About all

Glucosamine tablets: Overview, Uses, Side Effects, Precautions, Interactions, Dosing and Reviews

Содержание

Overview, Uses, Side Effects, Precautions, Interactions, Dosing and Reviews

Kanzaki, N., Saito, K., Maeda, A., Kitagawa, Y., Kiso, Y., Watanabe, K., Tomonaga, A., Nagaoka, I., and Yamaguchi, H. Effect of a dietary supplement containing glucosamine hydrochloride, chondroitin sulfate and quercetin glycosides on symptomatic knee osteoarthritis: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study. J.Sci.Food Agric. 3-15-2012;92(4):862-869. View abstract.

Sawitzke, A. D., Shi, H., Finco, M. F., Dunlop, D. D., Harris, C. L., Singer, N. G., Bradley, J. D., Silver, D., Jackson, C. G., Lane, N. E., Oddis, C. V., Wolfe, F., Lisse, J., Furst, D. E., Bingham, C. O., Reda, D. J., Moskowitz, R. W., Williams, H. J., and Clegg, D. O. Clinical efficacy and safety of glucosamine, chondroitin sulphate, their combination, celecoxib or placebo taken to treat osteoarthritis of the knee: 2-year results from GAIT. Ann.Rheum.Dis. 2010;69(8):1459-1464. View abstract.

Yue, J., Yang, M. , Yi, S., Dong, B., Li, W., Yang, Z., Lu, J., Zhang, R., and Yong, J. Chondroitin sulfate and/or glucosamine hydrochloride for Kashin-Beck disease: a cluster-randomized, placebo-controlled study. Osteoarthritis.Cartilage. 2012;20(7):622-629. View abstract.

Adams ME. Hype about glucosamine. Lancet 1999;354:353-4. View abstract.

Adebowale AO, Cox DS, Liang Z, et al. Analysis of glucosamine and chondroitin sulfate content in marketed products and the Caco-2 permeability of chondroitin sulfate raw materials. JANA 2000;3:37-44.

Akarasereenont P, Chatsiricharoenkul S, Pongnarin P, Sathirakul K, Kongpatanakul S. Bioequivalence study of 500 mg glucosamine sulfate in Thai healthy volunteers. J Med Assoc Thai 2009;92(9):1234-9. View abstract.

Almada A, Harvey P, Platt K. Effects of chronic oral glucosamine sulfate on fasting insulin resistance index (FIRI) in non-diabetic individuals. FASEB J 2000;14:A750.

Alvarez-Soria MA, Largo R, Diez-Ortego E, et al. Glucosamine Inhibits IL-1ß-induced NF-kappa B Activation in Human Osteoarthritic chondrocytes. American College of Rheumatology Meeting; October 25-29, 2002. Abstract 118.

Audimoolam VK, Bhandari S. Acute interstitial nephritis induced by glucosamine. Nephrol Dial Transplant 2006;21(7):2031. View abstract.

Bagasra O, Whittle P, Heins B, Pomerantz RJ. Anti-human immunodeficiency virus type 1 activity of sulfated monosaccharides: comparison with sulfated polysaccharides and other polyions. J Infect Dis 1991;164:1082-90. View abstract.

Balkan B, Dunning BE. Glucosamine inhibits glucokinase in vitro and produces a glucose-specific impairment of in vivo insulin secretion in rats. Diabetes 1994;43:1173-9. View abstract.

Barclay TS, Tsourounis C, McCart GM. Glucosamine. Ann Pharmacother 1998;32:574-9. View abstract.

Baron AD, Zhu JS, Zhu JH, et al. Glucosamine induces insulin resistance in vivo by affecting GLUT 4 translocation in skeletal muscle. Implications for glucose toxicity. J Clin Invest 1995;96(6):2792-801. View abstract.

Basak M, Joseph S, Joshi S, Sawant S. Comparative bioavailability of a novel timed release and powder-filled glucosamine sulfate formulation–a multi-dose, randomized, crossover study. Int J Clin Pharmacol Ther 2004;42(11):597-601. View abstract.

Bassleer C, Henrotin Y, Franchimont P. In-vitro evaluation of drugs proposed as chondroprotective agents. Int J Tissue React 1992;14(5):231-41. View abstract.

Bijlsma JWJ, Lafeber FPJG. Glucosamine sulfate in osteoarthritis: The jury is still out. Ann Intern Med 2008;148:315-6. View abstract.

Braham R, Dawson B, Goodman C. The effect of glucosamine supplementation on people experiencing regular knee pain. Br J Sports Med 2003;37:45-9. View abstract.

