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Genital bacterial infection: Bacterial vaginosis – Symptoms and causes


STD Facts – Bacterial Vaginosis

Bacterial vaginosis is a common, treatable, vaginal condition. BV can increase your chance of getting a sexually transmitted disease (STD). This fact sheet answers general questions about BV.

What is bacterial vaginosis (BV)?

Bacterial vaginosis (BV) is a condition that happens when there is too much of certain bacteria in the vagina. This changes the normal balance of bacteria in the vagina.

How common is BV?

BV is the most common vaginal condition in women ages 15-44.

How is BV spread?

Researchers do not know the cause of BV. However, we do know the condition most often occurs in those who are sexually active. BV is a result of an imbalance of “good” and “harmful” bacteria in a vagina. Douching, not using condoms, and having new or multiple sex partners can upset the normal balance of vaginal bacteria, increasing your risk for getting BV.

We also do not know how sex causes BV. There also is no research to show that treating a sex partner affects whether someone gets BV. Having BV can increase your chances of getting other STDs.

BV rarely affects those who have never had sex.

You cannot get BV from toilet seats, bedding, or swimming pools.

How can I avoid getting BV?

Healthcare providers and scientists do not completely understand how BV spreads or know how best to prevent it.

The following basic prevention steps may help lower your risk of getting BV:

  • Not having sex;
  • Limiting your number of sex partners;
  • Not douching; and
  • Using condoms the right way every time you have sex.

I’m pregnant. How does BV affect my baby?

Treating BV during pregnancy is very important. If you are pregnant and have BV, your baby is more likely to be born early (premature) or at a low birth weight. Low birth weight means having a baby that weighs less than 5.5 pounds at birth.

How do I know if I have BV?

Many people with BV do not have symptoms. If you do have symptoms, you may notice:

  • A thin white or gray vaginal discharge;
  • Pain, itching, or burning in the vagina;
  • A strong fish-like odor, especially after sex;
  • Burning when peeing; and
  • Itching around the outside of the vagina.

How will my healthcare provider know if I have BV?

A healthcare provider will examine your vagina for signs of discharge. They also can test a sample of vaginal fluid to determine if BV is present.

Is there a cure for BV?

A healthcare provider can treat BV with antibiotics. If you have symptoms, you should be checked and treated by a healthcare provider. It is important to take all the medicine your provider prescribes, even if your symptoms go away. Treatment also may reduce the risk for getting other STDs. BV can return even after treatment.

Male sex partners of women with BV do not need treatment. However, BV can spread between female sex partners.

What happens if I don’t receive treatment?

At times, BV will go away without treatment. However, treatment can help avoid the increased chance of some serious health risks associated with BV, including:

  • Getting or transmitting HIV;
  • Delivering your baby too early if you have BV while pregnant; and
  • Getting other STDs like chlamydia and gonorrhea. These bacteria can cause pelvic inflammatory disease (PID), which can make it difficult for you to have children.


Workowski, KA, Bachmann, LH, Chang, PA, et. al. Sexually Transmitted Infections Treatment Guidelines, 2021. MMWR Recomm Rep 2021; 70(No. 4): 1-187.

Hillier S and Holmes K. Bacterial vaginosis. In: K. Holmes, P. Sparling, P. Mardh et al (eds). Sexually Transmitted Diseases, 3rd Edition. New York: McGraw-Hill, 1999, 563-586.

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Symptoms, Causes, Diagnosis, Treatment, Prevention, Complications

Written by WebMD Editorial Contributors

Medically Reviewed by Nivin Todd, MD on November 06, 2022

  • What Is Bacterial Vaginosis?
  • Bacterial Vaginosis Symptoms
  • When to See a Doctor About BV
  • Bacterial Vaginosis Causes
  • Bacterial Vaginosis Risk Factors
  • Bacterial Vaginosis Diagnosis
  • Bacterial Vaginosis Treatment
  • Bacterial Vaginosis Complications
  • Bacterial Vaginosis Prevention
  • More

Bacterial vaginosis (BV) is an infection of the vagina. It results from a change in the normal balance of vaginal bacteria.

