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Gaba define: GABA – definition — Neuroscientifically Challenged


Overview, Uses, Side Effects, Precautions, Interactions, Dosing and Reviews

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GABA: Uses and Risks

GABA is a neurotransmitter that blocks impulses between nerve cells in the brain. Low levels of GABA may be linked to:

Researchers suspect that GABA may boost mood or have a calming, relaxing effect on the nervous system.

Why do people take GABA?

People take GABA as a supplement to try to:

  • Improve mood
  • Relieve anxiety
  • Improve sleep
  • Help with premenstrual syndrome (PMS)
  • Treat attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD)

They may also take GABA to try to:

  • Relieve pain or discomfort from injuries
  • Increase tolerance to exercise
  • Lower blood pressure
  • Burn fat
  • Increase the growth of lean muscle mass

Limited studies have shown a possible link between GABA and lowered blood pressure. But research on GABA supplements is lacking. Researchers haven’t confirmed whether or not it works for the many reasons people take it.

It is not clear whether GABA taken as a supplement reaches the brain in large enough quantities to have an effect. There isn’t a set dosage for GABA at this time.

Can you get GABA naturally from foods?

You cannot get GABA naturally from foods. But a variety of foods contain substances such as flavonoids that influence how GABA works in the brain. These foods include:

  • Fruits
  • Vegetables
  • Teas
  • Red wine

What are the risks of taking GABA?

Side effects. There has not been enough research to uncover the side effects of GABA supplements.

Risks. Overall, there isn’t enough information to be sure about the safety of GABA. For this reason, it’s best to play it safe and not use GABA if you are pregnant or breastfeeding.

Interactions. Not enough is known about how GABA may interact with drugs, foods, or other herbs and supplements, but use with caution if taking with blood pressure medications.

Be sure to tell your doctor about any supplements you’re taking, even if they’re natural. That way, your doctor can check on any potential side effects or interactions with medications, foods, or other herbs and supplements. They can let you know if the supplement might raise your risks.

The U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) does regulate dietary supplements; however, it treats them like foods rather than medications. Unlike drug manufacturers, the makers of supplements don’t have to show their products are safe or effective before selling them on the market.

What is GABA?

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Gamma-Aminobutyric acid, or γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) is a neurotransmitter found in the brain. Its activity in the brain was clarified in 1957 when scientists reported that GABA produced inhibitory effects on the neurons of crayfish.

It is now widely known as the main inhibitory receptor in the human cortex, but in recent years it has become a widely available food supplement in both Europe and the United States. GABA is considered to be a ‘dietary supplement;’ as such, it can be sold without evidence to support its efficacy. GABA is widely distributed in nature.

GABA is an inhibitory neurotransmitter of the nervous system. Image Credit: Molecular Arts / Shutterstock

What are the role and distribution of GABA?

GABA is distributed unequally in the brain. Its inhibitory effects result from inhibition of neuronal activity and synaptic plasticity.  Although GABA’s primary function is as a neurotransmitter, it has the structure of an amino acid and is therefore referred to as an amino acid neurotransmitter. GABA is produced as glutamine in the diet is converted first to glutamate, then to GABA by glutamic acid decarboxylase. In adult brains GABA is inhibitory, whereas in the embryonic brain it is a well-established excitatory transmitter that exerts region-specific roles according to the developmental stage of the embryo.

Learning About GABA – Part 1Play

GABA receptors, agonists and modulators

Nearly half of all synapses of the brain express some kind of GABA receptor. GABAA receptors are widely but differentially distributed within the CNS and they can be activated by several GABA isosteres, which are compounds with the same number of atoms and electrons. There are 2 types of receptors that GABA can stimulate: GABAA and GABAB. GABAA receptors are ionotropic; on GABA binding, an associated ion channel that is permeable to the negatively charged chloride ions opens to hyperpolarize the membrane potential. This decreases the likelihood of the neuron firing an action potential.

GABAB receptors are metabotropic or G protein-coupled receptors. The predominant effect of GABAB stimulation is the opening of potassium channels. As with chloride, potassium influx results in hyperpolarization, which decreases likelihood that a neuron will fire an action potential.

GABAA also has allosteric binding sites for other substances referred to as GABA modulators. These are capable of increasing or decreasing the action of GABA; in its absence, they have no effect. Depending on their effect, they are classified as positive or negative allosteric modulators (PAMs and NAMs, respectively).

A prominent example of a class of GABAA receptor positive allosteric modulators is benzodiazepines. They facilitate the interaction between GABA and GABAA, therefore potentiating the GABA inhibitory effect. These types of drugs are commonly used is for sedative purposes.

Other positive modulators include barbiturates and alcohol. Negative modulators, by contrast, compete with the binding of a positive modulator at the same site. Flumazenil is one such example of a competitive antagonist; it is used to reverse benzodiazepine overdose.

Some drugs show off-target negative allosteric modulator effects. For example, fluoroquinolone antibiotics, antidepressants, and beta-lactam antibiotics can negatively modulate GABA. GABA agonists also produce the same effect as positive allosteric modulators; they culminate in the reduction of the neuronal signals in the user’s brain. GABA antagonists, in contrast, increase brain activity — examples include gabazine or bicuculline.

GABA and the blood-brain barrier

Historically, GABA has been thought to be unable to cross the blood-brain barrier (BBB), which throws into question the efficacy of GABA supplements to alleviate anxiety or improved sleep amongst other positive effects. However, the evidence to support GABA’s permeability is conflicting. several studies are unable to show that GABA crosses the BBB whereas others demonstrate its ability to do so.

According to an article published in Frontiers in Psychology (2015), the mechanism behind GABA supplements are unclear and further work is needed to establish the behavioral effects of GABA. The authors speculate that there is insufficient evidence to rule out the possible effect. Moreover, studies that have used GABA mimetics that do not structurally reflect the GABA molecule and delivered GABA through mechanisms that do not reflect user administration. Most notably, the permeability of GABA to the BBB has been confined to rodents.

Despite conflicting evidence for its entry into the CNS, GABBA may still affect the brain through the enteric nervous system, which contains many GABA receptors. The efficacy of GABA supplements is therefore confined to anecdotal evidence.


  • Moss, F.J., Imoukhuede, P.I, Just, H. & Lester, H.A. TRANSPORTERS | GABA Transporters: Structure, Oligomerization, Trafficking, and Pharmacology Determine Neuronal Excitability, Encycolpedia of Basic Epilepsy Research. (2009) doi: 10.1016/B978-012373961-2.00116-8
  • Goetz, T., Wulf, P., and Wisden, W. GABAA Receptors: Molecular Biology, Cell Biology, and Pharmacology. Encyclopedia of Neuroscience. (2009) doi: 10.1016/B978-008045046-9.01236-5
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Further Reading

What It Is, Functions, and Disorders

Gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) is an amino acid that serves as the primary inhibitory neurotransmitter between nerve cells in the brain and spinal cord. Its natural function is binding to receptors GABA-A and GABA-B on the neurons to modulate and block impulses between nerve cells. 

It plays a role in how people experience anxiety, fear, and stress. GABA acts to slow or block certain nerve signals in the brain, sometimes reducing feelings of anxiety. Without the right level of GABA activity in the body, nerve cells can be activated in ways that exacerbate certain conditions, like anxiety disorders.


What Is GABA?

Neurotransmitters are chemical messengers in the nervous system. GABA is a non-protein amino acid that functions as an inhibitory neurotransmitter throughout the central nervous system. It limits nerve transmission by preventing the stimulation of neurons.

GABA reduces a neuron’s tendency to produce an action potential (neuron stimulation), making neurons less likely to excite nearby neurons. 

Misfiring in GABA signaling is associated with certain neurologic and psychiatric conditions.

The Difference Between Types of Neurotransmitters

Inhibitory neurotransmitters like GABA block certain brain signals and decrease nervous system activity. Another inhibitory neurotransmitter, serotonin, helps stabilize mood.

Excitatory neurotransmitters have the opposite effect: They promote certain brain signals and increase nervous system activity. An example of an excitatory neurotransmitter is norepinephrine.   


Unlike excitatory neurons, which promote excitatory nerve action potentials, inhibitory neurons make neurons less likely to fire.

When an action potential arrives at the axon terminal of a gabaminergic neuron and causes the release of GABA into the synaptic cleft, the following occurs:

  • GABA binds to the target cell’s post-synaptic receptors.
  • In response, GABA receptors open chloride ion channels.
  • The resulting rush of negatively charged chloride ions into the postsynaptic (receiving) neuron makes it more negative on the inside of the cell membrane, and thus less likely to fire an action potential;.

