Gases in body: What Is Excessive Gas? – Digestive Health Center
Digestive Gas & Flatulence: Common Causes & Treatments
Gas is a normal result of the foods you eat. As your digestive system does its thing, it makes gas.
Usually, you get rid of gas through your mouth (burping) or through your anus (flatulence). People gas about 20 times a day. It’s an ordinary occurrence, but it can be painful and embarrassing.
You make gas in two ways: when you swallow air, and when the bacteria in your large intestine help digest your food.
Undigested food moves from the small intestine to the large intestine. Once it gets there, the bacteria go to work, making hydrogen, carbon dioxide, and methane, which then leave your body.
Not everyone will get gas from the same foods.
You also swallow air when you eat and drink. This helps make gas. You usually release swallowed air by burping it. Whatever isn’t released by burping goes into the small or large intestine, where it’s released as flatulence.
Which Foods Are Most Likely to Cause Gas?
You’re most likely to get gas by eating carbs, which are found in foods like:
- Vegetables (especially broccoli, cabbage, and onions)
- Dairy products
- Whole-grain foods
- Soft drinks
- Fruit drinks
What Are the Symptoms of Gas?
In addition to burping and flatulence, you may feel bloated. You could also have pain in your belly or sides. That pain could be mistaken for something else, like a heart attack or appendicitis.
Could Gas Be a Sign of a Medical Problem?
Chronic belching may be a sign of trouble in your upper digestive tract, like ulcers or gastroesophageal reflux disease. You may hear this called GERD.
Many things cause bloating, including:
- Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS)
- Colon cancer
- Crohn’s disease
- A hernia
- Lactose intolerance
- Celiac disease
How Are Gas-Related Illnesses Diagnosed?
Since diet is the main cause of gas, your doctor will want to know about the foods you eat and your symptoms. They may ask you to keep a record of what you eat and drink to help them identify foods that cause you trouble. They may also ask you to keep track of how often you pass gas.
You may have to stop eating certain foods. For example, if lactose intolerance is believed to be the cause, you’ll probably have to cut down on dairy.
If bloating is a problem, your doctor may examine you to rule out different things.
If you have chronic belching, your doctor will look for signs that you swallow a lot of air. If they think you do, they’ll look for a cause. They may get an X-ray of your esophagus, stomach, and upper small intestine – they may call it your GI tract — to rule out disease.
What Are the Treatments for Gas?
Gas problems are treated by changing your diet and by training yourself to swallow less air. There are also prescription and over-the-counter medications that can help.
Changing your diet will mean getting rid of the foods that cause gas. Unfortunately, this may also result in you having fewer nutritious foods. Ask your doctor to help you build a diet that’s healthy but doesn’t cause much gas.
Over-the-counter medications include:
- Antacids — especially those that contain simethicone
- Probiotics — used to help kill bad bacteria and add good bacteria to the digestive tract
- Lactase products such as Lactaid and Dairy Ease — may help people with lactose intolerance
- Beano — contains the enzyme that helps digest sugars in beans and many other vegetables
Your doctor may prescribe drugs to help move food through your digestive system. Medicines that do that may also move gas through quicker.
What Can I Do to Swallow Less Air and Reduce Gas?
To swallow less air, you can try:
- Cutting out gum or hard candy
- Eating more slowly
- Making sure any dentures you wear fit properly
- Not drinking through straws
Symptoms & Causes of Gas in the Digestive Tract
In this section:
What are the symptoms of gas?
The most common gas symptoms include burping, passing gas, bloating, and pain or discomfort in your abdomen. Gas symptoms vary from person to person.
Burping, or belching, once in a while, especially during and after meals, is normal. If you burp a lot, you may be swallowing too much air and releasing it before the air enters your stomach.
Passing gas around 13 to 21 times a day is normal.1
Bloating is a feeling of fullness or swelling in your abdomen. Bloating most often occurs during or after a meal.
Pain or discomfort in your abdomen
You may feel pain or discomfort in your abdomen when gas does not move through your intestines normally.
When should I talk with a doctor about my gas symptoms?
You should talk with your doctor if
- gas symptoms bother you
- your symptoms change suddenly
- you have other symptoms with gas—such as constipation, diarrhea, or weight loss
What causes gas?
Gas normally enters your digestive tract when you swallow air and when bacteria in your large intestine break down certain undigested foods. You may have more gas in your digestive tract if you swallow more air or eat certain foods.
Everyone swallows a small amount of air when eating and drinking. You swallow more air when you
- chew gum
- drink carbonated, or fizzy, drinks
- eat or drink too fast
- suck on hard candy
- wear loose-fitting dentures
Swallowed air that doesn’t leave your stomach by burping moves into your intestines and passes through your anus.
You swallow more air when you chew gum; drink carbonated, or fizzy, drinks; or suck on hard candy.
Bacteria in your large intestine
Your stomach and small intestine don’t fully digest some of the carbohydrates—sugars, starches, and fiber—in the food you eat. Undigested carbohydrates will pass to your large intestine, which contains bacteria. These bacteria break down undigested carbohydrates and create gas in the process.
What foods, drinks, or products cause gas?
A variety of foods, drinks, and products can cause gas. See the following table for examples.
|Table 1. Examples of foods, drinks, and products that can cause gas|
Packaged Foods with Lactose
drinks with high-fructose corn syrup
|fruit drinks (such as fruit punch)
|Sugar-free Products with Sorbitol, Mannitol, or Xylitol
Dietary Supplements and Additives
What conditions cause excess gas or increase gas symptoms?
Some conditions can cause you to have more gas than usual or have more symptoms when you have gas. These conditions include the following:
Small intestinal bacterial overgrowth
Small intestinal bacterial overgrowth is an increase in the number of bacteria or a change in the type of bacteria in your small intestine. These bacteria can produce extra gas and may also cause diarrhea and weight loss. Small intestinal bacterial overgrowth is most often a complication of other conditions.
Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is a group of symptoms—including pain or discomfort in your abdomen and changes in your bowel movement patterns—that occur together. IBS can affect how gas moves through your intestines. You may also feel bloated due to increased sensitivity to normal amounts of gas.
Gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) is a chronic condition that occurs when stomach contents flow back up into your esophagus. People with GERD may burp a lot to relieve discomfort.
Problems digesting carbohydrates
Problems digesting carbohydrates that can lead to gas and bloating include
- lactose intolerance, a condition in which you have digestive symptoms such as bloating, gas, or diarrhea after eating or drinking milk or milk products.
- dietary fructose intolerance, a condition in which you have digestive symptoms such as bloating, gas, or diarrhea after consuming foods that contain fructose.
- celiac disease, an immune disorder in which you cannot tolerate gluten, a protein found in wheat, rye, barley, and some products such as lip balm and cosmetics. If you have celiac disease, gluten damages the lining of your small intestine.
Conditions that affect how gas moves through your intestines
Conditions that affect how gas moves through your intestines can lead to problems with gas and bloating. These conditions include dumping syndrome, abdominal adhesions, abdominal hernias, and conditions that can cause an intestinal obstruction such as colon cancer or ovarian cancer.
 Greenberger NJ. Gas-related complaints. The Merck Manual website. www.merckmanuals.com. Updated November 2013. Accessed November 10, 2015.
According to the National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases, most foods that contain carbohydrates can cause gas, however, fats and proteins cause little gas. Foods that cause gas include the following:
Gas and gas pains – Symptoms and causes
Gas in your digestive system is part of the normal process of digestion. Getting rid of excess gas, either by burping or passing gas (flatus), also is normal. Gas pain may occur if gas is trapped or not moving well through your digestive system.
An increase in gas or gas pain may result from eating foods that are more likely to produce gas. Often, relatively simple changes in eating habits can lessen bothersome gas.
Certain digestive system disorders, such as irritable bowel syndrome or celiac disease, may cause — in addition to other signs and symptoms — an increase in gas or gas pain.
Signs or symptoms of gas or gas pains include:
- Passing gas
- Pain, cramps or a knotted feeling in your abdomen
- A feeling of fullness or pressure in your abdomen (bloating)
- An observable increase in the size of your abdomen (distention)
Burping is normal, particularly during or right after a meal. Most people pass gas up to 20 times a day. Therefore, while having gas may be inconvenient or embarrassing, burping and passing gas are rarely by themselves a sign of a medical problem.