BV usually doesn’t cause any other health problems. But it can lead to issues, especially when you’re pregnant or trying to get pregnant.


About half of the time, women with BV have no symptoms. But they can include:

  • Burning feeling when you pee

  • Fishy smell that gets stronger after sex

  • Itching

  • Thin white, gray, or green discharge

It isn’t the same as a yeast infection. Those often have a thick white discharge that doesn’t smell.

Because BV symptoms can look like those from other infections, it’s important to find out the cause. See your doctor if you:

  • Have a new vaginal discharge along with a smell or a fever

  • Have more than one intimate partner or a new partner (You might need to be checked for a sexually transmitted disease. )

  • Used an over-the-counter medicine for a yeast infection but still have symptoms

A type of bacteria called lactobacillus keeps your vagina slightly acidic so bad bacteria don’t grow well. If your lactobacillus levels drop, more bad bacteria move in, and you get BV.

Any woman can get BV, but your risks are higher if you:

  • Smoke

  • Are sexually active

  • Douche

Douching upsets the natural balance of bacteria. So can scented soaps, bubble baths, and vaginal deodorants.

A new sex partner, or having more than one, makes it more likely that you’ll get BV. It isn’t clear why, but women who have female partners are most at risk. You can get BV from oral and anal sex.

The IUD birth control device, which fits inside your uterus, has been linked to BV, especially if you have irregular bleeding. But it isn’t clear whether it’s a direct cause.

You can’t get vaginal infections like BV from swimming pools or public toilet seats.

The doctor will:

  • Ask about your medical history

  • Do an overall physical exam

  • Do a pelvic exam

  • Check your vagina’s pH or acidity level

  • Take a sample of discharge from your vagina to look for cells covered with bacteria

The doctor can prescribe antibiotics (metronidazole, clindamycin, tinidazole) to treat BV. This could be a tablet you take by mouth or a cream or gel you put into your vagina. You’ll need to take most treatments for 5 to 7 days. Finish all your medicine, even if the symptoms go away. If you stop early, the infection could come back.

Since BV can be spread through sex, don’t have sexual contact until you’re done taking your medicine and your symptoms are gone. If your partner is another woman, they may want to see their doctor to find out if they need treatment.

Even after BV is treated and goes away, it often returns. If that happens, you’ll probably need to take antibiotics again for a longer time.

If you use an IUD and BV keeps coming back (recurrent BV), you may want to talk to your doctor about a different type of birth control.

Bacterial vaginosis has been tied to a higher risk of other health problems, including:

  • A bacterial infection, if you have a hysterectomy or other surgery on your female organs while you have BV

  • A premature or low birth weight baby

  • A sexually transmitted disease like herpes, chlamydia, or gonorrhea, or passing HIV to your partner

  • Less success with fertility treatments like in vitro fertilization (IVF)

  • Pelvic inflammatory disease (PID), an infection of your uterus, fallopian tubes, and ovaries

To lower your chances of getting BV, take these steps:

  • Clean sex toys after every use.

  • Don’t douche.

  • Get tested for sexually transmitted diseases, and make sure your sex partners are tested.

  • Limit your number of sex partners.

  • If your partner is male, put a condom on their penis before it touches your vagina, mouth, or anus.

  • Use only water or mild soap to wash your genitals.

  • Wipe from front to back after you use the bathroom.