GABA activates receptors within milliseconds, and its concentration declines within milliseconds. But the effect lasts longer than that because GABA unbinds from its receptor relatively slowly.

In the brain, GABA activity has a calming effect. In the spinal cord, this process allows for sensory information integration and helps to create smooth movements.  


It is understood that decreased action of GABA can contribute to mental health conditions.

Anxiety Disorders

Appropriate GABA activity promotes a healthy stress response by preventing excess neuronal excitation.

Many things can impact GABA levels and associated receptor functioning, potentially contributing to anxiety. For example, it’s been documented that external stressors and early life stressors can directly influence GABA receptor functioning, creating imbalances.


GABA deficits are associated with cognitive deficits, and this has clinical significance for people who have schizophrenia. Problems with GABA membrane transporters and receptors, namely a lack of adequately functioning GABA-A receptors, have been associated with certain clinical features of schizophrenia, including hallucinations and cognitive impairment.

This has opened avenues for understanding how GABA modulation might provide therapeutic benefits to people with schizophrenia.

Autism Spectrum Disorder

While the exact pathology of autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is still unclear, animal and human studies have found associations between abnormalities in excitatory (glutamate) and inhibitory (GABA) neurotransmitter functioning and underlying ASD symptoms, including deficits in restricted interests and social reciprocity.

This illustrates that GABA doesn’t work alone, and an imbalance of this neurotransmitter can be affected by and/or affect other neurotransmitters and receptors.

Major Depression

Lower levels of GABA in the body have also been associated with major depressive disorder (MDD). GABA likely works in collaboration with other neurotransmitters, such as serotonin, which is also involved in mood disorders.

It has been suggested that improper GABA functioning may also be one of the factors that has a role in suicide.

Physical Conditions

Outside of mental health, GABA is also involved in several disease states:

  • Pyridoxine deficiency is a rare disease in which the vitamin pyridoxine is not available for the synthesis of GABA. Deficiency usually presents with frequent seizures during infancy that are resistant to treatment with anticonvulsants but respond well to vitamin supplementation.
  • Hepatic encephalopathy has clinical features that are associated with elevated ammonia levels, which may bind to GABA receptors and impact their proper functioning.
  • Huntington’s disease is characterized by symptoms that are associated with GABA dysfunction in the area of the brain that regulates voluntary movement.
  • Dystonia (movement disorder) and muscle spasticity are believed to be related to a deficiency in GABA signaling.

Other Associated Neurotransmitters

While GABA is considered the most ubiquitous inhibitory neurotransmitter, it does not work alone. Research suggests that dysfunction of GABA and other neurotransmitters, namely serotonin (5-HT) and corticotrophin releasing hormone (CRH), play a role in depressive disorders.



Medications that act on GABA receptors are of clinical significance in the treatment of a variety of disorders.

Drugs that modulate GABA signaling include:

  • Benzodiazepines: They bind to the GABA-A receptor, increasing the calming effect
  • Barbiturates: There are sedative drugs that increase the duration of GABA binding to the GABA-A receptor
  • Vigabatrin: This is used to inhibit the breakdown of GABA, which is effective in helping treat certain types of epilepsy
  • Propofol: It promotes GABA functioning and is a sedative commonly used in general anesthesia
  • Flumazenil: This binds to the GABA-A receptor, and can reverse benzodiazepine intoxication and improve mental status in hepatic encephalopathy
  • Baclofen: It promotes GABA-B binding, and is a muscle relaxant
  • Valproic acid: It inhibits GABA uptake, and acts as a mood stabilizer and anti-epileptic
  • Zolpidem: It works on the GABA-A receptor for a sedative-hypnotic effect
  • Gabapentin: This increases GABA synthesis, and is commonly prescribed to treat neuropathic pain


GABA is available in non-prescription supplement form.  Manufacturers sell natural GABA in pills and capsules at a range of prices, claiming their products can help reduce stress, induce feelings of calmness, and promote (temporary) relaxation. It can be found as an isolate or blended with other substances like melatonin, which promotes sleep. 

Are GABA Supplements Safe?

As with many other herbal supplements, pregnant and breastfeeding women should avoid taking GABA supplements due to a lack of available research showing its safety in these populations.

If you are thinking about GABA supplementation, consult with your physician beforehand. 


Substances that exert effects on the GABA receptors, like alcohol, are common drugs of abuse. Self-medicating to achieve the effects of modulation of GABA production or uptake is dangerous.  

Alcohol, for example, promotes GABA receptor activity, often creating a temporary feeling of calm and relaxation. But the effect is artificial and risky. You will not get the same effect over time, and issues can quickly arise with tolerance, which makes the body require more of the substance to achieve the same feeling.

Overdosing or taking multiple GABA-modulating drugs (for example, taking GABA supplements and drinking alcohol) can result in respiratory depression due to increased GABA signaling in the brain stem.

When to Seek Help

While your body’s natural production of GABA has many benefits, artificial means of altering GABA activity can be a serious problem. It is important to be honest with yourself about your consumption of GABA-modulating drugs like alcohol and benzodiazepines. These two substances of abuse, in particular, can create cross-tolerance and an increase in potential toxicity.

If you are unsure if your medication or supplement use is becoming problematic, talk with your doctor. Other resources you can visit to learn more about substance abuse include:

A Word From Verywell 

If you are experiencing symptoms of anxiety or depression, before self-treating with over-the-counter GABA supplements (which as of yet have limited research to support their benefits), talk to your doctor. Mood and anxiety disorders are complex and require professionally directed treatment.

GABA-modulating drugs can have a powerful pull for people struggling to relax, calm themselves, and sleep. But they carry a high risk of abuse, which can create even more problems. If you or a loved one is struggling with substance use issues or abuse, seeking professional treatment sooner rather than later can help minimize the negative effects.

Gamma-Aminobutyric Acid – an overview

Inhibition of GABA Metabolism

GABA transaminase (4-aminobutyrate: 2-oxuglutarate amino transferase EC is a primary catabolic enzyme for GABA and its inhibition significantly elevates GABA concentrations in the brain (see Palfreyman et al., 1981). The first inhibitor of this enzyme to be used was the pyridoxal phosphate scavenger, hydroxylamine, which was followed a few years later by aminooxyacetic acid. Both compounds cause an anticonvulsant action and an accumulation of GABA, but they could not be used therapeutically because of their toxicity. Lately the concept of suicidal enzyme inhibitors or enzyme activated inhibitors was applied to the GABA transaminase (Seiler et al., 1978). A few suicidal transaminase inhibitors have been used quite widely. These are

One of the major effects of these GABA-T inhibitors is sedation. High doses of these irreversible inhibitors, produce sedation associated with hunched posture, piloerection which can be interrupted by periods of rapid running, jumping, head-rearing and myoclonus (Palfreyman et al., 1981). These excitatory effects are not seen with γ-vinyl GABA. The GABA transaminase inhibitors induce nonopiate antinociceptive action which does not cause dependence. While a role of GABA in analgesia is now under investigation, the withdrawal syndrome after repeated administration of opiates does not appear to involve GABA receptors.

Anticonvulsant and anorectic actions ensue medication with GABA-T inhibitors. Despite the overwhelming evidence suggesting that GABA mediates the anxiolytic actions of benzodiazepines (Costa and Guidotti, 1979), in any of the many tests used to detect anxiolytic action no one has succeeded in showing that GABA-T inhibitors have an anxiolytic action. One possible explanation for the lack of anxiolytic action is that the GABA that accumulates after GABA-T inhibitors may not be immediately available to the GABA receptors. Another possibility to be considered is that the GABA receptor is down regulated by the endogenous effector of benzodiazepine recognition site and, therefore, the availability of GABA recognition site is limited (Costa and Guidott, 1979).

The pyridoxal scavenger, isoniazid, can be used to block GABA synthesis and with the appropriate dosage, this drug can cause a dose related decrease of GABA content (Biggio et al., 1977). When the depletion of brain GABA content elicited by isoniazid is greater than 30%, convulsions ensue after a time delay of about 30 to 40 minutes, which is the time required to lower GABA content (Biggio et al., 1977). These convulsions can be used as a tool to characterize the action of direct and indirect GABA receptor agonists (Costa et al., 1975). Direct GABA receptor agonists can antagonize isoniazid convulsions even when the brain GABA content is depleted by 60% or more; in contrast, indirect GABA receptor agonists, such as benzodiazepines, can antagonize the isoniazid convulsions only when the content of GABA is not completely depleted (Biggio et al. , 1977). These results have suggested that benzodiazepines are indirect GABA agonists because they facilitate the action of endogenous GABA on specific receptors whereas muscimol-like GABA receptor agonists that act on these receptors instead of GABA and, therefore, do not depend on their action for the amount of GABA present. This observation is in line with the concept that benzodiazepines modify the supramolecular mechanisms that keep GABA recognition sites down regulated (Costa et al., 1976: Costa et al., 1978: Costa and Guidotti, 1979).

