that are completely different in age, education, values, emotional development, appearance and interests. The fact that men are offered the same phrases and strategies only shows how inadequately the counselors see the world.

The theory of demography is very simple. And it is easy to learn it: like attracts like. You attract what you are.

If you are a successful professional, love good wine, studied abroad, and dress well, you will most likely come across the same women more often: educated, successful, with similar interests and a similar manner of dress. And they are the ones you will be most attracted to.

When a discrepancy occurs at this level, it is fraught with problems. As we learned in Chapter 2, problems can be fraught with the fact that attraction does not develop into intimacy and sex.

How many times have I seen this scenario of inconsistency: the “nerd” decides to become a Don Juan. Let’s say it’s a 35-year-old engineer named John. All his life he was a bookworm and a hermit. There were also two serious novels, each of which lasted more than five years. But now John was left alone and planned to take a walk before settling down.He takes the book “How to Become a Pickup Truck Master” and begins to master new “techniques” by visiting nightclubs.

Let’s not touch on his learned jokes: let’s say they are good (although hardly). He walks up to a striking blonde named Jenna.

Jenna is 20 years old and is a sophomore at a local college. She lives in a poor area and has worked part-time in a shoe store in recent years to save money for her studies. But she herself does not know what she wants from life. It is difficult for her to think about the future. She went into debt to buy decent clothes and spends more time partying than studying or preparing homework.

John has three degrees. For the past eight years, he has been injecting 60 hours a week and does not take alcohol by mouth. In his entire life, he attended only 20 parties, and drank twice. This is a quiet, brooding, short bespectacled man with an analytical mind and intellectual jokes. She dresses so-so and doesn’t care for her hair.

It is easy to understand how his attempt to hit Jenna will end. Words and jokes won’t work. She will quickly remove him and, apparently, without any ceremony.

John will puzzle: “What happened? Maybe I chose the wrong words? Or is my appearance to blame: I am an ugly short man? ” And the point is in the banal incompatibility. John’s values ​​are not in harmony with Jenna’s. Her lifestyle and interests do not match John’s lifestyle and interests. John is older but less experienced. Jenna is younger but more experienced. John is mature and down-to-earth, Jenna is immature and impulsive. Such discrepancies arise at every turn.

But let’s continue our thought experiment.Let’s say two years have passed. During this time, John worked on himself. He dresses impeccably, is well groomed, and wears stylish signature clothing that reflects his business success. I pumped up my muscles in the fitness club. I replaced my glasses with contact lenses, and got a haircut from a good hairdresser.

In addition, John has learned to sometimes relax and enjoy the parties. From time to time he goes to the bar with his new young colleagues for a drink and a good time. He began to spend more time on the beach and is gradually mastering the guitar.His social confidence has increased greatly and his life has become much fuller.

Jenna has also changed in two years. After her last date with John, she devoted herself to her studies. She is studying to be a nurse, does not play the fool and makes big plans. Sometimes she really enjoys studying. In addition, she broke off relations with a football player who did not give a penny and humiliated her. She realized that she needed a man more responsible than her, and that she could not do without the ability to stand up for herself and make higher demands on her men.

And here it doesn’t matter if John has prepared suitable words. When the two meet, a common demographic will emerge: John is an attractive, well-groomed and successful bachelor who knows how to give himself freedom, have fun and express his emotions. Jenna is not only effective, but also responsible, ambitious and confident.

A mutual attraction will arise between them.

However, if John did not abandon the thought of prepared feints and tricks, but practiced them, he may run into problems.At first, he will be able to convince Jenna that he is not too interested in her and that he is not demographically alien to her (vague stories about ex-girlfriend-strippers). But you already know that these strategies can play a cruel joke, especially in the long run. Sooner or later the supply of jokes will run out, and Jenna will be horrified, gasp: who is she talking to ?!

But if John and Jenna really worked on themselves, expanded their demographics, enriched their lifestyles and lived according to their desires, they will find enough in common to feel attracted to each other.

Such is the power of demography.

Note that this is not about people – whether they have mutual attraction or not – but about time. They were incompatible two years earlier. Two years later, they are compatible. Remember: the person is right, the time is not right.

If she fell in love with skiing and horseback riding, and you are a sworn stay-at-home, one mutual attraction is not enough: sooner or later contradictions will arise – perhaps not immediately, but they will arise.

If she loves open communication in the company of friends, and you dislike gatherings and like serious conversations and intellectual searches, then serious disagreements will not be avoided in the very near future.

This is inevitable. The prepared phrases will not change anything. A well-groomed look won’t change anything. Money won’t change anything. If you hate what she loves, and she is turned back from your preferences, there are no prospects. And the point.

What to do? Give up your self and your hobbies? No way! But you can get wider. You can open up to new and interesting activities, new forms of expression and presentation of yourself.