When to see a doctor
Talk to your doctor if your gas or gas pains are so persistent or severe that they interfere with your ability to function well in daily life. Gas or gas pains accompanied by other signs or symptoms may indicate more-serious conditions. See your doctor if you experience any of these additional signs or symptoms:
- Bloody stools
- Change in consistency of stools
- Change in frequency of bowel movements
- Weight loss
- Constipation or diarrhea
- Persistent or recurrent nausea or vomiting
Seek immediate care if you experience:
- Prolonged abdominal pain
- Chest pain
Gas in your stomach is primarily caused by swallowing air when you eat or drink. Most stomach gas is released when you burp.
Gas forms in your large intestine (colon) when bacteria ferment carbohydrates — fiber, some starches and some sugars — that aren’t digested in your small intestine. Bacteria also consume some of that gas, but the remaining gas is released when you pass gas from your anus.
Common foods that cause gas
Certain high-fiber foods may cause gas, including:
- Beans and peas (legumes)
- Whole grains
While high-fiber foods increase gas production, fiber is essential for keeping your digestive tract in good working order and regulating blood sugar and cholesterol levels.
Other dietary factors
Other dietary factors that can contribute to increased gas in the digestive system include the following:
- Carbonated beverages, such as soda and beer, increase stomach gas.
- Eating habits, such as eating too quickly, drinking through a straw, chewing gum, sucking on candies or talking while chewing results in swallowing more air.
- Fiber supplements containing psyllium, such as Metamucil, may increase colon gas.
- Sugar substitutes, or artificial sweeteners, such as sorbitol, mannitol and xylitol, found in some sugar-free foods and beverages may cause excess colon gas.
Medical conditions that may increase intestinal gas, bloating or gas pain include the following:
- Chronic intestinal disease. Excess gas is often a symptom of chronic intestinal conditions, such as diverticulitis, ulcerative colitis or Crohn’s disease.
- Small bowel bacterial overgrowth. An increase or change in the bacteria in the small intestine can cause excess gas, diarrhea and weight loss.
- Food intolerances. Gas or bloating may occur if your digestive system can’t break down and absorb certain foods, such as the sugar in dairy products (lactose) or proteins such as gluten in wheat and other grains.
- Constipation. Constipation may make it difficult to pass gas.
Why Does Your Body Produce Gas?
Gas in the digestive system is either air (from the outside environment) or gases produced by bacteria inside the body. It’s completely normal, although many people are embarrassed by belching (gas that escapes through the mouth) or flatulence (gas expelled through the rectum).
Gas can be upsetting and embarrassing, but it is a part of the digestive process, like it or not. Most people have a certain amount of control over how much gas is produced through altering diet, but there’s always going to be some gas. It’s a good thing, actually; it means your digestive system is doing what it is supposed to do: breaking down foods into the vitamins and minerals that the body needs.
IAN HOOTON / Getty Images
What Gas Really Is
The main components of gas include carbon dioxide, oxygen, nitrogen, and hydrogen. These gases do not give off an odor. However, the gas that comes from the rectum may also include sulfur-containing compounds, which does have an unpleasant and distinctive scent.
Some people also have methane in their flatulence, which is produced in the large intestine during digestion. Methane production is not typical; only about a third of people have it in their flatulence.
Gas in the Stomach
Gas that is found in the stomach can come from swallowing air (called aerophagia). Some air is naturally swallowed during talking and eating, but drinking carbonated drinks like soda, or chewing gum can cause even more air to enter into the esophagus and potentially go down into the stomach. Much of this gas is released the way it came in—through the mouth—as belching, but some does travel through to the stomach and beyond. Most of this gas is absorbed on its way through the intestines, but some may become flatulence and leave the body through the rectum.
Gas in the Intestines
Flatulence is a byproduct of food that does not get broken down completely in the small intestine. Enzymes and bacteria that do the work of digesting food are present in the digestive tract. Some foods cannot be broken down fully by the enzymes in the small intestine, and are therefore passed into the large intestine. The large intestine contains a number of different forms of bacteria that continue the digestive process, but this process creates byproducts—carbon dioxide, hydrogen, and sometimes methane. These gases need to leave the body and do so by passing through the rectum as flatulence.
Pain or Discomfort From Gas
Some people may have gas in the digestive tract that causes them discomfort, such as abdominal bloating or distention. This can lead to a desire to make changes to the diet or lifestyle in order to have less gas. Keep in mind that everyone has gas and must pass it several times a day. People who feel that they have an excessive amount of gas or that gas is causing a disproportionate amount of pain should talk to a physician.
A Word From Verywell
The body needs to produce gas during the process of breaking down the foods it uses. This is an important process, even if it can be troublesome at times. While there’s nothing that can be done about the body’s need to produce gas, eating to reduce the amount of gas you have can help with symptoms of bloating and distention. Most people don’t actually have too much gas, even though it can seem that way at times. Making some changes in diet and lifestyle can often help, but if bloating is still out of control, consulting a doctor is a good choice.
Gas in the Digestive Tract
Everyone has gas and eliminates it by burping or passing it through the rectum. However, many people think they have too much gas when they really have normal amounts. Most people produce about 1 to 3 pints a day and pass gas about 14 times a day.
Gas is made primarily of odorless vapors – carbon dioxide, oxygen, nitrogen, hydrogen, and sometimes methane. The unpleasant odor of flatulence comes from bacteria in the large intestine that release small amounts of gases that contain sulfur.
Although having gas is common, it can be uncomfortable and embarrassing. Understanding causes, ways to reduce symptoms and treatment will help most people find relief.
What causes gas?
Gas in the digestive tract (that is, the esophagus, stomach, small intestine, and large intestine) comes from two sources:
- swallowed air.
- normal breakdown of certain undigested foods by harmless bacteria naturally present in the large intestine (colon).
Air swallowing (aerophagia) is a common cause of gas in the stomach. Everyone swallows small amounts of air when eating and drinking. However, eating or drinking rapidly, chewing gum, smoking, or wearing loose dentures can cause some people to take in more air.
Burping, or belching, is the way most swallowed air – which contains nitrogen, oxygen, and carbon dioxide – leaves the stomach. The remaining gas moves into the small intestine, where it is partially absorbed. A small amount travels into the large intestine for release through the rectum. (The stomach also releases carbon dioxide when stomach acid and bicarbonate mix, but most of this gas is absorbed into the bloodstream and does not enter the large intestine.)
Breakdown of Undigested Foods
The body does not digest and absorb some carbohydrates (the sugar, starches, and fiber found in many foods) in the small intestine because of a shortage or absence of certain enzymes.
This undigested food then passes from the small intestine into the large intestine, where normal, harmless bacteria break down the food, producing hydrogen, carbon dioxide, and, in about one-third of all people, methane. Eventually these gases exit through the rectum.
People who make methane do not necessarily pass more gas or have unique symptoms. A person who produces methane will have stools that consistently float in water. Research has not shown why some people produce methane and others do not.
Foods that produce gas in one person may not cause gas in another. Some common bacteria in the large intestine can destroy the hydrogen that other bacteria produce. The balance of the two types of bacteria may explain why some people have more gas than others.
Which foods cause gas?
Most foods that contain carbohydrates can cause gas. By contrast, fats and proteins cause little gas.
The sugars that cause gas are raffinose, lactose, fructose, and sorbitol.
Raffinose. Beans contain large amounts of this complex sugar. Smaller amounts are found in cabbage, brussels sprouts, broccoli, asparagus, other vegetables, and whole grains.
Lactose is the natural sugar in milk. It is also found in milk products, such as cheese and ice cream, and processed foods, such as bread, cereal, and salad dressing. Many people, particularly those of African, Native American, or Asian background, normally have low levels of the enzyme lactase needed to digest lactose after childhood. Also, as people age, their enzyme levels decrease. As a result, over time people may experience increasing amounts of gas after eating food containing lactose.
Fructose is naturally present in onions, artichokes, pears, and wheat. It is also used as a sweetener in some soft drinks and fruit drinks.
Sorbitol is a sugar found naturally in fruits, including apples, pears, peaches, and prunes. It is also used as an artificial sweetener in many dietetic foods and sugarfree candies and gums.
Most starches, including potatoes, corn, noodles, and wheat, produce gas as they are broken down in the large intestine. Rice is the only starch that does not cause gas.
Many foods contain soluble and insoluble fiber. Soluble fiber dissolves easily in water and takes on a soft, gel-like texture in the intestines. Found in oat bran, beans, peas, and most fruits, soluble fiber is not broken down until it reaches the large intestine, where digestion causes gas.
Insoluble fiber, on the other hand, passes essentially unchanged through the intestines and produces little gas. Wheat bran and some vegetables contain this kind of fiber.
