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“Ouch, I got Stung”: What You Need to Know about Stingrays, Stings and Injuries

We’ve all heard it before, “Do the ‘stingray shuffle’.” Well, what happens if you do the shuffle but still get stung?

Like many of us who live in Pinellas County, I went to the beach on Memorial Day. I shuffled through the sand on St. Pete Beach, dipped my head in and floated around in shoulder deep water. “Ouch!” I yelped about two minutes later. I started swimming to shore and said to my husband, “Something bit me!”. 

Once I made it to shore, I sat on the sand and found a very small, paper-cut looking “stab” or “bite” in between my two small toes on my right foot. It hurt, but it was bearable. But, after sitting in the shallow water for about 15 minutes, I felt the pain settling in. It felt like a shooting pain, moving up my foot: it was the venom. I gathered that the “wound” shouldn’t hurt that bad if I stepped on a shell. About 15 minutes after that, my husband and I were in the truck headed to the emergency room at the .

Let’s just say that the pain increased, to the point of tears and minor yelps in the truck. By the time we made it to the ER, it was about 45 minutes after the initial “sting”. The pain increased significantly and I needed a wheelchair to make it inside. As soon as I checked in, the ER nurse had a bucket of hot water. I tested it first, and then put my foot in. Within minutes the pain decreased. It still hurt, but it felt better. During my treatment, the ER doctor confirmed it was a sting, had my foot x-rayed and recommended a Tetanus shot. I left about and hour later, went home and continued to soak my foot. In all, I soaked my foot for about 3 to 4 hours. It’s day five and my foot is fine!

Here is what you need to know before heading to the beach:

  • Do the stingray shuffle: When getting into the water, shuffle your feet forward, one at a time. Do not step or stomp down into the sand. By shuffling your feet, you create vibrations and kick up sand to alert nearby stingrays that you are there.
  • You can go one step further and use a stick to poke around you and help scare away stingrays. 
  • Stingrays usually travel together. If you see one, there may be several in the area.
  • Stingrays are not aggressive. They sting because they feel threatened, it’s a defensive maneuver. Most injuries are minor.
  • When stung, the stingrays inject a protein-based venom that will cause pain near the wound. While it can be very painful, it’s rarely deadly. The toxicity of the venom does not vary for age. “The venom is the same from birth to death,” Lt. Bill Gorham with thesaid.

Gorham says this season is pretty average, however, because of a cold winter, the normal late April/early May spike in stings has been “pushed back” to late May/early June. “They’re showing up now,” he said. “When the mating season is over, April seems to be the time when the babies are up towards the shore.”

Emergency Room staff at Palms of Pasadena Hospital say they’re seeing an increase in stings this season. Palms of Pasadena Hospital EMT Brian Jollimore says, “We seem to be having an active season.” The hospital does not track injuries by “stings” only listed by “puncture” or “laceration”, so there aren’t any hard numbers.

How do you know if you’ve been stung?:

  • If you step on or alarm a stingray, they whip their tail around their body and a stinger lashes out and cuts or pierces you. The stinger then injects a venom. 
  • Officials say the pain from the venom increases about 30 minutes after the sting and it peaks around one hour from venom injection. You may feel shooting pain.
  • Other symptoms include: swelling, bleeding at point of injury, headache, nausea, vomiting and weakness.
  • If the stinger breaks off, you will feel more pain from the “object”, that will have to be removed by medical staff.

Lt. Gorham says, “I’ve been here at the beach for 13 plus years, I have yet to run on a stingray call where a barb has broken off.

What to do if your stung:

  • Remove any clothing from the affected area.
  • Do not put ice on the wound. Lt. Gorham says the venom injected by the animal is a “heat-seeking” toxin. Meaning, it originates from the wound and moves up your body towards areas of heat, such as your abdomen and stomach. If you put ice on the wound, it only causes the venom to circulate faster.
  • Treat the wound by placing your foot or leg in a bucket of very warm or hot water. Gorham says the water will draw the venom out of your body and alleviate the pain. It’s suggested to leave your foot in hot or very warm water for at least one to three hours. Lt. Gorham says many of the hotels and concession stands are understanding and will help if you approach them. Otherwise, you may go straight to an emergency room or hospital and seek medical attention. If you don’t seek medical attention right away, you should still see have the wound checked out by a doctor soon after the sting.
  • Once you’ve made it to a hospital or emergency room, officials will take an X-ray of the wound to make sure the barb or shards of the barb are not stuck. EMT Jollimore says the main concerns with the actual puncture with the barb are: infection, hitting a vein, having the barb or pieces in your foot. 
  • If you are not up-to-date on your tetanus vaccination, you may need a shot. The vaccine will prevent tetanus infection.

Lt. Gorham says, “It’s a very clean process, the problem with infection comes from the water. . . It’s a steril transition between you and the stringray.”

Can people die from venom alone? 

EMT Jollimore says “yes”. If a person has an allergic reaction to the venom and does not seek medical attention right away. Symptoms include: drop in blood pressure, swelling and shortness of breath. Jollimore adds that if you think you’re having an allergic reaction, leave the water immediately. If you pass out in the water, there is a chance you could drown.

Prevention & Treatment of Stingray Injuries

The Full Story

The stingray has a fierce reputation and is best known for its infamous tail – long, thin, and whip-like with one to three barbed venomous spinal blades. In Greek mythology, Odysseus was killed when his son Telegonus unintentionally stabbed him using a spear tipped with the spine of a stingray. In 2006, television personality and animal activist Steve Irwin, best known as The Crocodile Hunter, died after being pierced in his chest by a stingray. Stingrays pose a threat to fishermen and beachgoers. Every year, about 1,500-2,000 stingray injuries are reported in the US.

Contrary to its reputation, the stingray is a shy and even gentle creature that would rather swim away than strike. It reserves its stinger for its predators – sharks and other large carnivorous fish. It attacks people only when it feels directly threatened, often when it’s unintentionally stepped on.

Stingrays are flat and can vary in size from several inches to 6. 5 ft. in length and weigh up to 800 lbs. Their wing-like fins create ripples in the water as they swim. There are 11 species of stingrays found in the coastal waters of the US. Their flat bodies and gray color allow them to be camouflaged on the sea floor, where they move slowly to forage for their prey (small fish and crustaceans like crabs and sea snails). Interestingly, a stingray cannot see its prey because its eyes are on the upper side of its body, while its mouth and nostrils are on the underside.

The dangerous part of a stingray is its infamous tail. The spinal blade is also known as the stinger or barb. This stinger is covered with rows of sharp spines made of cartilage and is strong enough to pierce through the skin of an attacker. Not only does the puncture itself cause injury and pain, but the stinger also releases a complex venom, which leads to intense pain at the puncture site. Uncommon effects of the venom include headaches, nausea and vomiting, fainting, low blood pressure, arrhythmias of the heart, and even seizures.

The most common sites of human envenomation are the legs and feet, which makes sense because the most common reason for envenomation is a swimmer unintentionally stepping on a stingray. The envenomation is often limited to severe pain that is relieved when the area is submerged in hot water. However, complications such as infection, serious bleeding, or physical trauma can occur. Part of the spine can also remain embedded in the tissue and require medical intervention to remove it. Death is extremely rare and results not from the venom but from the puncture wound itself if it is in the chest, abdomen, or neck. Death from serious infections like tetanus has also been reported.

Treatment of stingray injuries starts with first aid. Because the puncture is often deep and considered dirty, there is high risk of infection. It’s important to wash and disinfect the area immediately and obtain a tetanus vaccine or booster if needed. The wound should be inspected for any retained spines. The standard treatment for the pain is hot water immersion. Medical evaluation and treatment in a hospital is necessary if there are any retained spines in the wound, if the puncture is deep, or if it involves the chest, abdomen, or neck.

The best way to prevent being stung by a stingray is to avoid stepping on it when in the ocean by shuffling through the sand rather than lifting your feet and walking normally (commonly referred to as the “stingray shuffle”). This will warn a stingray of your approach, and it will likely swim away. A pole or stick can also be used ahead of your feet. Divers should be cautious and avoid swimming close to the sea floor. It is also important to know where stingrays are and never provoke them.

If you have a stingray injury, check the webPOISONCONTROL® online tool for guidance or call Poison Control at 1-800-222-1222.

Serkalem Mekonnen, RN, BSN, MPH
Certified Specialist in Poison Information

How to Treat Stingray Stings

If you manage to surprise a stingray and get stung, you are likely to have a very painful reaction. It’s going to hurt, but chances are that it won’t kill you unless you get stung several times or in a vital spot. 

There is little known about the toxin in a stingray sting, other than it is protein based and might be dangerous. Australian conservationist Steve Irwin was killed in 2006 when a stingray struck at him several times, hitting him in the chest. It is widely accepted that his physical injuries, rather than any venom, resulted in his death.

Paul Kay / Getty Images

Incidence of Stingray Stings

There are approximately 1,500 stingray stings in the United States every year. Most of the stingray stings happen on warm beaches in states like Florida or California. Conventional wisdom says to shuffle your feet to let the stingrays know you’re coming. Of course, you’re probably more likely to stub your toe on a rock than you are to step on a stingray.