Bruyère O, Cooper C, Pelletier JP, et al. A consensus statement on the European Society for Clinical and Economic Aspects of Osteoporosis and Osteoarthritis (ESCEO) algorithm for the management of knee osteoarthritis-From evidence-based medicine to the real-life setting. Semin
Arthritis Rheum. 2016;45(4 Suppl):S3-11.
View abstract.

Bruyere O, Honvo G, Veronese N, et al. An updated algorithm recommendation for the management of knee osteoarthritis from the European Society for Clinical and Economic Aspects of Osteoporosis, Osteoarthritis, and Musculoskeletal Disease (ESCEO). Semin Arthritis Rheum. 2019 Dec;49(3):337-50. View abstract.

Bruyere O, Pavelka K, Rovati LC, et al. Glucosamine sulfate reduces osteoarthritis progression in postmenopausal women with knee osteoarthritis: evidence from two 3-year studies. Menopause 2004;11:138-43. View abstract.

Bruyere O, Pavelka K, Rovati LC, et al. Total joint replacement after glucosamine sulphate treatment in knee osteoarthritis: results of a mean 8-year observation of patients from two previous 3-year, randomised, placebo-controlled trials. Osteoarthritis Cartilage 2008;16:254-60. View abstract.

Burton AF, Anderson FH. Decreased incorporation of 14C-glucosamine relative to 3H-N-acetyl glucosamine in the intestinal mucosa of patients with inflammatory bowel disease. Am J Gastroenterol 1983;78:19-22. View abstract.

Bush TM, Rayburn KS, Holloway SW, et al. Adverse interactions between herbal and dietary substances and prescription medications: a clinical survey. Altern Ther Health Med 2007;13:30-5. View abstract.

Cahlin, B. J. and Dahlstrom, L. No effect of glucosamine sulfate on osteoarthritis in the temporomandibular joints–a randomized, controlled, short-term study. Oral Surg Oral Med Oral Pathol Oral Radiol Endod 2011;112(6):760-766. View abstract.

Calamia V, Ruiz-Romero C, Rocha B, Fernández-Puente P, Mateos J, Montell E, Vergés J, Blanco FJ. Pharmacoproteomic study of the effects of chondroitin and glucosamine sulfate on human articular chondrocytes. Arthritis Res Ther 2010;12(4):R138. View abstract.

Cerda C, Bruguera M, Parés A. Hepatotoxicity associated with glucosamine and chondroitin sulfate in patients with chronic liver disease. World J Gastroenterol 2013;19(32):5381-4. View abstract.

Chesnokov V, Sun C, Itakura K. Glucosamine suppresses proliferation of human prostate carcinoma DU145 cells through inhibition of STAT3 signaling. Cancer Cell Int 2009;9:25. View abstract.

Chopra A, Saluja M, Tillu G, Sarmukkaddam S, Venugopalan A, Narsimulu G, Handa R, Sumantran V, Raut A, Bichile L, Joshi K, Patwardhan B. Ayurvedic medicine offers a good alternative to glucosamine and celecoxib in the treatment of symptomatic knee osteoarthritis: a randomized, double-blind, controlled equivalence drug trial. Rheumatology (Oxford) 2013;52(8):1408-17. View abstract.

Chopra A, Saluja M, Tillu G, Venugopalan A, Sarmukaddam S, Raut AK, Bichile L, Narsimulu G, Handa R, Patwardhan B. A Randomized Controlled Exploratory Evaluation of Standardized Ayurvedic Formulations in Symptomatic Osteoarthritis Knees: A Government of India NMITLI Project. Evid Based Complement Alternat Med 2011;2011:724291. View abstract.

Cibere J, Kopec JA, Thorne A, et al. Randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled glucosamine discontinuation trial in knee osteoarthritis. Arthritis Rheum 2004;51:738-45. View abstract.

Clegg DO, Reda DJ, Harris CL, et al. Glucosamine, chondroitin sulfate, and the two in combination for painful knee osteoarthritis. N Engl J Med 2006;354:795-808. View abstract.

Cohen M, Wolfe R, Mai T, Lewis D. A randomized, double blind, placebo controlled trial of a topical cream containing glucosamine sulfate, chondroitin sulfate, and camphor for osteoarthritis of the knee. J Rheumatol 2003;30:523-8.. View abstract.

da Camara CC, Dowless GV. Glucosamine sulfate for osteoarthritis. Ann Pharmacother 1998;32:580-7. View abstract.

Danao-Camara T. Potential side effects of treatment with glucosamine and chondroitin. Arthritis Rheum 2000;43:2853. View abstract.

Das A Jr, Hammad TA. Efficacy of a combination of FCHG49 glucosamine hydrochloride, TRh222 low molecular weight sodium chondroitin sulfate and manganese ascorbate in the management of knee osteoarthritis. Osteoarthritis Cartilage 2000;8:343-50. View abstract.

de Vos BC, Landsmeer MLA, van Middelkoop M, et al. Long-term effects of a lifestyle intervention and oral glucosamine sulphate in primary care on incident knee OA in overweight women. Rheumatology (Oxford). 2017;56(8):1326-1334. View abstract.