What are some symptoms and problems of gas?
The most common symptoms of gas are flatulence, abdominal bloating, abdominal pain, and belching. However, not everyone experiences these symptoms. The determining factors probably are how much gas the body produces, how many fatty acids the body absorbs, and a person’s sensitivity to gas in the large intestine.
An occasional belch during or after meals is normal and releases gas when the stomach is full of food. However, people who belch frequently may be swallowing too much air and releasing it before the air enters the stomach.
Sometimes a person with chronic belching may have an upper GI disorder, such as peptic ulcer disease, gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD), or gastroparesis.
Occasionally, some people believe that swallowing air and releasing it will relieve the discomfort of these disorders, and this person may intentionally or unintentionally develop a habit of belching to relieve discomfort.
Gas-bloat syndrome may occur after fundoplication surgery to correct GERD. The surgery creates a one-way valve between the esophagus and stomach that allows food and gas to enter the stomach but often prevents normal belching and the ability to vomit. It occurs in about 10 percent of people who have this surgery but may improve with time.
Another common complaint is passage of too much gas through the rectum (flatulence). However, most people do not realize that passing gas 14 to 23 times a day is normal. Too much gas may be the result of carbohydrate malabsorption.
Many people believe that too much gas causes abdominal bloating. However, people who complain of bloating from gas often have normal amounts and distribution of gas. They actually may be unusually aware of gas in the digestive tract.
Doctors believe that bloating is usually the result of an intestinal disorder, such as irritable bowel syndrome (IBS). The cause of IBS is unknown, but may involve abnormal movements and contractions of intestinal muscles and increased pain sensitivity in the intestine. These disorders may give a sensation of bloating because of increased sensitivity to gas.
Any disease that causes intestinal inflammation or obstruction, such as Crohn’s disease or colon cancer, may also cause abdominal bloating. In addition, people who have had many operations, adhesions (scar tissue), or internal hernias may experience bloating or pain. Finally, eating a lot of fatty food can delay stomach emptying and cause bloating and discomfort, but not necessarily too much gas.
Abdominal Pain and Discomfort
Some people have pain when gas is present in the intestine. When pain is on the left side of the colon, it can be confused with heart disease. When the pain is on the right side of the colon, it may mimic gallstones or appendicitis.
What diagnostic tests are used?
Because gas symptoms may be caused by a serious disorder, those causes should be ruled out. The doctor usually begins with a review of dietary habits and symptoms. The doctor may ask the patient to keep a diary of foods and beverages consumed for a specific time period.
If lactase deficiency is the suspected cause of gas, the doctor may suggest avoiding milk products for a period of time. A blood or breath test may be used to diagnose lactose intolerance.
In addition, to determine if someone produces too much gas in the colon or is unusually sensitive to the passage of normal gas volumes, the doctor may ask patients to count the number of times they pass gas during the day and include this information in a diary.
Careful review of diet and the amount of gas passed may help relate specific foods to symptoms and determine the severity of the problem.
Because the symptoms that people may have are so variable, the physician may order other types of diagnostic tests in addition to a physical exam, depending on the patient’s symptoms and other factors.
How is gas treated?
Experience has shown that the most common ways to reduce the discomfort of gas are changing diet, taking medicines, and reducing the amount of air swallowed.
Doctors may tell people to eat fewer foods that cause gas. However, for some people this may mean cutting out healthy foods, such as fruits and vegetables, whole grains, and milk products.
Doctors may also suggest limiting high-fat foods to reduce bloating and discomfort. This helps the stomach empty faster, allowing gases to move into the small intestine.
Unfortunately, the amount of gas caused by certain foods varies from person to person. Effective dietary changes depend on learning through trial and error how much of the offending foods one can handle.
Many nonprescription, over-the-counter medicines are available to help reduce symptoms, including antacids with simethicone. Digestive enzymes, such as lactase supplements, actually help digest carbohydrates and may allow people to eat foods that normally cause gas.
Antacids, such as Mylanta II, Maalox II, and Di-Gel, contain simethicone, a foaming agent that joins gas bubbles in the stomach so that gas is more easily belched away. However, these medicines have no effect on intestinal gas. Dosage varies depending on the form of medication and the patient’s age.
Activated charcoal tablets (Charcocaps) may provide relief from gas in the colon. Studies have shown that when these tablets are taken before and after a meal, intestinal gas is greatly reduced. The usual dose is 2 to 4 tablets taken just before eating and 1 hour after meals.
The enzyme lactase, which aids with lactose digestion, is available in liquid and tablet form without a prescription (Lactaid, Lactrase, and Dairy Ease). Adding a few drops of liquid lactase to milk before drinking it or chewing lactase tablets just before eating helps digest foods that contain lactose. Also, lactose-reduced milk and other products are available at many grocery stores (Lactaid and Dairy Ease).
Beano, a newer over-the-counter digestive aid, contains the sugar-digesting enzyme that the body lacks to digest the sugar in beans and many vegetables. The enzyme comes in liquid form. Three to 10 drops are added per serving just before eating to break down the gas-producing sugars. Beano has no effect on gas caused by lactose or fiber.
Doctors may prescribe medicines to help reduce symptoms, especially for people with a disorder such as IBS.
Reducing Swallowed Air
For those who have chronic belching, doctors may suggest ways to reduce the amount of air swallowed. Recommendations are to avoid chewing gum and to avoid eating hard candy. Eating at a slow pace and checking with a dentist to make sure dentures fit properly should also help.
Although gas may be uncomfortable and embarrassing, it is not life-threatening. Understanding causes, ways to reduce symptoms and treatment will help most people find some relief.
Points to remember
- Everyone has gas in the digestive tract.
- People often believe normal passage of gas to be excessive.
- Gas comes from two main sources: swallowed air and normal breakdown of certain foods by harmless bacteria naturally present in the large intestine.
- Many foods with carbohydrates can cause gas. Fats and proteins cause little gas.
- Foods that may cause gas include
- vegetables, such as broccoli, cabbage, brussels sprouts, onions, artichokes, and asparagus
- fruits, such as pears, apples, and peaches
- whole grains, such as whole wheat and bran
- soft drinks and fruit drinks
- milk and milk products, such as cheese and ice cream, and packaged foods prepared with lactose, such as bread, cereal, and salad dressing
- foods containing sorbitol, such as dietetic foods and sugarfree candies and gums
- The most common symptoms of gas are belching, flatulence, bloating, and abdominal pain. However, some of these symptoms are often caused by an intestinal disorder, such as irritable bowel syndrome, rather than too much gas.
- The most common ways to reduce the discomfort of gas are changing diet, taking nonprescription medicines, and reducing the amount of air swallowed.
- Digestive enzymes, such as lactase supplements, actually help digest carbohydrates and may allow people to eat foods that normally cause gas.
For More Information
To learn more about this topic, visit:
Intestinal Gas | Gastrointestinal Society
Click here to download a PDF of this information.
Many healthy individuals are concerned that they have too much intestinal gas, thinking that their digestive tract could be malfunctioning. While gas in itself is not dangerous, our inability to control its passage might have social implications.
Studies have shown that the average person generates 0.6-1.8L of gas per day. This comes from two sources, swallowed air (exogenous) and gas produced by colonic bacteria (endogenous). Intestinal gas is composed of various amounts of oxygen, nitrogen, carbon dioxide, hydrogen, and methane. Oxygen, nitrogen, and carbon dioxide come from swallowed air and hydrogen and methane are by-products of the breakdown of food residue by good bacteria (probiotics) naturally residing in the colon. Careful analysis of intestinal gas has shown that it is comprised primarily of exogenous air and only a small amount of endogenous air.
Although less than 1% of gas is odorous, intestinal bacteria produce several sulphur-containing compounds that are the primary odour culprits. The human nose can detect hydrogen sulphide in concentrations as low as one-half part per billion, so passing even a very small amount of this gas could draw attention!
Gas releases from the digestive tract via the mouth by belching, or via the anus as flatus. A healthy individual emits flatus about 12-25 times per day. In the typical situation, swallowed air remains in the stomach for a while and then passes through the digestive tract in small amounts at regular intervals. It moves rapidly through the small intestine, propelled by the normal rhythmic contractions of the digestive tract (peristalsis). Usually this process does not cause any uncomfortable symptoms. Once gas enters the colon, its propulsion slows and eventually the anus releases it in (usually) small amounts.
