Gas in the body: Nervous stomach: Is there such a thing?
Intestinal Gas – Gastrointestinal Society
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Many healthy individuals are concerned that they have too much intestinal gas, thinking that their digestive tract could be malfunctioning. While gas in itself is not dangerous, our inability to control its passage might have social implications.
Studies have shown that the average person generates 0.6-1.8L of gas per day. This comes from two sources, swallowed air (exogenous) and gas produced by colonic bacteria (endogenous). Intestinal gas is composed of various amounts of oxygen, nitrogen, carbon dioxide, hydrogen, and methane. Oxygen, nitrogen, and carbon dioxide come from swallowed air and hydrogen and methane are by-products of the breakdown of food residue by good bacteria (probiotics) naturally residing in the colon. Careful analysis of intestinal gas has shown that it is comprised primarily of exogenous air and only a small amount of endogenous air.
Although less than 1% of gas is odorous, intestinal bacteria produce several sulphur-containing compounds that are the primary odour culprits. The human nose can detect hydrogen sulphide in concentrations as low as one-half part per billion, so passing even a very small amount of this gas could draw attention!
Gas releases from the digestive tract via the mouth by belching, or via the anus as flatus. A healthy individual emits flatus about 12-25 times per day. In the typical situation, swallowed air remains in the stomach for a while and then passes through the digestive tract in small amounts at regular intervals. It moves rapidly through the small intestine, propelled by the normal rhythmic contractions of the digestive tract (peristalsis). Usually this process does not cause any uncomfortable symptoms. Once gas enters the colon, its propulsion slows and eventually the anus releases it in (usually) small amounts.
We swallow almost no air during sleep, but this is when we pass the most gas. Thus, at the beginning of the day, there is minimal gas in the intestine, but it accumulates throughout the day. Many factors influence gas passage and these include the amount of swallowed air, the nature and frequency of dietary intake, and the motility of the bowel, all of which can be affected by food, medications, and stress.
Symptoms of Intestinal Gas
For most, the passage of gas through the digestive tract causes no symptoms, but some experience frequent burping or belching, uncomfortable abdominal bloating, and repeating flatus. Researchers have noted that when some individuals drink a beverage, they might swallow twice as much air as liquid, especially if drinking through a straw. As gas builds up, the abdomen may painfully distend, especially right after eating. Sometimes bloating is so severe that clothing becomes tight or may no longer fit.
Since distension of the digestive tract affects intestinal contractions, increased gas passing from the stomach into the intestine may increase normal peristalsis that, if strong enough, may cause painful cramping. Ingested gas passing through the bowel will eventually leave via the anus as flatus, as will gas produced in the colon, but it is the latter which is usually foul smelling.
Management of Intestinal Gas
The management of intestinal gas depends on its source.
Exogenous Gas: To reduce this major source of intestinal gas, you must swallow less air. Gum chewing, smoking, poor fitting dentures, a chronic postnasal discharge, chronic pain, and anxiety or tension all cause you to swallow more air, as does gulping of food, washing food down with liquids, sipping hot beverages, and drinking through a straw. Limiting these activities will help cut down on the amount of air you swallow.
Endogenous Gas: There is little gas production in the small intestine because bacterial concentration is low. However, the colon contains many gas-producing bacteria that thrive on foods containing poorly digested starches and sugars (carbohydrates). Smelly gas forms as the bacteria ferment these foods when they pass through the colon. This fermentation is similar to the production of bubbles in the fermenting of grapes into champagne. To decrease gas generated by digestion, there are certain gas-producing foods you might want to avoid.
One common source of digestion-produced gas is beans, which contain the complex carbohydrates raffinose and stachyose. The human intestine cannot absorb these carbohydrates on its own because humans do not produce the enzymes necessary for their digestion. Fortunately, certain friendly bacteria and yeasts (microorganisms) that live in the colon are capable of breaking down these carbohydrates so the body can absorb their nutrients. By-products of microorganism digestion are hydrogen, methane, and carbon dioxide gases. Some individuals find using a commercial enzyme product such as Beano® or Digesta® to be helpful in reducing the amount of gas produced by bacteria when eating beans or other high-starch foods such as cabbage, broccoli, and whole grains. Some food preparation techniques may reduce gas-producing effects, such as pre-soaking beans at least four hours in water and then draining and rinsing before cooking thoroughly in fresh water.
Another contributor of digestion-produced gas is lactose intolerance, which affects nearly 70% of adults worldwide, to varying degrees. These individuals typically produce inadequate amounts of the enzyme lactase, but in rare cases produce none. Lactase is necessary to digest lactose, the sugar found in milk. If you are lactose intolerant, then managing intake of milk products could help. A 10-day lactose avoidance trial can clarify the role of lactose in your gas-related symptoms. If you are lactose intolerant, you may wish to try lactase-containing commercial products, such as Digesta® (containing multiple enzymes) and Lactaid®, or you could try to build your tolerance by gradually re-introducing milk into your diet. Milk-based cheese products contain more lactose than cream-based and aged cheeses, which contain very little. Milk contains many vital nutrients, so make sure you consult your physician or dietitian before making a decision to eliminate dairy products from the diet for the long-term, and have a plan in place to ensure adequate nutrient intake.
In addition to beans and lactose, many fruits and vegetables are gas-producers. However, not everyone reacts in the same way to these foods. Rather than completely eliminating gas-producing foods from the diet and missing out on their important nutrient and fibre benefits, try eating them in smaller quantities throughout the day and gradually increase consumption, as tolerated.
Certain low-calorie sweeteners, particularly alcohol sugars, such as mannitol, xylitol, and sorbitol can cause gas, bloating, diarrhea, and abdominal discomfort if taken in large quantities. (The suffix itol denotes sugar alcohols.)
Some over-the-counter medications may be helpful, although these do not work for everyone. These include products containing the ingredient simethicone, some antacids, and other agents. Medications that regulate motility may also provide relief. A plant-based prokinetic agent, Iberogast®, helps regulate digestive motility and break down intestinal gas. Studies have shown that in infants with colic-related gas, a probiotic product called BioGaia® Drops, containing Lactobacillus reuteri, is helpful.
Intestinal Gas Outlook
Intestinal gas is generally more of an annoyance than a serious medical problem for most individuals. However, if you experience ongoing excessive gas accompanied by other symptoms, or gas that is not relieved by dietary and/or lifestyle changes, then consult your physician.