Does glucosamine increase serum lipid levels and blood pressure? Pharmacist’s Letter/Prescriber’s Letter 2001;17(11):171115.

Drovanti A, Bignamini AA, Rovati AL. Therapeutic activity of oral glucosamine sulfate in osteoarthrosis: a placebo-controlled double-blind investigation. Clin Ther 1980;3:260-72. View abstract.

Du XL, Edelstein D, Dimmeler S, et al. Hyperglycemia inhibits endothelial nitric oxide synthase activity by post-translational modification at the Akt site. J Clin Invest 2001;108:1341-8. View abstract.

Eggertsen R, Andreasson A, Andren L. No changes of cholesterol levels with a commercially available glucosamine product in patients treated with lipid lowering drugs: a controlled, randomised, open cross-over trial. BMCPharmacol Toxicol 2012;13(1):10. View abstract.

Eraslan A, Ulkar B. Glucosamine supplementation after anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction in athletes: a randomized placebo-controlled trial. Res Sports Med. 2015;23(1):14-26. View abstract.

Eriksen P, Bartels EM, Altman RD, Bliddal H, Juhl C, Christensen R. Risk of bias and brand explain the observed inconsistency in trials on glucosamine for symptomatic relief of osteoarthritis: a meta-analysis of placebo-controlled trials. Arthritis Care Res (Hoboken). 2014;66(12):1844-55. View abstract.

Esfandiari H, Pakravan M, Zakeri Z, et al. Effect of glucosamine on intraocular pressure: a randomized clinical trial. Eye. 2017;31(3):389-394.

Foerster KK, Schmid K, Rovati LC. Efficacy of glucosamine sulfate in osteoarthritis of the lumbar spine: a placebo-controlled, randomized, double-blind study. Am Coll Rheumatol 64th Ann Scientific Mtg, Philadelphia, PA: 2000;Oct 29- Nov 2:abstract 1613.

Food and Nutrition Board, Institute of Medicine. Dietary Reference Intakes for Vitamin A, Vitamin K, Arsenic, Boron, Chromium, Copper, Iodine, Iron, Manganese, Molybdenum, Nickel, Silicon, Vanadium, and Zinc. Washington, DC: National Academy Press, 2002. Available at: www.nap.edu/books/0309072794/html/.

Forster K, Schmid K, Rovati L, et al. Longer-term treatment of mild-to-moderate osteoarthritis of the knee with glucosamine sulfate- a randomized controlled, double-blind clinical study. Eur J Clin Pharmacol 1996;50:542.

Fox BA, Stephens MM. Glucosamine hydrochloride for the treatment of osteoarthritis symptoms. Clin Interv Aging 2007;2(4):599-604. View abstract.

Fransen M, Agaliotis M, Nairn L, Votrubec M, Bridgett L, Su S, Jan S, March L,Edmonds J, Norton R, Woodward M, Day R; LEGS study collaborative group. Glucosamine and chondroitin for knee osteoarthritis: a double-blind randomised placebo-controlled clinical trial evaluating single and combination regimens. Ann Rheum Dis 2015;74(5):851-8. View abstract.

Frestedt, J. L., Walsh, M., Kuskowski, M. A., and Zenk, J. L. A natural mineral supplement provides relief from knee osteoarthritis symptoms: a randomized controlled pilot trial. Nutr J 2008;7:9. View abstract.

Ganu VA, Hu SI, Strassman J, et al. Inhibitors of N-glycosylation Reduce Cytokine-induced Production of Matrix Metalloproteinases, Nitric oxide, and PGE2 from Articular Chondrocytes: A Candidate Mechanism for the Chondroprotective Effects of d-Glucosamine. American College of Rheumatology Meeting; October 25-29, 2002. Abstract 616.

Giaccari A, Morviducci L, Zorretta D, et al. In vivo effects of glucosamine on insulin secretion and insulin sensitivity in the rat: possible relevance to the maladaptive responses to chronic hyperglycaemia. Diabetologia 1995;38:518-24. View abstract.

Giordano N, Fioravanti A, Papakostas P, et al. The efficacy and tolerability of glucosamine sulfate in the treatment of knee osteoarthritis: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. Curr Ther Res Clin Exp 2009;70(3):185-196. View abstract.

Graeser AC, Giller K, Wiegand H, Barella L, Boesch Saadatmandi C, Rimbach G. Synergistic chondroprotective effect of alpha-tocopherol, ascorbic acid, and selenium as well as glucosamine and chondroitin on oxidant induced cell death and inhibition of matrix metalloproteinase-3–studies in cultured chondrocytes. Molecules. 2009;15(1):27-39. View abstract.