We swallow almost no air during sleep, but this is when we pass the most gas. Thus, at the beginning of the day, there is minimal gas in the intestine, but it accumulates throughout the day. Many factors influence gas passage and these include the amount of swallowed air, the nature and frequency of dietary intake, and the motility of the bowel, all of which can be affected by food, medications, and stress.
Symptoms of Intestinal Gas
For most, the passage of gas through the digestive tract causes no symptoms, but some experience frequent burping or belching, uncomfortable abdominal bloating, and repeating flatus. Researchers have noted that when some individuals drink a beverage, they might swallow twice as much air as liquid, especially if drinking through a straw. As gas builds up, the abdomen may painfully distend, especially right after eating. Sometimes bloating is so severe that clothing becomes tight or may no longer fit.
Since distension of the digestive tract affects intestinal contractions, increased gas passing from the stomach into the intestine may increase normal peristalsis that, if strong enough, may cause painful cramping. Ingested gas passing through the bowel will eventually leave via the anus as flatus, as will gas produced in the colon, but it is the latter which is usually foul smelling.
Management of Intestinal Gas
The management of intestinal gas depends on its source.
Exogenous Gas: To reduce this major source of intestinal gas, you must swallow less air. Gum chewing, smoking, poor fitting dentures, a chronic postnasal discharge, chronic pain, and anxiety or tension all cause you to swallow more air, as does gulping of food, washing food down with liquids, sipping hot beverages, and drinking through a straw. Limiting these activities will help cut down on the amount of air you swallow.
Endogenous Gas: There is little gas production in the small intestine because bacterial concentration is low. However, the colon contains many gas-producing bacteria that thrive on foods containing poorly digested starches and sugars (carbohydrates). Smelly gas forms as the bacteria ferment these foods when they pass through the colon. This fermentation is similar to the production of bubbles in the fermenting of grapes into champagne. To decrease gas generated by digestion, there are certain gas-producing foods you might want to avoid.
One common source of digestion-produced gas is beans, which contain the complex carbohydrates raffinose and stachyose. The human intestine cannot absorb these carbohydrates on its own because humans do not produce the enzymes necessary for their digestion. Fortunately, certain friendly bacteria and yeasts (microorganisms) that live in the colon are capable of breaking down these carbohydrates so the body can absorb their nutrients. By-products of microorganism digestion are hydrogen, methane, and carbon dioxide gases. Some individuals find using a commercial enzyme product such as Beano® or Digesta® to be helpful in reducing the amount of gas produced by bacteria when eating beans or other high-starch foods such as cabbage, broccoli, and whole grains. Some food preparation techniques may reduce gas-producing effects, such as pre-soaking beans at least four hours in water and then draining and rinsing before cooking thoroughly in fresh water.
Another contributor of digestion-produced gas is lactose intolerance, which affects nearly 70% of adults worldwide, to varying degrees. These individuals typically produce inadequate amounts of the enzyme lactase, but in rare cases produce none. Lactase is necessary to digest lactose, the sugar found in milk. If you are lactose intolerant, then managing intake of milk products could help. A 10-day lactose avoidance trial can clarify the role of lactose in your gas-related symptoms. If you are lactose intolerant, you may wish to try lactase-containing commercial products, such as Digesta® (containing multiple enzymes) and Lactaid®, or you could try to build your tolerance by gradually re-introducing milk into your diet. Milk-based cheese products contain more lactose than cream-based and aged cheeses, which contain very little. Milk contains many vital nutrients, so make sure you consult your physician or dietitian before making a decision to eliminate dairy products from the diet for the long-term, and have a plan in place to ensure adequate nutrient intake.
In addition to beans and lactose, many fruits and vegetables are gas-producers. However, not everyone reacts in the same way to these foods. Rather than completely eliminating gas-producing foods from the diet and missing out on their important nutrient and fibre benefits, try eating them in smaller quantities throughout the day and gradually increase consumption, as tolerated.
Certain low-calorie sweeteners, particularly alcohol sugars, such as mannitol, xylitol, and sorbitol can cause gas, bloating, diarrhea, and abdominal discomfort if taken in large quantities. (The suffix itol denotes sugar alcohols.)
Some over-the-counter medications may be helpful, although these do not work for everyone. These include products containing the ingredient simethicone, some antacids, and other agents. Medications that regulate motility may also provide relief. A plant-based prokinetic agent, Iberogast®, helps regulate digestive motility and break down intestinal gas. Studies have shown that in infants with colic-related gas, a probiotic product called BioGaia® Drops, containing Lactobacillus reuteri, is helpful.
Intestinal Gas Outlook
Intestinal gas is generally more of an annoyance than a serious medical problem for most individuals. However, if you experience ongoing excessive gas accompanied by other symptoms, or gas that is not relieved by dietary and/or lifestyle changes, then consult your physician.
Helpful Hints for Gas Reduction
Make an effort to:
- eat slowly
- have loose dentures refitted
- treat postnasal drip
- increase physical activity
- manage your lactose load (if intolerant)
- gradually increase fibre in your diet
Avoid or limit:
- talking while eating
- eating when you are upset or in a hurry
- using a straw to drink
- drinking from a bottle
- smoking or chewing tobacco
- chewing gum or sucking on candy
- drinking carbonated beverages
- eating foods with sorbitol & fructose
- sipping hot beverages (let them cool to lukewarm)
In ancient Rome, passing gas in public was illegal. During the time of King Henry VII in England, a hearty belch after a meal was quite acceptable.
Want to learn more about intestinal gas?
We have several related articles that may be helpful:
Image Credit: © bigstockphoto.
The information in this section cannot be used for self-diagnosis and self-medication. In case of pain or other exacerbation of the disease, only the attending physician should prescribe diagnostic tests. For a diagnosis and correct treatment, you should contact your doctor.
Flatulence – causes of occurrence, in what diseases it occurs, diagnosis and methods of treatment.
Excessive gas formation in the gastrointestinal tract leads to severe discomfort, especially if the gas cannot be trapped. The gaseous substances that fill the lumen of the stomach and intestines include hydrogen, methane, hydrogen sulfide and carbon dioxide. Air can enter the stomach with food, but mainly gases are the product of the vital activity of microorganisms, and also arise as a result of the interaction of hydrochloric acid in the stomach with bicarbonate coming from the pancreas.Increased gas production is accompanied by bloating, bloating, and pain. This phenomenon is called flatulence.
In some cases, spastic conditions of the gastrointestinal tract interfere with the passage of gases, and sometimes a person cannot control this process even with an insignificant content of gases in the intestine.
Varieties of flatulence
Flatulence occurs when the processes of gas formation and deterioration of intestinal motility deteriorate.
Excess gas is removed from the stomach by belching , from the intestine – through the rectum . In addition, gases can enter the bloodstream and be released with exhaled air. Gases formed in the intestine are absorbed only in the small intestine, where their bubbles are mixed with liquid contents. In the large intestine, gases are not absorbed into the bloodstream due to the high density of feces, so there is only one way out for them – through the rectum, which occurs on average 15-20 times a day. Participating in the regulation of the intestines, gases affect its function in different ways: methane slows down the passage of feces and promotes the development of constipation, hydrogen reduces the motility of the ileum, but promotes the movement of the contents in the final sections of the colon.
Possible causes of increased formation and incontinence of gases
The reasons for the development of flatulence may be associated with: 1) dietary habits; 2) indigestion; 3) an imbalance in the composition of the intestinal microflora; 4) violation of intestinal motility.The overflow of gases in the stomach leads to eructation, which often worries patients with incomplete closure of the cardiac sphincter with hiatal hernia, gastroesophageal reflux disease .
In addition, impaired motility of the gastrointestinal tract in gastric ulcer, biliary dyskinesia, some intestinal diseases is also accompanied by frequent belching, sometimes even with regurgitation.With the development of putrefactive processes in the stomach with gastroparesis , belching may have an unpleasant odor.
However, belching is often not a symptom of a disease, but an indicator of malnutrition.
For example, when hastily eating food, a person may swallow a large amount of air. Also, excess gas in the stomach occurs after drinking carbonated drinks.
If gas overflows the intestines, a feeling of bloating appears.
It can occur due to the excessive content of gaseous substances, and it can be subjective due to the increased sensitivity of the intestinal mucosa.
Often this symptom occurs in functional disorders: irritable bowel syndrome, diseases of the pancreas , accompanied by enzymatic deficiency, reproduction of pathological microflora. The increased formation of gases occurs when a large amount of legumes, cabbage, onions, carrots, raisins, bananas, apples, grapes, yeast dough products are consumed. Evidence of functional disorders is the appearance of bloating some time after a meal. In the morning, before breakfast, this feeling is absent.