Helpful Hints for Gas Reduction
Make an effort to:
- eat slowly
- have loose dentures refitted
- treat postnasal drip
- increase physical activity
- manage your lactose load (if intolerant)
- gradually increase fibre in your diet
Avoid or limit:
- talking while eating
- eating when you are upset or in a hurry
- using a straw to drink
- drinking from a bottle
- smoking or chewing tobacco
- chewing gum or sucking on candy
- drinking carbonated beverages
- eating foods with sorbitol & fructose
- sipping hot beverages (let them cool to lukewarm)
In ancient Rome, passing gas in public was illegal. During the time of King Henry VII in England, a hearty belch after a meal was quite acceptable.
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Gastroenterology Specialties, P.C. & Lincoln Endoscopy Gas in the digestive tract
- The passing of gas is a normal bodily function that often helps people feel relief.
- Some people experience excessive gas, which may make them feel uncomfortable.
- Gas is caused by swallowed air and the food we eat.
- People can often control their gassiness through diet.
Gas in the digestive tract is not a subject that most people like to talk about. The truth is that all of us have it and must get rid of it in some way. Normally, gas passes out through the rectum or is belched through the mouth. These are both necessary functions of the body that allow us to eliminate gas.
When gas does not pass out of the body easily, it can collect in some part of the digestive tract, causing bloating and discomfort. Even normal amounts of gas in the body can bother people who are sensitive to this pressure. Although gas usually is not a sign of a medical problem, it can be. So if you have persistent or extreme gassiness (flatulence), mention it to your doctor when you have a checkup.
How Much Gas Does the Body Produce?
The amount of gas that people produce varies. Most people produce between a pint and a half gallon of gas each day. Oxygen, carbon dioxide and nitrogen from swallowed air make up a large part of flatus (gas). Fermenting foods in the colon produce hydrogen and methane as well as carbon dioxide and oxygen. All of these components of flatus are odorless. The unpleasant odor of some flatus is the result of trace gases, such as hydrogen sulfide, indole and skatole, which are produced when foods decompose in the colon.
Causes of Gas & Belching
A common source of upper-intestinal gas is swallowed air. Each time we swallow, small amounts of air enter the stomach. This gas in the stomach is usually passed into the small intestine where part of it is absorbed. The rest travels into the colon (large intestine) to be passed out through the rectum.
In some people, part of the gas is belched out instead of being passed from the stomach into the intestine. This happens for several reasons:
- Soft drinks contain carbon dioxide, which can produce large amounts of gas when warmed in the stomach. People with a gas People under a lot of stress often swallow large amounts of air.
- Some people swallow air frequently because they have post-nasal drip, chew gum or smoke.
- Rapid eating or poorly fitting dentures also may cause too much air to be swallowed.
- Drinking beverages that contain carbonated water may increase gas in the digestive tract. These problem should avoid carbonated or “sparkling” drinks.
Some people experience frequent belching. This might occur after a person has swallowed air without realizing it. Sometimes belching accompanies the movement of stomach material back up (reflux) into the esophagus (the tube that connects the mouth and stomach). To clear material from the esophagus, a person may swallow frequently, which leads to more intake of air and further belching.
Another cause of repeated belching is gastritis (inflammation of the stomach lining). There are many causes of acute or chronic gastritis, but the most common cause is infection with a bacterium called Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori). When this organism gets into the stomach, it can produce bloating. This condition usually can be diagnosed by a gastroenterologist. The doctor may detect the infection with a breath test, stool test or blood test. The doctor also may take a sample of tissue or biopsy from the stomach, using a lighted, flexible tube called an endoscope that is inserted through the mouth. H. pylori infection usually is treated with antibiotics.
Is Gassiness Caused By a Disease?
If excess gas is your only symptom, it is probably not caused by a disease. The problem may occur simply because you swallow air or digest food incompletely. It could be that your intestines have the kind of bacteria that produce a lot of gas. You could have a sluggish bowel that does not get rid of air readily. You might have an irritable bowel or spastic colon, which means that you cannot tolerate gas accumulation inside of the intestines, so even small amounts of air feel uncomfortable.
Foods & Gas
The foods we eat can be a factor in the production of gas in the lower intestine. Some foods are not completely digested in the small intestine; they contain carbohydrates that are poorly absorbed in the intestine but upon reaching the colon, are fermented by the bacteria that live in the colon, causing gas. These foods include:
- Brussels sprouts
- Dried beans
Today, many people are trying to improve their nutrition and health by eating more fiber. However, some people discover that adding large amounts of fiber to their diets causes gassiness. This can happen when someone begins eating more whole-grain cereals, such as whole bran, oatmeal or oat bran, more whole-grain breads or more fresh fruits and vegetables. They get a feeling of being bloated when they first begin the high-fiber diet, but within three weeks or so, they may adapt to it. Some people, however, don’t adapt, and the bloating from eating a lot of fiber can be a permanent problem.
Milk & Dairy
A common cause of excess lower-intestinal gas is that a person’s body may not have enough lactase, an enzyme normally found in the small intestine. Lactase is needed to digest lactose, the sugar found in milk and other dairy products. When this sugar passes undigested into the colon, it is fermented by bacteria, and gas forms. This can be a cause of excessive flatulence.
If lactase deficiency is suspected of causing your gas, your doctor may tell you to stop eating dairy products for a while to see if you will have less gas. The doctor also may give you a breath test to find out if you are lactose intolerant. The breath test detects hydrogen that is released by the bacteria as the undigested lactose ferments in the colon. If you find milk causes gassiness, you may consider drinking milk in which the lactose has been broken down so it can be absorbed.
Fruit and Sweetners
Finally, ingestion of large quantities of foods that contain fructose, a sugar commonly found in fruits and processed foods in the form of high-fructose corn syrup, may also contribute to gassiness. The small intestine can only absorb a limited amount of fructose each day. As with undigested lactose, it passes into the colon where it is fermented by bacteria. Artificial sweetners, such as sorbitol, found in diet food products are also poorly absorbed and a source of excessive gassiness.
Abdominal Pain & Bloating
Eating a lot of fatty food can cause bloating and discomfort because the fat delays stomach emptying, allowing gas to build up there. This problem can be avoided by eating less fatty meals.