Gray HC, Hutcheson PS, Slavin RG. Is glucosamine safe in patients with seafood allergy (letter)? J Allergy Clin Immunol 2004;114:459-60. View abstract.

Greenlee H, Crew KD, Shao T, Kranwinkel G, Kalinsky K, Maurer M, Brafman L, Insel B, Tsai WY, Hershman DL. Phase II study of glucosamine with chondroitin on aromatase inhibitor-associated joint symptoms in women with breast cancer. Support Care Cancer 2013;21(4):1077-87. View abstract.

Gregori D, Giacovelli G, Minto C, et al. Association of Pharmacological Treatments with Long-term Pain Control in Patients With Knee Osteoarthritis: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis. JAMA. 2018 Dec 25;320(24):2564-2579. View abstract.

Gueniche A, Castiel-Higounenc I. Efficacy of Glucosamine Sulphate in Skin Ageing: Results from an ex vivo Anti-Ageing Model and a Clinical Trial. Skin Pharmacol Physiol. 2017;30(1):36-41. View abstract.

Guillaume MP, Peretz A. Possible association between glucosamine treatment and renal toxicity: comment on the letter by Danao-Camara. Arthritis Rheum 2001;44:2943-4. View abstract.

Herrero-Beaumont G, Ivorra JA, Del Carmen Trabado M, et al. Glucosamine sulfate in the treatment of knee osteoarthritis symptoms: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study using acetaminophen as a side comparator. Arthritis Rheum 2007;56:555-67. View abstract.

Hoban C, Byard R, Musgrave I. Hypersensitive adverse drug reactions to glucosamine and chondroitin preparations in Australia between 2000 and 2011. Postgrad Med J. 2019 Oct 9. pii: postgradmedj-2019-136957. View abstract.

Hochberg MC, Martel-Pelletier J, Monfort J, Möller I, Castillo JR, Arden N,Berenbaum F, Blanco FJ, Conaghan PG, Doménech G, Henrotin Y, Pap T, Richette P, Sawitzke A, du Souich P, Pelletier JP; on behalf of the MOVES Investigation Group. Combined chondroitin sulfate and glucosamine for painful knee osteoarthritis: a multicentre, randomised, double-blind, non-inferiority trial versus celecoxib. Ann Rheum Dis 2016;75(1):37-44. View abstract.

Hoffer LJ, Kaplan LN, Hamadeh MJ, et al. Sulfate could mediate the therapeutic effect of glucosamine sulfate. Metabolism 2001;50:767-70.. View abstract.

Holmang A, Nilsson C, Niklasson M, et al. Induction of insulin resistance by glucosamine reduces blood flow but not interstitial levels of either glucose or insulin. Diabetes 1999;48:106-11. View abstract.

Hong H, Park YK, Choi MS, Ryu NH, Song DK, Suh SI, Nam KY, Park GY, Jang BC. Differential down-regulation of COX-2 and MMP-13 in human skin fibroblasts by glucosamine-hydrochloride. J Dermatol Sci 2009;56(1):43-50. View abstract.

Houpt JB, McMillan R, Wein C, Paget-Dellio SD. Effect of glucosamine hydrochloride in the treatment of pain of osteoarthritis of the knee. J Rheumatol 1999;26:2423-30. View abstract.

Hughes R, Carr A. A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial of glucosamine sulphate as an analgesic in osteoarthritis of the knee. Rheumatology (Oxford) 2002;41:279-84. . View abstract.

Hwang MS, Baek WK. Glucosamine induces autophagic cell death through the stimulation of ER stress in human glioma cancer cells. Biochem Biophys Res Commun 2010;399(1):111-6. View abstract.

Ilic MZ, Martinac B, Samiric T, Handley CJ. Effects of glucosamine on proteoglycan loss by tendon, ligament and joint capsule explant cultures. Osteoarthritis Cartilage 2008;16(12):1501-8. View abstract.

Imagawa K, de Andrés MC, Hashimoto K, Pitt D, Itoi E, Goldring MB, Roach HI, Oreffo RO. The epigenetic effect of glucosamine and a nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-kB) inhibitor on primary human chondrocytes–implications for osteoarthritis. Biochem Biophys Res Commun 2011;405(3):362-7. View abstract.

Jackson, C. G., Plaas, A. H., Sandy, J. D., Hua, C., Kim-Rolands, S., Barnhill, J. G., Harris, C. L., and Clegg, D. O. The human pharmacokinetics of oral ingestion of glucosamine and chondroitin sulfate taken separately or in combination. Osteoarthritis Cartilage 2010;18(3):297-302. View abstract.