Symptoms of Stingray Stings

  • Extreme pain (can last as long as two days)
  • Bleeding
  • Swelling around the wound
  • Redness or blue coloring around the wound
  • Dizziness
  • Muscle cramps or weakness
  • Seizures
  • Irregular pulse
  • Low blood pressure

Because most stings come from stingrays that are stepped on by beachgoers, most injuries happen to feet and legs. Fishermen are the exception, getting stung on the arms more often than anywhere else. Regardless of the location of the sting, the treatment should be the same. If you suspect a stingray sting, follow these steps:

Steps

  1. Stay Safe. Don’t panic. Stingrays sting to scare us away. The sting is painful, but usually not very harmful. Patients should make their way back to the safety of shore by shuffling their feet (so they won’t be stung again).
  2. Call 911. The patient of a stingray sting will need medical attention. Stingray stings are very painful and patients will at a minimum need to undergo treatment for pain control. Follow universal precautions and wear personal protective equipment if you have it.
  3. Control any bleeding and follow basic first aid steps while waiting for the ambulance to arrive.
  4. Clean the wound with soap and fresh, clean water. If that’s not available, at least rinse the wound with copious amounts of sea water. 
  5. Remove small parts or barbs of the stinger with tweezers or pliers. Only remove stingers if emergency medical care will be significantly delayed. A long stinger would be considered an impaled object. Do not remove stingers from the chest or abdomen! Removing stingers can lead to severe bleeding. Remember to control bleeding from any tissue damage.
  6. If medical care will be significantly delayed, some of the toxins may be neutralized by immersing the cleaned wound in fresh, hot water (110 – 113 degrees Fahrenheit) or by placing towels soaked in hot water on the wound. Be careful not to make the water too hot and scald (burn) the victim.

Stingray stings can be painful but are avoidable and treatable

If you’ve had the unfortunate luck of getting stung by a stingray, it’s likely because you surprised it by stepping on it. The good news is that most stingray stings are avoidable and rarely do they inflict fatal blows.

Stingrays are bottom-dwelling sea creatures who easily conceal themselves, mostly by hiding underneath sand. Their bodies are flat and disk-like, and feature a long, whip-like tail that can grow 2.5 times their length. Stingrays are normally gentile, but when attacked the animal retaliates by lashing its tail at the offender, and the sting can be extremely painful.Stingrays are harmless, unless you accidently step on them. Photo: Shutterstock

How to avoid being stung

The easiest way to deal with stingrays is to just be aware of their location and take precautions to avoid the animals.

To stalk their prey, stingrays often bury themselves in the sand making it hard to see them. Most stingray stings occur when someone accidentally steps on the animal.

Shuffle your feet whenever you’re in shallow water to scare away any stingrays hiding in the area. In lieu of shuffling, you can also toss pebbles into the shallows.

The sting

Unfortunately, even despite your best efforts, you may still encounter a stingray and get stung.

Stingrays sting with the sharp barb found in a their tails that carries a protein-based venom. Venom enters through the wound, causing short-term but usually intense discomfort.

The good news is the pain caused by a sting is most extreme within the first 30 to 90 minutes. If you know the steps to treat it ahead of time, you’ll save yourself (or a friend) undue discomfort.

How to treat a Stingray sting

If you do get stung, your wound needs immediate attention.

If you’ve been stung on your chest or abdomen, seek help immediately. Otherwise, if you can manage, pull the barb (or any spiny feeling fragments) out while you’re still in salt water — it’ll help clean the wound. If it’s bleeding, apply a little pressure on the wound — this will also help aid in flushing the venom out.

Once the wound is free from debris, access how you’re feeling. If you’re exhibiting symptoms like tightness in the chest, swelling anywhere on the face, difficulty breathing, hives on your body and nausea — you’re having an allergic reaction and need immediate attention.Stingrays are common in coastal tropical and subtropical marine waters. Photo: Shutterstock.

After you’ve taken a breath and the only reaction you’ve noted is some swelling in and around the wound, then apply pressure above the wound to ease the bleeding, locate a bucket and some of the hottest water you can manage.

A Stingray’s venom is heat labile, meaning hot water not only makes the pain go away but destroys the venom. Lifeguards use 110°F (37°C) water to treat stingray injuries. You might not have a thermometer at the ready so just continually rotate hot water every 10 minutes or so to keep the temperature up. How long to stay soaking will be determined by removing your foot from the water — if it still hurts, put it back in.

If you’re noticing some jelly-like ooze seeping from the wound, this is a good sign. The venom is finding its way out of your foot. After about 90 minutes you should be feeling better. At that point, if you can manage, slather on a topical antibiotic and wrap your foot in clean gauze. It’s a good idea to keep an eye on your foot over the next few hours for any sign of infection (redness, prolonged swelling). If you do notice infection symptoms find a doctor; you likely need an antibiotic.

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Stingrays, How To Avoid Being Stung!

Beach tips for stingrays! Everyone knows that “free at last” feeling as you enter onto the beach in your bathing suit, bare feet or flip-flops. It’s the biggest weight off your shoulders, the most freeing feeling ever.

Why you need beach tips for stingrays?

So your beach vibe doesn’t come crashing down! That’s exactly what will happen because it is no fun at all being stabbed by a stingray barb. That’s right, stabbed! The word “sting” is often used to describe what a stingray does. But, it’s really more like being stabbed by a mini knife blade that has reverse-serrated edges. Nasty! And they can do more damage being pulled out. However, it’s the gel-like mucus coating the barb that contains toxic proteins that “stings” you and brings the most pain—so it’s really more like being stabbed and stung. It’s not anything like a Bee sting. To be honest, I’d rather be stung by a bee than stabbed by a stingray, and I’d rather be stabbed by a stingray than bitten by a rattlesnake. I hope that helps put things into perspective.

Stingray barbs seen here are a little bit bigger than the average round stingray barb that can be found in Southern California’s round stingray tails. Click on the image to find out more detail about them.

What do they do?

First of all, they’re not out there to go after you, they don’t attack or seek out humans. They are bottom feeders who like the inshore environment from ankle-deep to well over your head. They like to feed on amphipods, crabs, and sometimes small fish and worms.  When they’re not moving about or feeding they nestle in the sand and hang out in one spot. When you get stabbed by one they are defending themselves. They do this by whipping their tail up and towards their bodies which reveals the barb along their tail.

This is their defense mechanism in the animal kingdom. Because they’re mostly flat, low-profile animals that lay on the bottom, they have this way of defending themselves. Stepping on them can pin them to the bottom which will trigger this defense behavior. It’s really very miraculous how they have evolved in this way, I mean, what else but humans would step on them? But that’s a whole other topic to get into.

How do you avoid being stung, errr, uhhh, stabbed by a stingray?

There are a few things you can do to avoid or minimize your chances of meeting up with a stingray:

  • Talk to beach lifeguards, they treat stingray victims and have a very good idea when there are a lot of them in the water.
  • Sometimes lifeguard organizations have flags for warnings. In the City of Coronado, a purple flag represents this.
  • Take notice of wave size and water temperature because stingrays will generally increase in number in the shallows as the waves get smaller and the water temperature goes up. As waves drop and water temps go up the shallow water surge weakens, water clarity improves, and more critters get out and about all looking for food.
  • Learn about the beach you are going to because some places have more overall marine life than others. For example, La Jolla Shores Beach in San Diego, CA is within a protected Marine Reserve rich with sea life, and so that place is one to be extra cautious of.
  • When you finally make it into the water do the Stingray Shuffle. This is best done by keeping your feet on the bottom and shuffling them as you move forward. Stingrays have vibration sensors that can sense immediate water vibrations from your feet. But, most effective is keeping them on the bottom so you won’t step down on one, pinning it to the bottom.
  • Stingray shuffle until you get into deeper water where you can take your feet off the bottom and float or swim.
  • Wearing swim fins can help a lot. With them on you can stand on the tips of the fins avoiding pinning one down with your feet. People have been stung by not pinning down a stingray but it’s not as common.

What if I get stung by one?

The first thing to do is don’t rule out that it might be a stingray that you were hurt by. There can be a variety of injuries. Sometimes people think that they stepped on a sharp shell or object in the sand. Sometimes the pain doesn’t set in for several minutes because the barb occurred more like a small poke of the skin and isn’t bleeding much. Sometimes the barb is left stuck in your skin—if that happens do not try to remove it as you can cause more injury. It’s best to let medical professionals remove it at that point. Bleeding from stingray injuries can be anywhere from a little red blood to a good flow.

Anyway, get to the attention of Lifeguards immediately as they are your best help for treatment. They will get your foot into a bucket of hot of water as hot as you can tolerate for an hour to two hours. Get this treatment right away! The sooner the better because the stingray toxin can travel beyond your foot the longer you wait. Hot water kills the protein toxin in the mucous-gel coating of the stingray barb.

If there are no lifeguards around, do not waste time getting your foot into a bucket of hot water. Treatment time varies depending on the wound, but it is usually best to submerse the foot, and keep reheating the water for an hour or two for best results. Lifeguards will assess and advise as to whether you should get to the Doctor soon or not. Anyway, it’s always best to treat the wound for possible bacterial infection, as infected wounds are common for stingray victims.

What are my chances of an encounter?

I’ve been surfing for over 42 years and have been stung only once, thank goodness. I have worked as a San Diego Lifeguard in Mission Beach, and was certified as an EMT. I’ve treated dozens of stingray victims, my own encounter being the first. Avoiding them is something to take seriously but really you’re always rolling the dice when you enter the water.

In the five years I beach lifeguarded I never stepped on one in all those times wading and running in and out of the shoreline. Crazy huh! The time I got hit by one there was no one on the beach or in the water, the waves were small, the water was cold, and I wasn’t shuffling my feet. So you just never know, but there are these things to be aware of, and do make the effort because even though you “never know” you can still minimize it from happening.

I hope you have a safe time at the beach and leave with a lasting memory of freedom and enjoyment!

Summary

Article Name

Stingrays, How To Avoid Being Stung!

Description

Beach tips for stingrays! Everyone knows that “free at last” feeling as you enter onto the beach in your bathing suit, bare feet or flip-flops. It’s the biggest weight off your shoulders, the most freeing feeling ever.