An unpleasant symptom is gas incontinence, which is possible even with a slight accumulation of gas in the intestines. This problem can occur in patients with fissures and fistulas in the anus.
Gas incontinence is also a concern for patients with anal sphincter insufficiency. As a rule, this condition accompanies other types of pathology – hemorrhoids, rectal prolapse. Sometimes internal anal sphincter insufficiency can result from neurological disorders, surgery, or injury accompanied by scarring and strictures.
The sphincter muscles weaken with age, which is why the problem of gas incontinence is more common in older people.
With diverticulums of the intestine – saccular protrusions of the mucous membrane and submucosa of the intestine – bloating and profuse discharge of gases are almost always noted.
In addition, there are feelings of fullness and heaviness in the abdomen, pain in the left iliac region and irregular, spastic stools (“sheep”). Often there is a rumbling in the abdomen and frequent passing of gases with an unpleasant odor.
In women, uncontrolled passing of gas develops in the last months of pregnancy, after childbirth due to pelvic floor dysfunction. The same problem is detected in a third of patients with prolapse and prolapse of the uterus and in a small percentage of cases – with pathological lengthening of the cervix.
Gas incontinence occurs with lesions of the central nervous system due to trauma to the spine and head, and in this case, it is accompanied by uncontrolled feces and urination. With an epileptic seizure in the relaxation phase, urine, gas and feces may also pass. Gas control is lost in mental disorders (manic-depressive syndrome, dementia) and psychoemotional stress.
Which doctors should I contact?
The problem of increased gas production and uncontrolled discharge of gases can occur in different states of the body.In any case, you should visit
therapist for the initial examination. If the symptoms of flatulence bother a woman during pregnancy, after childbirth, or the discharge of gas is accompanied by other symptoms, you should consult
gynecologist. If you suspect intestinal diverticula, anal sphincter insufficiency, or gastrointestinal dyskinesia, consult
Diagnostics and examinations
If uncontrolled passing of gas occurs during pregnancy, additional testing is usually not required after delivery.If you complain of constant passing of gas without symptoms of bloating, it is necessary to check the condition of the anal sphincter and intestines. For this, sigmoidoscopy and colonoscopy are performed.
Gas formation: causes and consequences – causes, diagnosis and treatment
A certain amount of gases, necessary for the normal functioning of the digestive system, is always contained in the gastrointestinal tract. The excess is removed – according to statistics, most people leave gases about 15 times a day.This is a completely normal indicator – this way the body gets rid of about 0.5 liters of gases that are no longer needed for the process of digesting food.
In case of digestive disorders, awkward situations begin to arise when frequent urges to empty the stomach and intestines from gas occur at work, when communicating with friends, and even during a romantic date. The need to constantly hold back and avoid embarrassment can lead to psychological discomfort and stress.
Since flatulence can be a symptom of diseases of the digestive system, if it occurs, you should consult a gastroenterologist.And it is best for this purpose to choose an old-timer clinic with a good reputation, where high-class professionals work and it is possible to conduct a full diagnostic examination.
Why the belly swells 90 100
It is customary to think that the use of peas and cabbage – the most “musical” products, leads to a belly puffed up like a ball. In fact, the list of reasons for increased gas production is much wider. Among them:
- predominance of fried, salty, fatty and spicy dishes in the menu;
- consumption of carbonated drinks;
- eating food that causes fermentation processes – black bread, kvass, beer;
- insufficient chewing of food and swallowing it too quickly;
- The use of dairy products by people with lactose intolerance;
- conversation while eating – because of it, air in large quantities enters the stomach;
- deformation of the palate, teeth and nose;
- Frequent constipation – infrequent bowel movements slow down the passage of the food bolus through the intestines and contribute to the accumulation of gas.
Flatulence can be caused by the desire to eat healthy and the use of excessive amounts of fiber, including bran foods, vegetables and fruits. Trying to reduce the calorie content of foods by replacing sugar with sweeteners, as well as overusing sorbitol chewing gum, can also lead to increased gas production.
In addition, if you are firsthand familiar with physical inactivity, lead a sedentary lifestyle, do not like to walk and sincerely think that you do not have enough time to visit a fitness club, your digestive system will sooner or later respond to this with flatulence.
Increased gas production may be accompanied by belching, pain and discomfort in the abdominal cavity.
Is flatulence a sign of illness?
Sometimes flatulence is not just an unpleasant phenomenon that makes you feel embarrassed, but also a symptom of intestinal dysbiosis, diseases of the cardiovascular system, gastrointestinal diseases (pancreatitis, enteritis, colitis, liver cirrhosis), acute intestinal infections, the presence of intestinal parasites in the body, intestinal obstruction, intestinal atony and many other diseases.
Few people know, but mental trauma and prolonged depression, anxiety and fear can also lead to an excess of gas in the abdomen. It is not for nothing that mental pain has long been considered the most important cause of functional disorders of the gastrointestinal tract. If this is your case and you notice that your stomach begins to swell at the sight of a malicious boss, you may need the help of not only a gastroenterologist, but also a psychologist.
What is the danger of self-medication with flatulence 90 100
Of course, in a few minutes on the Internet you can find a lot of recipes that, as the authors of the articles assure, will quickly save you from increased gas formation.But dill infusions and medicines for flatulence, which can be purchased without a prescription at the pharmacy, do not always help. First of all, for the reason that flatulence can only be a sign of serious diseases of the gastrointestinal tract, from which activated carbon will not relieve.
The second reason for the uselessness and even harm of alternative methods of treatment is the individual characteristics of the organism. A decoction of herbs helped someone, but in you it can cause an exacerbation of existing diseases and an increase in flatulence.
It is much better not to carry out experiments on yourself, not to bring to the point that increased gas formation will significantly spoil your well-being and make you constantly fear unexpected “volleys”.
For flatulence and related illnesses, consult a gastroenterologist.
The editors would like to thank the ON CLINIC specialists for their help in preparing the material.
90,000 Suddenly there is only a bunch. Where do gases come from in our body – HealthInfo
Gases are a normal element of digestion. They can sometimes cause foul odor, pain, or discomfort.
According to the clinic in Cleveland, a person emits 0.5-1.5 liters of gases every day. And the emission of gases occurs 14-23 times daily.
Why do gases arise?
Gases are the result of the digestion of food in the gastrointestinal tract. Gas can pass through the mouth or through the rectum. In addition, the volume of gases increases if a person swallows more air than usual.
Habits that increase air swallowing:
- You like chewing gum
- You drink and eat quickly
- You smoke
- You wear dentures that don’t fit tightly
Gas can sometimes be especially offensive or particularly uncomfortable.This can happen for a number of reasons. For example, a person may have a medical condition that affects their ability to completely digest food, such as lactose intolerance or celiac disease.
It is estimated that methane gas is produced in the gastrointestinal tract of one in three people. Methane is a particularly strong odor gas that can cause stools to float in water.
The movement of gases through the digestive tract can dilate the stomach and intestines. This leads to severe throbbing pain or spasms, which are very uncomfortable.
There are medications to treat excess gas, but there are also some techniques that a person can use on their own to get rid of gas.
Read more: Bloating. What are the reasons for it?
What to eat so that you do not suffer from gas?
There are many simple ways to reduce gas production without taking medication. To do this, you should monitor what you eat and monitor foods that cause gas formation on a daily basis.
Sometimes the body does not have enzymes to digest sugar. This can lead to bloating and increased gas production.
Such sugars can be:
- Raffinose, found in legumes and greens
- Lactose, found in milk and dairy products
- Fructose, found in onions, artichokes and wheat
- Sorbitol, which is often added to foods without a sweetener sugars
Gases can occur from starchy foods such as potatoes, corn and wheat.
Fiber is needed for digestion, but only if the body receives it regularly. The dramatic increase in fiber intake leads to gas and bloating. Most of the gases are generated from soluble fiber found in oatmeal, legumes, and fruits.
If you want to increase the fiber content of your food, it is best to add a little bit of fiber a day and drink plenty of water to aid digestion.
Read More: 6 Superfoods Against Fat & Bloating
How to Reduce Gas Generation Still More?
It is not necessary to remove all of the above foods from the diet.To determine the cause, it is best to write down everything you ate for a week, and then figure out what causes the increased gas production.
Another way to determine the cause is to rule out possible culprits one at a time for several days. Keep turning them off one by one until you see an improvement.