Top Picks

Bacterial infections in women: causes, symptoms and treatment


  • 1 Bacterial infections in women: causes, symptoms and treatments
    • 1. 1 Bacterial infection: what is it?
      • 1.1.1 Definition
      • 1.1.2 Causes
      • 1.1.3 Symptoms of bacterial infection
      • 1.1.4 Treatment
      • 1.1.5 Prevention
    • 1.2 Related videos:
    • 1.3 Bacterial infections in women: common problem
      • 1.3.1 What are bacterial infections?
      • 1.3.2 Why are bacterial infections a problem for women?
      • 1.3.3 How does prophylaxis help prevent bacterial infections? 1.4 Main types of bacterial infections in women 0010
      • 1.5 Q&A:
          • What are the symptoms of bacterial infections can be in women?
          • Which bacteria can cause infections in women?
          • How are bacterial infections spread in women?
          • What factors can affect the risk of infection?
          • What are the possible complications of bacterial infections in women?
          • How to treat a bacterial infection in women?
      • 1. 6 Symptoms of bacterial infections in women
      • 1.7 Consequences of bacterial infections in women
        • 1.7.1 Reproductive effects
        • 1.7.2 General health effects
        • 1.7.3 Neonatal effects
      • 1.8 Diagnosis of bacterial infections in women
          900 05 1.8.1 Gynecological examination
        • 1.8.2 Cultural examination analysis
        • 1.8.3 PCR diagnostics
        • 1.8.4 ultrasound
        • 1.8.5 Colposcopy
      • 1.9 Treatment of bacterial infections in women
        • 1.9.1 Drugs for the treatment of urinary tract infections
        • 1.9.2 Antibiotics for the treatment of infections of the genital organs
        • 1.9.3 Prevention of bacterial infections in women
      • 1.10 Prevention of bacterial infections in women
        • 1.10 .1 Personal hygiene
        • 1.10 .2 Use of condoms
        • 1.10.3 Proper nutrition
        • 1.10.4 Visiting a doctor for preventive examinations
      • 1. 11 Modern methods of combating bacterial infections in women
        • 1.11.1 Prevention of infections in the intimate area
        • 1.11.2 Antibiotics
        • 1.11.3 Probiotics
        • 1.11.4 Immunomodulators
      • 1.12 How to know when to see a doctor
        • 1.12.1 Observed symptoms
        • 1.12.2 Cases in which medical attention is needed immediately
        • 1.12.3 Degree of dependence on habits
        • 1.12.4 Annual examinations by a gynecologist
      • 1.13 Conclusions:

    Information about the many types of bacterial infections that can affect women and how to prevent or treat them. From candidiasis to urethritis, here are the main symptoms and treatments. Learn how to maintain your health and wellness.

    Bacterial infections are one of the most common diseases in women. They can affect various parts of the body, including the urinary tract, genitals, intestines, and other organs and tissues. In addition, some of these infections can be very dangerous and even lead to serious complications such as infectious shock or cancer.

    Bacterial infections can be caused by various factors, such as changes in the bacterial flora, poor hygiene, a weakened immune system, and others. The symptoms of bacterial infections can also differ depending on which part of the body is infected. Some of the most common symptoms include painful urination, discharge, itching and others.

    Treatment of bacterial infections in women may include antibiotics or other medications as directed by a physician. In addition, it is important to maintain hygiene and strengthen the immune system to prevent infection and recurrence of infections.

    Knowledge of the symptoms and causes of bacterial infections, as well as professional medical care, can help women avoid serious complications and maintain their health for years to come.

    Bacterial infection: what is it?


    A bacterial infection is a disease caused by pathogenic bacteria that enter the body and multiply in its tissues or fluids.






    Bacteria can enter a woman’s body in any way: through the mouth, skin, genitals, respiratory tract, etc. They can be transmitted through the blood or lymph from other organs where they have not previously shown anything.

    Symptoms of a bacterial infection

    Women who have a bacterial infection may experience the following symptoms: fever, chills, weakness, fatigue, pain or discomfort in the chest or abdomen, pain in the genital area, problems with urination, menstrual irregularities, anxiety and nervousness.


    Treatment of a bacterial infection should be under medical supervision. Antibiotics are commonly used to kill pathogenic bacteria. In some cases, hospitalization and more serious treatments may be required.


    To prevent a bacterial infection, women should practice good hygiene, monitor their health, avoid direct and indirect contact with infectious patients, do not overuse antibiotics, and have regular medical examinations.

    Related videos:

    Bacterial infections in women: a global problem

    What are bacterial infections?

    Bacterial infections are one of the most common health problems in women. They are caused by bacteria that can affect various parts of the body. Some of them cause genital infections such as chlamydia, gonorrhea, syphilis and others. If left untreated, they can lead to more serious conditions such as infertility, pregnancy and childbirth complications, and increase the risk of HIV infection.