Ju Y, Hua J, Sakamoto K, Ogawa H, Nagaoka I. Glucosamine, a naturally occurring amino monosaccharide modulates LL-37-induced endothelial cell activation. Int J Mol Med 2008;22(5):657-62. View abstract.

Ju Y, Hua J, Sakamoto K, Ogawa H, Nagaoka I. Modulation of TNF-alpha-induced endothelial cell activation by glucosamine, a naturally occurring amino monosaccharide. Int J Mol Med 2008;22(6):809-15. View abstract.

Kanzaki N, Ono Y, Shibata H, Moritani T. Glucosamine-containing supplement improves locomotor functions in subjects with knee pain: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study. Clin Interv Aging. 2015;10:1743-53. View abstract.

Kawasaki T, Kurosawa H, Ikeda H, et al. Additive effects of glucosamine or risedronate for the treatment of osteoarthritis of the knee combined with home exercise: a prospective randomized 18-month trial. J Bone Miner Metab 2008;26(3):279-87. View abstract.

Kim CH, Cheong KA, Park CD, Lee AY. Glucosamine improved atopic dermatitis-like skin lesions in NC/Nga mice by inhibition of Th3 cell development. Scand J Immunol 2011;73(6):536-45. View abstract.

Kim DS, Park KS, Jeong KC, Lee BI, Lee CH, Kim SY. Glucosamine is an effective
chemo-sensitizer via transglutaminase 2 inhibition. Cancer Lett 2009;273(2):243-9. View abstract.

Kim YB, Zhu JS, Zierath JR, et al. Glucosamine infusion in rats rapidly impairs insulin stimulation of phosphoinositide 3-kinase but does not alter activation of Akt/protein kinase B in skeletal muscle. Diabetes 1999;48:310-20. View abstract.

Kimball AB, Kaczvinsky JR, Li J, et al. Reduction in the appearance of facial hyperpigmentation after use of moisturizers with a combination of topical niacinamide and N-acetyl glucosamine: results of a randomized, double-blind, vehicle-controlled trial. Br J Dermatol 2010;162(2):435-41. View abstract.

King DE, Xiang J. Glucosamine/Chondroitin and Mortality in a US NHANES Cohort. J Am Board Fam Med. 2020;33(6):842-847. View abstract.

Knudsen J, Sokol GH. Potential glucosamine-warfarin interaction resulting in increased international normalized ratio: Case report and review of the literature and MedWatch database. Pharmacotherapy 2008;28:540-8. View abstract.

Kolasinski SL, Neogi T, Hochberg MC, et al. 2019 American College of Rheumatology/Arthritis Foundation guideline for the management of osteoarthritis of the hand, hip, and knee. Arthritis Rheumatol. 2020 Feb;72(2):220-33. View abstract.

Kongtharvonskul J, Anothaisintawee T, McEvoy M, Attia J, Woratanarat P, Thakkinstian A. Efficacy and safety of glucosamine, diacerein, and NSAIDs in osteoarthritis knee: a systematic review and network meta-analysis. Eur J Med Res. 2015;20:24. View abstract.

Kumar PNS, Sharma A, Andrade C. A pilot, open-label investigation of the efficacy of glucosamine for the treatment of major depression. Asian J Psychiatr. 2020;52:102113. View abstract.

Kwoh CK, Roemer FW, Hannon MJ, Moore CE, Jakicic JM, Guermazi A, Green SM, Evans RW, Boudreau R. Effect of oral glucosamine on joint structure in individuals with chronic knee pain: a randomized, placebo-controlled clinical trial. Arthritis Rheumatol. 2014 Apr;66(4):930-9. View abstract.

Lee DH, Cao C, Zong X, et al. Glucosamine and Chondroitin Supplements and Risk of Colorectal Adenoma and Serrated Polyp. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev. 2020;29(12):2693-2701. View abstract.

Lee, Y. H., Woo, J. H., Choi, S. J., Ji, J. D., and Song, G. G. Effect of glucosamine or chondroitin sulfate on the osteoarthritis progression: a meta-analysis. Rheumatol Int 2010;30(3):357-363. View abstract.

Leffler CT, Philippi AF, Leffler SG, et al. Glucosamine, chondroitin, and manganese ascorbate for degenerative joint disease of the knee or low back: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled pilot study. Mil Med 1999;164:85-91. View abstract.

Levin RM, Krieger NN, and Winzler RJ. Glucosamine and acetylglucosamine tolerance in man. J Lab Clin Med 1961;58(6):927-932.

Liang CM, Tai MC, Chang YH, Chen YH, Chen CL, Chien MW, Chen JT. Glucosamine inhibits epidermal growth factor-induced proliferation and cell-cycle progression in retinal pigment epithelial cells. Mol Vis 2010;16:2559-71. View abstract.