You can also reduce gas production by reducing air swallowing, which occurs for a number of reasons:
- You chew gum
- You eat caramels
- You eat fast
- You drink sodas that increase the amount of air in your stomach
- You eat products with artificial sweeteners
If possible, walk after meals.Movement helps move gas through the intestines, relieving bloating and reducing the flow of gas.
Read more: Gastrointestinal tract. Bloating
Foods and drinks that reduce gas production
In addition to foods that increase gas production, there are foods that reduce gas production:
- Drink drinks at room temperature
- Eat fresh fruits and berries that are low in sugar. e.g. apricots, blueberries, blueberries, cranberries, grapefruits, peaches, strawberries and watermelons
- Eat low-fiber vegetables such as green beans, carrots, tomatoes and collard greens
- Replace wheat and potatoes with rice
- Replace soda with water better to hydrate and aid digestion than sodas, which can cause constipation and gas
- Squeeze lemon or lime juice into water instead of drinking fruit juice or adding flavors or sweeteners
- Drink tea (for example , with chamomile, fennel, mint or turmeric) – it promotes digestion, reduces gas production
Read more: Why is there increased gas production?
Tips on gas control for specific groups of people
Children and pregnant women are most likely to suffer from gas production
Gas production in children
Children often suffer from gas because they are small and untrained digestive tracts. Gas can be painful for a newborn. Their abdomen may feel hard to the touch, and they may press their legs against their chest in an attempt to relieve pain symptoms.
The following tips will help reduce gas production in babies:
- Use slow flow teats to reduce the rate at which the newborn drinks. There are special teats for gas-producing babies
- Breastfeeding mothers may avoid foods that cause gas in babies.These are the same foods that cause gas in mothers, such as dairy products and tomatoes
- Stimulate burping often, before and after feeding
- After feeding, lay your baby on the back and move her legs as if she is riding a bicycle – this helps get rid of gases. This is facilitated by the time the baby spends on his stomach
- The pediatrician can recommend a special product for newborns containing simethicone. It may be useful for some children, but it is important to get the right dose together with your doctor
Read more: Do you fart? Then we go to you!
Pregnant women have elevated levels of the hormone progesterone, which relaxes the hip ligaments, which is beneficial for childbirth.
Unfortunately, elevated progesterone levels can cause side effects in the form of excess gas.
Progesterone also slows down digestion, food takes longer to pass through the intestines. As a result, the stomach can swell, gases begin to come out through the anus and in the form of belching.
Gas formation during pregnancy is normal, but there are ways to reduce it:
- Avoid fried or fatty foods – it takes longer to digest
- Do not drink through a straw – this will swallow more air
- Sit up straight after eating, which encourages food movement Along the digestive tract
- Take a short walk to get rid of excess gas (unless your doctors forbid you to do so)
- Wear loose clothing, especially around the waist
- Drink plenty of water to stay hydrated and to facilitate the passage of digested food
- Eat in small portions to keep your blood glucose more stable
Read more: What are your bunches talking about?
If you do not have a digestive tract disorder such as intestinal obstruction or malabsorption, your doctor may start with over-the-counter drugs that reduce gas production.
Many of these contain simethicone, a substance that attaches to gas bubbles and makes them easier to get rid of.
Other common therapies are aimed at normalizing certain intestinal enzymes and are based on dietary changes:
- Lactase for those who are lactose intolerant
- Beano for those who have trouble digesting foods that contain raffinose sugar, such as fibrous vegetables and beans
- Probiotics in yoghurt or nutritional supplements that promote the growth of beneficial bacteria in the digestive tract
If these products do not reduce gas production, your doctor may prescribe medication to improve digestion.These medications can be directed against irritable bowel syndrome.
When to see a doctor about gases
Gas is uncomfortable or not dangerous for some people, but for others it may be a sign of a serious illness.
You should see a doctor if, in addition to gas, you have the following symptoms:
- Blood in stool
- Frequent diarrhea
- Unexplained weight loss
A doctor will review these symptoms, medical history food and medications taken.Various methods can be used for diagnosis, from blood tests to imaging methods. As a result, signs of inflammation in the digestive tract may be found.
Gas formation is normal, but it should not be constantly accompanied by pain and should not interfere with life.
Read more: The sounds of our body. How do you learn to understand them?
TOP-6 unexpected facts about farts that you didn’t know about
When in society someone inadvertently hiccups, belches, or ruins the air, those around them look at such a person with condemnation, right? Natural manifestations of physiology cause irritation, awkwardness, and shame.
If you observe a constant accumulation of gases in your intestines, you are worried about painful sensations and bloating – it’s time to consult a specialist. Trust me, there is nothing unnatural or shameful about emitting gases! Competent gastroenterologists are at your service in medical center “Active-Medical”, you can make an appointment by calling (0512) 777-888 . For gastroenterologists, flatulence is just one of the symptoms that help to diagnose the patient correctly and offer effective treatment.Agree that there are some topics that are not usually discussed out loud.
We invite you to talk about such a delicate problem as intestinal gases or flatulence . Let’s get out of our comfort zone and find out what this unpleasant phenomenon may be associated with.
It’s hard to believe, but not only people but also animals farts! You probably noticed that your four-legged friends, cats and dogs, can sometimes spoil the air.This process is no stranger to turtles, fish and snakes.
Physics and chemistry of intestinal gases.
Scientists have carried out interesting studies and found out the physical and chemical characteristics of intestinal gases. It turns out that their speed of movement at the moment of ejection is 3 m / s. Intestinal gases are 59% nitrogen, followed by hydrogen (21%), followed by carbon dioxide, methane and oxygen. The temperature of this “combustible mixture” is 36.9 ° C.
Farting is good.
Of course, blowing winds in society is a manifestation of bad taste. However, scientists urge us not to hold back intestinal gases! Their release by the body indicates the normal functioning of the gastrointestinal tract. Of course, there is a toilet room to get rid of the accumulated gases.
Attitude to intestinal gas in different nations.
Believe it or not, there are several countries in the world where you can fart without embarrassment, even at the table.The Germans and Finns are quite supportive of this manifestation of physiology. If something like this happens, then none of those present simply pays attention to the unpleasant smell and suspicious sound. Because holding back gases is unhealthy! In India, a person who gasses at a guest table seems to signal that he is full and happy with the reception given to him by the hosts. In this amazing country, flatulence at a party is a symbol of gratitude for the meal. Similarly, delicious food is reacted on the other side of the world, in Canada.The natives of the snow-covered country, the Inuit, farts, admiring the great dinner.
Flatulence and unpleasant odor.
Undoubtedly, the smell of hydrogen sulfide, the main one in the “cocktail” of intestinal gas aromas, is not pleasant to anyone. Do you want others not to notice the natural conditioning of your intestines? Then try to eat fewer legumes, cheese, cabbage, garlic and eggs – these are the foods that contribute to the release of hydrogen sulfide.
Surprising facts about intestinal gas.
And finally, we have prepared for you some absolutely incredible facts about intestinal gas and farting. Believe it or not, every person releases gases at least 14 times a day. The volume of intestinal gases is at least half a liter, and homo sapiens farts more often in sleep than during wakefulness. Women far less often than men, and the volume with which gas leaves the intestines depends on the width of the anus. Don’t ask how it came to be known, but intestinal gases can ignite, and the longest bunch in history lasted 2 minutes and 40 seconds.As you can see, the topic of intestinal gases can be not only important from the point of view of diagnosing the state of health, but also very informative.
90,000 Gases in the digestive tract
Gases in the digestive tract 90 100
Patients’ complaints about problems in one way or another related to gas formation are very frequent, however, the issue is rarely seriously analyzed, the doctor often simply accepts the patient’s point of view on the problem (the notorious dysbiosis!) And, accordingly, help is far from always satisfactory, all the more radical . ..Knowledge of the basics of normal and pathological physiology helps to understand in more detail the condition and well-being of the patient, to outline the strategy of the therapeutic approach. The proposed material highlights the issues of the physiology of a healthy organism, which are not included in the curriculum of higher medical school.