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GABA—gamma-aminobutyric acid—is an inhibitory neurotransmitter that also plays a role in muscle tone.

What Does GABA Do?
GABA, like all neurotransmitters, helps to carry nerve signals across a synapse. GABA is an inhibitory neurotransmitter, which means that it weakens or slows down signals. Because of its inhibitory function, GABA plays an important role in anxiety. When nerve signals fire too quickly and carry anxiety-inducing signals, GABA acts to slow the signals down, reducing overwhelming feelings of anxiety. However, in people with anxiety disorders–including posttraumatic stress, generalized anxiety, and panic disorder–GABA may not work as it should, thus increasing anxiety.

GABA’s Role in Psychology
Different people produce GABA in different quantities, and there is no test that can reliably determine the amount of GABA a person is producing. However, when a person has an anxiety disorder, GABA deficiency is a common factor.

Benzodiazepines are anti-anxiety medications such as Ativan, Xanax,and Valium. These medications work on GABA receptors, and can help GABA to slow down anxiety-producing nerve signals.

GABA can also play a role in substance abuse, particularly during the detox process. Dehydration and malnutrition can decrease a person’s GABA production. People with substance abuse often suffer from nutritional deficiencies, and the detox process itself can reduce available GABA. The result can be extreme anxiety. Many doctors prescribe patients anti-anxiety medications during detox. However, substance abuse patients must be carefully monitored when using these drugs, as benzodiazepines can quickly become addictive.


  1. American Psychological Association. APA concise dictionary of psychology. Washington, DC: American Psychological Association, 2009. Print.
  2. What is GABA. (n.d.). Novus Detox. Retrieved from http://www.novusdetox.com/GABA-supplement-benefits.php

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Gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) – JMol version

Gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) – JMol version

A molecule of relaxation…

Gabriella Zanetti

Hull Collegiate School, Hull, UK

Also available: HTML version.

Feeling stressed and anxious? All you need is GABA!

During those stressful weeks in school or at work, your brain becomes very excited and as a response, your body normally produces GABA to bring your nervous system back to a state of calm. Without GABA, you will increasingly become restless and anxious, and might experience seizures.

What exactly is ‘GABA’?

GABA is an amino acid which acts as a neurotransmitter in the central nervous system. GABA’s natural function is to reduce the activity of the neurons to which it binds. It inhibits nerve transmission in the brain, calming nervous activity. This can make a person feel more tranquil and give him or her sense of wellbeing.

How does GABA work?

The nervous system is made up of individual nerve cells called neurons. They serve as the body’s wiring. Nerve signals are transmitted through the length of a neuron as an electrical impulse. When a nerve impulse reaches the end of the neuron it can jump over to the next cell using chemical messengers called neurotransmitters.

In the central nervous system, which consists of the brain and the spinal cord, neurotransmitters pass from neuron to neuron.

Neurotransmitters are stored at the end of each neuron. When neurotransmitters reach neighbouring neuron, the neurotransmitters click into specialized receptor sites much as a key fits into a lock. When enough neurotransmitters attach to the receptors, the neuron “fires,” sending an electrical impulse down its length.

GABA is made in brain cells from glutamate, and functions as an inhibitory neurotransmitter – meaning that it blocks nerve impulses. Glutamate acts as an excitatory neurotransmitter and when bound to adjacent cells encourages them to “fire” and send a nerve impulse. GABA does the opposite and tells the adjoining cells not to “fire”, not to send an impulse.

What would happen if GABA did not exist?

Without GABA, nerve cells fire too often and too easily. Anxiety disorders such as panic attacks, seizure disorders, and numerous other conditions including addiction, headaches, Parkinson’s syndrome, and cognitive impairment are all related to low GABA activity. GABA hinders the transmission of nerve impulses from one neuron to another. It has a calming or quieting influence. A good example to help understand this effect is caffeine. Caffeine inhibits GABA release. The less GABA, the more nerve transmissions occur. Think what too much coffee feels like: that is the sensation of glutamate without enough GABA.

The reason caffeine does this is that other molecules can bind to the neuron near the GABA binding site and influence GABA’s effect.

What’s the history of GABA

1883: Gamma-aminobutyric acid was first synthesized, was first known only as a plant and microbe metabolic product.

1950: GABA was discovered to be an integral part of the mammalian central nervous system.

What are the uses of GABA

Many people take GABA as a supplement to improve mood and relieve anxiety. However, there has not been enough research to uncover the side effects and risks of GABA supplements.

There is little evidence that it does anything. Recent medical belief is that GABA will not pass the blood brain barrier. The blood brain barrier is a biologic firewall between the body’s general blood circulation and the blood circulation that supplies the brain. It prevents many of the chemicals and drugs which circulate in the blood from reaching the brain. This would mean GABA cannot cross from the body into the brain; consequently it leaves people dubious if then GABA would work.

Nevertheless, people may still take GABA because it could act as a placebo. Also, it may have some affect that hasn’t been reported yet, therefore more research needs to be done.


Back to Molecule of the Month page.

Rail loading gauge

Railways accept oversized cargo for transportation, i.e. those that, being loaded onto open rolling stock (platforms, gondola cars, conveyors), go beyond the loading gauge set by the Ministry of Railways. For open rolling stock (platforms, gondola cars), a loading gauge is set, beyond which the transported cargo should not extend either in width or in height. Rail transport also transports oversized cargo, i.e.e. cargo, the dimensions of which go beyond the loading gauge, but do not exceed a certain value, which allows them to be transported subject to special conditions. Depending on the transverse outline of the cargo, its size and location on the rolling stock, its oversize can be lateral, upper and lower, one-sided and two-sided. Lateral oversized cargo is subdivided into five degrees of oversize: from zero to fourth – depending on the size of the oversize. The largest is the oversizedness of the IV degree.Transportation of oversized cargo requires special precautions. The instructions for loading and transporting oversized and heavy cargoes for each degree of oversizedness have established special conditions, in accordance with which these cargoes are accepted for transportation and sent by rail. In case of oversized dimensions of III and IV degrees, a control overall frame is installed on the car for 20 axles in front of the oversized cargo, repeating the outlines and dimensions of the transported oversized cargo. When transporting cargo with large lateral oversize, sometimes they stop moving along the adjacent track of a double-track section.Trains with oversized cargo are accompanied by managers of the track and representatives of shippers.

The loading gauge is called the limit (perpendicular to the axis of the track)
an outline in which it fits completely immersed on
open rolling stock cargo (including packaging and fastening) when a rolling stock is
composition on a straight horizontal section of the track and combining in one vertical
planes of the longitudinal axes of the rolling stock and track.
Depending on the height at which the cargo goes beyond the loading gauge, the
three main areas of oversized cargo:
lower oversize area – at a height of 380 to 1400 mm at a distance from the track axis
1626 – 1760 mm and at a height from 1230 to 1400 mm at a distance from the track axis 1761 –
2240 mm;
lateral oversize area – at a height from 1400 to 4000 mm;
upper oversize area – at a height of 4000 to 5300 mm.
In addition, a conditional zone of joint lateral and upper oversize is introduced on
height from 4000 to 4603 mm.
Depending on the exit of goods beyond the loading gauge in the indicated zones,
the following degrees of oversized cargo: lower oversize – six degrees,
side oversize – six degrees, top oversize – three degrees. Power
oversized cargo is established not only taking into account its location on a straight line
section of the path, but also taking into account the passage of curved sections of the path.Cargoes exceeding the established ones
oversized limits are called oversized .
For each degree of oversize, special conditions are determined in accordance with
with which goods are accepted for transportation by rail, namely: reinforced
control over the tracking of oversized cargo, information of involved workers about
these loads, limiting the speed of movement, limiting or prohibiting movement
on adjacent tracks on double-track sections, skipping along pre-prepared routes
at the stations.
Transportation of oversized cargo, as well as oversized cargo of the sixth degree, lateral
and lower oversize is carried out using a control frame, which is set
shipper on a covered wagon or open wagon. A wagon with a control frame follows
behind the locomotive, and wagons with oversized cargo are in the middle of the train, but not closer,
more than 20 axles from the car with a control frame and not less than four axles from the tail
The dimensions of the control frame must correspond to the maximum dimensions of the load, taking into account
its displacement in curves.The train is accompanied by an experienced worker of the distance
qualifications not lower than a road master who monitors the passage
the control frame is especially attentive when walking past oversized structures.