    Why are bacterial infections a problem for women?

    Bacterial infections cause pain and discomfort and can lead to serious complications. They can significantly affect a woman’s quality of life and can lead to impaired sensitivity of the reproductive organs, which can make it difficult to achieve orgasm and cause pain during intercourse.

    How does prophylaxis help prevent bacterial infections?

    The most effective way to prevent bacterial infections is to constantly monitor your health and use condoms correctly during sexual intercourse. It is also necessary to donate blood and check it regularly, and if you have any symptoms, contact your doctor.

    Main types of bacterial infections in women

    Sexually transmitted infections

    Sexually transmitted infections are bacterial infections that are transmitted sexually through contact with an infected person. These include gonorrhea, syphilis and chlamydia.

    • Gonorrhea – caused by the bacteria gonococcus. It can present with yellow-green urine, painful urination, itching, and vaginal discharge.
    • Syphilis – caused by spirochetes, has several stages of manifestation. Primary syphilis is manifested by an ulcer on the genitals, secondary – by skin rashes, tertiary – by damage to internal organs.
    • Chlamydia – Caused by the bacteria Chlamydia. It can be manifested by anxiety when urinating, vaginal discharge and inflammatory processes in the pelvic organs.


    Candidiasis is a fungal infection that can manifest as itching and burning in the vagina, white discharge with an unpleasant odor. Candida is the causative agent of candidiasis.

    Urogenital mycoplasmosis

    Urogenital mycoplasmosis is a bacterial sexually transmitted disease. May present with vaginal and urethral irritation, discharge, and painful urination. It is caused by the bacteria Mycoplasma genitalium.


    What are the symptoms of a bacterial infection in women?

    Symptoms of a bacterial infection in women may include painful urination, burning during urination, unusual discharge from the vagina, pain in the lower abdomen, general headache and fever.

    Which bacteria can cause infections in women?

    Bacteria that can cause infections in women include gonococci, chlamydia, mycoplasmas, ureaplasmas, Escherichia, and streptococci.

    How are bacterial infections spread in women?

    Bacterial infections can be spread through sexual contact, through contact with infected bodily fluids such as saliva and blood, or through poor hygiene in public places.

    What factors can affect the risk of infection?

    Risk factors include non-use of condoms during sexual intercourse, poor hygiene, low immunity, being pregnant, changes in the bacterial flora and weakening of the body’s protective functions.

    What complications can occur with bacterial infections in women?

    Complications may include inflammation of the uterus, ovaries, abdomen, infertility, miscarriage, preterm birth, and transmission to the newborn.

    How to treat a bacterial infection in women?

    Treatment depends on the specific type of bacteria that caused the infection. It may include antibiotics, changes in the bacterial flora, as well as the correction of immunity. It is necessary to complete the full course of treatment to avoid re-infection and complications.

    Symptoms of bacterial infections in women

    A bacterial infection may have the following symptoms:

    1. Vaginal discharge – it may be yellow, green or gray in color, frothy, viscous or thin, strong odor or no;
    2. Vegetable-like odor – sometimes a bacterial infection in the vagina can cause a foul odor that resembles vegetables or fish;
    3. Itching and burning – a feeling of itching and burning in the vaginal area can also indicate the presence of a bacterial infection;
    4. Redness and swelling – the skin around the vagina may become red and swollen due to a bacterial infection;
    5. Painful urination – if urination is painful, this may indicate a bacterial urinary tract infection;
    6. Pain during intercourse – Pain during intercourse may also indicate a bacterial infection.

    If you suspect a bacterial infection, see your doctor. He will prescribe the necessary tests and determine which microorganisms caused the infection and how to treat it.

    Effects of bacterial infections in women

    Effects on the reproductive system

    Bacterial infections in women can affect the reproductive system by causing inflammation in the ovaries, fallopian tubes and cervix. As a result, diseases such as endometritis, oophoritis, salpingitis and others may occur, which can lead to infertility and problems during conception.

    General health effects

    Bacterial infections in women can lead to extensive general health effects. Some infections can lead to shock, kidney and liver problems, and gangrene. In addition, infections can pass into the bloodstream and cause sepsis, which can lead to death.