The feeling of bloating in the abdomen may increase during the day and become most severe after a large meal. Many people think the bloated feeling after eating is caused by large amounts of gas. Researchers, however, have not found any connection between this symptom and the total amount of gas in the abdomen. Studies show that in some people even modest amounts (1 ounce to ½ pint) of gas in the intestine can cause spasms there, especially after eating.
Gas in the upper abdomen often is relieved by belching. Sometimes people try to swallow air to make themselves belch. This doesn’t work, however, because it only adds to the amount of gas in the stomach and does not reduce the discomfort.
Gas can collect anywhere in the lower intestine. Often it collects on the left side of the colon and the pain can be confused with heart disease. When gas collects on the right side of the colon, the pain can be like that caused by gallbladder disease or even appendicitis.
A bloated feeling is probably not anything to be concerned about, but it can be a symptom of a more serious problem, such as an intestinal obstruction. If your problem is chronic, or if you are experiencing a severe increase in gassiness, you should talk to your doctor.
How to Reduce Gas in the Digestive Tract
If you are bothered by excessive belching or flatus, and your doctor has determined that you have no serious disease, the following suggestions may be helpful:
- Check with a dentist to make sure dentures fit properly.
- Avoid chewing gum or sucking on hard candies (especially sugarless gum or dietetic candies that contain sorbitol).
- Eliminate carbonated beverages and reduce foods containing high-fructose corn syrup from your diet.
- Avoid milk and milk products, such as soft cheeses, or try milk in which the lactose is already broken down, if you have lactose intolerance.
- Eat less gas-producing foods such as cauliflower, brussels sprouts, bran, beans, broccoli and cabbage. Or when eating such foods, you may consider trying over-the-counter gas relief medicines, which may help breakdown the non-absorbable carbohydrates found in these foods.
- Walking, jogging, calisthenics and other exercise help to stimulate the passage of gas through the digestive tract.
If your symptoms persist or worsen, see your doctor to make sure that the condition is not caused by abnormalities in your digestive tract.
Do Over-the-Counter Drugs Relieve Gas?
Many claims are made for over-the-counter drugs intended to relieve gassiness. Often people find that these drugs do not help much, but some of them do help some people.
- Simethicone and digestive enzymes, such as the lactose supplements, are among those often recommended by doctors. Milk treated with lactase may be tolerated by those with lactose intolerance.
- Sometimes doctors prescribe drugs called gastrointestinal stimulants that help move gas through the intestines more readily and that may help gassiness in some cases.
- Supplements that break down the non-absorbable carbohydrates responsible for gas caused by beans and some vegetables, such as a-galactosidase pills, may be helpful.
6 Common Excessive Gas Causes
Everyone farts, every single day. So don’t you dare deny it. But, despite the embarrassment that can happen when you let one out in an otherwise silent place, farting is absolutely natural. That said, some people produce more gas than others. And for those people, there are a few common excessive gas causes to know about.
“We all have bacteria in our gut, which produces gas. And it has to go somewhere,” explains Sophie Balzora, M.D., gastroenterologist and assistant professor of medicine at NYU Langone Medical Center. Whether farts or burps, gas comes out of your body in one form or another. In fact, we all pass gas an average of 15 to 20 times each day, according to the Mayo Clinic. In most cases, the gas you expel from your body is odorless, a mix of carbon dioxide, nitrogen, hydrogen, and sometimes methane. Sometimes, however, bacteria in your large intestine release gases that include sulfur, which is the culprit behind the unpleasant odor associated with passing gas, according to Hopkins Medicine.
But as natural as it is to let one rip periodically throughout the day, being overly gassy isn’t necessarily comfortable—for you or your coworkers. Excessive gas can cause discomfort to the point of bloating and abdominal pain, and it can actually be a symptom of a more serious condition.
So if you feel like you’re desperately holding back your gas more often than you should be or your gas is causing you discomfort throughout the day, here are some possible excessive gas causes to be aware of (and avoid, if possible).
1. You’re eating a lot of fiber-rich food.
Usually, the food you’re eating can be to blame for any excessive gas you’re having. A food that causes gas in one person may not in another, but there are some common culprits. “The classic food groups are high-fiber foods such as whole wheat and grains, fresh fruits and cruciferous vegetables (such as broccoli, cabbage, Brussels sprouts, kale, etc. ),” explains Felice Schnoll-Sussman M.D. gastroenterologist and director of the Jay Monahan Center for Gastrointestinal Health at NewYork-Presbyterian and Weill Cornell Medicine.
Fiber is usually recommended to combat constipation, but it can cause gas if it’s eaten in excess. This is because fiber isn’t fully digested by the small intestine, and the bacteria required to ferment or break down fiber-rich foods in the large intestine produces gas as a by-product, Hopkins Medicine says.
So the key here is, as with all good things, moderation. “It must be slowly incorporated into the diet,” Dr. Schnoll-Sussman explains. “If you binge on kale for its obvious nutritional value, you will most likely feel it with gas and bloating.”
Another tip? Make sure you’re drinking enough water, as fiber promotes healthy bowel movements best when there’s an adequate amount of water in your body.
2. You have a food sensitivity.
“Many people as they get older have difficulty digesting milk products,” Dr. Schnoll-Sussman says. So even if you’re not full-on intolerant, your body’s levels of lactase (the enzyme that breaks down lactose) may be lower than it used to be, making dairy a problem food. “Someone who is very lactose intolerant [may] experience bloating, cramps, and flatulence as soon as they ingest milk or other dairy products.” But your level of gassiness will vary depending on how sensitive you are.
intestinal gas | biology | Britannica
intestinal gas, also called flatus, material contained within the digestive tract that consists principally of swallowed air and partly of by-products of digestion. In humans the digestive tract contains normally between 150 and 500 cubic cm (10 and 30 cubic inches) of gas. During eating, air is swallowed into the stomach; this is either eructated (belched) or passed on to the intestines.
Gas in the stomach contains approximately 15 to 16 percent oxygen and 5 to 9 percent carbon dioxide; the rest is nitrogen. The air that is breathed contains about 21 percent oxygen; thus, some of the swallowed oxygen is absorbed by the blood capillaries in the stomach. Carbon dioxide is formed by reduction of the food by the stomach’s gastric juices. Nitrogen is not absorbed as a gas and is usually passed on.