Author

Ben Siegfried

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Coronado Surf Designs

Publisher Logo

I got stung by a stingray, and all I got was this deeper understanding of venom medicine | NOVA

Three years ago, wading in the sun-warmed waters of the Florida Keys, I felt a sharp pinch and looked down at my feet in surprise. My friend Jen and I had driven down from Miami for a weekend full of strong Cuban coffee and Hemingway’s six-toed cats. Tempted by water so warm and aquamarine it was almost a cliche, we had stopped to swim at a roadside beach on Bahia Honda Key. I had eased in, careful to drag my feet slowly across the seafloor in a dance known to beachgoers as the “stingray shuffle,” hoping to alert any local sealife to my approach. But not careful enough. 

My foot throbbing, I stumbled back to the beach toward Jen, who wondered if I might have stepped on some glass. But in the next half hour, as my ankle and foot ballooned and the pain ratcheted up—from stinging to aching, from aching to bone breaking—it became clear I must have been stung by something. Then my foot started to turn blue, and we drove to the hospital.

“Bahia Honda?” the nurse said. “You’re the fourth person to come in with a stingray sting from there today.”

The pain didn’t subside until the next day, when my foot had returned to its normal color. That was the start of a six-week recovery, which also involved crutches, painkillers, heavy-duty antibiotics, and a horrible rash. I wouldn’t wish the experience—which involves a level of discomfort that some have compared to a gunshot wound—on anyone. But in retrospect, it’s an interesting one to consider. Because, it turns out, animal venoms like the one coursing through my veins on Bahia Honda Key are sought after for drug development, with seven FDA-approved drugs derived from venom toxins on the market so far. Harnessing their power to hurt opens up a world of possibilities for healing.

The Bahia Honda beach where the author had a run-in with a stingray. Image Credit: Giuseppe Milo, Flickr (CC BY 2.0)

Chemical biologist Mandë Holford, who studies venom science at her lab at Hunter College, compares what was happening in my foot in the moment after the sting to a “cluster bomb.” The toxins in animal venom have been engineered by evolution over many millennia to incapacitate by affecting some component in the blood, brain, or cell membranes, she says. “You’re getting invaded with 200 to 300 different toxins, all trying to figure out how to reach their target, moving through and rupturing cell membranes, doing all sorts of damage.”

The nurse at the emergency room told me stingrays were migrating through the area, their path bringing them close to the cove where I went wading. Stingrays deliver their venom through one or more serrated barbs that lie along their tails. While at rest, a stingray keeps its barb tucked away, immunologist Carla Lima told me in an email. But when it feels threatened—say, by the feet of a clueless human out for a swim—it pushes its tail perpendicular to its body, puncturing that human’s flesh with its venom-laden spine.

Lima studies toxins in venomous fish at the Butantan Institute in São Paolo, Brazil. Her research into stingray venom has shown that what’s in that venom actually changes as a stingray matures. In the freshwater species she studies—whose venom properties are better explored than the marine stingray that got me—the venom of young rays tends to contain toxins that cause pain to the target. Lima hypothesizes this may be to chase predators away. In contrast, the toxins in adult venom have a necrotizing effect, meaning they destroy tissue, which would be helpful for hunting.

Peptides, short chains of amino acids that play key roles in the biological functions of all kinds of organisms, make up a large part of most animal venoms—and some are only found in those venoms. Lima and other researchers have identified the peptides porflan and orpotrin as two of the elements in the freshwater stingray’s toxic cocktail, along with a number of different proteases, which are enzymes that break down peptides. 

As I sat cradling my foot on the beach in Bahia Honda, similar proteases and related proteins worked to break down the structure of cells in my heel, helping the venom spread further, and to prompt an inflammatory reaction that led to the swelling I saw. The peptides, on the other hand, likely caused the arteries to constrict and blood to pool, creating more inflammation and blocking circulation—perhaps the cause of my foot turning blue.

A southern stingray (Dasyatis americana) cruises the ocean floor off Grand Turk Island in the Caribbean. Image Credit: Nate Madden, Shutterstock

That a substance that causes so much pain and wreaks so much biological havoc can be used in medicine is what Holford calls “the yin and yang of nature.” And the fact that damage and healing are, at least in this case, two sides of the same coin forms the basis for the work she does in her lab, identifying new drug applications for various components of animal venom.

Venoms have great potential to contribute to drug development because they are both potent and highly targeted, Holford says, with peptides that fit physically into cell receptors and change how those cells function. Thanks to this dynamic, venom-based drugs can work almost instantaneously. And they’re not what people in the pharmaceutical business call “leaky,” meaning they tend to only act on the intended cell component and don’t stop at other spots along the way causing side effects.

Most stingray venom research, like Lima’s, takes place in areas where stingrays pose a threat to people: tropical spots like Brazil and Australia. On a drug-development level, we still don’t know much about it, Lima says. But we do know a lot about other venoms—in particular those created by cone snails and snakes.

For one thing, not all venom toxins cause pain. Some peptides present in snake venom focus on manipulating proteins in the wound so blood flows freely, acting as natural anticoagulants. Other peptides in Gila monster venom promote insulin production, helpful for a hungry lizard that hasn’t eaten for awhile. And yet other peptides in cone-snail venom do the opposite of what stingray venom does: paralyze and suppress pain, keeping the snail’s prey from going into fight-or-flight mode and slowing it down until the (also slow) snail can come nab it for a snack.

This last type of venom is one of the focuses at Holford’s lab. Many cone-snail venom peptides are rich in cysteine amino acids, whose structure she compares to Velcro. That makes it relatively easy for them to stick in the hourglass-shaped pores on the surface of cells that let important minerals like sodium, calcium, and potassium flow in and out. The free movement of those minerals is part of how cells talk to each other. 

With those channels shut down, neurons can’t communicate with one another to indicate pain. That’s what makes Prialt, the commercial version of the cone snail’s ziconotide peptide, an effective pain medication. Holford and her colleagues are also exploring the potential of other related cone-snail peptides to help dampen signals firing too fast in someone having a heart attack or an epileptic seizure.

She even sees possible applications here for cancer treatment. Current chemotherapy regimens “don’t discriminate between normal cells and tumor,” she says. But because venom peptides work on specific receptors—receptors that some tumors grow too many of as part of their development—they could help create a cancer drug that specifically starves cancer cells of essential minerals, stopping their growth.

The saw-scaled viper (Echis carinatus) is one of the deadliest snakes in India, and its venom is the basis of the blood-thinning drug Tirofiban. Image Credit: Sagar Khunte, Wikimedia Commons (CC BY-SA 4.0)

The venom that nearly ruined my Florida Keys vacation (though I still got to enjoy some beautiful sunsets, and the seafood was fantastic) was incredibly sophisticated, honed by evolution to inflict pain and physiological damage with laser precision. It was almost comforting to learn this in the weeks after, as I hobbled around on my crutches and watched with fascinated disgust as the wound developed a stingray-shaped blister. (My boyfriend said it was a sign I was developing superpowers, but sad to say none appeared.)

“We know from nature that these peptides work,” Holford says. “What we don’t know is massive: where they work, how they work, how effective they are. And that’s a huge game of ‘Where’s Waldo.’” Holford and her colleagues have come up with a protocol for finding new venom components that have potential in drug applications, then figuring out how to get them there. The first step is a practical look at the natural world: identifying which animal species are creating venom, especially venom that can be extracted manually. Next, the team uses new technologies that Holford refers to as the “omics”— genomics, transcriptomics, proteomics—to identify the toxins within those venoms, by examining the instructions the animals’ DNA and RNA contain and the proteins built by following those instructions.

From there, the team is able to use that genetic code to manufacture more of a chosen peptide in the lab, which is especially useful when it comes to studying venoms that are produced in small quantities in nature. They then test the synthetic toxin on the animal’s natural prey to make sure it’s effective and further tweak it to ensure it’s as specifically targeted as it can be for humans. And finally, they start to think about drug delivery. Does this drug need to cross the blood-brain barrier? Would it work if administered orally? These are essential questions, since potential drugs that can’t be delivered effectively can’t really be drugs at all.

Much like the experience of the sting itself, the possibilities for new drugs here are dizzying. Most venom-based drugs on the market are derived from a single peptide. But my stingray’s venom (just like other naturally occurring venoms) featured hundreds of peptides. And with the advent of the “omics,” drug development with venom has become more efficient. Time- and resource-intensive experiments can now be run much more quickly using computer modeling, making the whole process more viable and opening up a whole world of drug prospects.

Lima and her colleagues in Brazil, for example, are continuing to explore the realm of fish venom. One synthetic peptide derived from the venom of a species of toadfish shows particular promise. A 2017 study suggested that peptide, known as TnP, has powerful anti-inflammatory and therapeutic effects in mice. Effects that could potentially help stem the autoimmune reactions that lead to spinal cord damage in patients with multiple sclerosis.

As Holford and her team navigate the new technological landscape, they’re also looking for ways to simplify their process. One innovation Holford is excited about is organoids, in this case, venom glands grown independently in a laboratory. Growing organoids would make acquiring venom samples much easier, she says, and would not require sacrificing an animal for the initial sample. 

That’s especially important with climate change and habitat loss fueling a looming biodiversity collapse that could take with it undiscovered venoms with the capacity to heal. “In 10 years we’re heading toward this major shift that’s coming if we don’t change our attitudes and lifestyle,” she says. “We could lose a lot of things on the planet that are potentially lifesaving.”

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Help I’ve Been Stung by A Stingray, What Next?

Stingrays have made a prominent presence at the ocean beaches this year. The numbers of stingrays in the shallow waters at the beaches have been extraordinary. Beach goers have been getting stung by the hundreds. Summer is over but it’s still hot, and people are still flooding to the beaches. Though, the lifeguard towers are now empty, and there’s no one left to help those who are getting stung.