For checking the dimensions of bulky and lightweight goods loaded on an open
rolling stock, they are passed through the clearance doors installed on one
from the tracks of the station.
The overall door is a frame, inside of which, according to the outline of the
loading planks are pivotally reinforced.If an open rolling stock with cargo passes
the gate, without engaging the slats, then the dimensions are not violated. Changing the position of the bar will indicate
oversized place.

Text of PTE for loading dimensions

2.6. Cargo loaded on open rolling stock (including packaging and
fastenings) must be located within the limits of the loading dimensions established by the Ministry of Railways.

Network-wide loading gauge

Area loading gauge

Cargoes that cannot be stowed on open rolling stock within
loading dimensions, are transported in accordance with the procedure established by the Ministry of Railways.
To check the correct placement of goods within the specified dimensions in places
mass loading (on access roads, in sea and river ports, at transshipment stations)
clearance gates are installed.
The goods unloaded or prepared for loading near the track must be stowed and
fixed so that the dimensions of the approach of buildings are not disturbed.
Cargoes (except ballast unloaded for track works) with a height of up to 1200 mm must
be not closer than 2.0 m from the outer edge of the head of the extreme rail, and with a large
height – no closer than 2.5 m.

Distance to the outer rail with a load height up to 1200 mm

Distance to the outer rail with a load height over 1200 mm

SMGS requirements for loading dimensions

In the SMGS, the loading gauge is given in Appendix 5. The SMGS establishes the following requirements
to loading cargo:
§ 4. The following goods are allowed for carriage only after prior agreement
between the railways involved in the transport:
1) goods weighing more than 60 tons in one place, and in the transshipment traffic for the Socialist
Republic of Vietnam – over 20 tons;
2) goods with a length of more than 18 m, and when transported to the Socialist Republic of Vietnam
– more than 12 m long.
With the exception of goods sent to the Socialist Republic of Vietnam, it is allowed
for carriage without prior approval:
– goods with a length of more than 18 m up to 25 m, if they are loaded on one wagon and go to
uninterrupted traffic. If covering wagons are used, the cargo should not
rely on them;
– railway rails and round reinforcing steel for reinforced concrete up to 30
m, and for European railways with a gauge of 1435 mm – up to 36 m long;
3) goods exceeding the loading gauge specified in Appendix 5, at least one
from the railways involved in transportation (oversized cargo).
In the reloading message, when calculating the oversize, it is assumed that the floor height
from the rail head is 1300 mm, and for the railways of the Socialist
Republic of Vietnam – 1100 mm. In this case, it should be assumed that the car is worth
on a straight horizontal section of the track and the longitudinal axis of the car coincides with the axis of the track;

4) goods, the transportation of which in the transshipment traffic is carried out on conveyors;

5) chemical cargo transported in transshipment traffic in special tanks;

6) all liquid bulk cargoes in tanks when transported to the Socialist Republic of Vietnam.
To agree on the conditions of carriage of such goods, the sender is obliged no later than
in one month for uninterrupted traffic and in two months for transshipment
messages before presenting the goods for transportation, provide the station of departure with information
on the type of container or packaging and the weight of individual items, and for the goods listed in paragraphs
1, 2 and 3 of this paragraph, in addition, information on the dimensions of the goods and in the necessary
cases also a diagram of their loading.For oversized cargo, presentation by the sender
cargo loading schemes are mandatory in all cases.
When transporting oversized cargo on transit railways in a roundabout way, the sender
must indicate this roundabout path in the consignment note in the column “Sender’s special statements”

§ 5. On oversized asymmetrical cargo, on cargo with gross mass in one place
more than 3 tons, on equipment and machines, as well as on goods in box packaging, height
which exceeds 1 m, the sender is obliged on each cargo item in the transverse
and longitudinal directions on both sides indicate the location with indelible paint
center of gravity with the mark “Center of gravity” in accordance with Appendix 6 and gross weight
each package.
(This paragraph is presented with amendments approved by the OSJD Committee. Changes are introduced
effective from 01.03.2000) For oversized cargo, the sender must on both sides
in the longitudinal direction, make an inscription or attach a shield (framed with a red
frame) with the text: “Attention! Oversized cargo for …………….. (abbreviated
names of railways) “.
This inscription must be made in the language of the country of departure of the cargo with translation into
one of the OSJD working languages ​​(Chinese, Russian), namely:
– when transported to the Republic of Azerbaijan, the Republic of Belarus, the Republic of Bulgaria,
Georgia, Islamic Republic of Iran, Republic of Kazakhstan, Kyrgyz Republic,
The Republic of Latvia, the Republic of Lithuania, the Republic of Moldova, the Republic of Poland,
The Russian Federation, the Republic of Tajikistan, Turkmenistan, the Republic of Uzbekistan,
Ukraine, the Republic of Estonia – into Russian;
– when transported to the Socialist Republic of Vietnam, People’s Republic of China
and the Democratic People’s Republic of Korea – into Chinese or Russian;

– when transporting to or in transit through Mongolia – into Russian.

Transportation of oversized cargo and special equipment

90,000 Urine analysis for amino acids (33 indicators)

A comprehensive study aimed at determining the content of amino acids and their derivatives in urine in order to diagnose congenital and acquired disorders of amino acid metabolism.

Composition of the complex: Alanine • Arginine • Aspartic acid • Citrulline • Glutamic acid • Glycine • Methionine • Ornithine • Phenylalanine • Tyrosine • Valine • Leucine • Isoleucine • Serine • Asparagine • Alpha-aminoadipic acid • Glutamine • Tainurine • Glutamine 1 -methylhistidine • 3-methylhistidine • Gamma-aminobutyric acid • Alpha-aminobutyric acid • Lysine • Cystine • Tryptophan • Homocystine • Phosphoethanolamine • Phosphoserine • Ethanolamine

Russian synonyms

Amino acid profile, screening for aminoacidopathies.

Synonyms English

Amino acid profile, screening of aminoacidopathy.

Research method

High performance liquid chromatography.


Mmol / mol creat. (millimole per mole of creatinine).

Which biomaterial can be used for research?

The middle portion of the morning urine.

How to properly prepare for the study?

  • Eliminate alcohol from the diet within 24 hours before the study.
  • Avoid taking diuretics within 48 hours before urine collection (in consultation with your doctor).

General information about the study

Amino acids are organic compounds that are the main structural components of proteins. In a free or bound state, they participate in enzymatic reactions, hormonal processes, play the role of neurotransmitters, participate in cholesterol metabolism, pH regulation, and control of inflammatory reactions.

In total, 20 amino acids were found in the composition of protein molecules in the human body, some of which are irreplaceable, that is, they are not synthesized in the body and must be constantly present in food consumed by humans. Essential amino acids include lysine, histidine, arginine, threonine, valine, methionine, tryptophan, phenylalanine, leucine, isoleucine. Non-essential include alanine, arginine, cystine, cysteine, histidine, glycine, serine, aspartic acid, tyrosine, proline, hydroxyproline, glutamic acid.In addition, a number of amino acids are known that are derivatives and important biological components of other amino acids.

Analysis of amino acids in urine allows you to assess their qualitative and quantitative composition, to obtain information about the existing imbalance, which may indicate food and metabolic disorders underlying a large number of diseases. It should be noted that the decrease in the amount of one or another amino acid in the urine occurs earlier than in the blood plasma. Given these circumstances and the availability of the original biomaterial, the determination of amino acids in urine can be recommended for assessing early changes in the amino acid composition.

High performance liquid chromatography is used to determine the qualitative and quantitative composition of amino acids in urine. It belongs to modern chromatographic methods of analysis. Chromatography is a method for separating and determining substances based on the distribution of components between two phases – mobile and stationary. Liquid chromatography is a method for the separation and analysis of complex mixtures of substances in which the mobile phase is a liquid. It allows you to separate and quantify a wider range of substances with different molecular weights and sizes, in this case, amino acids in urine.The following amino acids and their derivatives are being investigated.

Alanine is one of the sources of glucose synthesis and a regulator of blood sugar levels, as well as an important energy component for the organs of the central nervous system.

Arginine participates in a number of enzymatic reactions and the elimination of residual nitrogen from the body in the composition of urea, creatinine, ornithine, in reparative processes.

Aspartic acid is involved in the reactions of the transamination and urea cycle, the synthesis of purine and pyrimidine bases, and the regulation of the synthesis of immunoglobulins.

Citrulline is involved in stimulating the processes of the immune system, in the processes of detoxification in the liver.