Read More on This Topic
human digestive system: Intestinal gas
The movement of gas through the intestines produces the gurgling sounds known as borborygmi. In the resting state there are usually about…
The small intestine absorbs some of the carbon dioxide and oxygen and rapidly passes the remaining gas to the large intestine. If obstructions occur in the small intestine, gas pockets can accumulate containing as much as 3,500 cubic cm (200 cubic inches) of gas. These pockets distend the small intestine, causing severe pain. Normally, gas passes through the small intestine with the regular intestinal movements.
In the large intestine, or colon, the gas volume is usually 100 to 200 cubic cm (6 to 12 cubic inches). Most of the oxygen has been removed, and the amount of carbon dioxide has increased. New gases formed from bacterial fermentation are added in the colon. Of the new gases produced, hydrogen is the major component. Some of this is absorbed by the blood and released through the lungs during breathing. Other gas products formed are methane, hydrogen sulfide, ammonia, and various sulfur-containing mercaptans. Excess gas in the colon is eventually passed from the body by a process known as flatulence. Certain foods, such as beans, pork, onions, cabbage, and cauliflower, are known to increase gas production because of their high sulfur content.
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Gas in the Digestive Tract
Gas in the digestive tract is a normal condition when excess air is in the large or small intestines. For the majority of people, it is not a serious condition. People typically pass gas a few times every day. Burps and flatulence are the body’s way of ridding the body of gas. Burps are often the way the body releases swallowed air and flatulence is the typical release of the gas that is created during digestion. When a person experiences excessive gas, it is often a symptom of another condition. To get relieve symptoms, it is important to determine the specific cause of excessive gas and bloating.
When gas in the intestinal tract become excessive, patients are likely to feel symptoms such as:
- Feeling overly full and bloated on a regular basis
- Continual pains
- Frequent, extended bouts of burping, belching, and flatulence
Gas has many causes. The answer is to not always reach for an antacid or some other prescription or over-the-counter solution. Some acid-blocking drugs are likely to contribute to the problem on an ongoing basis. Without enough stomach acid, proteins and certain minerals like calcium can’t be broken down properly. If protein is not broken down properly, it ferments and putrefies, causing stomach bloat, excessive gas, fullness, Heartburn, and Nausea and Vomiting. Sometimes symptoms can worsen throughout the day as the small intestine is irritated by bacteria interacting with food called Small Intestinal Bacterial Overgrowth (SIBO). Other symptoms include:
The treatment for your condition depends on the results of testing. Limiting or eliminating foods that cause gas and bloating is effective for managing food intolerances. For SIBO, antibiotics can be prescribed to kill the bacterial overgrowth.
The treatment for gas depends on the underlying cause of the gas. Many times, gas can be reduced through diet and lifestyle changes including eliminating artificial sweeteners, beans, dairy and carbonated beverages. If one experiences excessive gas that is painful and other symptoms, it could be due to a serious underlying condition.
Food sensitivities such as fructose or lactose intolerance and dysfunction of the small bowel such as small intestine bacterial overgrowth (SIBO) are common causes of frequent digestive discomfort.
We’ve been brainwashed the last several decades into thinking that the digestive acids produced by the stomach are the root of all digestive problems. Consequently, so-called “acid blockers” are commonly prescribed as the quick fix for all forms of indigestion, making them one of the best-selling OTC categories in history.
diet is key to avoiding painful digestive system pouches
Painful digestive tract pouches
Diverticulosis occurs when small, bulging pouches (diverticula) develop in the digestive tract. When one or more of these pouches become inflamed or infected, the condition is called “diverticulitis.” These pockets occur when the inner layer of the digestive tract pushes through weak spots in the outer layer. The pouches associated with the disease are most often located in the lower part of the large intestine, the colon. Some people may have only several small pouches on the left side of the colon, while others may have involvement in most of the colon. Sufferers want to know the causes, symptoms, and treatments for the disorder.
Because diverticulitis is uncommon in regions of the world where diets are high in fiber and rich in grains, fruits, and vegetables, most doctors believe this condition is due in part to a diet low in fiber. A low-fiber diet leads to constipation, which increases pressure within the digestive tract with straining during bowel movements. The combination of pressure and straining over many years leads to diverticulitis.
Most people who have diverticulitis are unaware that they have the condition because it usually does not cause symptoms. It is possible that some people with the disease experience bloating, abdominal pain or constipation due to difficulty in stool passage through the affected region of the colon.
Dr. Singh, Dr. Rashbaum, Dr. Nitin Parikh, Dr. Long B. Nguyen, Tammi D’Elena, PA-C, and Vanessa T. Dang, MSN, APRN, can diagnose diverticulitis by conducting a variety of standard intestinal tests:
Once diverticula form, they do not disappear by themselves. Fortunately, most patients with diverticulitis do not have symptoms and, therefore, do not need treatment. When diverticulitis is accompanied by abdominal pain, bloating, or constipation, Dr. Ranvir Singh, Dr. Stephen Rashbaum, Dr. Nitin Parikh, Dr. Long B. Nguyen, Tammi D’Elena, PA-C, and Vanessa T. Dang, MSN, APRN, may recommend a high-fiber diet to help make stools softer and easier to pass. Supplemental fiber products can help to bulk up and soften the stool, which makes bowel movements easier to pass. Depending on the severity of a patient’s diverticulitis they may also prescribe medications to help relax spasms in the colon that cause abdominal cramping or discomfort.
Flatulence: Everything You Wanted to Know About Farting
It’s both funny and embarrassing; perfectly natural, yet offensive. Sometimes it’s even painful. It assails our senses with its repugnant smell, while providing a much-needed release. It can announce its presence with an unapologetic, thunderous sound or a lingering, comedic melody. Sometimes, much to the relief of the perpetrator, it can stealthily go unnoticed. It’s considered both rude and crude — something you simply shouldn’t do around other people.
The act goes by many names — cutting the cheese, blowing a raspberry, letting it rip, passing gas, breaking wind and tooting. But it is most known as farting. And, while we are still small children, we develop a fascination with one of our body’s most basic functions — the accumulation and expelling of gas through the rectum, known as flatulence.
But what causes flatulence?
“Flatulence is a normal physiological process, which occurs when the bacteria in the large intestine (colon) metabolize things in our diet that we can’t metabolize. If we didn’t pass gas, we would explode,” says Dr. Eamonn Quigley, a gastroenterologist with Houston Methodist Gastroenterology Associates.