We have teamed up with RayRX to find a solution to combating the stingray off season, and answering the question “I’ve been stung, now what do I do?”. We have created the perfect solution for lifeguard agencies and their “dirty bucket” epidemic.

After being stung by the venomous, sharp barb found on the tails of a stingray, each victim reacts differently. The barb carries a protein-based venom, that as it enters the body through the wound, causes short-term, but usually very intense pain. The pain caused by a sting is most extreme within the first 30 to 90 minutes, and the pain left untreated can last 6 hours or more, so quick action is vital. A Stingray’s venom is heat labile, meaning hot water not only makes the pain go away, but destroys the venom. Lifeguards must use 110°F (37°C) water to treat stingray injuries.

Getting to the hospital can be a challenge.  Many people have violent reactions to the sting of the stingray. Victims of a stingray stings may emerge from the water having trouble breathing, they may be bleeding profusely, or have intense cramping. The body may become riddled with tremors, as well, nausea and vomiting are common. The faster you can get treatment, the better off you will be. The longer you go without medical treatment, the greater problems can arise and the more excruciating the pain you will be. Crying and screaming tend to happen to even the most macho of men. And trying to drive yourself to the hospital is out of the question.

If you do get stung, your wound needs immediate attention. Every parent, every person, every lifeguard agency should carry the portable instant hot stingray kit available through the lifeguard store. These stingray kits are light weight, compact, and they produce instant hot water, to be used comfortably on the victim’s feet, no matter the size.  

On a typical summer day at the beach the lifeguards will traditionally reuse a white plastic 5-gallon bucket to soak victim’s feet in! The problem with this solution is that when reused, over and over, it is potentially putting the public in jeopardy. Stingray wounds bleed profusely, and quickly fill those buckets with blood. The odds are extremely high in contracting a blood born disease via one of those buckets. The CDC, (Center for Disease Control), specifically states; if blood borne pathogens such as AIDS, Hepatitis, or any other pathogens come in contact with another person’s blood, there is a 100% chance that they will contract the disease. The established process of decontamination by either physical or chemical means, to destroy blood borne pathogens on the surface of the white bucket, is not always followed, and lawsuits have been filed. That said to compliment the RayRX Stingray Kit, there is now the RayRX Stingray Bag. It is specially made for one person use, and has a poly/fabric boot that replaces that dirty plastic bucket. The stingray bag can also be taken home by the victim, to continue treatment.

The Stingray Bag also solves the next issue lifeguards are plagued with, the need to continually rotate hot water every 10 minutes, to keep the temperature where it needs to be. The single use Stingray bags are self-heating, and light enough to be carried in a towel bag. The Stingray Bags military technology can give you hot water anywhere. By using this system, it completely eliminates the possibility of blood borne pathogen transmission from one victim to another.

This small compact stingray kit is great for parents, kids, and surfers. It can even be stored in your car.

True watermen of the past were known to keep a small propane stove, a pan, a 5-gallon plastic bucket, matches and a bottle or two of propane in their cars for this emergency, but the instant hot all in one RayRX Stingray Kit sold at our lifeguard store will save yourself, your kids, or a friend much undue pain and discomfort.

90,000 photos, maintenance, care, feeding, compatibility

Motoro stingray or ocellate stingray (Latin Potamotrygon motoro, English Motoro stingray, ocellate river stingray) is the most famous and popular freshwater aquarium stingray. This is a large, interesting and unusual fish, but not every aquarium lover can keep it.

Living in nature

This species is widespread in South America. It is found in Colombia, Peru, Bolivia, Brazil, Paraguay, and Argentina.Inhabits both the Amazon and its tributaries: Orinoco, Rio Branco, Parana, Paraguay.

Like the rest of the species, it is found in various biotopes. These are mainly sandbanks of large rivers and their tributaries, where the substrate consists of silt and sand. During the rainy season, they move to the flooded forests, and during the dry season to the formed lakes.

It should be noted that despite the popularity of the motoro stingray in the aquarium hobby, there is still no sufficiently accurate classification of the representatives of this family. New species are periodically discovered that were not previously described.

Description

Stingrays are related to sharks and sawnose rays, the skeleton of which differs from the skeleton of ordinary fish, since it has no bones and it consists entirely of cartilaginous tissue.

The scientific name of this species is the ocellated stingray and it follows from it that the stingray can inflict injections. Indeed, there is a poisonous thorn on the tail of the stingray (in fact, it was once a scale). With this thorn, the stingray protects itself, and the poison is produced by the glands located at the base of the thorn.

Contrary to popular belief, stingrays do not attack humans by swinging their thorns. You must step on one or seriously disturb one to be stung. Periodically, the spike falls off (every 6-12 months) and can be found lying on the bottom of the aquarium. This is normal and shouldn’t scare you.

Lorenzini ampoules are another feature of freshwater rays. These are special tubules-channels located on the head of the fish (around the eyes and nostrils). With their help, cartilaginous fish pick up electric fields and they help fish when orienting themselves along the earth’s magnetic field.

In nature, the motoro stingray reaches 50 cm in diameter, up to 1 meter in length, and weighs up to 35 kg. When kept in an aquarium, it is naturally smaller.

Its disk is approximately circular in shape, and its eyes are raised above the surface of the back. The coloration of the back is usually beige or brown, with numerous yellow-orange spots with dark rings. Belly color is white.

The color as well as the location and size of the spots can vary considerably from individual to individual. In the Amazon basin, three main color types have been distinguished, but each of them includes a number of subtypes.

Content Difficulty

P. motoro is one of the most popular representatives of the genus among aquarists. Many people are surprised to learn that some stingrays live in fresh water.

Freshwater rays are very intelligent and quite interact with people. They can even be taught to hand feed. However, they are not for everyone. They need large aquariums, ideal conditions and specialized diets.

But for those willing to put in the effort, they are truly unique, quickly becoming a favorite pet.In the past, most stingrays for sale have been caught in the wild, which means that they are often stressed and often carried parasites and other diseases. Many stingrays sold today are bred in captivity.

These fish are dangerous. Most Aboriginal people in the countries where they live are much more afraid of stingrays than other life-threatening species such as piranhas. For example, in Colombia, more than 2,000 cases of injuries and even accidental deaths from a stingray attack are recorded annually.

The spine is located in the upper part of the caudal fin, where it is clearly visible. It is covered with a thin outer shell, which serves to protect the stingray itself from its poisonous glands.

On its inner surface of the thorn there is a row of backward facing projections. They help to break the shell when the stingray tries to use its sting, as well as expand any wound it inflicts. The backward orientation also allows them to act like a fish hook, making removal difficult.

Although the toxicity of the various venom species may differ, they are generally similar in composition.The venom is protein-based and contains a cocktail of chemicals designed to cause both severe pain and rapid tissue degeneration (necrosis).

If you are stung by a stingray, expect excruciating local pain, headaches, nausea and diarrhea. A doctor should be consulted no matter how mild the symptoms seem.

It goes without saying that the greatest care should be taken when keeping rays. However, the danger is minimal if there is respect.

Usually these are not aggressive fish, using their sting only as a means of defense. In fact, they often become completely tame, learn to recognize their master and rise to the surface to beg for food.

Most injuries occur when reckless owners try to pet their fish or catch it with a net. The landing net should never be used, use some kind of solid container instead.

Keeping in the aquarium

Freshwater rays are very sensitive to ammonia, nitrites and nitrates in water, so it is important to understand what the nitrogen cycle is and to maintain crystal clear water.This is a tricky business, as stingrays produce large amounts of ammonia. Large aquariums, effective biological filtration and frequent water changes are the only way to maintain a proper regimen.

Most freshwater rays can be kept at a pH of 6.8 to 7.6, an alkalinity of 1 ° to 4 ° (18 to 70 ppm), and a temperature of 24 to 26 ° C. Ammonia and nitrite levels should always be zero and nitrates below 10 ppm.

When it comes to the right sized aquarium for freshwater rays, the bigger the better. The height of the glass is not critical, but lengths from 180 to 220 cm and widths from 60 to 90 cm may already be suitable for long-term maintenance.

Aquarium 350 to 500 liters can be used for keeping motoro stingray juveniles, but for long-term keeping of adults at least 1000 liters are needed.

The soil can be fine sand. The choice of substrate is largely a matter of personal preference. Some hobbyists use river sand, which is a great option, especially for teenagers.Others use standard aquarium gravel of various brands. The third option is to simply abandon the substrate entirely. This allows for easier maintenance of the aquarium, but makes it a little harsh and unnatural.

In addition, stingrays like to bury themselves in sand under stress and tend to inhabit areas with sandy or muddy bottoms in nature. Therefore, denying them the possibility of shelter seems rather cruel.

Decor, if used, should be smooth and free from sharp edges.Strictly speaking, decor is not really needed in a stingray aquarium. However, you can add some large driftwood, twigs, or smooth stones if you like. Leave as much of the bottom as possible for the stingrays to swim so they can move and burrow into the sand.

Heaters should be protected around them or located outside the aquarium so that your rays do not burn on them. Lighting should be dim and on a 12 hour day / night cycle.

Plants that require rooting in the substrate will be eaten, but you can try species that can be attached to decorative items such as Javanese fern or Anubias spp.But even they may not be able to withstand the attention of the stingrays.

Feeding

Freshwater stingrays are carnivores that feed mainly on fish and crustaceans in the wild. They are active fish with a high metabolic rate and therefore need to be fed at least twice a day.

They are also notorious for being gluttons, and the food will cost you a lot. In general, a purely animal-based diet is preferred, although some may also accept artificial foods.

Juveniles eat live or frozen bloodworms, tubifex, brine shrimp, shrimp meat, and the like. Adults should be fed larger foods such as whole mussels, shellfish, shrimp, squid, fry (or other fresh fish), and earthworms.