Glutamic acid is a neurotransmitter amino acid that stimulates the transmission of excitation in the synapses of the central nervous system. Participates in the metabolism of proteins, carbohydrates, redox processes, detoxification processes and the elimination of ammonia from the body. It also takes part in the synthesis of other amino acids, acetylcholine, ATP (adenosine triphostphate), in the transfer of potassium ions, and is part of the skeletal muscles.

Glycine is a neurotransmitter amino acid that regulates the processes of inhibition and excitation in the central nervous system. Participates in the production of porphyrins, purine bases. Increases metabolic processes in the brain, improves mental performance.

Methionine is an amino acid that is essential for the synthesis of adrenaline, choline. Participates in the exchange of fats, phospholipids, vitamins, activates the action of hormones, enzymes, proteins.It is a source of sulfur in the production of sulfur-containing amino acids, in particular cysteine. Methionine also provides detoxification processes, aids digestion, and is one of the sources of glucose synthesis.

Ornithine participates in the synthesis of urea, a decrease in the concentration of ammonia in the blood plasma, and regulates the acid-base balance in the human body. It is necessary for the synthesis and release of insulin and growth hormone, for the normal functioning of the immune system.

Phenylalanine is required for the synthesis of neurotransmitters: adrenaline, norepinephrine, dopamine. Improves the functioning of the central nervous system, the functioning of the thyroid gland.

Amino acid tyrosine is necessary in the biosynthesis of melanins, dopamine, adrenaline, thyroid hormones. Improves the work of the adrenal glands, thyroid gland, pituitary gland.

Valine is an important source for the functioning of muscle tissue, participates in maintaining the balance of nitrogen in the body, and regulates regenerative processes in damaged tissues.

Leucine is an important component in the synthesis of cholesterol, other steroids and growth hormone and, therefore, participates in the processes of tissue and organ regeneration.

Isoleucine participates in the energy processes of the body, regulates the level of glucose in the blood, is necessary for the synthesis of hemoglobin and also participates in the regeneration of the skin, muscle, cartilage and bone tissues.

Hydroxyproline is a component of most organs and tissues of the human body, is part of collagen.

Amino acid serine is necessary for the synthesis of purine and pyrimidine bases, as well as for a number of other amino acids (cysteine, methionine, glycine). Participates in the exchange of fatty acids and fats, in the functioning of certain enzymes.

Asparagine is an important regulator of the processes occurring in the central nervous system (excitation-inhibition), is involved in the metabolism and synthesis of amino acids in the liver.

Alpha-aminoadipic acid is one of the products of the final amino acid metabolism.

Glutamine is involved in the synthesis of carbohydrates, other amino acids, nucleic acids, enzymes. Provides maintenance of acid-base balance, is necessary for the synthesis of proteins of skeletal and smooth muscle muscles, has antioxidant activity.

Taurine helps to increase the energy activity of cells, participates in the processes of healing and regeneration, and normalizes the functional state of cell membranes.

Histidine is the starting material for the synthesis of histamine, muscle proteins, and a large number of enzymes.It is a part of hemoglobin, participates in the processes of tissue regeneration and growth.

Threonine is necessary in the synthesis of collagen and elastin, regulates metabolism by participating in the functioning of the liver, protein and fat metabolism.

1-methylhistidine and 3-methylhistidine are some of the indicators of muscle tissue protein breakdown.

Gamma-aminobutyric acid is mainly found in the central nervous system and the brain.It participates in metabolic processes in these organs, in the processes of neurotransmitter transmission of impulses, exerting an inhibitory effect on nervous activity, and also plays a role in glucose metabolism.

Alpha-aminobutyric acid is involved in the synthesis of some proteins and is a product of the biosynthesis of ophthalmic acid, which is a structural component of the lens of the eye.

Proline is a part of most proteins, and is also a component of insulin, adrenocorticotropic hormone, collagen.Promotes the restoration of the skin, connective tissue.

Lysine is a part of most proteins, it is necessary for growth, tissue repair, synthesis of hormones, enzymes, antibodies, collagen synthesis.

Cystine is a component of many proteins and a donor of thiol groups for peptides, which plays an important role in their metabolism and biological activity. It is part of insulin, growth hormone.

What is the research used for?

  • For the diagnosis of the amino acid composition of urine.
  • For the diagnosis of congenital and acquired disorders of amino acid metabolism.
  • For the diagnosis of primary aminoacidopathies.
  • For screening diagnosis of secondary aminoacidopathies.
  • To control ongoing drug therapy.
  • To assess nutritional status.

When is the study scheduled?

  • If you suspect a violation of amino acid metabolism, aminoacidopathy.
  • In case of malnutrition, diet, intake of protein preparations, hormonal substances.
  • If you suspect a metabolic disorder, the composition of amino acids in the human body.
  • When congenital and acquired aminoacidopathies are suspected.

What do the results mean?

Reference values ​​(mmol / mol creat.)

Amino acid

1-3 years

3-6 years

6-9 years old

9-18 years old

18 years old and

1-methylhistidine (1MHIS)

15 – 177

5 – 397

7 – 217

7 – 230

5.5 – 195

3-methylhistidine (3MHIS)

6 – 175

1 – 289

0.3 – 173

0.3 – 85

1.6 – 87

Alanine (ALA)

8 – 144

7 – 86

6.5 – 104

5.5 – 96

3.2 – 76

Alpha-aminoadipic acid

0.4 – 43

0.8 – 15

0.5 – 26

0.3 – 34

0.3 – 13

Alpha-aminobutyric acid

0.4 – 14

0.5 – 6.4

0.3 – 13

0.4 – 7.1

0.2 – 10.6

Arginine (ARG)

2 – 40.5

1.5 – 45

1.2 – 38

0.5 – 23

0.5 – 24

Asparagine (ASN)

3 – 83.5

1 – 71.5

1 – 65

0.5 – 57

0.5 – 60

Aspartic acid (ASP)

1 – 22

0.5 – 23

0.3 – 24

0.3 – 28

0.2 – 20

Valine (VAL)

0.8 – 20.3

0.4 – 14

0.4 – 9.5

0.3 – 9

0.3 – 7.5

Gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA)

1.9 – 130

0.5 – 100

0.4 – 35

0.3 – 40

0.3 – 25

Histidine (HIS)

27 – 290

20 – 285

20 – 185

17 – 210

8 – 150

Glycine (GLY)

19 – 460

19 – 265

19 – 290

16 – 295

11 – 210

Glutamine (GLN)

4 – 155

5 – 104

5 – 95

4 – 87

2 – 53

Glutamic acid (GLU)

0.9 – 53.5

0.6 – 30

0.5 – 22

0.6 – 13

0.3 – 20

Homocystine (HCY)

0.6 – 55

0.2 – 12

0.2 – 25

0.3 – 40

0.3 – 10

Isoleucine (ILEU)

0.4 – 16.5

0.5 – 29.5

0.4 – 16

0.25 – 14

0.3 – 7

Leucine (LEU)

0.9 – 20.3

0.9 – 17.8

0.9 – 8.7

0.2 – 9.2

0.4 – 7.4

Lysine (LYS)

6 – 143

3.1 – 97

2.3 – 59

1.5 – 55

1.3 – 45

Methionine (MET)

1.5 – 14

0.7 – 19.6

0.6 – 20.8

0.4 – 10.5

0.4 – 9.5

Ornithine (ORN)

0.9 – 30

0.8 – 27.2

0.5 – 18

0.5 – 19.8

0.3 – 14

Serine (SER)

3.7 – 161

15.7 – 115

9 – 102

9.2 – 83

5.3 – 58

Taurine (TAU)

16.5 – 390

13.8 – 335

13 – 282

12.9 – 300

6 – 240

Tyrosine (TYR)

1.15 – 41.1

1.1 – 21

1.3 – 23

1 – 17.8

0.5 – 12.5

Threonine (THRE)

2.4 – 68

3.1 – 55

2.6 – 39

2.5 – 40

1.6 – 23.5

Tryptophan (TRP)

2 – 49

1.5 – 42

1.5 – 47

0.8 – 45

0.8 – 20

Phenylalanine (PHE)

1.4 – 21.5

0.8 – 19

0.8 – 17

0.7 – 12

0.4 – 7.5

Phosphoserine (PSE)

2.2 – 17.8

1.2 – 30

1.2 – 17.7

0.8 – 16.3

0.6 – 14

Phosphaethanolamine (PET)

1.6 – 118

1.8 – 131

1.5 – 110

1 – 55

0.6 – 46

Cystine (CYS)

1.7 – 12.2

0.9 – 9.8

0.8 – 7.3

0.6 – 7.2

0.5 – 8.7

Citrulline (CIT)

0.35 – 8.7

0.3 – 5

0.4 – 4.8

0.2 – 5.1

0.15 – 5.4

Ethanolamine (ETA)

14 – 129

6.5 – 134

8 – 105

4 – 131

4.5 – 94

Reasons for increase and decrease:

  • cardiovascular diseases;
  • heart failure;
  • epilepsy;
  • depression;
  • anxiety;
  • insomnia;
  • encephalopathy;
  • chronic fatigue syndrome;
  • multiple sclerosis;
  • rheumatoid arthritis;
  • erectile dysfunction;
  • chronic kidney disease;
  • chronic liver diseases;
  • diabetes mellitus;
  • diet, fasting;
  • multiple injuries;
  • burns.