Our bodies have two processes to remove gas: belching (or burping) and flatulence. Belching is mostly caused by the air we swallow, and it releases gas from the upper GI tract — the stomach and the esophagus. Flatulence occurs in the lower gastrointestinal (GI) tract.
Why do farts smell so bad?
Most gas passed during flatulence goes unnoticed because there isn’t a smell. It may contain odorless gases, such as nitrogen, oxygen, hydrogen, carbon dioxide and methane, but a small portion includes hydrogen sulfide, which causes it smell like rotten eggs. Think of hydrogen sulfide as the waste of the microbes helping you digest the indigestible. Then, there are other factors contributing to smelly farts, including compounds that are byproducts from meat digested, and whether there is feces present in the rectum when flatulence occurs.
What foods and drinks cause gas?
“When a patient complains of excessive gas, one of the first things we look at is the patient’s diet,” explains Dr. Quigley.
Here are some foods associated with causing flatulence:
- Sugars, such as glucose (table sugar), lactose (milk sugar) and fructose (fruit sugar)
- Beans, including black beans, kidney beans and pinto beans
- Beverages, such as apple juice and milk
- Dairy products, such as cheese and ice cream, as well as food with added lactose
- Fruit, such as apples, pears and prunes
- Sugar alcohols commonly found in sugar-free candies and gum, including sorbitol, mannitol and xylitol
- Vegetables, such as asparagus, broccoli, cabbage, Brussels sprouts, cucumbers, onions and carrots
- Whole grains, including bran and whole wheat
Foods that can cause smelly gas include:
- Dairy products
“Some people have difficulty metabolizing sugars and carbs. If the patient has a condition, such as irritable bowel syndrome (IBS), then we might recommend the patient adopt a low FODMAP diet,” says Dr. Quigley.
FODMAPs (fermentable oligosaccharides, disaccharides and monosaccharides, and polyols) are the types of carbohydrates that can create digestive issues, such as gas, abdominal pain, bloating, constipation and diarrhea.
When should I see a doctor about flatulence?
“When it becomes distressing is when you should seek help,” says Dr. Quigley. “If you notice changes in the amount and frequency of gas passed, as well as abdominal pain, then it is time to talk to a doctor.”
What conditions cause excessive gas?
Conditions that create excess flatulence do so through various mechanisms. Lactose intolerance and celiac disease cause gas and bloating because the body has problems digesting carbs. Other conditions, such as abdominal adhesions, abdominal hernia and dumping syndrome, cause changes in how gas moves through the intestines. Also, diabetics can develop gastroparesis, which causes abnormal functioning of the stomach, with one of the symptoms being excessive gas. Also, check the list if side effects of both prescription and over-the-counter medications if you have noticed an increase in gas. Some medications, such as ibuprofen and antacids, may cause an increase in flatulence.
Why does having gas hurt?
“When people feel bloated and experience gas pain, it is not necessarily caused by a person having more gas, but by the gas becoming trapped and unable to move through the intestines properly.”
Is holding a fart in bad for you?
It’s going to come out one way or another. Holding in gas because you are in public only causes it to build up, resulting in abdominal distension, a feeling of being bloated, and possibly abdominal pain. The gaseous buildup may cause you to lose control over what could have been a nice, quiet and unnoticeable experience, and turn it into an epically embarrassing and possibly loud incident. So, unclench your cheeks and let it release — preferably in a nearby restroom.
Does the act of farting spread germs?
In case, you were worried about the internet rumors or debunked initial reports that you can catch COVID-19 from someone passing gas, you can’t.
“There is no evidence that you can spread germs through flatulence, unless feces is present,” says Dr. Quigley.
If it gives you comfort, think of your clothing as a mask for your bottom. Just to be safe, keep your pants on, for all our sakes.
Fun Fart Facts
- Women may actually fart more than men. However, they are typically more discreet about doing it.
- Humans pass gas between 13 to 21 times a day.
- Farts can be flammable, if they contain hydrogen and methane. (Warning: Do not try to test under any circumstances.)
- According to an NBC News report, upon release, farts can travel about 10 feet per second, or approximately 6.8 miles per hour.
- A scientist who studies flatulence is called a flatologist.
- The oldest recorded joke is an ancient Sumerian fart joke that dates back to 1900 BC.
90,000 Carbon dioxide – everything about carbon dioxide in our article
Carbon dioxide and us: why CO2 is dangerous
Carbon dioxide is necessary for the human body in the same way as oxygen. But just like with oxygen, too much carbon dioxide damages our well-being.
A large concentration of CO2 in the air leads to intoxication of the body and causes a state of hypercapnia. With hypercapnia, the person experiences breathing difficulties, nausea, headache, and may even pass out.If the content of carbon dioxide does not decrease, then the turn of hypoxia – oxygen starvation – begins. The fact is that both carbon dioxide and oxygen move through the body on the same “transport” – hemoglobin. They normally “travel” together, attaching themselves to different places on the hemoglobin molecule. However, an increased concentration of carbon dioxide in the blood decreases the ability of oxygen to bind to hemoglobin. The amount of oxygen in the blood decreases and hypoxia sets in.
Such unhealthy consequences for the body occur when inhaling air with a CO2 content of more than 5000 ppm (this can be the air in mines, for example).In fairness, in ordinary life we practically do not encounter such air. However, even a much lower concentration of carbon dioxide has a negative impact on health.
According to the findings of some studies, already 1,000 ppm CO2 causes fatigue and headaches in half of the subjects. Many people begin to feel stuffiness and discomfort even earlier. With a further increase in the concentration of carbon dioxide up to 1,500 – 2,500 ppm, performance is critically reduced, the brain is “lazy” to take the initiative, process information and make decisions.
And if the level of 5,000 ppm is almost impossible in everyday life, then 1,000 and even 2,500 ppm can easily be part of the reality of a modern person. Our experiment at school showed that in rarely ventilated classrooms, CO2 levels stay above 1,500 ppm for a significant part of the time, and sometimes jumps above 2,000 ppm. There is every reason to believe that the situation is similar in many offices and even apartments.
Another study found a link between CO2 levels and oxidative stress: the higher the carbon dioxide level, the more we suffer from oxidative stress, which destroys our cells.