A varied diet is essential to keep fish in top condition. They are often reluctant to eat after purchase and usually arrive in rather poor condition. It is very important that they start eating as quickly as possible due to their fast metabolism.Bloodworms or earthworms (the latter can be cut into small pieces) are generally considered one of the best feeds for adapting newly acquired rays.

Stingrays should not eat mammalian meat such as beef heart or chicken. Some of the lipids in this meat cannot be properly absorbed by the fish and can cause excess fat deposits and even organ death. Likewise, there is little benefit to using forage fish such as guppies or little veil tails.Such feeding does not exclude the possible spread of diseases or parasites.

Compatibility

Stingrays spend most of their time at the bottom. Their eyes and gill openings are located on the upper body, allowing them to remain buried in the sand while awaiting food. They have excellent eyesight and jump out of the sand to catch their prey.

Other stingrays will be the best neighbors for motoro stingrays, although severums, geophagus, metinnis, arowans and polypters also get along well.

Stingrays are among the main predators in the ecosystems they inhabit in nature and are not safe to keep with most other species. Fish should be large enough not to be eaten by stingrays, but peaceful enough not to bite or steal their food.

Fish of the middle and upper water levels are best suited for this. Avoid armored catfish (plecostomus, pterygoplicht, panaki) as there are many documented cases of these catfish attaching and damaging the skin of stingrays.

Sexual dimorphism

Females are larger than males and have two queens, which means they can have litters of pups from two different males at the same time. Males have altered fins, which they use to fertilize females.

Breeding

Many hobbyists have been able to breed freshwater rays, but it takes time, a large aquarium and dedication. Ocellated stingrays reproduce by ovoviviparity.

The female bears from 3 to 21 individuals, which are born completely independent.Pregnancy lasts 9 to 12 weeks. Interestingly, this period is significantly shorter in aquarium-bred stingrays, possibly due to the abundance of food they receive compared to wild fish.

Stingrays can be picky when it comes to choosing a mate. Just buying a pair of fish and planting them together does not guarantee successful mating.

The ideal way to get a pair is to buy a group of fry, place them in a huge aquarium and let them choose their partners.However, this is beyond the means of most amateurs. In addition, it can take several years for rays to become sexually mature.

It should also be noted that males of this species are among the most violent when they gather for spawning, and females may not be ready for it. If you are keeping a couple or group, monitor the behavior closely and be prepared to separate them if necessary.

90,000 What stingrays should be feared and avoided

Hot summer weather means we are more likely to share our seaside beaches with some animals that we may not be very happy to see.These are stingrays.

Stingrays appear calm as they glide through shallow waters, but weighing up to 350 kg and armed with a poisonous pinch, they can be very dangerous. Recently, a record number of contacts have been recorded. In early January, on a beach in California, 73 people were injured in a day.

Stingrays are also known for killing Australian naturalist Steve Irwin. However, for stingray researcher Helen Cadwalader, this is a great opportunity to learn more about this little-studied animal.

She is completing her PhD in Stingrays in Tauranga, New Zealand and has some tips on what to do if you encounter them at sea.

Most Dangerous Stingrays
Very little is known about the biology of most stingrays because information about them is largely overshadowed by their more dangerous relatives, sharks. This is unfortunate, as these “pancake sharks” are interesting creatures in themselves. There are at least 96 stingray species worldwide (families Dasyatididae and Urolophidae combined), of which 5 are common in the Caribbean.The most common is the American stingray (Latin Dasyatis americana).

1. The American stingray is a coastal species often found in shallow open areas of sand and silt. It is usually found in bays and estuaries, usually buried in the sand, only the eyes and spiracles are visible. The known depth range is from the tidal zone to at least 25 meters. The disc of the young is gray-brown above, white below. In adults, it is usually a uniform dark brown on top, cream and beige underneath; the underside of the pectoral and pelvic fins sometimes has dark edges.

Photo. American stingray (Dasyatis thetidis)

These rays were observed singly, in pairs and in clusters. Although most stingrays are benthic, this species jumps out of the water, making a loud pop when entering the water. This jump is due to attempts to free themselves from parasites, but stingrays have overlapping dermal denticles (scales) that prevent the appearance of most skin parasites. Most likely, these jumps are associated with some kind of social manifestation (mating or even the declaration of territorial boundaries). The American stingray is usually inactive during the day, often lying in the sand, and becomes active at night when hunting on coastal sandy beaches. He actively hunts small bottom dwellers. The stingray detects buried prey by “hydraulic extraction” (forcibly pushing water out of the mouth) or by vigorously fingering with its pectoral fins, then the body of the stingray rises from the bottom using its pectoral disc, and the victim enters the mouth. This species feeds equally on bony fish, crabs and worms; he occasionally eats shellfish, shrimp, mantis shrimp and tuna.The molluscs are ground up with modified dental plates and the shell fragments are spit out.

Thousands of divers have fed these rays without major incident. While a few divers have had their hands or feet bitten, the flattened teeth of these rays do minimal damage. But at least one serious injury has been reported to a diver in Stingray City. While stingrays in Stingray City are quite used to divers, stingrays are potentially dangerous and it would be wise to keep that in mind when interacting with them. Stingrays, like sharks, mainly use the “path of least resistance”: they will flee, not fight, most of them will simply swim away. But if they are persistently pursued, the stingrays are quite capable of defending themselves. About 1,500 stingray-related wounds are reported annually in the United States alone, mostly minor wounds around the legs and ankles. But some stingray injuries are fatal. A couple of years ago, a 35-year-old Australian man on vacation in Fiji was stung in the chest while swimming over a large slope, a thorn hit his heart and died a day later from injury.

2. New Zealand bracken (lat.Myliobatis tenuicaudatus)

Photo. New Zealand bracken (lat.Myliobatis tenuicaudatus)

They have a diamond shape, olive green back and are often spotted blue or gray and white underneath. They have thin, fragile tails and can reach about 1.5 meters in width.

“These guys are found all over the place, in the surrounding areas, bays, estuaries, harbors and coastal waters near reefs and above sandy reefs,” said Helen Cadwalader.

“In intertidal areas, they can make distinctive feeding pits to dig up prey such as shellfish, crabs, shrimp and sediment-dwelling worms. They can be seen all year round, although in winter there are fewer of them in estuaries and harbors. ”

3. Short-tailed stingray (lat. Dasyatis brevicaudata)

Photo. Short-tailed stingray (lat.Dasyatis brevicaudata)

These are very large and round stingrays with thick tails and can reach over 2.3 meters in width. They are gray, silver or black in color, have distinctive white patches on either side of their bodies, and have very smooth skin.

“This species is often found on the marinas and travels through the sandy areas of the harbor during the summer months, but also occurs on reefs and islands,” she says.

“During the summer months, large numbers of this species gather on the Poor Knights Islands, possibly for breeding. It is not known where they go during the winter months. ”

4. Long-tailed stingray (lat. Dasyatis thetidis)

Photo. Long-tailed stingray (lat.Dasyatis thetidis)

This is another very large species, found in areas where there is also a stingray and can reach over 2.1 meters.

“Long-tailed stingray differs from stingray due to the absence of white spots and a long tail, which in this species is very long and slender at the end.”

5. Other rays are less common, but still pose a danger to humans, these are Taeniura meyeni , Dasyatis colarensis , Dasyatis garouaensis and Dasyatis laosensis . Also, do not forget about electric rays, which are interesting and dangerous for humans in their own way.

How to Avoid Attack
Eagle Stingrays, Stingrays and Stingrays are not aggressive in nature, however they will defend themselves.

When the stingray attacks, it must face its prey, because all it does is raise its long tail over its body to strike what is in front of it. The stingray has no direct control over the spike mechanism, only over the tail. In most cases, when a spike enters the human body, the pressure will rupture the protective shell.When the shell breaks, the sharp, jagged edges of the thorn sink into the wound.

The stingray venom is not necessarily fatal, but it is very painful. It consists of the enzymes 5-nucleotidase, phosphodiesterase, and the neurotransmitter serotonin. Serotonin causes smooth muscles to contract strongly, and it is this component that makes the poison so painful. Enzymes cause tissue and cell death. If the poison is in a place like the ankle, it is usually easy to heal. The heat destroys the poison and limits the amount of damage it can do.If not treated quickly enough, amputation may be required. But if the poison enters the abdominal or chest cavity, then as a result of tissue death, one of the main organs located nearby may turn off. If a thorn hits the heart, as it did with Stephen Irwin, as a rule, everything ends in death.

Photo. Slope at the bottom

“Use a stick when walking on sandy places so as not to step on them. And be careful when jumping into the water, ”advises Cadullader. “If you swim close to a stingray, short and long tailed rays will raise their tails if they feel threatened.If they do, back off and enjoy how beautiful they are from a distance, don’t try to pet them! ”

But the best way to treat stingray punctures is not to let it happen in the first place. When you make your way through shallow water, do a “ramp move”: drag your legs rather than walking like on the ground, this will reduce the likelihood of you accidentally stepping on a hidden ramp, giving it a chance to escape. When diving over sandy areas at great depths, stay away from the bottom and observe the rhomboid outline, which may indicate a hidden ray.If the stingray turns to face you or raises its tail over its back like a scorpion, it might be wise to back off.

But if you are stung by a stingray, what should you do?
Stingrays can cause deep lacerations that are very painful due to toxins, and some people may be allergic to them.