    Effects on the newborn baby

    Some bacterial infections in women can lead to serious consequences for the newborn baby. One such disease is gonorrhea, which can lead to preterm labor, eye and lung infections in the baby.

    • Conclusion: Bacterial infections in women are a serious problem that can lead to extensive health consequences. Therefore, it is necessary to take measures to prevent such infections, including monitoring one’s health and using condoms during sexual intercourse.

    Diagnosis of bacterial infections in women

    Gynecological examination

    One of the first steps in diagnosing bacterial infections in women is a gynecological examination. During the examination, the doctor examines the vagina, cervix, and vaginal discharge. If the examination reveals unusual discharge or changes in certain areas, the doctor may recommend additional tests.


    Culture is the standard method for determining the presence of a bacterial infection. In this test, a sample of vaginal discharge is taken and sent to a laboratory to identify the pathogen and determine antibiotic susceptibility.

    PCR diagnostics

    Quantitative polymerase chain reaction (PCR) is used to quickly and accurately detect bacterial infections in women. This method allows you to determine the DNA of the infectious agent in a sample of secretions. PCR diagnostics is also capable of detecting small numbers of pathogens, which can be more accurate than culture analysis.


    Ultrasound can be a useful tool for diagnosing infections that can lead to inflammation. Ultrasound allows the doctor to visualize the internal organs and determine the presence of inflammation or changes in certain areas.


    Colposcopy is used to examine the vaginal and cervical tissues. During the procedure, the doctor uses a special device – a colposcope – for a more detailed examination of the tissues. Colposcopy allows you to determine the presence of inflammation, changes in tissues and visible symptoms of infection.

    Treatment of bacterial infections in women

    Drugs for the treatment of urinary tract infections

    Antibiotics such as ampicillin, ceftriaxone and nitrofurantoin are used to treat urinary tract infections in women. Treatment lasts from 3 to 7 days, depending on the severity of the disease.

    Also, to relieve the symptoms of pain and burning during urination, preparations with a building acidic pH, such as phytolysin and canephron, can be used.

    Antibiotics for genital infections

    Antibiotics such as doxycycline, metronidazole and azithromycin are used to treat genital infections in women. Treatment lasts from 7 to 14 days, depending on the type of infection, its severity and extent of spread.

    A weak acid may also be used to restore vaginal pH and reduce the risk of developing infectious agents such as Bifidum and Lactobacilli.

    Prevention of bacterial infections in women

    The main prevention of bacterial infections in women is hygiene and protection during intercourse.

    • Wash the area around the vagina regularly
    • Use sanitary pads and tampons during your period
    • Avoid showering during infection or use of antibiotics
    • Use barrier methods of contraception such as condoms

    90 002 You should also regularly undergo medical examinations by a gynecologist, to detect and treat possible infections and diseases in a timely manner.

    Prevention of bacterial infections in women

    Personal hygiene

    One of the main methods of preventing bacterial infections in women is personal hygiene. It is necessary to shower regularly, change linen daily, use individual towels and sheets, and monitor the cleanliness of the body.

    Condom use

    Condoms must be used to prevent sexually transmitted bacterial infections. This will avoid infection with various infections, such as chlamydia, gonorrhea and others.

    Proper nutrition

    Proper and balanced nutrition is an important element in the prevention of bacterial infections. It is necessary to eat foods rich in vitamins and minerals that strengthen the immune system and help the body fight infections.

    Visiting a doctor for preventive examinations

    Regular visits to the gynecologist and passing preventive examinations are also an important measure in the prevention of bacterial infections in women. The doctor conducts an examination and detects the presence of infections, and also recommends the necessary measures for their prevention and treatment.

    Modern methods of combating bacterial infections in women

    Prevention of infections in the intimate area

    The most effective way to combat bacterial infections is to prevent them. To do this, it is necessary to monitor the hygiene of intimate areas, wear cotton underwear, avoid synthetic fabrics and periodically undergo an examination by a gynecologist.

    It is recommended to use special hygiene products that contain lactic acid, acetic acid and yoghurt bacteria, which create an acidic barrier in the intimate area and prevent infections.