A woman’s body was found at the site of a gas explosion in the Nikolaev region
A woman’s body was found at the site of a gas explosion in the Nikolaev region
At the site of a gas explosion in the Nikolaev region was found woman’s body – RIA Novosti, 11/27/2021
At the site of a gas explosion in the Nikolaev region, the body of a woman was found
A woman’s body was found at the site of a gas explosion in a five-story building in the city of New Odessa in the Nikolaev region of Ukraine, the press service reported on Saturday afternoon… RIA Novosti, 27.11.2021
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KIEV, Nov 27 – RIA Novosti. The woman’s body was found at the site of a gas explosion in a five-story building in the city of New Odessa in the Nikolaev region of Ukraine, the press service of the State Service for Emergency Situations reported on Saturday afternoon.The gas explosion destroyed two floors. Rescuers reported three victims. According to a statement on the website of the State Emergency Service, a woman’s body was found during the removal of rubble in an apartment on the 4th floor. “At present, the divisions of the State Emergencies Service, with the involvement of heavy engineering equipment, continue work on dismantling the destroyed elements of the building’s structures, removing the body and searching for possible two blocked persons,” the State Emergency Service reports. two more apartments on the fifth.50 people were evacuated from the damaged entrance.
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14:29 27.11.2021 (updated: 14:45 27.11.2021)
A woman’s body was found at the site of a gas explosion in the Nikolaev region
What is Fluid, nanofluid – Neftegaz Technical Library.RU
Fluid – any substance, the behavior of which during deformation can be described by the laws of fluid mechanics.
The term “fluid” was introduced into science in the 17th century to refer to hypothetical fluids, with the help of which some physical phenomena and the formation of rocks were explained.
Examples of such fluids: R. Boyle’s caloric (1673), G. Stahl’s phlogiston (1697), T.U. Bergman’s primary solution (1769), etc.
With the development of science, the content of the concept of fluid has changed.
Rheological and geological studies have shown that all real bodies, no matter how solid they seem, behave like liquids under the influence of long-term tangential loads.
If the time t of the action of an external force causing tangential stresses in the body is much less than the relaxation time (tr), then the body behaves elastically.
For t> tr, the body behaves like a liquid, that is, it flows.
In geological processes, the duration of which is often measured in millions of years, not only gas, aqueous solutions, oil, silt, magma, but also clay, salts, gypsum, anhydrides, limestones and other solids can act as a fluid.
Reservoir fluid – any fluid that occurs in the pores of a rock.
While drilling an oil or gas well, there may be formations containing different fluids, such as various saturated with oil, gas and water.
The fluids found in the formation are called formation fluids.
In geotechnical engineering, drilling fluid, also called drilling fluid, is used to drill wells in rock formations.
Nanofluids are exploration fluids that include at least 1 additive, which is a nanomaterial.
Materials whose structure and system of substances are optimized at the atomic level are called nanomaterials and are usually less than 100 nanometers in size (at least in 1 dimension).
Nanomaterials exhibit various interesting properties predicted by the laws of quantum mechanics.
Nanofluids in their colloidal state can overcome the functional limitations of bulk solids associated with drilling and production because these ultrafine particles have a very low concentration requirement and unlimited access to the inner and outer surfaces of the formations near the wellbore, which can allow them to prevent problems associated with drilling and production, and not just control them.
This is achieved by the extremely high nanoparticle surface to volume ratio, which allows very low nanoparticle concentration to achieve the same effects as bulk materials.
This property can be visualized by taking a cube with a side of length s.
Then its total surface area (TSA) will be 6s 2 , and its volume will be s 3 .
If we cut this cube in half, its TSA 2 x of the resulting cuboids is 8s 2 , and if we cut it in half again, TSA becomes 10s 2 , while the volume remains unchanged!
This effect manifests itself in all forms and is of great importance in chemical reactions because there are many more particles available for the reaction, which means that a greater yield can be obtained with the same quantities as the input.
The number of victims of a gas explosion in Noginsk near Moscow increased to seven
Photo author, EPA
Rescuers and police at the site of the collapse of a part of the house in Noginsk
As a result of a gas explosion in a nine-story panel building in Noginsk, Moscow Region, according to the latest data, seven people died. The explosion occurred on Wednesday morning in a nine-story panel building in the city of Noginsk in the Moscow region.The main version of the authorities is a domestic gas leak. The wall from the second to the fourth floor collapsed.
The body of the seventh victim was recovered from under the rubble in a nine-story building in Noginsk near Moscow, where a gas explosion occurred the day before, the press service of the Moscow Region Emergencies Ministry told Interfax on Thursday.
Earlier on Thursday, it became known that at the scene of the explosion in the Nogin nine-story building, the bodies of two girls who were considered missing were found. The clearing of the rubble and the search for people at the site of the explosion were completed on Thursday evening.
The explosion occurred on Wednesday, September 8, in the morning in a nine-story panel building in the city of Noginsk in the Moscow region. At first, two dead were reported; by Wednesday evening, rescuers removed the bodies of four victims from the rubble, including a teenage girl.
On Thursday night, the body of the fifth victim, a child, was found under the rubble. Then it was reported that the fate of two people remains unknown.
As a result of the accident, 22 people were injured, including four children, according to the Ministry of Emergency Situations.
One of the victims is Alexander Soloviev, head of the diving training department of the Cosmonaut Training Center, Interfax was told at the center on Wednesday.
Photo author, EPA
Noginsk. View of the nine-storey residential building in which the gas explosion occurred
According to official data, the domestic gas explosion took place at 06:55 in the nine-storey panel building No. 9a on 28 June Street. 24 apartments were damaged, 17 of them were completely destroyed, the floors between the fourth and fifth floors were also damaged, writes TASS.There was no fire.
Citing emergency services, the agency claims that the explosion occurred in an apartment on the third floor where a large family lived.
People were under the rubble. They were soon retrieved from the wreckage. The Governor of the Moscow Region Andrei Vorobyov on Wednesday posted on Twitter a video with the rescued girl.
The photo and video show that part of the house was actually destroyed – from the second to the fourth floor.
The blast wave knocked out windows and damaged the glazing of balconies in neighboring houses.A temporary accommodation center was opened for residents on the basis of a kindergarten.
The investigation will investigate whether an accident, negligence or violation of the operation of gas equipment led to the accident, Vice Governor Yevgeny Khromushin told reporters on Wednesday.
On the fact of the incident, the regional department of the Investigative Committee of Russia opened a criminal case on the provision of services that did not meet security requirements.