Demographics explains why you coincide surprisingly with some women and why you most often meet them in situations where you have fun and do what is pleasing.

Fistfight as the engine of male evolution

  • Jonathan Webb
  • BBC Science Correspondent

Photo by Cicero Moraes

According to a new scientific theory, rough facial features in ancestors modern man were conditioned by constant fistfights.

As scientists have found out, the facial bones of men, which most often suffered from blows, were constantly strengthened in the course of evolution.

At the same time, this process was not observed in women, which eventually led to significant differences in the structure of the face in females and males.

A report published in the journal Biological Reviews theorizes that the facial features of ancient men were hardened by constant fights over resources or women. Thus, the violence brought about key evolutionary changes.

Archaeological finds indicate that Australopithecines, who are the closest ancestors of humans, had very strong facial bones.

For many years it was associated with a diet that included tough nuts, herbs and seeds. However, recent studies of the teeth of Australopithecus using the method of radiocarbon analysis have called into question this “nutritional theory”.

“Frontal armor” as a weapon of evolution

Author of the photo, SPL

Caption to the photo,

Jaws often break during fist fights, however, in human ancestors they were stronger

As the authors of the new theory suggest – Professor David Carrier from the University of Utah and Dr. Michael Morgan, – the strengthening of the facial bones was the result not of diet, but of fierce competition between men.

“In fact, Australopithecus, or the nutcracker, as it is also called because of its powerful lower jaw, most likely ate fruit,” says Professor Carrier.

In support of their “fortification theory,” as they call it, Carrier and Morgan have provided data from various trauma centers that clearly show that faces are most severely affected by impacts.

“Most of the time, jaw breaks during fights,” explains Professor Carrier, “but at the level of modern medicine and surgery, this is not a problem.However, 4 million years ago, a broken jaw could be considered a fatal injury, since a person deprived of the opportunity to chew food was doomed to death by starvation. ”

Then, as today, during the fight, the jaws, cheekbones, noses and eyes were most often affected. and in the Australopithecines, they received reliable protection during evolution.

And today, like millions of years ago, the difference between male and female faces was pronounced, because, as the researchers note, both among humans and among great apes it is men and males most often they participated in fights and were injured in them.

Mitigation of features as a transition to peaceful coexistence

It is curious that in the descendants of australopithecines, and primarily in humans, in the course of evolution, facial features gradually began to soften.

Professor Carrier attributes this to the fact that over time they needed this natural protection less and less.

The new theory is based on previous research by Carrier and Morgan, according to which humans were the first primates to clench a hand into a fist and thus strike.

These findings have caused controversy in the scientific community. According to Carrier, the new theory may also seem contradictory, because the debate about the role of violence in human evolution has been going on for a long time.

“Historical data about this cover a relatively short period, archaeological information – several tens of thousands of years, and anatomy gives us information about a very distant past,” – says the scientist.

How to choose ski boots

We’ve already written about how to choose ski boots once, but the industry is not standing still.New technologies appear from year to year. Brands are releasing new models with pads aimed at narrower groups of people. Boot molding systems are also being improved – almost all brands have their own technology for thermoforming the outer boot. Fischer invented the Vacuum technology and is successfully developing it. Atomic has a Memory fit fast forming system. Salomon has been using Custom Shell for a long time. The Head brand has both the Form Fit plastic molding and the modern Liquid Fit liner molding (for the Nexo Lyt series).The Italian Roxa in many of its models uses 100% molded liners (inner boots) Intuition, which remember the shape of the foot and have almost no return to the original shape. The development of technology in ski shoes is aimed not only at perfect fit, but also at reducing weight. For example, Salomon and Roxa made two of the lightest expert boots on the market: the S / max 130 Carbon at 1610 grams and the R3S130 at 1620 grams, respectively. It is also interesting to note the relatively recent appearance and rapid development of Cabrio-design architecture in ski boots.In such an architecture, rigidity is set by a plastic tongue that can be folded back, making it easier to put on a rather narrow and stiff boot. This architecture is followed by Full tilt, Dalbello and, of course, Roxa, whose plant actually produces all three brands.

By the way, the brand is the last thing to look for when choosing ski boots. And here are a few factors worth paying attention to.