    When women have a bacterial infection, antibiotics are given to kill the bacteria and prevent them from multiplying. Currently, doctors widely use combination antibiotics that are effective in fighting infections of various etiologies.


    After taking antibiotics, it is necessary to restore the microflora of the intestines and intimate area. For this, probiotics are used, which contain beneficial microorganisms and strengthen the immune system.

    Probiotics include bifidobacteria and lactobacilli, which improve bowel function, strengthen the immune system and prevent the development of bacterial infections.


    As an additional measure to fight bacterial infections in women, immunomodulators can be prescribed, which activate the immune system and make it work more efficiently.

    Immunomodulators include β-glucan, arginine, glutamine and vitamin C, which improve the functioning of the immune system and prevent infections.

    How to know when to see a doctor

    Observed symptoms

    If you have a yellow, green or grayish vaginal discharge, it may be a sign of a bacterial infection. In addition, frequent urination or pain in the lower abdomen may also indicate the presence of an inflammatory process in the urinary tract. If you notice these symptoms, be sure to consult a doctor.

    Cases in which a doctor’s visit is necessary immediately

    If you have a severe pain syndrome in the lower abdomen, as well as a temperature, then this is an indication to immediately contact a gynecologist. In cases of obstruction of the urinary tract, inability to urinate or bleeding from the genitals, an ambulance should be called.

    Dependence on habits

    It has been established that the presence of bacterial infections in women can be influenced by the degree of general hygiene, the frequency of changing hygiene products, the level of intimate hygiene, as well as the presence of various chronic diseases. If you have habits that can influence the occurrence of infections, you should discuss with your doctor possible measures to prevent or treat.

    Annual gynecological check-ups

    To avoid the development of bacterial infections and other diseases of the reproductive system, women should have regular check-ups with a gynecologist and observe all hygiene measures. If you haven’t passed such an examination this year, there is no reason to delay, do it as soon as possible!

    • Yellow, green or grayish discharge
    • Frequent urination
    • Pain in the lower abdomen
    • Severe pain in the lower abdomen
    • Temperature
    • Obstruction of the urinary tract
    • Inability to urinate
    • Bleeding from the genitals
    It has been established that the presence of bacterial infections in women can be influenced by the degree of general hygiene , the frequency of changing hygiene products, the level of intimate hygiene, as well as the presence of various chronic diseases. To avoid the development of bacterial infections and other diseases of the reproductive system, women should have regular check-ups with a gynecologist and observe all hygiene measures.


    Bacterial infections in women are a serious problem that requires proper attention and treatment.

    • Some bacteria, such as chlamydia, gonococcus and mycoplasma, can cause various infectious diseases in women, such as vaginitis, cervicitis, endometritis.
    • Irregular menstruation, pain in the lower abdomen, burning and itching in the intimate area, unusual vaginal discharge and fever may be signs of a bacterial infection.
    • At the first symptoms of a bacterial infection, a doctor should be consulted for proper diagnosis and treatment.
    • Preventive measures such as proper intimate hygiene, avoidance of casual sexual contact, and regular visits to the gynecologist are also important in preventing bacterial infections.

    It is important to remember that bacterial infections in women can lead to various complications, so treatment should be started as early as possible. Lost time can lead to serious consequences.

    Taking antibiotics only when prescribed by a doctor and following the instructions for use are also important for the effective treatment of infections.

    Urogenital infections: Symptoms, Diagnosis and Treatment


    The information in the article is for reference only and cannot be used for self-diagnosis and self-treatment.
    If you have symptoms of the disease, contact your doctor.


    • Classification of diseases
    • Causes of
    • Symptoms
    • Sequelae if left untreated
    • Diagnostics
    • Treatment

    Infectious and inflammatory diseases of bacterial, fungal and viral origin that affect the genitourinary system are now the most widespread in the human population. Approximately half of the patients endure it at least once during their lives. When symptoms appear, do not postpone a visit to the doctor. Further progression of the pathological process leads to complications.