“If the rod is still in the wound, leave it there. The rods are heavily serrated and can do much more damage when pulled out, ”warns Cadullader.“Hot water (warm, tolerable, does not burn) will help the wound denature the poison to stop it working and relieve pain. And see a doctor as soon as possible. ”

The stinger is a modified dermal denticle at the base of the tail, approximately one third of its total length. The sting consists of a wedge-shaped spine with teeth on both edges and a venom gland at the base. Removing it is difficult and painful. Poison is a rather powerful nerve toxin that attacks the heart in complex and dangerous ways.But like most fish toxins, stingray venom is a protein that can be destroyed when heated. First aid should begin by immersing the wound in hot, but not scalding water (110 to 113 ° F) for 30 to 90 minutes. The wound should then be washed with soap and water, and any broken pieces of the stingray should be removed. Do not attempt to stitch or close a wound unless it is necessary to stop excessive bleeding. If the wound shows signs of infection (redness, swelling, pus), antibiotics are prescribed.

Some ray attacks on humans

Stingray hit a man’s face with its poisonous sting
In July 2019, James Taylor was in the water when he felt a burning pain on his face. He said the stingray hit him as he dived into a darkened seaweed thicket.

“I just felt a long cut on my cheek, and as soon as I got to the surface, I just saw blood,” he said. After getting hurt on Taylor, he called a friend who took him to a nearby hospital, where doctors told him he was lucky to be alive.

“I looked down at myself and I was wearing a black wetsuit, but it was just red with blood. I took a quick shower and there was red blood all over the place, ”he said. “If the blow had hit a little higher, it would have hit me in the eye, and if it had hit the neck, it would have been a completely different story.”

He went through plastic surgery on his wounds and encourages others to be careful in the water.

“Last night there were children, they were swimming, walking in shallow water. You do not know what is hidden in these algae.I would hate for this to happen to anyone else, ”he said.

You can see other incidents of stingrays attacks on people in this video, as well as subscribe to our YouTube channel.

Video. Attacks by stingrays on people 90 170


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90,000 Burden of the tropics: what threatens tourists in exotic countries :: Life :: RBC Style

The sea is worried once

My friend and I arrived at a wild beach in the Gulf of California at seven in the morning: in summer, the sun beats down mercilessly in these parts, and during the day the water warms up to body temperature. It was low tide, wet sand shimmered in the sun, effectively contrasting with the indigo water. There was no one but us on the beach, the silence was broken only by a colony of pelicans drifting nearby, from time to time diving deep into the depths for breakfast. Three hundred meters from the shore, the water was still just above the knee, and after swimming for half an hour, I began to return, when suddenly a severe pain pierced my left foot: as if someone had squeezed it tightly and immediately released it. I lifted my leg – there was no blood, but the pain did not go away.An eerie feeling arose: some biting creature was clearly lurking in the water, but because of the sandy suspension it was impossible to see anything. Cautiously, tiptoeing, I continued to move towards the shore, when suddenly I felt a prick in my right leg.

The remaining hundred meters to the towel were given by incredible efforts: both legs ached, as if stung by a hundred bees at the same time, and the matter was aggravated by the sand that was already pretty hot in the sun. In the process, it turned out that the wounds were still bleeding. My friend, although local, was at a loss, because she had never encountered anything like this before, and we drove to the nearest first-aid post.

The doctor issued a verdict immediately: stingray-stingray. The poison of this fish is not life-threatening (unless, of course, the injection is in the heart area, as happened in 2006 with the famous Australian TV presenter Steve Irwin), but if the wound is not treated, an infection can occur. We learned from the doctor that stingrays like to bury themselves in the sand and only sting if stepped on. Therefore, it is best to move in the water not sneaking, but on the contrary, shuffling your feet left and right to scare them away.

I was given injections of lidocaine, bandaged with antibiotics on both legs and sent home.After a few hours, the pain gradually faded away. In order to somehow brighten up the evening of an unfortunate day, we decided to act like Polynesian cannibals and ate the enemy: in Mexico, stingray meat can be bought on the market, and its stew is a real delicacy. The stingray, however, also did not remain in debt: a week later I started an allergic reaction. The feet were swollen, the areas around the bites had acquired a burgundy-purple color and itched terribly. Finally, everything healed only after a month. Although the doctor said that I still got off lightly, since the rays, apparently, were small and there were no deep wounds.

Annually, in the USA alone, stingrays sting about 1.5 thousand people, but bathers get even more from jellyfish. Contact with these creepers can cause a variety of consequences, from minor burns to death. A meeting with a jellyfish once did not pass the author of this article.

It happened in Jamaica. The sea on the hotel beach was perfectly clean and did not promise any surprises, but as soon as I took a swim in the evening, my forearm was badly burned in the water. Naturally, it was impossible to see the jellyfish in the dark, but her burn was imprinted around the hand with a reddish scar, which then annoyed him for a whole week.

But these are still flowers. Much more painful can be contact with a physalia, or a Portuguese boat – this is how this jellyfish was dubbed because of the sail-shaped bubble that protrudes above the water when it floats. If you see such a boat nearby – sail away, because a burn can cause injury and complications if the poison penetrates into the lymph nodes (although in most cases everything goes away in a day or three).

Portuguese boat

© instagram.com / marine.animals /

The most dangerous sea wasp in the world is considered to be the box jellyfish, which is practically invisible in the water. This is the real scourge of the beaches of Queensland, Australia’s premier resort region; the sea wasp is also found in Southeast Asia and Oceania. In three minutes, its poison can kill 60 people, and every year Australian medical statistics record at least one death. Despite the presence of an antidote, it is often impossible to provide assistance to victims, since a burn causes an instant heart attack.Fortunately, the life cycle of this jellyfish is subject to strict seasonality: the creepers appear in the ocean in November and disappear in April-May. All this time, marine biologists constantly monitor the ocean, and by the beginning of the migration of box jellyfish, most resort hotels put up special nets on the beaches in the water, through which the sea wasp cannot penetrate.

Sea Wasp

© instagram.com / marine_biologydaily /

A man on tropical beaches has quite inconspicuous enemies. For example, the canine hookworm is a parasite that enters the human body through the skin. They are carried by stray dogs, and if dog excrement is in your field of vision on the beach, then it is better to find another place to rest. A similar mechanism of infection in another parasitic disease – strongyloidosis, which occurs (albeit rarely) even in the Russian subtropics.Freshwater bodies in the Middle East, Africa and South America are also not always safe due to the risk of contracting schistosomiasis, a tropical parasitic disease caused by blood flukes and transmitted through freshwater gastropods.

The further into the forest

Tropical rainforests are mesmerizing, but be careful here too. The greatest danger is posed by blood-sucking insects: the palm tree (excuse the pun) is held by mosquitoes and mosquitoes, or rather, their females.However, if you are not an experienced biologist, then it is unlikely that you can visually determine the sex of an insect.

Most of all humanity is annoyed by malaria mosquitoes, the distribution area of ​​which covers 87 states – however, most of them are non-touristy. According to the WHO, up to 90% of cases occur in sub-Saharan Africa. The carriers of yellow fever, which live in humid forests and near water bodies in Africa, Central and South America, also do not sleep. The most popular tourist countries in these regions are Kenya, Uganda, Brazil, Colombia, Bolivia, Ecuador, Panama.

Malaria mosquito

© instagram.com/thedailybug/

But if mosquitoes can at least be seen and heard by their characteristic squeak, then mosquitoes, due to their small size, are silent and can go unnoticed, while remaining potential carriers of dengue fever, leishmaniasis, pappatachi fever and other unpleasant diseases.Dengue can be picked up in subequatorial Africa, South America or Asia. Recently, Russian tourists have brought it from Vietnam and Thailand; in the fall, the media wrote about the outbreak in the Dominican Republic. Individual cases of infection are also found in Singapore, but there the authorities are carefully monitoring the situation and treating the streets with insecticides.

The main risk belt for leishmaniasis is the same as for dengue; but you can get sick with pappatachi fever in southern Europe, the Balkans, the eastern Mediterranean, North Africa, Iran and India.

Poisonous snakes occupy the second place among forest pests. According to WHO estimates, about 2.5 million people suffer from the bite of poisonous reptiles annually in the world and at least 20 thousand cases end in death. Most often this occurs in the countries of Asia, Africa and Latin America, however, dangerous reptiles live on all continents, with the exception of perhaps Antarctica. The severity of the consequences depends on the type of poison and the area of ​​the lesion, but the main problem is that for the correct selection of the antidote, it is necessary to accurately determine the type of snake, which is often difficult.For example, in order to cure a cobra bite, you need to know its type: even individuals living in two neighboring forests can differ significantly in the characteristics of the poison due to different living conditions and diet.

Narrow-headed mamba

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How to prepare for vacation

According to the chief researcher of the Institute of Medical Parasitology, Tropical and Vector-borne Diseases.E.I. Martsinovsky First Moscow State Medical University named after M.V. THEM. Sechenov, Doctor of Medical Sciences, Professor Alexander Bronstein, despite the fact that the distribution area of ​​most of the above-described misfortunes is limited to the humid tropics, it is possible to draw a risk zone on the globe only conditionally. In the same country, swimming in a hotel pool can be completely safe, and unpleasant surprises can await you in an unequipped place in the sea or river.