It is important to understand that stiffness is the force that must be applied to the boot in order to bend it longitudinally forward.It can be formulated in another way. Stiffness is the ability of the boot to resist longitudinal stress. Why is it needed and why do you even need to try to push the boot forward? I hope this article will be read by beginners, so I will try to explain it in understandable language. Carving geometry assumes that the waist of the ski is significantly narrower than the toe and heel. Let’s imagine that we are putting the ski on the edge. In this position, it only touches the slope with two contact points on the nose and heel. And the edging hangs in the air along its entire length.To ski efficiently, the edge must touch the entire length of the slope. To do this, you need to put pressure on the ski. Sagging in the area where the mount is installed, the ski begins to contact the slope with the entire length of the edge. Once again, in order for the ski to catch the edge of the slope, it must be bent. To transfer the force from your feet to the skis, you need to push down on the boot. Stiffness determines how much energy is lost in transmission. One could say that in this case the dependence is simple: the tougher the better. But it is not so.If the boot does not deform longitudinally at all, the leg does not bend at the knee, and you cannot do vertical work to transfer the force to the ski. The conclusion is this: the stiffness should be selected optimally. The choice of stiffness depends on the data of the skier, such as weight and height, and, of course, on the level of skiing. Moreover, for beginners, the weight of the skier comes to the fore, and, starting from the middle level, the degree of preparation of the skier and the purpose of the boot make a greater contribution to the choice of rigidity. We recommend that older men do not consider shoes with a stiffness less than 100, even to begin with.Women’s initial stiffness for boots that you do not plan to change after 1 season is around 80. These figures are for normal weight and for a beginner skier. It is also important to understand that the “stiffness” parameter was invented as a universal means of comparison. But in different models, depending on the purpose and width of the last, it feels different. For example, a 100-stiffness wide boot designed for beginners and a 100-stiffness junior sport boot will perform in a completely different way.

Shoe width

Another of the fundamental factors when choosing boots. As a rule, manufacturers divide their collections into narrow, medium and wide models. Width is measured in the middle of the foot and is given for size 26.5 cm (40-41) for men and 23.5 cm (37) for women. Width is in millimeters. In any expert store there is a device for measuring not only the length of the foot in centimeters, but also its width. While working in the store, I have often heard customers say about the dependence of the width of the last on the brand.“Salomon makes wide shoes, Atomic makes narrow shoes,” “Head has widest shoes,” “Fischer is the narrowest shoe,” and so on. Of course, all these statements are nothing more than myths. Each brand has in its range of narrow, medium and wide series of ski boots. Within a series, models are usually classified by stiffness. The combinations are different: narrow boots are not necessarily stiff, and wide ones may not be soft at all. Below are examples of brands and their series of ski boots by width.

Non-athletic skinny boots

Atomic Hawx Ultra, Salomon S / max, Head Vector Rs, Head Raptor Rs, Roxa Element 120

Boots with an average width of 99-100mm:

Roxa R3, Atomic Hawx Prime, Fischer The Curv, Roxa R3s, Salomon X / pro, Head Nexo Lyt

Wide fit boots> 100mm:

Atomic Hawx Magna, Roxa Bold, Head Advant Edge, Roxa Evo, Fischer Rc Pro.


As odd as it may seem, gender is an important factor.How can gender influence the choice, if there is no choice at all? Some will ask. Men buy men’s shoes and women buy womens. This is mostly true, but there are nuances. What is the general difference between men’s and women’s shoes, if the upper limit of the stiffness of women’s shoes has long been increased to 120, and the size range to 42? Basically, this is, of course, the height of the cuff. Women, on average, are still shorter than men, the length of the female lower leg is shorter, and the gastrocnemius muscle is located lower. That is why the cuff on most women’s models is shorter, and some brands equip women’s models with a special spoiler adapted to the woman’s leg.But if a woman has an athletic physique and is more than 175 cm tall (most likely the foot size will be more than 39), she should choose men’s shoes of the appropriate size. Height will increase leverage, and calf length and calf position are more likely to match men’s standards. In this case, a shortened women’s shoe can press on the shin in the wrong place, causing discomfort. For men with small stature and leg size less than 40, it is quite possible to consider female models if the rigidity suits, and among the male there is no suitable size.This season in Kant we have focused on a wide range of small men’s boots, so this need should not arise.


It is important to understand here that expert boots do not have to be heavy if they are not related to sports. Indeed, only boots for athletes are now heavy, while expensive expert models, on the contrary, compete in weight loss. This is how Salomon and Roxa made the expert all mountain boots in 1610 and 1620 grams.Head’s Nexo lineup and Atomic’s legendary Hawx Ultra are next. Weight is not the main factor when choosing boots for most people, but after trying on lightweight boots with high performance, buyers are reluctant to return to heavy models.

Additional options

Further, you can consider additional options for boots, but their need for you will be determined by your personal need and the purpose of the boots that you are planning to buy. For example, the Grip Walk outsole is good for freeriding and allmountain, but not good for sport riding.The walk / ski switch is mostly needed by freeriders, although casual skiers may like the convenience of using this option. This also includes shoe molding, which we talked about in detail at the beginning of the article. And here are some tips directly about the boot selection process that will help you optimize your communication with the seller and speed up the selection process.