Lin YC, Liang YC, Sheu MT, Lin YC, Hsieh MS, Chen TF, Chen CH. Chondroprotective effects of glucosamine involving the p38 MAPK and Akt signaling pathways. Rheumatol Int 2008;28(10):1009-16. View abstract.

Liu W, Liu G, Pei F, et al. Kashin-Beck disease in Sichuan, China: report of a pilot open therapeutic trial. J Clin Rheumatol 2012;18(1):8-14. View abstract.

Lopes Vaz A. Double-blind, clinical evaluation of the relative efficacy of ibuprofen and glucosamine sulphate in the management of osteoarthrosis of the knee in out-patients. Curr Med Res Opin 1982;8:145-9. View abstract.

Ma H, Li X, Sun D, et al. Association of habitual glucosamine use with risk of cardiovascular disease: prospective study in UK Biobank. BMJ. 2019 May 14;365:l1628. View abstract.

Ma H, Li X, Zhou T, et al. Glucosamine use, inflammation, and genetic susceptibility, and incidence of type 2 diabetes: a prospective study in UK Biobank. Diabetes Care. 2020;43(4):719-25. View abstract.

Madhu K, Chanda K, Saji MJ. Safety and efficacy of Curcuma longa extract in the treatment of painful knee osteoarthritis: a randomized placebo-controlled trial. Inflammopharmacology 2013;21(2):129-36. View abstract.

Marti-Bonmati, L., Sanz-Requena, R., Rodrigo, J. L., Alberich-Bayarri, A., and Carot, J. M. Glucosamine sulfate effect on the degenerated patellar cartilage: preliminary findings by pharmacokinetic magnetic resonance modeling. Eur Radiol 2009;19(6):1512-1518. View abstract.

McAlindon T, Formica M, LaValley M, et al. Effectiveness of glucosamine for symptoms of knee osteoarthritis: results from an internet-based randomized double-blind controlled trial. Am J Med 2004;117:643-9. View abstract.

McAlindon T. Why are clinical trials of glucosamine no longer uniformly positive? Rheum Dis Clin North Am 2003;29:789-801. View abstract.

McAlindon TE, LaValley MP, Gulin JP, Felson DT. Glucosamine and chondroitin for treatment of osteoarthritis: a systematic quality assessment and meta-analysis. JAMA 2000;283:1469-75. View abstract.

Messier SP, Mihalko S, Loeser RF, et al. Glucosamine/chondroitin combined with exercise for the treatment of knee osteoarthritis: a preliminary study. Osteoarthritis Cartilage 2007;15:1256-66. View abstract.

Monauni T, Zenti MG, Cretti A, et al. Effects of glucosamine infusion on insulin secretion and insulin action in humans. Diabetes 2000;49:926-35. View abstract.

Muller-Fassbender, H., Bach, G. L., Haase, W., Rovati, L. C., and Setnikar, I. Glucosamine sulfate compared to ibuprofen in osteoarthritis of the knee. Osteoarthritis Cartilage 1994;2(1):61-69. View abstract.

Muniyappa R, Karne RJ, Hall G, et al. Oral glucosamine for 6 weeks at standard doses does not cause or worsen insulin resistance or endothelial dysfunction in lean or obese subjects. Diabetes 2006;55:3142-50. View abstract.

Murphy RK, Jaccoma EH, Rice RD, Ketzler L. Glucosamine as a Possible Risk Factor for Glaucoma. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci 2009;50(13):5850.

Murphy RK, Ketzler L, Rice RD, Johnson SM, Doss MS, Jaccoma EH. Oral glucosamine supplements as a possible ocular hypertensive agent. JAMA Ophthalmol 2013;131(7):955-7. View abstract.

Naito K, Watari T, Furuhata A, Yomogida S, Sakamoto K, Kurosawa H, Kaneko K,Nagaoka I. Evaluation of the effect of glucosamine on an experimental rat osteoarthritis model. Life Sci 2010;86(13-14):538-43. View abstract.

Nakamura H, Masuko K, Yudoh K, et al. Effects of glucosamine administration on patients with rheumatoid arthritis. Rheumatol Int 2007;27:213-8. View abstract.

Nandhakumar J. Efficacy, tolerability, and safety of a multicomponent antiinflammatory with glucosamine hydrochloride vs glucosamine sulfate vs an NSAID in the treatment of knee osteoarthritis–a randomized, prospective, double-blind, comparative study. Integr Med Clin J 2009;8(3):32-38.

Navarro SL, Levy L, Curtis KR, Lampe JW, Hullar MAJ. Modulation of Gut Microbiota by Glucosamine and Chondroitin in a Randomized, Double-Blind Pilot Trial in Humans. Microorganisms. 2019 Nov 23;7(12). pii: E610. View abstract.