“The most dangerous is where there is no tourist infrastructure, – says Alexander Bronstein.- If you are staying in a five-star hotel of an international chain, then from a medical point of view there is not a big difference between, for example, a dysfunctional India and a prosperous Singapore, because in good hotels, the premises and territory are treated with mosquito repellent, they monitor the quality of drinking water and the health of their employees. But if you decide to go on an excursion to a local village, where the living or natural conditions are different, then the danger is not excluded. For example, outside the hotel after rain, puddles may simply form – a ready habitat for mosquitoes.Or you are resting, for example, in the north of Africa – there is a desert around, the air is dry, there are no dangerous insects; and went to the oasis to the date farm, and little “friends” are already waiting for you under the palm trees. ”

Even in prosperous States, where there are no wet forests, you can run into a rattlesnake somewhere in the desert of Texas or Arizona (cowboy boots are by no means a tribute to fashion), and the real problem of not tropical Canada is a black tick that lives in forests and causes disease Lime. So, not only the country where you are traveling is of great importance, but also how you spend your time.In the practice of Alexander Bronstein, there was a case when five friends rented one room for all in a hostel in Thailand and the whole rest were inseparable, and only one girl caught strongyloidosis. Bronstein could not solve this riddle for a long time, until it turned out that one day she bought cut fruits from a merchant on the beach, which no one else but her ate. The doctor categorically does not recommend eating on the street in any country with a hot climate – in unsanitary conditions it is better to wash and cut fruits and vegetables with your own hands.

Still from the film “Formula of Love for Prisoners of Marriage”

© kinopoisk.ru

Travelers often suffer from banal intestinal infections, from diarrhea to cholera, and here the risk of getting sick is higher in third world countries. Adults can catch a childhood infection – measles, rubella or chickenpox – because local children are not vaccinated, as in developed countries, and immunity to such infections weakens in adulthood.So a photo of hugging children in some Tanzanian village can be expensive.

In order to protect yourself as much as possible in exotic countries, Alexander Bronstein advises before traveling to read about the epidemiological situation in the country, find WHO recommendations, and if you have any doubts, visit the appropriate specialist and get the necessary vaccinations – even if the travel company assures that there are no risks. For example, the yellow fever vaccine, which is recommended at least ten days before the trip, is completely painless and safe and lasts for ten years.

If you are going to travel on a motorcycle, tetanus vaccination will not hurt (it will also save nerves from animal bites), and if you have doubts about the sanitary situation, you should get vaccinated against hepatitis A. Since many dangerous tropical infections are transmitted by blood-sucking insects (in particular, malaria and dengue fever, against which vaccines have not yet been invented), repellents must be used to prevent them. For example, during a trip to Kenya, rangers in national parks literally commanded: “No one leaves the tent before being sprayed with repellent from head to toe.”

In addition, it is recommended that you start taking your antimalarial pills two weeks before your trip. True, the pills and their dosage regimens differ depending on many factors, including the specific region where the tourist is going, so it is better to consult a doctor. But relying on gin and tonic like the English colonialists in good old films is not worth it: the dose of quinine in modern tonic is much lower than in that which was prepared in the century before last. And from traveling, unlike movies, you want a guaranteed happy ending.

90,000 I dreamed of the sea and a large stingray. What is the dream of a stingray

A stingray that dreamed of in a dream is a rather mysterious phenomenon and in fact fascinating. the dream book explains that this plot is a positive sign. this means that the sleeping person is in a creative impulse. it’s time to create something new, to discover something amazing. in more detail, what the stingray is dreaming of is indicated below.

Predictions from Miller’s dream book

If in a dream you saw a fish splashing in the purest clear water, then fate will soon give you a lot. If in the last months or even years you have dreamed of material well-being, then it will finally come, if you craved mutual love – strong feelings will come, you wanted a child – you will rejoice at the long-awaited replenishment in the family.

If you dream of a dead fish, you will suffer losses. If you dreamed of a large stingray, then the losses will be large.Miller’s dream book advises not to grieve for a long time over the past, but, having stepped over the current day, just follow on.

Interpretation of a dream from the Wanderer

Swimming in a dream in the sea with a sea creature – to receive news. If you were drowning in a dream and a stingray saved you, then you will not be lucky enough to be in a disaster. But, do not worry in vain. The Wanderer’s Dream Interpretation is sure that you will be able to escape.

Eating sea fish is a minor nuisance. If you dreamed that food was tasteless and unpleasant, then in reality you will lose a certain amount of money.

If you dream of an incredibly large stingray swimming in the sea, this means that in real life you will be able to go on an interesting journey.

What if you dream about a stingray?

Stingray in a dream can be a fairly simple way, belonging to the general type of “sea fish”. In this case, deciphering the dream will not be too difficult. Sea fish dreams as a sign of a fast road, travel by sea.

If a person dreams of a sea fish that jumps onto his ship – get the news.If a person drowns in a dream and is saved by a sea fish, such a dream can predict an early participation in a disaster and salvation from it.

There is a sea fish – a sign of minor troubles if it is tasteless and some financial success if it tastes good.

When decoding a dream where a stingray appears, it is worth paying attention to the context. If a stingray appears to be nothing more than just a fish, you should pay attention to whether it is in salty or fresh water, aggressive or calm, whether it swims away or swims to the dreamer.

The meaning of sleep involving a stingray can become quite special if we take this sea animal separately from the general dream interpretation. To understand why the stingray is dreaming, it is worth learning something. For example, many science fiction writers, scientists and artists dreamed about stingrays.

These amazing, calm, friendly and enigmatic sea creatures have awakened the imagination of creative people for centuries, remaining one of the most mysterious and inspiring inhabitants of the ocean. The images of the stingrays were repeatedly put into the dreams and dreams of their characters by writers.

Opinion of the Universal Dream Book

If in a dream you were stung by an electric ray, then in reality you will experience difficult times. A lot of worries and all sorts of problems will lead to neurosis. To maintain your mental health, you should rest more often and learn to truly relax, forgetting about all the worries.

Dreaming of a beautiful stingray in the depths of the sea? Get ready to experience a surge of spiritual and creative powers. If you dreamed that the inhabitant of the depths swam away from you, then, on the contrary, for the coming months you will not be able to create anything outstanding.Any ideas will simply be missing from your head.

What portends?

Giant, spreading their “wings” manta rays soaring in the air, cosmic rays the size of a planet, a ray with which you can have a conversation. The above are not images from science fiction novels, but some of the most common dream options involving stingrays.

Unusual marine life in this role have their own meaning for the dream. A stingray in a dream may indicate an imminent mysterious and unusual incident in a person’s life.

The marine life can also predict the imminent rise of spiritual and creative powers. A floating or disappearing stingray may indicate, on the contrary, an imminent loss of inspiration.

It is important to understand in what form the stingray appears – whether it is important as an image of a fish, which, for example, a woman may dream of pregnancy, or as an image of fantasy, the hidden forces of the body. In the second case, the stingray takes on its unique sound, which sometimes only the dreamer himself can decipher.

Stingray in a dream is a mysterious and bewitching phenomenon.This is a good sign saying that a person’s creative powers are on the rise, that the time has come for him to create something important, follow his dream, open up new horizons and subjugate his destiny.

Stingray is an amazing fish that surprises with its pristine shape and clear differences from other representatives of the aquatic fauna. If you were to see this image in a dream, you will have to seek help from a special dream book.

It is not so difficult to understand what the skat is dreaming of, the main thing is to decompose the scene line seen into separate fragments and compare with certain interpretations.

Let us turn to the dream books

You can start decoding with the fact that an unusual fish is not only fascinating, but also raises many questions from an unknowing person. As the dream book suggests, the stingray is a positive symbol, but it is also not worth rejoicing ahead of time. The dreamer will have to spend time in order to create something new, his heart will become open to new achievements.

Proceedings of Miller

Reading the works of a popular psychologist, you can understand why the stingray fish is dreaming.Miller focuses on the state in which the representative of the aquatic fauna appeared in front of a sleeping person.

Live

If the stingray begins to splash in clear water, then in reality you can count on a generous reward. You must remember what you wanted for so long.

If you have a need for several months or years, you will soon be pleasantly surprised. If an unmarried girl had such a dream, it means that in reality an acquaintance with her future spouse will take place; if you wanted a child, then you can expect a replenishment of the family soon.

Dead

Why do dead fish dream? The dream interpreter says that a sleeping person will expect serious expenses. It is also worth noting that the large stingray size reflects a daunting problem that is not easy to solve.

The psychologist strongly recommends not to despair.

Wanderer’s Dream Interpretation

What did the dreamer do in his sleep? The Wanderer’s dream book tried to answer this question.

Swimming

If you dreamed of fish that kept company while sailing in the sea, then you will soon receive some news.If you did not feel very confident in the water and began to sink, and a stingray came to the rescue, then in real life you will have to visit some kind of trap. However, do not worry ahead of time, the interpreter of dreams says that the problem will affect only indirectly, without causing any harm.

Observation

Observing the movement of the rays is a symbol of the fact that you need to become much more careful. If a representative of the aquatic fauna was in a large pool, then you yourself are setting certain barriers for yourself, and this hinders development.

Food

Can stingrays become food for the dreamer? According to the dream book, eating sea fish in a dream will lead to minor troubles. If your dish seems bland or tasteless, then in reality you will have to lose a significant amount of money. To prevent this from happening in the future, you will have to plan your expenses and protect yourself from unnecessary purchases.

Universal dream book

The presented source says that the stingray is not as easy to understand as it might seem at first glance.

Victim

If a woman dreamed of being stung by an electric ray, then, most likely, difficult times will come in her life. The number of worries and problems will constantly increase, leading to severe stress and depression.

To prevent such a problem, you must learn to relax, distracting yourself from all worries.

Observation

According to the version of the universal dream book, observing sea fish portends an unprecedented rise.The dreamer needs to remember the behavior of the stingray:

  • swam alongside – to the implementation of ideas and plans;
  • sailed away – to a creative crisis;
  • shows aggression – towards future problems.

Possible variations

If the fair sex dreamed of a stingray, then in reality she can become a mother.

If the dreaming picture brought discomfort, then the pregnancy will become problematic. The female dream book advises you to often seek help from doctors and diagnose your condition.It is better to prevent a problem than to deal with its consequences later.

Being stung by a stingray is a betrayal of a close friend.