    Women are treated by gynecologists

    Urogenital infections are a group of pathologies grouped according to the type of localization of the focus of inflammation. This series includes bacterial, fungal and viral lesions, leading to inflammatory changes in tissues in the organs of the urinary tract.

    Pathogens cause diseases with a wide range of clinical manifestations. This group, along with pathologies that are sexually transmitted, includes numerous opportunistic infections.

    In the complex of urological diseases in patients, they are registered much more often. Urogenital pathologies often recur. Over time, a chronic course of the infectious process is formed, which leads to the development of severe complications.

    Infection of the urogenital tract is more common in women. This is explained by the special structure of their genitourinary system. Their urethra differs in that it is wider and shorter than in men.

    The causative agent penetrates more easily into the urethra and then into the bladder. Women develop urethritis and cystitis. The proximity of the anus to the vagina and urethra also predisposes to this. The infection penetrates into the lumen of the urethra from the anus or vagina during intercourse.

    Classification of diseases

    Urogenital infections in women are classified according to the anatomical level of the lesion, the severity of the course. The presence of concomitant risk factors, microbiological data is important. The following levels of damage are distinguished:

    • cystitis;
    • urethritis;
    • pyelonephritis;
    • urosepsis.

    According to the severity of the course, mild, moderate and severe diseases are distinguished. They are complicated by a violation of the outflow of urine and uncomplicated. According to the type of pathogen leading to inflammation in the urinary tract, urogenital diseases are divided into sexually transmitted infections. These include the following microorganisms:

    • gonorrhea;
    • chlamydia;
    • trichomoniasis;
    • syphilis;
    • genital herpes;
    • mycoplasmas.

    There are also those pathologies where the causative agent of inflammation is opportunistic flora. These microorganisms are found in healthy people. When certain conditions develop, they cause inflammation. This group includes: staphylococci, Escherichia coli, Klebsiella, Enterococcus and other microorganisms.

    Most common species

    Many pathogens are now known to cause inflammation in the urinary tract. The most commonly diagnosed urogenital infections include:

    • Genital herpes . This is a viral pathology that is transmitted mainly through sexual intercourse. The characteristic external signs of the disease are the appearance of vesicles and ulcerations on the skin and mucous membranes of the reproductive organs.
    • Mycoplasmosis . This bacterial infection affects the tissues of the urethra, external and internal genital organs.
    • Gonorrhea . It refers to diseases that are transmitted through sexual intercourse. Inflammation caused by gonococci causes ectopic pregnancy and infertility.
    • Chlamydia . This pathology of a bacterial nature affects the tissues of the external and internal genital organs. Inflammation occurs in the mucous membranes of the urinary tract. Developing, pathology causes a variety of complications. Possible inflammation in the pelvic organs and arthritis.
    • Candidiasis . The disease belongs to the group of mycoses that cause yeast-like fungi. Candida is part of the normal microflora of the genitourinary organs. Fungi infect tissues under the influence of adverse factors. The most dangerous is the generalized form of the disease. It occurs when the immune system malfunctions.

    Urogenital infections often develop in immunocompromised patients. Their source is conditionally pathogenic microflora. Among the causative agents of nonspecific infections, the tissues of the urogenital tract are most often affected: Escherichia coli, staphylococcus saprophytic, Proteus, Klebsiella.

    Causes of

    Inflammatory changes are caused by viruses, fungi and bacteria. They enter the urogenital tract in the following ways:

    • Unprotected intercourse. During sexual contact, pathogens are transmitted from one partner to another. The probability of infection is determined by the pathogenicity of the causative agent of the disease, the activity of the immune system in the patient. Its ability is also affected by the condition of the mucous membranes.
    • Household transmission. The source of pathogenic microorganisms is any hygiene item (toothbrush, towel, razor). Many pathogens are long-term viable in the external environment.
    • Hematogenous route of transmission. Microorganisms from the focus of chronic infection in the body are released into the bloodstream. Then they enter the organs of the genitourinary tract.
    • Self transfer. The patient himself transfers the pathogen from one zone to another. Infection of one’s own genitals occurs with herpetic eruptions on the skin.
    • Infection during medical procedures. This happens if manipulations in this area are accompanied by damage to the skin and mucous membranes.
    • Predisposes to infection of the genitals decreased activity of the immune system. Another predisposing factors are considered: hypothermia, SARS, alcohol abuse.