Nelson BA, Robinson KA, Buse MG. High glucose and glucosamine induce insulin resistance via different mechanisms in 3T3-L1 adipocytes. Diabetes 2000;49(6):981-91. View abstract.

Nieman DC, Shanely RA, Luo B, Dew D, Meaney MP, Sha W. A commercialized dietary supplement alleviates joint pain in community adults: a double-blind, placebo-controlled community trial. Nutr J 2013;12(1):154. View abstract.

Noack, W., Fischer, M., Forster, K. K., Rovati, L. C., and Setnikar, I. Glucosamine sulfate in osteoarthritis of the knee. Osteoarthritis Cartilage 1994;2(1):51-59. View abstract.

Nowak A, Szczesniak L, Rychlewski T, et al. Glucosamine levels in people with ischaemic heart disease with and without type II diabetes. Pol Arch Med Wewn 1998;100:419-25. View abstract.

Ogata T, Ideno Y, Akai M, et al. Effects of glucosamine in patients with osteoarthritis of the knee: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Clin Rheumatol. 2018 Sep;37(9):2479-2487. Epub 2018 Apr 30. View abstract.

Olszewski AJ, Szostak WB, McCully KS. Plasma glucosamine and galactosamine in ischemic heart disease. Atherosclerosis 1990;82:75-83. View abstract.

Ossendza RA, Grandval P, Chinoune F, Rocher F, Chapel F, Bernardini D. [Acute cholestatic hepatitis due to glucosamine forte]. Gastroenterol Clin Biol. 2007 Apr;31(4):449-50. View abstract.

Ostojic, S. M., Arsic, M., Prodanovic, S., Vukovic, J., and Zlatanovic, M. Glucosamine administration in athletes: effects on recovery of acute knee injury. Res Sports Med 2007;15(2):113-124. View abstract.

Park JY, Park JW, Suh SI, Baek WK. D-glucosamine down-regulates HIF-1alpha through inhibition of protein translation in DU145 prostate cancer cells. Biochem Biophys Res Commun 2009;382(1):96-101. View abstract.

Pavelka K, Gatterova J, Olejarova M, et al. Glucosamine sulfate use and delay of progression of knee osteoarthritis: A 3-year, randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind study. Arch Intern Med 2002;162:2113-23. View abstract.

Persiani S, Rotini R, Trisolino G, et al. Synovial and plasma glucosamine concentrations in osteoarthritic patients following oral crystalline glucosamine sulphate at therapeutic dose. Osteoarthritis Cartilage 2007;15:764-72. View abstract.

Petersen, S. G., Beyer, N., Hansen, M., Holm, L., Aagaard, P., Mackey, A. L., and Kjaer, M. Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug or glucosamine reduced pain and improved muscle strength with resistance training in a randomized controlled trial of knee osteoarthritis patients. Arch Phys Med Rehabil 2011;92(8):1185-1193. View abstract.

Pham T, Cornea A, Blick KE, et al. Oral glucosamine in doses used to treat osteoarthritis worsens insulin resistance. Am J Med Sci 2007;333:333-9. View abstract.

Phitak T, Pothacharoen P, Kongtawelert P. Comparison of glucose derivatives effects on cartilage degradation. BMC Musculoskelet Disord 2010;11:162. View abstract.

Poolsup N, Suthisisang C, Channark P, Kittikulsuth W. Glucosamine long-term treatment and the progression of knee osteoarthritis: systematic review of randomized controlled trials. Ann Pharmacother 2005;39:1080-7. View abstract.

Pouwels MJ, Jacobs JR, Span PN, et al. Short-term glucosamine infusion does not affect insulin sensitivity in humans. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 2001;86:2099-103. View abstract.

Provenza JR, Shinjo SK, Silva JM, Peron CR, Rocha FA. Combined glucosamine and chondroitin sulfate, once or three times daily, provides clinically relevant analgesia in knee osteoarthritis. Clin Rheumatol 2015;34:1455-62.View abstract.

Pujalte JM, Llavore EP, Ylescupidez FR. Double-blind clinical evaluation of oral glucosamine sulphate in the basic treatment of osteoarthrosis. Curr Med Res Opin 1980;7:110-4. View abstract.

Qiu GX, Gao SN, Giacovelli G, et al. Efficacy and safety of glucosamine sulfate versus ibuprofen in patients with knee osteoarthritis. Arzneimittelforschung 1998;48:469-74. View abstract.

Qiu GX, Weng XS, Zhang K, et al. [A multi-central, randomized, controlled clinical trial of glucosamine hydrochloride/sulfate in the treatment of knee osteoarthritis]. Zhonghua Yi Xue Za Zhi 2005;85:3067-70. View abstract.