At the same time, an anonymous TASS source suggested on Wednesday that the explosion could have been caused by the fact that the residents left the gas stove turned on overnight to warm up.By morning, the fire went out, and the gas continued to flow and ignited when the lights were turned on in the apartment, the agency retells this version.
The house, according to preliminary data, is subject to restoration, Deputy Governor Khromushin said at a meeting of residents.
Photo author, Artyom Geodakyan / TASS
Rescuers dismantle the collapsed structures
In Noginsk, the body of the third victim of a gas explosion was removed from the rubble
September 8, Minsk / Corr.BELTA /. Rescuers removed from the rubble the body of the third victim of a gas explosion in a residential building in Noginsk near Moscow, TASS reports.
The third victim was a teenage girl. The fate of four more women who remain under the rubble is unknown.
Earlier it was reported that under the rubble there may be four adults and a child.
A gas explosion occurred in an apartment on the third floor of a nine-story residential building on 28 June Street in Noginsk on Wednesday morning. As a result, part of the outer wall of the building and the ceilings from the second to fifth floors collapsed.The epicenter of the explosion was in the apartment of a large family; it could have been caused by a gas leak left on overnight to heat the apartment. 17 people were injured.
More than 170 people are involved in the search and rescue operation, more than 40 pieces of equipment are used. The rubble is examined by eight cynological crews. On the fact of the gas explosion, the SK opened a case for the provision of services that did not meet safety requirements. -0-
Violations of acid balance in blood
Acid-base balance is an important parameter that is maintained in human blood within certain limits.This is necessary for the normal functioning of various body systems, the course of biochemical reactions, the optimal functioning of enzymes.
Acids are substances that can give off hydrogen ions, and bases (alkalis) are substances that attach these ions. The acidity and alkalinity of solutions is evaluated on a pH scale from 0 (solutions of strong acids) to 14 (solutions of strong alkalis). On the pH scale, neutral acidity is 7.
Normal blood acidity is 7.35 – 7.45 on the pH scale.A shift of this indicator below 7.35 indicates acidosis (a shift in the acid-base balance of the blood towards an increase in acidity). If the pH deviates above 7, 45, alkalosis occurs (an excess of substances with the properties of alkalis in the blood).
In the process of metabolism in the body, products are formed in large quantities that can cause a change in this parameter. The main role in the regulation of acid-base balance belongs to the lungs, kidneys and blood buffer systems.
During breathing, carbon dioxide is released through the lungs, which is formed during the metabolic process in the body.Carbon dioxide, when combined with water, forms carbon dioxide, therefore, in the case of its excess in the blood, acidosis develops, and with an insufficient concentration of carbon dioxide, alkalosis occurs.
The kidneys excrete excess acids and alkalis from the body with urine. At the same time, these organs, within certain limits, can regulate the amount of acids and bases released and absorbed back, thereby regulating the pH level in the blood.
Buffer systems of blood are called solutions of weak acids and alkalis, which, when combined with excess amounts of acids or bases (depending on the presence of acidosis or alkalosis), neutralize them, thereby achieving equalization of the pH level.
The cause of acidosis and alkalosis in most cases is a severe course of the underlying disease, in which the resulting changes in blood pH exceed the capabilities of the mechanisms of regulation of this parameter.
Violations of acid-base balance of blood, violations of acid-base homeostasis.
Acid-Base Disorders, Acid – base homeostasis.
Manifestations of acidosis and alkalosis are often masked by manifestations of the underlying disease, which caused a change in the acid-base balance of the blood.
With acidosis, the following symptoms may occur:
- nausea, vomiting
- increased respiratory rate
- impaired consciousness (up to coma)
- drop in blood pressure (with severe forms of acidosis)
- cardiac arrhythmias.
Manifestations of alkalosis may include:
- depression of consciousness (up to coma)
- cramps in various muscle groups
- cardiac arrhythmias
General information about the disease
Acid-base balance in the blood is a vital parameter, the normal values of which are 7.35 – 7.45 on the pH scale.
A deviation of pH below 7.35 indicates acidosis. When the pH is shifted above 7.45, alkalosis occurs.
Depending on the causes of development, acidosis and alkalosis are divided into metabolic (exchange) and respiratory (respiratory).
Respiratory acidosis develops as a result of the accumulation of large amounts of carbon dioxide in the blood, which combines with water to form carbon dioxide. This causes an increase in the acidity of the blood. This condition can develop with breathing disorders that cause a decrease in pulmonary ventilation.
This can be a consequence of lung diseases (for example, with bronchial asthma), lesions of the nervous system (for example, with brain injuries), diseases, muscles and nerves that lead to the loss of the ability to make effective respiratory movements (for example, with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis) …
The opposite condition is respiratory alkalosis, which occurs when excess carbon dioxide is excreted by the lungs from the body. The mechanism of development of this type of alkalosis is based on an increase in the rhythm and depth of breathing.
Such a breathing disorder can occur in the presence of pathology from various organs and systems (for example, with injuries, brain tumors, lung diseases, cardiovascular insufficiency).
Metabolic acidosis can develop for the following reasons:
- Increase in acid production in the body. An increase in the production of acids in the body can be observed in conditions accompanied by metabolic disorders. For example, in diabetes mellitus, the use of glucose by cells is disrupted due to a lack of the hormone insulin.
In this case, the body begins to produce energy not from glucose, but from fats – an alternative way of obtaining energy. The breakdown of fats in the liver is accompanied by the formation of large amounts of ketonic acids, which leads to acidosis.
- impaired renal function. The kidneys play an important role in the regulation of acid-base balance in the blood. In case of kidney diseases, leading to a violation of their functions, the processes of acid secretion and absorption of substances with an alkaline reaction may be disrupted, which can be the cause of acidosis.
- Loss of large amounts of alkalis with digestive juices. This condition can be observed with severe diarrhea, bowel surgery.
- poisoning with poisons and toxic substances. The processes of the breakdown of these substances in the body can proceed with the formation of a large amount of acids, which can cause acidosis.
The main causes of metabolic alkalosis are as follows:
- Loss of large amounts of acidic gastric contents.It can be observed with profuse vomiting, aspiration of stomach contents using a special probe.
- use of diuretics
- enhanced excretion of hydrogen ions by the kidneys. Such processes can be observed with an excess of the adrenal hormone – aldosterone. Aldosterone is involved in the regulation of water and electrolyte balance in the body. An increase in its level can be both with diseases of the adrenal glands, and with pathology of other organs (for example, with heart failure).