A. Gas sources
There are two sources of gas that accumulates in the lumen of the digestive tract.
one.Swallowing air with its subsequent transfer to the stomach. Swallowing is a neuromuscular reaction with voluntary and involuntary components. On average, a person swallows 600 times a day (200 times during meals, 50 times during sleep, 350 times the rest of the time), mostly unconsciously. A small amount of air (2-3 ml) enters the stomach with each act of swallowing. Its physiological role is to stimulate gastric motility. Some of the air passes through the pylorus into the intestines. With an excessive accumulation of air and an increase in intracavitary pressure, belching occurs due to reflex contraction of the muscles of the stomach, diaphragm and abdominal muscles with an open inlet and pyloric spasm.Air consists of nitrogen (78% by volume) and oxygen (21%), with noble gases and carbon dioxide accounting for one percent; air solubility in water 29 cm3 / l.
2. Production of gases by intestinal bacteria. Most of the carbohydrates entering the digestive tract with food are digested and absorbed in the small intestine with the participation of specific enzymes. Contained mainly in vegetables, fruits, sugar-oligosaccharides of verbascose, raffinose and stachyose are not absorbed and are captured by the colon flora.With the participation of bacterial enzymes – amylases and disaccharidases – the splitting (hydrolysis) of these indigestible carbohydrates occurs to organic acids and gases – hydrogen (H2) and carbon dioxide (CO2), and in some individuals to methane (CH4). Complex polysaccharides such as xylans, pectin, micropolysaccharides, glycoprotein are also broken down mainly by the microflora of the colon. In addition, some microorganisms break down food protein by proteases and ureases to amines, phenols, indoles, ammonia (Nh4) and other products.It is believed that the composition of the intestinal flora is established during the first 8 years of life under the influence of family eating habits.
Gas exchange in the digestive tract of a healthy person is schematically shown in Figure 1.
[Gas exchange in the digestive tract of a healthy person.]
Fig. 1. Gas exchange in the digestive tract of a healthy person.
Air is swallowed (1), its excess is belched out clearly or imperceptibly (2).Oxygen from the air in the stomach diffuses into the blood (3). As a result of the reaction between hydrogen and bicarbonate ions, carbon dioxide is formed (4), which also quickly diffuses into the blood (5), while nitrogen from the bloodstream enters the cavity of the small intestine (6) according to the gradient caused by the production of carbon dioxide. In the colon, bacteria produce carbon dioxide, hydrogen, and methane (7), which are carried into the bloodstream (8). Nitrogen diffuses from the bloodstream into the intestine (9) according to the gradient caused by the production of carbon dioxide, hydrogen and methane by the bacteria.Bacteria consume oxygen and nitrogen (10).
The total area of the digestive tract is 200-300 sq. m. The number and composition of microbes in its different departments differ significantly. The esophagus and stomach are contaminated with microorganisms that enter here with food and from the oral cavity. The number of bacteria in the stomach is insignificant (less than 102 in 1 ml), which is associated with the acidity of its contents. The duodenum, the jejunum and the upper ileum contain more microbes (up to 103 per ml), represented mainly by gram-positive bacteria. As you approach the cecum, the number of microbes in the ileum increases. In this case, predominantly gram-positive flora is replaced by gram-negative, and obligate anaerobes begin to prevail over aerobes. However, in 50% of healthy people, the contents of the jejunum are sterile. The detection of more than 105 microorganisms in 1 ml in the upper parts of the small intestine is considered as a pathological indicator. The composition of the microflora of the digestive tract is shown in Figure 2.
[Microflora of the digestive tract.]
Fig. 2. Microflora of the digestive tract.
The main genera and families of microorganisms are represented by official names. Abbreviations: COPC, end (distal) ileum; Duodenum – duodenum; TK – jejunum; NOPK is the initial (proximal) section of the ileum.
The cecum is the main habitat of microflora. The large intestine as a whole is the most colonized by microorganisms, so the number of bacteria in feces can reach 1012 per 1 g of contents, i.e.That is, a trillion microbes in one gram of feces. Moreover, the number of anaerobes is 100-1000 times higher than that of aerobic bacteria. It has been shown that microorganisms are detected on the surface of the intestinal mucosa even after washing it fifty times. Considering the rate of reproduction of microbes, it can be assumed that the procedures for washing the intestines (hydrocolonotherapy) cannot significantly and lastingly affect the intestinal flora.
There is another, third mechanism that plays a role in pathological conditions, this is a decrease in the absorption of gases by the intestinal wall and the transition into the bloodstream of the submucosal plexuses as a result of the accelerated movement of contents through the intestine (diarrhea) and / or a common pathological process in the mucous membrane.
B. Gas composition of intestinal contents
Hydrogen. The presence of H2 in the intestine and, therefore, in the exhaled air of a person is the result of only the vital activity of bacteria that consume carbohydrates. It easily passes through the intestinal wall into the bloodstream and is then exhaled. H2-producing bacteria are sometimes classified according to the characteristics of their metabolism.
Methane is formed by obligate anaerobes – archaebacteria, which take energy as a result of the conversion of H2, CO2, formate, acetate and methanol into CH4; indole is an important source of CH4 formation in the intestine.Methanobacteria are found in feces in 90% of people, in 30-40% CH4 is found in exhaled air. A positive correlation was noted between the concentrations of methane and hydrogen in the intestine. More methane is produced in people with constipation.
Carbon dioxide is formed as a result of microbial fermentation of carbohydrates, including those that are part of plant fibers.
Ammonia is formed by microbial degradation of urea and amino acids. As a result of hydrolytic processes, up to 30% of the urea formed in the liver is converted to Nh4.Ammonia is readily soluble in water.
Hydrogen sulfide is formed mainly during the conversion of sulfur-containing amino acids of proteins by anaerobic sulfate-reducing bacteria.
Thus, the main components of gas in the digestive tract are carbon dioxide, hydrogen, methane, nitrogen and oxygen. Nitrogen and oxygen are of external origin, while carbon dioxide, hydrogen and methane are produced by bacterial fermentation. These gases are odorless. The smell of intestinal gas is partly due to hydrogen sulfide and ammonia, but the so-called.trace gases in concentrations below 1 ppm. These are sulfur-containing substances such as methaneethiol, dimethyl sulfide.
The process of moving the main gases from the intestinal lumen into the blood is as follows. The gases are satisfactorily soluble in water or fats and passively diffuse from the lumen into the bloodstream in the mucosa. The direction of movement is determined by the partial pressure gradient. Since h3 and Ch5 always have a higher partial pressure in the gut, they go in that direction.In contrast, the direction of diffusion of CO2, O2 and nitrogen (N2) is variable and diffusion can increase or decrease the intestinal gas volume. The swallowed air contains a minimum amount of carbon dioxide and it diffuses from the mucous membrane into the gas bubble of the stomach; pCO2 rises sharply in the duodenum and CO2 there is directed from the intestinal lumen into the blood. pN2 of air is higher than in venous blood and nitrogen is poorly absorbed in the stomach. And in the lumen of the duodenum, pN2 becomes lower than in the blood, as a result of dilution with carbon dioxide and nitrogen is directed from the blood into the lumen of the intestine.The pO2 of air is higher than that of blood and oxygen is absorbed from the stomach. However, the pO2 of intestinal gas is very low and oxygen is constantly flowing from the blood to the intestinal lumen.
The mechanisms that move gas through the digestive tube are not well understood. If in the small intestine the movement of dense substances and liquids depends on the activity and phases of perstalsis, then the role of motor activity in the movement of gas is very small. In the colon, high-amplitude contractions cause the movement of fecal masses, but their significance in the movement of gases is not known.In the colon, solid content is transported 30 to 100 times slower than liquid or gas. Gas can travel from the teeth to the anus for 20-30 minutes.
The normal number of gas emissions has been counted. In a study of healthy persons of both sexes aged 21 to 59 years, it was noted that the average number of flatulences per day with a habitual diet is about 10 (in other studies, 14), and the volume of gas released per episode is 33-125 ml; no sex differences were found.
90,000 Mechanics 1: solids, liquids, gases.
Mechanics 1: solids, liquids, gases. Set of laboratory equipment New
A set of laboratory equipment designed for experiments and practical work in the study of the basic laws of solids, liquids and gases in the course of physics in high school. More than 50 elements are placed in two pallets with transparent lids.
Subject of experiments:
– Mechanics of solids.