What can influence the result?

  • Age;
  • floor;
  • diet and food intake;
  • drugs, in particular protein and hormonal drugs, dietary supplements;
  • fasting;
  • alcohol intake.

Download an example of the result

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[06-038] Total protein in urine

[06-057] Creatinine in daily urine

Who orders the study?

Therapist, general practitioner, pediatrician, nephrologist, anesthesiologist-resuscitator, neonatologist, rheumatologist, surgeon.


  • Amino acids. In The Metabolic and Molecular Bases of Inherited Disease. Eighth edition. Edited by CR Scriver, AL Beaudet, WS Sly, et al. New York, McGraw-Hill, 2001, pp 1667-2105.
  • Camargo SMR, Bockenhauer D, Kleta R: Aminoacidurias: Clinical and molecular aspects. Kidney Int 2008; 73: 918-925.
  • Fauci, Braunwald, Kasper, Hauser, Longo, Jameson, Loscalzo Harrison’s principles of internal medicine, 17th edition, 2009.
  • Shapovalova E.N., Pirogov A.V. Chromatographic analysis methods. Methodological guide for a special course. – Moscow, 2007.

Instructions for using the Roulette app on iPhone, iPad or iPod touch

Learn how to measure the size of real objects using the Roulette app and camera on your iPhone, iPad, or iPod touch.Learn how to easily measure objects and people with the LiDAR scanner on the 12.9-inch iPad Pro (4th generation), 11-inch iPad Pro (2nd generation), iPhone 12 Pro, and iPhone 12 Pro Max.

The Roulette application uses augmented reality technology to turn your device into a roulette wheel.You can measure objects, automatically determine the dimensions of rectangular objects and save a photo of measurements. The 12.9-inch iPad Pro (4th generation), 11-inch iPad Pro (2nd generation), iPhone 12 Pro, and iPhone 12 Pro Max make it easier to measure objects using on-screen guides. These devices also allow you to measure the height of people and view the history of measurements.

Measurements are approximate.

Preparing to configure

Taking a single measurement

  1. Open the Roulette app and move your device according to the instructions on the screen.Thus, the device will receive the coordinate system of the measurement object and the surface on which it is located. Continue moving the device until a circle with a dot in the center appears on the screen.
  2. Move the device so that the point is over the starting position of the measurement and press the Add button ().
  3. Slowly move the device until the point is over the final metering position and press the Add () button again.

After metering, you can change the start and end points of the subject.Touch and hold one of the points and drag it to the desired position. The metering values ​​will change as you move.

Saving metering values ​​

When the meter reading is displayed, click on the number to display it in inches or centimeters. Click “Copy” and the value will be sent to the clipboard so you can paste it into another application. Click “Clear” to repeat the measurement.

You can also take a picture of the subject and its measurements. Just press the camera shutter button () and the picture will appear in the lower left corner of the screen. Tap it to edit with Markup, or swipe left to save it in the Photos app.

Taking multiple measurements

  1. After taking the first measurement, move the device to position the point over or near another location on the subject.
  2. Press the Add button () to start a second measurement and move the device so that the point is near the location of the measurement already taken. *
  3. Press the add button () again to display the second measurement.
  4. Repeat these steps to take the desired number of measurements.

Press the Cancel button () to delete the last measurement, or press Clear to repeat.

* Additional measurements must start or end next to the measurement already taken.Otherwise, all previous measurements are replaced by the most recent one.

Measure rectangular object

If the device detects that the shape of the measured object is square or rectangular, a metering frame will appear around the object.Click the Add button () and the object’s width and length will be displayed. Move the device a little, and then the object area will be displayed.

While the measurement is displayed, you can press the measured area to see the length of the diagonal and the area in square inches or meters.

Using the Roulette app on the 12.9-inch iPad Pro (4th generation), 11-inch iPad Pro (2nd generation), iPhone 12 Pro, and iPhone 12 Pro Max

iPad Pro 12.9 “(4th generation), iPad Pro 11” (2nd generation), iPhone 12 Pro, and iPhone 12 Pro Max have a LiDAR scanner to help you measure items faster and more accurately in the Roulette app.

Not sure if your device has a LiDAR scanner? Find out which iPad model you have or which iPhone model you have.

Measuring human height

When the Roulette app detects a person in the viewfinder, it automatically measures their height from the ground to the top of their head, hat or hair.You can press the Shutter button () to take a photo of a person while measuring their height. Then you can use the “Markup” function on the photo, save and share it.

Tips for measuring height correctly:

  • Choose a location with good lighting.
  • Avoid choosing a location with a dark background and near reflective surfaces.
  • Make sure that the face and head of the person whose height is being measured are not covered by anything (for example, a mask, sunglasses, or a hat).
  • Try to step back from the person whose height you are measuring. You may be standing too close.

Using vertical and edge guides

Guiding lines on iPad Pro 12.9 “(4th generation), iPad Pro 11” (2nd generation), iPhone 12 Pro, and iPhone 12 Pro Max help you easily and accurately measure height and straight edges of furniture, countertops and other objects.Guide lines appear automatically along the edges when you measure vertically.

Snap the start and end points to the yellow guide line, then click a measurement to see the details provided by the iPad Pro. You can see the height of the edge to be measured, the distance to it, the angle of inclination, etc.

More detailed measurement information is shown in ruler view

The Roulette app adds a ruler overlay for linear measurements on the 12.9-inch iPad Pro (4th generation), 11-inch iPad Pro (2nd generation), iPhone 12 Pro, and iPhone 12 Pro Max to show the dimensions object with division precision.Move iPad Pro closer to the linear dimension to display the ruler view, then press the Shutter button to take a photo and use ruler-precision measurements to plan projects.

View measurement history

Press the list button to view all measurements from the current session, including screenshots. This helps you keep track of dimensions when measuring a space or series of objects.You can copy the dimensions to Notes, Mail, or any other application where you want to save the list, or clear them and start over.

Additional information

Published Date:

Carriage allowance, dimensions of hand luggage on the plane

Carry-on baggage allowance

  • For economy class of service (tariffs of the Promo / Economy / Premium-Economy group): 1 piece weighing up to 5 kg.
  • For economy class of service (Promo Light tariff): 1 piece weighing up to 5 kg
  • For business class service (tariffs of the Business / Comfort group): 2 seats with a total weight of up to 15 kg.
  • For children from 0 to 2 years old – 1 piece up to 5 kg. regardless of the class of service and tariff.

Dimensions of one piece of hand luggage

Dimensions of one piece of hand luggage for all classes of service and tariffs: no more than 55x40x20. (except for the Promo Light tariff)

“Baggage in the salon” service

If your carry-on baggage exceeds the free baggage allowance, you can use the “Baggage in the salon” service. This service gives you the right to carry excess hand luggage.In this case, the maximum weight of hand luggage should not exceed 10 kg, and the dimensions in the sum of three dimensions should not exceed 115 cm.

Tariffs for overweight / oversized carry-on baggage

Excess category Across Russia CIS and Georgia By MVL
1 piece of carry-on baggage up to 10 kg
dimensions 55 * 40 * 20
less than 24 hours before the flight 3000 ₽
more than 24 hours 2500 ₽
35 € 40 €
additional piece of carry-on baggage,
weight up to 10 kg,
dimensions up to 55 * 40 * 20
less than 24 hours before the flight 3000 ₽
more than 24 hours 2500 ₽
35 € 40 €
identification of additional
carry-on and carry-on baggage,
exceeding the carriage norm
by weight / dimensions / quantity
at the gate
3500 ₽ 50 € 50 €

For the entire route of transport transportation, the tariff is multiplied by 2

Baggage allowance

Airline tickets for flights of the Airline are issued in accordance with the rules of branded fares.The brands have the following conditions for the carriage of baggage and hand luggage:

Brand Reservation code Luggage Carry-on baggage
Light (LT) U, T, X, V, Q, O, N, M, L, K, H, G, E, B Without luggage 1 piece, 5 kg
Flexible (FL) Q, O, N, M, L, K, H, G, E, B 1 piece of baggage 23 kg 1 piece, 5 kg
Normal Y 1 piece of baggage 23 kg 1 piece, 10 kg
Basic (BS) S 2 pieces of baggage, 23 kg each 1 piece, 10 kg
Free (FR) W 2 pieces of baggage, 23 kg each 1 piece, 10 kg

The overall free allowance for 1 piece of baggage is no more than 203 cm in the sum of three dimensions, hand baggage must not exceed dimensions: length – 55 cm, width – 40 cm, height – 20 cm.