Most likely, an enemy has long appeared in your environment, and it is unlikely that it will be possible to calculate it. Of course, faith in people will shake somewhat, but everything will quickly be restored.

If the fish circled around you in a friendly way, and then bit it, then life circumstances will change dramatically. By being able to quickly respond to them, you can prevent the consequences.

Another series of predictions

If a young woman dreamed of a stingray in the sea, then she should prepare to replenish the family. If he bit her, then the pregnancy will not proceed easily. The female dream book recommends not to hope for a happy coincidence, but to undergo regular medical examinations.

If an electric ray stung in a dream, it means that you need to prepare for the betrayal of a friend. It will not be easy to come to terms with such a blow, but you will quickly forget about what happened, and again begin to believe people.

If you dreamed that a stingray that seemed friendly at first unexpectedly bit, then the circumstances will just as suddenly change. If you have time to quickly react to changes, then you will get off with minimal stress.

Possible variations

If a representative of the fair sex dreamed of a stingray, then in reality she can become a mother.

If the dreaming picture brought discomfort, then the pregnancy will become problematic. The female dream book advises you to often seek help from doctors and diagnose your condition.It is better to prevent a problem than to deal with its consequences later.

Being stung by a stingray is a betrayal of a close friend.

Most likely, an enemy has long appeared in your environment, and it is unlikely that it will be possible to calculate it. Of course, faith in people will shake somewhat, but everything will quickly be restored.

If the fish circled around you in a friendly way, and then bit it, then life circumstances will change dramatically. By being able to quickly respond to them, you can prevent the consequences.

A stingray that appeared in a dream is an incredibly mysterious and truly bewitching phenomenon. The dream interpretation believes that what he saw is a good sign. This means that the dreamer is in a creative upsurge. The time has come for creating something new, for amazing discoveries and new beginnings. More precisely, what this creature is dreaming of is described below.

Dreams on the topic

Musketeers of the underwater kingdom | Publications

Stingray eyes never see prey, but they instantly notice a possible threat and accurately direct the tail strike.Photo: OLIVIER BLAISE / PICTURETANK

Pliny the Elder wrote that the thorn of the stalker pierced even wood and armor. This, of course, is an exaggeration, but the force of the blow of the tail of a large stingray is sufficient for the spike to pierce the fabric of a wetsuit or leather shoes. A thorn prick is extremely painful, causing a drop in blood pressure, weakness, and heart failure. If the blow fell on an arm or leg (as is most often the case), the limb is paralyzed for several days. Fatalities are extremely rare, but possible.This is how the “crocodile hunter” – the famous Australian TV presenter Steve Irwin died. On September 4, 2006, while filming The Most Dangerous Inhabitants of the Ocean, he was stung by a stingray. The thorn struck in the chest, and Irwin’s heart stopped before he could be helped.

This is, of course, an exceptional case, but in general, collisions of stingrayers with people are not uncommon. On the coast of North America alone, stingrays injure about 750 people a year, while the total annual number of victims in the world is probably measured in the thousands.Most of these incidents occur due to misunderstanding: a bather, wandering along the bottom, steps on a lying slope merging with the ground. But fishermen also contribute to the number of stings: in some countries, stingrays are considered a valuable commercial fish. For example, in Korea, stingray meat is valued more than other stingrays. Not only humans are hit with poisoned stilettos: zoologists have found stingray spines in the lungs, chest cavity, liver and pancreas of Atlantic bottlenose dolphins. At the same time, the remains of stingrays were not found in dolphin stomachs and no one had ever seen dolphins hunt stingrays.Apparently, a curious dolphin accidentally stumbled upon a disguised stingray and received a painful injection.

In principle, stingers are so curious and non-aggressive that they can be tamed right in the sea. Hundreds of people come to the Stingray City shallows to mingle with the stingrays. They take pieces of fish from their hands, allow them to stroke their delicate, like silk, bellies or arrange something like a spa for themselves, floating above the scuba diver and bathing in the bubbles of the air he exhales. Despite the abundance of stingrays and their close contact with people, the case here goes without injuries.True, here fish are kept at a depth of several meters, so that even the most careless tourist is difficult to step on them.

A special chapter in the life of stingrays is reproduction. They (like all cartilaginous fish in general) have internal fertilization. It is preceded by a rather long courtship: the male first follows the female, then grabs the edge of her body near her head with his mouth, and she literally carries him away. At the climax, he tuck his belly under the belly of the female and tightly clings to her.At the same time, the partners do not see each other, because, as we remember, the eyes of the stingrays are located on the dorsal side.

Stingray: The Power and Danger of Thermonuclear Ray from the Black Sea | Book of Animals

Remember memes about vacationers on the beach, whose heart stops at the slightest contact with algae? So, if you yourself are from a timid dozen, we will add another phobia to your piggy bank. This thing has settled in all of your favorite resorts. Our hero is armed and dangerous, so a meeting with stingray stingray or sea cat can be your first and last.

Do not confuse a sea cat and a fur seal! The fur seal is a pinniped cutie, and the seal is a thermonuclear fish.

This cat, let’s say, is a little different from those that you like on Instagram. Our hero is not cute Barsik, but Murka. And it’s not about the beast, but about that very bandit from the high road in a leather jacket. The jacket, by the way, can be very different – black, gray, with blue spots and even a leopard print – it all depends on the species.

Nothing out of the ordinary, just a hypnotic cat trying to hypnotize you.Scroll further if you can. And then there are such huge stingrays. They do not live in the sea, but in the rivers. For people with strong nerves, they become a welcome trophy.

Regardless of the color of the leather jacket, the waterfowl Murka, like any decent mokrushnitsa, insidiously hides the poison-soaked “feather” , which easily fits under the rib. The bandit belongs to the whole criminal clan – class tail-shaped . This OCG includes 8 families , the hallmark of their crimes – stab wounds poisonous thorn , located on the tail.

That deadly thorn. The jagged ends contain poison.

Particularly large robbers of this clan can strike with their weapons so hard that the spike will pierce even your grandfather’s army belt. What can we say about the pampered human carcass.

Well, wait a minute, man, my brothers will avenge me.

Even if by some miracle the penetration does not knock a man off his feet at once, the impudent victim who disturbed the Godfather of the underwater world will still not go far. The toxicity of the poison is so strong that soon after infection with , the body will begin to sausage from seizures, the pressure will decrease, the heart rate will increase, muscle paralysis will occur , and the cherry on the cake of suffering will be death .

The spike cannot be seen immediately. The animal only bares its blade when necessary.

The criminal family does not have a specific headquarters, its representatives can be found in many parts of the world, including in Russia. Members of the stingray mafia have chosen the coastal zones of the warm seas. In order to successfully hide from the law, seals burrow into the ground , mimicking the local sand.

Specialists (who survived, hehe) believe that seals are not aggressive, are just a little nervous .Stingrayers themselves will not be the first to attack , but if they believe their lives are in danger, they will immediately use their deadly weapons.

In Russia, the stingray lives near the coastal zone of the Black Sea.

The relationship between man and stingray did not work out from the very beginning. The first divers to find the pussy made a bad impression on the fish. Skat considered the aliens’ actions hostile. And what do real bandits do with uninvited guests? That’s right, kill ! So the animal did not exchange for imaginary politeness, killing all the divers who were nearby .

Flew for scoring with people. Guess who will lose.

Not only the discoverers, but also the knowledgeable zoologists died from the blow by the “feather”. So, the famous naturalist Steve Irwin died off the coast of Australia. , the caretaker of the Singapore Oceanarium , also fell from the insidious stalker thorn. The diver was tasked with preparing the poisonous beast for transportation to another aquarium. But as it turned out, even stingrayers do not like moving. Seeing a threat in the diver, the stingray immediately neutralized the person.

There’s a crime going on here, so be good, take your camera away.

Yes, yes, these mafiosi really catch in order to show careless kids for money. This is a rather complicated matter, but one species of Murok – leopard stingray – has already been littered … oh, succumbed to the influence of man. Stingray traded its criminal past for squid meat and fish fillets.

Now these glamorous guys are successfully trainable, their shameful existence locked up can be observed even in Russia – on Russky Island, in Vladivostok .There, three times a week, leopard stingrays put on a show where they dance with a man under water, as if there were no bloody massacres between them before.

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Gerald Durrell “Overloaded Ark” – CatMouse

Review

The name “Gerald Durrell” has a familiar and pleasant childhood smell for me.At the age of ten, I reread all of his books that were found in the family library. But this story was not there, and I got to know it only now.

I still remember with a laugh so many stories from these wonderful books. Like two adult men ran around the house after a wild pig that had escaped from the cage. How our brave naturalist listened to local legends about the fabulously beautiful and rare beast “lunar uvari” and gave crazy money for it, but the beast turned out to be not so rare…
And remembering the author’s great sense of humor, I prepared to have fun and learn something new.
But “The Overloaded Ark” is a debut story, Darrell has not yet found the strength of his style here, and his personality, which has turned out to be so attractive for me in his other books, is almost not visible here.
The narrator is portrayed as a wealthy bourgeois tourist rather than an ambitious adventurer. A kind of English gentleman to the marrow who takes a bath filled by the servants, while the hunters bring him the prey, and the other servants work on a gourmet dinner.Of course, he makes trips, but there is still not a certain amount of recklessness in them, which, oddly enough, will appear later. I did not recognize in this Darrell the guy who, after an exciting adventure in the jungle, flounders merrily with a friend in shallow water, risking being stung by a giant stingray.

Love for animals is not yet fully formed here either. This stage is more naturalistic. The death of many captured animals does not cause much sadness, as it will be later. Probably the warmest, family feeling for the captured animals appeared in Darrell after he was seriously thinking about creating his own zoo.
And because it is a little superficial about the animals and people of Africa, this book will not become my favorite.