  1. Be sure to measure your leg. For this, there is a special equipment in the trading floor that measures the length and width of your foot.
  2. Trust the consultant and your eyes! If you see 26.5 cm, then the boots should be 26.5 cm!
  3. Forget about socks, leg swelling, and more. Boots also increase in volume during wear, so consider that all the stocks are already included in the size. This is especially important for boots with molded plastic. If you decide that you need molding, get ready to choose a shoe exactly in size or smaller, otherwise molding does not make sense, and some molders simply will not work with you.For example, you saw 26.8 on the ruler. You can easily choose the 27 size if you don’t need molding. But if you decide by all means to mold the boot, then 26.5 is suitable for you, which will easily stretch to 27.1.
  4. Once again, you can only buy boots of your own size!
  5. The size is checked only in a buttoned boot. We are already accustomed to hearing complaints about sticking fingers. Take your time, do what the seller advises: zip up your boot and press your shin down on his tongue.The lower leg will be in the correct position, the heel will move back, and you will know that the size is correct. We go through these procedures and attempts to persuade buyers 20 times a day. Trust us, we know what we are talking about.
  6. Do not listen to the advice of friends and acquaintances who believe that the boot should be absolutely comfortable: it all depends on your goals.
  7. The selection takes into account all the features of the anatomy, so there is no need to measure all commercially available models.
  8. Based on the previous point, a good seller or expert will not bring you more than 4-5 options for fitting: all boots have different anatomy and some of them are mutually exclusive.
  9. There are no quality leaders among large manufacturers. All the big brands make expert and beginner boots. Some brands are distinguished by new technologies, some are more conservative, but in terms of quality, large manufacturers are not inferior to each other.
  10. If any of your “expert” alpine skiing friends singles out one brand or model claiming to be the most comfortable or the best, beware of his advice.For you, the best shoe will be the one that suits you.
  11. The stiffness of boots is a conditional indicator: it is incorrect to compare shoes of sports architecture with all-mountain boots, even if they are of the same stiffness.
  12. “My feet hurt / feel numb because my boots are too hard” is a very common myth. Stiffness affects coverage only indirectly. The fit is directly influenced by the anatomy of the boot and the ability to mold.
  13. Of course, boots are divided by purpose, but this is not the main criterion, so, say, if you plan to ride off-piste without intending to walk far, it is not so important for you that the boot has freeride options.You don’t need a grip walk outsole or a walking switch, so if a regular 4-clip shoe that is nominally not a freeride boot fits your foot perfectly, feel free to buy it.
  14. “This is a defective freeride boot with three clips” or “Off the piste you don’t need as stiffness as on the piste, so freeride boots are softer” are myths. Imagine, you are moving at the speed of a good carving on corduroy, but under your feet you have ice, crust, fresh snow and ice again.So where do you need more control: on or off the track? I would compare freeriding with downhill skiing on different snow conditions. For freeriding, you need boots of normal stiffness: the same one you use on the track. Or higher. Come to the edging on Nagornaya next season and using the example of the Italian company Roxa boots, I will prove to you that a boot with three clips can be tough and very tough.

Andrey Shevchenko,
Alpine skiing brand manager

90,000 But a woman’s heart is more tender than a man’s…

Scientists have found differences between male and female heart attacks.

It has always been thought that heart disease is primarily a concern of men. But it turned out to be a misconception. According to international statistics, 53 percent of those dying from heart disease are women and 43 percent are men. In women, the most common heart attack occurs after blockage of the coronary artery, in men – after blockage of the main arteries.

In general, a woman’s heart differs significantly from a man’s – it is smaller in size and contracts more often.Its tissues contain more fat. A woman’s heart adapts better to the influences of the external environment and tolerates stress more easily. Therefore, at the age of up to 50, the reserve functions of the body quickly come to the rescue of a woman’s heart. But when women go through menopause, the situation changes dramatically.

This is explained by the fact that the sex hormone estrogen, which is produced in a woman’s body, always raises the level of “good” cholesterol, thereby protecting the coronary vessels. And during the period of the so-called menopause, women lose this advantage.And the mortality rate from the first heart attack in women is 40 percent. A heart attack in men is often accompanied by acute pain behind the sternum, radiating to the arm, lower jaw, and neck. Severe pain is less common in women.

Leading Russian cardiac surgeon Leo Bokeria believes that the risk of heart attack in women can be significantly reduced. “There is a period when the period of menopause has not yet fully arrived. And it is precisely the most difficult, because stressful situations arise that, in essence, the woman did not notice before, and due to the change in the hormonal status, they turn into problems.During this period, manifestations of hypertension occur most often, “he says.

Every year a whole city – about 1.3 million people – dies from such diseases in Russia. There is a “rejuvenation” of myocardial infarction both among men and women. A heart attack can overtake a person at 30, and even at 20 – 25 years old, maybe in children at 5-7 years old.