Children under 12 years old are provided with the same baggage allowance as for adult passengers. Free baggage allowance for infants (without providing a separate seat) is one piece weighing 5 kg or 10 kg, depending on the fare and class of service and not exceeding dimensions: length – 55 cm, width – 40 cm, height – 20 cm.

In excess of the established free baggage allowance and free of charge, the passenger also has the right to carry the following items if they are with the passenger and are not included in the baggage:

  • a backpack weighing not more than 5 kg and the dimensions of which do not exceed: depth – 10 cm, width – 30 cm, height – 40 cm, or a handbag, or a briefcase with things inserted into a backpack, or a bag, or a briefcase;
  • a bouquet of flowers;
  • outerwear;
  • baby food for a child during the flight;
  • suit in a garment bag;
  • device for carrying a child (a cradle, restraining systems (devices) for children under two years of age, a stroller and other devices) when transporting a child, the dimensions of which are established by the carrier’s rules and allow them to be safely placed in the aircraft cabin on a shelf above the passenger seat either under the seat in front of the passenger seat;
  • medicines, special dietary requirements in the amount required for the duration of the flight;
  • crutches, walking sticks, walkers, rollators, a folding wheelchair used by a passenger and having dimensions that allow them to be safely placed in the aircraft cabin on a shelf above the passenger seat or under the seat in front of the passenger seat;
  • goods purchased in duty-free shops at the airport, packed in a sealed (sealed) plastic bag, the weight and dimensions of which are established by the carrier’s rules.

A folding wheelchair must be checked in free of charge by the passenger, i.e. in excess of the established rate.

In excess of the established free baggage allowance, it is allowed to carry free of charge:

  • baby stroller, cane stroller, restraint system, cradle and others – for passengers with children;
  • wheelchair or stretcher – for passengers with reduced mobility.

Read more about the conditions for carriage of excess baggage and carriage of animals.

Payment for carriage of baggage

In the event that the carriage of a passenger is arranged at a fare that does not involve the carriage of baggage, or an additional piece of baggage is required, you can register and pay for additional baggage:

  • during the online check-in process, adding an additional piece of baggage to the order;
  • in the online service Search for orders, having passed the order authentication and proceeding to the registration of additional services by clicking the “Buy services” button;
  • at the airport of departure just before the flight.

Full rules and conditions for the carriage of baggage are available in the Rules of Carriage.

Before the flight, we recommend that you read:

UTair Aviation – Baggage and hand luggage

Baggage allowances in fares

Service class Eurobusiness Economy
Tariff brand Premium Optimum Minimum
Carry-on baggage (40x30x20cm) 1 piece 5 kg 1 piece 5 kg 1 piece 5 kg 1 piece 5 kg
Hand luggage (55x40x25cm) 1 piece 10 kg 1 piece 10 kg
Luggage (in the luggage compartment) 2 pieces 30 kg 1 piece 20 kg 1 piece 20 kg
Sports Equipment 1 set 20 kg 1 set 20 kg 1 piece 20 kg (if there is no baggage in the hold) At extra charge

Carry-on baggage

Utair has two carry-on baggage allowances:

  1. Standard carry-on baggage measuring 40 × 30 × 20 cm and weighing 5 kg.Passengers with tickets of any tariff can take it with them.
  2. Large hand luggage 55 × 40 × 25 cm and weighing 10 kg. In addition to standard carry-on baggage, passengers with Premium and Eurobusiness fares can take it on board.

In addition to hand luggage, a passenger can take a backpack measuring 40 × 30 × 20 cm and weighing no more than 5 kg or a handbag or a briefcase, as well as:

  • Bouquet of flowers.
  • Umbrella cane.
  • Outerwear.
  • Baby food for a child during the flight.
  • Suit in a garment bag.
  • Baby bassinet, restraints for children under two years of age, stroller and other devices) when transporting a child, which can be placed in the aircraft cabin on a shelf above the passenger seat or under the seat of a chair, with dimensions not exceeding 65 × 40 × 20 cm. are allowed for carriage only with a child.
  • Medicines, special dietary requirements, in the amount required for the duration of the flight.Medicines in excess of what is required during the flight must be checked in baggage.
  • Crutches, walking sticks, walkers, rollators, folding wheelchair that can be placed on a shelf above the passenger seat or under the seat.
  • Airport duty free goods, packed in one sealed plastic bag, weighing no more than 3 kg.

Passengers with the “Minimum” and “Optimum” fares can carry musical instruments measuring 40 × 30 × 20.To transport a larger tool, you can purchase an additional piece of carry-on baggage up to 55 × 40 × 25. Passengers with other fares can carry musical instruments in their carry-on baggage only if they fit into the dimensions 55 × 40 × 25 cm.

If a musical instrument exceeds the dimensions of “large hand luggage” 55 * 40 * 25, then it will not work in the cabin.
The only possible option for transporting a musical instrument in the aircraft cabin with dimensions exceeding 55 * 40 * 25 is to transport the musical instrument in the aircraft cabin on a separate passenger seat.Such transportation is registered at the air ticket offices. At the same time, 2 tickets are issued, one per passenger + a ticket for an additional seat for carrying baggage, and the cashier immediately sends a request to the AK for approval.

In hand luggage, you cannot carry stabbing, cutting, explosive and poisonous objects, as well as liquids with a volume of more than 100 ml each. A complete list of things prohibited for transportation.

Utair staff can check the dimensions and weight of carry-on baggage upon boarding.The dimensions and weight are checked using a measuring frame – carry-on baggage should pass into it without effort.

If, upon landing at the airport of departure, it turns out that the carry-on baggage is larger than the allowed norm, but does not exceed 10 kg and dimensions 55x40x25 cm, you can pay 4000 rubles (65 € for foreign flights) and take it with you to the cabin.

Or check in luggage, pay 3000 ₽ (50 € for foreign flights). Baggage checked out upon boarding at the airport of arrival is handed over in the baggage claim area (except for prams and wheelchairs).

The Airline may refuse to transport a passenger’s belongings in excess of the norm if there is not enough time to process the payment before the end of boarding. As a rule, the payment procedure takes up to 5 minutes.


Baggage is placed in the hold of the aircraft. Passengers with “Optimum” and “Premium” fares are entitled to 1 piece of baggage – weighing up to 20 kg and up to 203 cm in the sum of 3 dimensions. Eurobusiness passengers can check in 2 pieces of baggage weighing up to 30 kg with the same dimensions.

Luggage for children. Regardless of the class of service, passengers under 2 years old with a ticket without a seat can take on board 1 piece of hand luggage measuring 40 × 30 × 20 cm and weighing up to 5 kg, as well as baby food, a cradle and a stroller (according to FAP standards).

Flying with different airlines

If you are flying with Utair and another airline with a transfer, the baggage and carry-on baggage allowances may differ.

Read about the other airline’s website regulations and make sure your luggage and carry-ons comply with them.

Excess baggage and oversized baggage

For an additional fee, you can purchase the opportunity to carry hand luggage or baggage in excess of the norm included in the fare. The cost varies depending on the moment of payment – before check-in, during check-in or when boarding. It is more profitable to pay for excess baggage in advance, on the website or in the Utair mobile application.

If there are several destinations in the ticket, additional baggage is paid separately for each.

Additional carry-on baggage. You can take on board additional hand baggage 55 × 40 × 25 cm and weighing up to 10 kg.

Place of purchase Hand luggage 55x40x25 cm, 10 kg
When buying a ticket (more than 36 hours before the flight departure) 1499 ₽ / 25 €
When checking in for a flight on the website and in the mobile application
When buying a ticket less than 36 hours before departure.
2500 ₽ / 40 €
When checking in for a flight at the airport 2800 ₽ / 45 €
When boarding an airplane 4000 ₽ / 65 €

When registering for routes on the territory of Khanty-Mansi Autonomous Okrug-Yugra, a paid piece of hand luggage weighing up to 10 kg with dimensions of 55 × 40 × 25 cm for the “Optimum” or “Minimum” fares is paid for each kg of actual weight at the excess baggage rates.For transfer flights, the cost is doubled.

For flights from Moscow to Anadyr and from Anadyr to Moscow, excess baggage can be bought only at the airport at the time of check-in for the flight.