Thus, the development of acidosis or alkalosis is often associated with the course of pathological processes in which the resulting changes in acid-base balance exceed the compensatory capabilities of the organism. At the same time, an important role in treatment is played by the normalization of the patient’s condition in terms of the underlying disease, which caused the deviation of blood pH.
Who is at risk?
The risk group for the development of violations of the acid-base balance of the blood includes:
- Persons with lung diseases (e.g. bronchial asthma)
- persons with kidney disease with impaired function
- persons suffering from diabetes mellitus
- Persons with lesions of the nervous system (for example, brain trauma, strokes)
- persons who have suffered large losses of the contents of the gastrointestinal tract (for example, with profuse vomiting, frequent loose stools)
- people taking certain drugs (eg, diuretics, aspirin)
- alcohol abusers.
An important role in diagnostics is played by laboratory research methods that make it possible to establish the pH level of blood, its gas composition, parameters of water-electrolyte metabolism and other vital indicators, monitoring and correction of which is necessary in these conditions.
- Determination of blood pH, blood gas composition. Determination of these parameters can be carried out using special devices – gas analyzers.Arterial blood serves as the material for research.
- Complete blood count. This analysis allows you to assess the main characteristics of the blood composition: the number of erythrocytes, hemoglobin, leukocytes, platelets. This study is not specific for the diagnosis of acidosis or alkalosis, but is necessary to identify the causes of changes in blood pH.
- General urine analysis with microscopy. This analysis shows the main physical and chemical properties of urine, its pH level, the presence of pathological and physiological metabolic products.
- Plasma glucose. Glucose is the main source of energy in the human body. An increase in blood glucose levels is observed in diabetes mellitus. Metabolic disorders associated with this disease can lead to the development of acidosis.
- Potassium, sodium, chlorine in serum. Potassium, sodium, chlorine are the main electrolytes in the human body that perform many functions. Among them, participation in the transport of substances into the cell and the elimination of metabolic products from it, maintenance of water and acid-base balance in the body.
- Alanine aminotransferase (ALT). Alanine aminotransferase is an enzyme found in many cells of the body. Most of it is concentrated in the liver. With liver damage, the level of this enzyme in the blood increases. Dysfunction of the liver can lead to changes in the acid-base balance in the blood.
- Serum creatinine and urea. Creatinine and urea are the end products of protein metabolism in the human body. They are excreted by the kidneys.In case of impaired renal function, an increase in these indicators may be observed. Kidney damage can lead to changes in the acid-base balance in the body.
Depending on the specific clinical situation, it may be necessary to conduct other laboratory tests to identify the causes of acidosis or alkalosis (for example, determination of the level of ketone bodies in the blood and urine, the concentration of lactate in the blood, and others).
- Radiography.Chest X-ray can detect pathological changes in the lungs (for example, pneumonia), as a result of which there are changes in the rhythm and depth of breathing.
- Ultrasound examination (ultrasound). The method is based on the properties of ultrasound. With the help of ultrasound, you can visualize the internal organs, identify changes in their structure, the presence of masses (for example, cysts, tumors), which may be necessary to establish the causes of violations of the acid-base balance in the blood.
- Computed tomography (CT). The method allows you to obtain layer-by-layer
Highly informative images of internal organs. This is of great importance in identifying the disease that caused the acidosis or alkalosis (for example, respiratory failure due to cerebral hemorrhage).
Treatment of disorders of acid-base balance in the blood is aimed at treating the underlying disease that led to the development of acidosis or alkalosis.To normalize the pH level, intravenous administration of solutions that neutralize acids (with acidosis) or alkali (with alkalosis) can be carried out.
Treatment of respiratory acidosis is aimed at restoring the rhythm and depth of breathing with the possible transfer of the patient to artificial ventilation (breathing with a special apparatus in cases of ineffectiveness of the lungs).
For respiratory alkalosis, inhalation of air mixtures containing carbon dioxide can be used.
There is no specific prevention of changes in the acid-base balance in the blood. Patients suffering from diseases that can cause a change in blood pH (for example, diabetes mellitus) should strictly follow the recommendations of the attending physician, regularly undergo examinations and treatment.
- Determination of blood pH
- Determination of blood gas composition
- Complete blood count
- General urine analysis with microscopy
- Plasma glucose
- Potassium, sodium, chlorine in serum
- Alanine aminotransferase (ALT)
- Serum creatinine
- Urea in whey
“Parasitism on the body of Ukraine.”The transit of Russian gas again excites neighbors
At the same time the former Minister of Economy of Ukraine Vladimir Lanovoy doubted the reliability of the data on the increase in heating tariffs several times.
“Official reports from the government say that there will be no such increase in tariffs, because gas is in reserves, gas storage facilities, and it is somewhat cheaper than the market price. This gas was purchased several months or a year ago. As a consumer, I can say that there is no double growth, ” stressed Lanovoy .
Local media reported that Naftogaz Ukrainy will receive 48 billion hryvnia (about $ 1.8 billion) from the GTS Operator of Ukraine to purchase gas to overcome the fuel shortage in winter. Russian President Vladimir Putin, in turn, called on Gazprom not to increase the volume of gas pumped through the new pipes, despite the obvious benefit of from using the new gas pipeline in comparison with the worn-out pipes of the Ukrainian gas transmission system.
“There is no need to put anyone in a difficult position, including Ukraine, despite all the moments associated with Russian-Ukrainian relations today,” – Putin stressed.
It is not the first time that the Ukrainian opposition has declared that Ukraine is facing an energy crisis due to a lack of fuel and inflated prices for it. So, the deputy of the Verkhovna Rada from the Opposition Platform – For Life (Opposition) Party (Oppositional Platform – For Life) Oleg Voloshin accused of the current situation, including the head of the Security Service of Ukraine (SBU) Ivan Bakanov, who accused the head of the party Viktor Medvedchuk of treason due to coal supplies from Donbass to the territory of Ukraine. Earlier it became known that two of the three thermal power plants of the state Ukrainian company “Centrenergo” could run out of coal within a few days.
“Bakanov is trying in pretentious terms, which the former President of Ukraine Petro Poroshenko would envy, to tell on what“ hook of dependence on Russia ”Medvedchuk hung Ukraine <.