22 experiments – studies of mass, density, forces and the action of forces, friction, stability and equilibrium of solids, the operation of a lever and simple mechanisms
– Mechanics of liquids
15 experiments – studies of the behavior of materials with changes in temperature and pressure, the action of hydrostatic pressure, surface forces tension, operation of the suction and discharge pump, use of the energy of the water flow
– Mechanics of gases
12 experiments – studies of the relationship of pressure, temperature and volume, atmospheric pressure, pressure measurement and study of the force effect of gases
As part of a set (for 1 working group) * :
– Beaker, cup
– Rail with parts
– Cylinder with tripod divisions
– Syringes, suction vessel
– Weights set
– Funnel, hoses with holder
– Gauge spring tube
– Lever, cup scales
– Test tube, rubber stoppers
– Blocks Dye (blue)
– Movable trolley Cartesiandiver
– Set of metal
– Capillary tube of cylinders
– Inflatable balls with valves
– Paddle wheel
Mechanics 1: Solids, liquids, gases.A set of laboratory equipment. Methodological manual New
Methodological manual contains information on the composition of a set of laboratory equipment and additional elements for experiments and practical work in the study of the basic laws of solids, liquids and gases in the course of physics in high school; basic rules of work, descriptions of 49 experiments, control questions, as well as examples of answers.
90,000 All About Carbon Monoxide – News
There are two types of gas used in households in Estonia – natural gas and liquefied gas. Natural gas comes to us from Russia via long gas pipelines, and in Estonia it is distributed to different consumers. Liquefied gas, however, is stored in cylinders and is distributed in cylinders.
Special underground gas storage facilities have been installed in large areas, from where gas is supplied to users through pipes. Therefore, it is worth knowing that the service gas in the cylinders is liquefied gas, and the gas that we receive through pipes, depending on the area, can be either natural or liquefied.
What is natural gas?
- The main constituent of natural gas is methane – a colorless and odorless gas. In order to detect gas leaks, some substances are added to it to enhance the smell.
- Natural gas is lighter than air; therefore, in the event of a leak, it mixes with air and rises upward. It is always worth remembering that ventilation or other air currents can direct the gas to the side. This means that usually in the event of a gas leak, the apartments above are in danger, but gas can also move to neighboring apartments.
- Natural gas suffocates people. It is not a very poisonous gas. Rather, it has narcotic properties. If approximately 10% of the room is filled with gas, it will cause drowsiness, headache and feeling unwell. If the gas content in the apartment rises to 20-30%, then there is a lack of oxygen, which can cause suffocation.
What is LPG?
- The main constituent of liquefied gas is propane.Like methane, propane is colorless and odorless. In order for a person to detect a gas leak in the household, a little substance is added to it to enhance the smell. These substances give the gas a distinct odor.
- Propane is not a poisonous gas, but if it gets into the air in large quantities and in conditions of reduced oxygen, suffocation can occur. Inhaling such gas can cause dizziness, drowsiness, nausea, and weakness.
- Propane is heavier than air and therefore, in the event of a leak, the gas settles on the floor, in the basement, in the sewers and other depressions.Therefore, in the event of a gas leak, apartments on low floors and basements are in danger.
What is carbon monoxide?
- Even ordinary burning of food at home can cause carbon monoxide, and as a result – poisoning. However, in homes and apartments, the main cause of carbon monoxide is an early closed stove damper, a poorly adjusted gas stove or a gas boiler with poor draft.
- Carbon monoxide, or carbon monoxide (CO), is a colorless, odorless and tasteless poisonous gas that spreads completely unnoticed by humans.Most often, in fires, people die precisely due to the inhalation of poisonous smoke.
- Due to the ingress of carbon monoxide into the human body, the blood loses its ability to carry oxygen. Hemoglobin, which is supposed to carry oxygen in the blood, on the contrary, begins to carry carbon monoxide. As a result, a dangerous substance is formed in the human body – carboxyhemoglobin.
- The amount of oxygen in various parts of the body decreases as hemoglobin no longer delivers oxygen there.The man begins to choke. At one time, the heart throws out almost one glass of blood into the body, and carbon monoxide passes through the lungs to other parts of the body very quickly.
- Having been poisoned by carbon monoxide, we do not understand the scale of the situation. The person is confused and cannot help himself, although he feels that something is wrong with him. A person may not compare these symptoms with carbon monoxide poisoning, and while in a dream, he may not feel anything at all.
- Symptoms depend on the amount of gas.A small amount can cause throbbing in the temples, drowsiness, weakness, headache, loss of balance, tinnitus, weakness in the legs, nausea and vomiting. Later, hallucinations, increased heart rate, increased pressure may occur, weakness, drowsiness, loss of pressure, breathing complications may occur. In case of severe poisoning, a person loses consciousness and death occurs.
- A person can die from carbon monoxide poisoning without an existing fire. For example, when the stove damper is closed too early, or the gas appliance is operated under oxygen starvation conditions and, as a consequence, carbon monoxide is produced.Also, carbon monoxide can leak to you from neighboring apartments.
- The smoke detector is unable to detect carbon monoxide. In order to detect carbon monoxide in the early stages, a carbon monoxide sensor is needed.
- Gas installations are of different types. Usually accidents happen with boilers that depend on air for their operation. This means that they get the necessary amount of air from the room to work. Such boilers were often installed in closed cabinets.
- Also, the reason may be the insulation of the house. Many houses, which initially had natural ventilation, have already been insulated, windows have been changed, and a carefree reconstruction has been made. For example, gas installations were connected to each other in unsuitable chimneys. Such gas installations were often installed in closed cabinets. Over time, the chimneys were clogged, and the combustible air remained in the apartment.
- Every gas installation needs regular inspection and maintenance. It is important to ensure that there is no leakage from the pipe connections and that the chimney is not clogged.
- Gas flame is usually blue. If the flame is green, then it definitely indicates a hazard.
Who is responsible?
- In apartments and private houses, the owner is responsible for the operation and serviceability of gas installations. Home gas installations should be checked and serviced once a year.
- The members of the partnership are responsible for gas pipes on stairwells in apartment buildings.
- The company providing these services is responsible for the construction, control and maintenance of gas appliances.Human lives depend on the quality of these services.
- The state exercises supervision over the owners of houses and apartments, as well as enterprises for compliance with these regulations.
Carbon monoxide sensor
- From 1 January 2018, the installation of a carbon monoxide sensor is compulsory in all dwellings where there is a gas installation connected to a pipe.
- These installations primarily include gas-fired water heaters.A carbon monoxide sensor becomes mandatory when gas heating is available, but it is prudent to install a carbon monoxide sensor in all living areas containing combustion-related equipment, such as a wood-burning stove, fireplace, stove or gas boiler. Installation of the sensor is voluntary if technical measures have been taken to prevent carbon monoxide from leaking and entering the dwelling, for example, if the combustion air for a gas installation is taken directly from the outside air and the gases emitted during combustion are also discharged directly through the designated pipe to outside air.
- The carbon monoxide detector only gives a signal when the concentration of carbon monoxide in the air approaches a level that is dangerous to human health.
- One carbon monoxide sensor is intended for use in the same room, as the device only indicates the level of CO that is spreading around the sensor.
Where to install a carbon monoxide detector?
- When installing a carbon monoxide sensor, first follow the manufacturer’s instructions.
- Unlike a smoke detector, the carbon monoxide detector is mounted on the wall of the room, at a height of approximately 0. 5-1.5 meters from the floor. Experienced experts recommend installing the sensor, so to speak, at the level of the person’s respiratory tract, or at the level at which the person’s face is when he sits on the sofa, and in the bedroom – about the height of the pillow.
- The device is installed at a distance of 1-3 meters from the source of carbon monoxide, and the sensor should not be installed near ventilation systems and air ducts.
- In a multi-storey building, it is recommended to install carbon monoxide detectors on each floor. If possible, also in every bedroom.
- If the gas boiler is in the bathroom, make sure that the carbon monoxide sensor is suitable for installation in wet areas. For this, the sensor must have an IP designation, which must correspond to the IP44 level.
- Carbon monoxide detectors are not installed in garages, kitchens, boiler rooms, bathrooms, or anywhere else where temperatures fall below 10 ° C or rise above 40 ° C.
How to care?
- It is necessary to check if the carbon monoxide sensor is in working order once a month by pressing the test button. A beep confirms that the device is in working order.
- The carbon monoxide sensor must be regularly cleaned of dust. To do this, you can use both a vacuum cleaner and a rag.
- The carbon monoxide sensor is powered by batteries – an intermittent regular beep from the sensor indicates that the batteries are empty.This means that the battery should be replaced immediately.
- You can find more information on gas safety for domestic consumers
What to do if the carbon monoxide detector is triggered?
- Quickly open windows and doors and thoroughly ventilate the room.
- Turn off all heating systems or put out the fire in the stove or stove.
- Call a professional technician to help solve the problem. Do not turn on the heating devices yourself before the technician arrives.