Up to 10 kg – 2300 ₽
Up to 20 kg – 3500 ₽

The cost of the second and the following additional pieces of baggage is:

Up to 10 kg – 4000 ₽
Up to 20 kg – 6000 ₽

The first piece of excess baggage is a piece that is purchased in addition to the allowance.

Excess baggage. You will need to pay extra to check in more baggage.

Place of purchase up to 10 kg
up to 20 kg
When buying a ticket 1499 ₽ / 25 € 2499 ₽ / 40 €
When checking in for a flight on the website and in the mobile application
When buying a ticket less than 36 hours before departure
2000 ₽ / 30 € 3000 ₽ / 50 €
When checking in for a flight at the airport 2300 ₽ / 35 € 3500₽ / 60 €
When boarding an airplane 3000₽ / 50 € 4000₽ / 65 €

For transfer flights, the cost is doubled.

Oversize. If the baggage is more than 203 cm in the sum of three dimensions, you will need to pay extra.

Place of purchase Oversize
(more than 203 cm by the sum of 3 measurements)
When buying a ticket
When checking in for a flight 3500₽ / 60 €
When boarding an airplane

For transfer flights, the cost is doubled.

Excess weight. If the baggage turns out to be heavier than the permissible limits, you will have to pay extra.

Place of purchase from 21 kg to 30 kg from 31 kg to 50 kg
When buying a ticket
When checking in for a flight 3500₽ / 60 € 7000 ₽ / 120 €

For transfer flights, the cost is doubled.

If the norm is exceeded in several categories, then you need to pay the amount of the excess.

On internal routes through the territory of the Khanty-Mansi Autonomous Okrug-UGRA, excess baggage is paid at the rate of 2% of the passenger rate for 1 kg.

Sports equipment

Passengers with the “Premium” and “Eurobusiness” fares can carry one of the sets of sports equipment in their luggage free of charge, with a total weight of no more than 20 kg.

Passengers with “Minimum” and “Optimum” fares for transportation of sports equipment need to pay an additional 3500 rubles (or 60 € on international flights) for 1 set, with a total weight of no more than 20 kg, for each segment of the route.According to the Optimum tariff, you can take sports equipment instead of baggage free of charge. It is important that the equipment occupies 1 piece with dimensions up to 203 cm in the sum of 3 dimensions and weighing 20 kg.

In honor of the opening of the ski season, Utair has reduced the cost of transporting ski or snowboard kits until April 30, 2021. Details on the link.

Utair transports sports equipment with a surcharge on flights to Bukhara, Samarkand, Tashkent, Fergana and Dushanbe and back, regardless of the fare.

  • 1 bag with 1 pair of skis and 1 pair of poles.
  • 1 piece of baggage with 1 pair of boots and 1 helmet.


  • 1 bag with 1 snowboard.
  • 1 piece of baggage with 1 pair of boots and 1 helmet.


  • 1 piece of baggage with equipment.
  • 1 piece of baggage with two hockey sticks.


  • 1 piece of luggage Nordic walking sticks (1 pair).


  • 1 bike (or balance bike) in a case or box.


  • 1 scooter in a case or box.

An electrically powered scooter or bicycle with a detachable battery with a capacity of up to 160 Wh (the battery is carried in carry-on baggage). A scooter or bicycle with a non-removable battery is transported with registration at the airport cargo terminal. A scooter or bicycle with a built-in (non-removable) lithium battery can be transported when it is registered as a “dangerous cargo” through the cargo terminal of the airport, if it is technically possible to handle, formalize and transport it.

Accepted for carriage folded in the presence of packaging that prevents damage (cardboard box).


  • Surfing equipment – surfing board, bindings, wetsuit, pair of boots, other accessories (two pieces with a total weight of up to 20 kg).


  • Diving equipment – buoyancy compensator, wetsuit, helmet, gloves (1 pair), boots (1 pair), 1 fins (pair), pressure gauge, regulator (octopus), mask with snorkel, 1 breathing cylinder, devices and others additional accessories (two pieces with a total weight of up to 20 kg).

The cylinder must be empty, the valve must be open or removed to allow access for inspection when checking in baggage at the airport.

The transportation of regeneration devices, cylinders with compressed gases and chemicals, other devices / accessories that belong to the category of dangerous goods is excluded.


  • 1 case (container) with fishing equipment – 2 fishing rods and 1 set of tackle.

At the same time, the accompanying equipment (sticks, boots, helmet, bindings, wetsuit, hockey equipment), carried without skis / snowboards / surfboards / clubs, is not subject to this free transportation rate in excess of the established norm.

Additional baggage for Utair Status members

Holders of elite levels of the Utair Status loyalty program have privileges in baggage transportation:

Type of baggage Silver Gold
Hand luggage 10 kg (55x40x25cm) is free
Sports equipment (up to 20 kg) is free is free

What sizes of suitcases are available and which one to choose

It is advisable for every traveler to have several travel accessories in order to determine which suitcase size to choose before each trip.A short business visit to a neighboring city will require significantly less things than a two-week tour to an exotic country. And if a married couple with children is going on a trip? Are all family members ready to take responsibility for their part of the luggage, or is it advisable to increase the size of the head’s bag?

The cost of quality travel accessories is quite high, so it is important to determine which ones are really needed and which ones will be unclaimed. It is advisable to think it over a few months before the trip, carefully study the assortment and, slowly, make a good choice.

What are the sizes of suitcases?

Despite the huge variety of models, there are only three sizes:

  • S – small, not higher than 59 centimeters, and the sum of all measurements is less than 115;
  • M – medium, with a height of 59 to 71 cm, the sum of all measurements is 130-135 centimeters;
  • 90 110 L – large, the sum of length, width and height can reach 158 cm, and height – 70.

But in one category, both the overall dimensions can differ significantly (most manufacturers indicate them in inches, and you need to translate them into centimeters yourself), and the volume of the suitcase (indicate in liters).

In the S category, there are models with a capacity of both 35 and 45 liters. The volume of a large suitcase on wheels belonging to category L can vary by 1.5-1.7 times between models. And it does not always make sense to choose the most capacious model, it is necessary to take into account some more important characteristics.

Size S

The smallest accessories are presented in this category. Their main advantage is that most models fit the definition of carry-on luggage, so you can not check them in, but take them with you on the plane.The volume of a suitcase in liters usually does not exceed 45, and maybe less. But this is enough for one person going on a short trip. Another important advantage is that a child of 10-15 years old can handle carrying such luggage on his own.

But before buying, you need to make sure that the model has the optimal dimensions. A non-standard shape, that is, large length, width or height, may not allow the accessory to be used as carry-on luggage. Before the flight, you should also check the permissible weight in a particular airline for business and economy class passengers.And if you strive to take as many things as possible, you should choose not only the most roomy, but also the lightest accessory.

Suitcase size M

This is the most universal answer to the question: what size to choose a suitcase on wheels for single travelers, especially women. But before buying, it is imperative to clarify: how many liters are there in a suitcase of size M. The volume can be either 65 or 85 liters. The height is also significantly different – from 59 to 71 cm.The optimal value of this parameter is selected individually, you need to walk with different models and determine which one is more convenient. The average volume of a travel suitcase allows you to place the necessary things for one person on a trip lasting 7-15 days. It’s also suitable for two on a short weekend trip, medium size for a teenager heading for summer camp, or a woman if the main purpose of her short trip is shopping. This accessory combines large capacity and ease of movement.

How to choose the size of a suitcase for long trips or family trips?

For long trips or traveling with children, it is necessary to consider models in the size L category. Only they will allow you to accommodate clothes for all family members, children’s toys and other necessary things. The large size also means high storage capacity. But it must be remembered that the volume depends not only on them. The design and material of the suitcase, the number of wheels on which it rests, also affect how many liters of the interior space of the luggage.This figure can vary from 75 to 125 liters.

When determining what is the optimal size and volume for you, you should immediately evaluate the maneuverability of different models on two or four wheels.

Advantages and disadvantages of XL size

Many manufacturers offer another category – XL. The height of the accessories exceeds 80 centimeters, and the volume can reach 150 liters. Such dimensions and volumes of suitcases with wheels allow you to take everything you need for a long trip for a family with several children to another climatic zone.It is especially important to purchase such models only from well-known manufacturers, for example Samsonite, who equip the accessory with reinforced wheels and can guarantee that they will withstand high loads.

These models are perfect for strong men who want to buy the optimal travel suitcase for travel in the car, especially if it has a large enough trunk. They are also convenient during long train journeys. But on the plane, problems may arise: before each flight, it will be necessary to clarify how many cm of length, height, width your luggage can have as much as possible according to the rules of a particular airline.