      The duration of the incubation period varies from a couple of days to six months. The first to change is the appearance of the genitals. There is reddening of the skin. Vesicles, sores and other formations appear. The characteristic symptoms of lesions of the urogenital tract are the following:

      • rise in body temperature;
      • swelling and redness of the skin in the affected area;
      • painful urination;
      • cloudy discharge from the urethra;
      • urine has an unpleasant odor;
      • weakness;
      • pain in joints and muscles;
      • dizziness;
      • frequent urge to urinate;
      • feeling of incomplete emptying of the bladder;
      • pain in the lower abdomen and lower back;
      • tingling sensation;
      • itching in the genital area and urethra;
      • admixture of blood in the urine.

      There is a hidden form of urogenital infections. They are detected only during a screening examination.

      Sequelae if left untreated

      If the infection is left untreated, there are serious complications of STDs for women’s reproductive health. They lead to the development of inflammatory diseases in the pelvic organ.

      The infection causes infertility in women and ectopic pregnancies, which poses a threat to their lives. In chronic forms of STDs, the central nervous system, bones, brain, respiratory organs, intestines, cardiovascular and endocrine systems are affected. Possible development of cancer.


      For any genitourinary tract problems, first take the history of the disease and examine the patient. Then, to clarify the diagnosis, the following additional examinations are prescribed:

      • Urinalysis, Nechiporenko study. This testing is done to detect inflammation in the urinary organs.
      • Blood test. It is carried out to assess the level of inflammatory changes in the body.
      • Urethral swab. After taking the material, a microscopic examination is performed to identify the pathogen.
      • Urine culture tank. It is carried out to determine the sensitivity of the pathogen to antibiotics.
      • Serum creatinine and urea. These studies are prescribed to evaluate the work of the kidneys.
      • Intravenous urography. She evaluates the excretory function.
      • Ultrasound of the bladder and kidneys. It is produced to study the structure of tissues. Detect the presence of foci of inflammation.
      • CT scan of the pelvis. With its help, the condition of the pelvic organs and lymph nodes, blood vessels is assessed. It helps to identify foci of inflammation.

      In addition, cystoscopy is prescribed. This is an endoscopic examination that helps to examine the inside of the bladder.


      The volume of therapy is determined by the level of the lesion and the nature of the pathogen. Treatment is complex. The main directions and genitourinary infections are considered: reorganization of the pathogen, immune therapy, relief of individual manifestations of the disease.

      The choice of antimicrobial agent is determined by the type of pathogen that caused the inflammatory process. With mixed infections, several etiotropic drugs from different groups are prescribed – antibiotics, antifungal and antiviral.

      In addition, analgesics, antispasmodics, vascular and other symptomatic drugs are prescribed. Another important component of therapy is the correction of the body’s immune status. They increase the effectiveness of etiotropic agents and prevent the transition of the disease into a chronic form.

      The immune response to the infection is activated, the risk of the negative effects of antibiotics is reduced. With the development of a severe purulent complication, patients undergo surgery to eliminate the focus of inflammation.

      It is not worth treating these illnesses on your own. It is necessary to contact a gynecologist at the “Health” medical center and follow his appointments.


      • Rodionov A.N. Handbook of skin and venereal diseases. St. Petersburg, 2005, 464 p.
      • Akovbyan, V.A. Rational therapy of sexually transmitted infections: basic principles and reality / V.A. Akovbyan, V.G. Nesterenko // Clinical dermatology and venereology. 2005. – No. 4. – P. 151-155.
      • Gomberg, M.A. Sexually transmitted infections: a review. inform. / M.A. Gomberg, A.M. Solovyov. 2003. – No. 2. – S. 10.
      • Kosova, I.V. The role of urogenital infections in the etiology of cystitis and non-obstructive pyelonephritis in women: dis. cand. honey. Sciences / I.V. Kosovo. M., 2005, – 118 p.

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