Qiu W, Su Q, Rutledge AC, Zhang J, Adeli K. Glucosamine-induced endoplasmic reticulum stress attenuates apolipoprotein B100 synthesis via PERK signaling. J Lipid Res 2009;50(9):1814-23. View abstract.

Reginster JY, Deroisy R, Rovati LC, et al. Long-term effects of glucosamine sulfate on osteoarthritis progression: a randomised, placebo-controlled trial. Lancet 2001;357:251-6. View abstract.

Reginster, J. Y. The efficacy of glucosamine sulfate in osteoarthritis: financial and nonfinancial conflict of interest. Arthritis Rheum 2007;56(7):2105-2110. View abstract.

Reichelt A. Efficacy and safety of intramuscular glucosamine sulfate in osteoarthritis of the knee. A randomised, placebo-controlled, double-blind study. Arzneimittelforschung 1994;44:75-80. View abstract.

Restaino OF, Finamore R, Stellavato A, et al. European chondroitin sulfate and glucosamine food supplements: A systematic quality and quantity assessment compared to pharmaceuticals. Carbohydr Polym. 2019 Oct 15;222:114984. View abstract.

Richy F, Bruyere O, Ethgen O, et al. Structural and symptomatic efficacy of glucosamine and chondroitin in knee osteoarthritis: a comprehensive meta-analysis. Arch Intern Med 2003;163:1514-22. View abstract.

Rindone JP, Hiller D, Collacott E, et al. Randomized, controlled trial of glucosamine for treating osteoarthritis of the knee. West J Med 2000;172:91-4. View abstract.

Roman-Blas JA, Castañeda S, Sánchez-Pernaute O, et al. Combined Treatment With Chondroitin Sulfate and Glucosamine Sulfate Shows No Superiority Over Placebo for Reduction of Joint Pain and Functional Impairment in Patients With Knee Osteoarthritis: A Six-Month Multicenter, Randomized, Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled Clinical Trial. Arthritis Rheumatol. 2017;69(1):77-85. View abstract.

Rossetti L, Hawkins M, Chen W, et al. In vivo glucosamine infusion induces insulin resistance in normoglycemic but not in hyperglycemic conscious rats. J Clin Invest 1995;96:132-40. View abstract.

Rovati LC, Giacovelli G, Annefeld N, and et al. A large, randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind study of glucosamine sulfate vs piroxocam and vs their association on the kinetics of the symptomatic effect in knee osteoarthritis. Osteoarth Cartilage 1994;2(suppl 1):56.

Rozendaal RM, Koes BW, van Osch GJVM, et al. Effect of glucosamine sulfate on hip osteoarthritis: A randomized trial. Ann Intern Med 2008;148:268-77. View abstract.

Rozendaal, R. M., Uitterlinden, E. J., van Osch, G. J., Garling, E. H., Willemsen, S. P., Ginai, A. Z., Verhaar, J. A., Weinans, H., Koes, B. W., and Bierma-Zeinstra, S. M. Effect of glucosamine sulphate on joint space narrowing, pain and function in patients with hip osteoarthritis; subgroup analyses of a randomized controlled trial. Osteoarthritis Cartilage 2009;17(4):427-432. View abstract.

Rozenfeld V, Crain JL, Callahan AK. Possible augmentation of warfarin effect by glucosamine-chondroitin. Am J Health Syst Pharm 2004;61:306-307. View abstract.

Runhaar J, Deroisy R, van Middelkoop M, et al. The role of diet and exercise and of glucosamine sulfate in the prevention of knee osteoarthritis: Further results from the PRevention of knee Osteoarthritis in Overweight Females (PROOF) study. Semin Arthritis Rheum. 2016;45(4 Suppl):S42-8. View abstract.

Sakai S, Sugawara T, Kishi T, Yanagimoto K, Hirata T. Effect of glucosamine and related compounds on the degranulation of mast cells and ear swelling induced by dinitrofluorobenzene in mice. Life Sci 2010;86(9-10):337-43. View abstract.

Salvatore S, Heuschkel R, Tomlin S, et al. A pilot study of N-acetyl glucosamine, a nutritional substrate for glycosaminoglycan synthesis, in paediatric chronic inflammatory bowel disease. Aliment Pharmacol Ther 2000;14:1567-79.. View abstract.

Satia JA, Littman A, Slatore CG, Galanko JA, White E. Associations of herbal and specialty supplements with lung and colorectal cancer risk in the VITamins and Lifestyle study. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev 2009;18(5):1419-28. View abstract.

Scotto d’Abusco A, Politi L, Giordano C, Scandurra R. A peptidyl-glucosamine derivative affects IKKalpha kinase activity in human chondrocytes. Arthritis Res Ther 2010;12(1):R18. View abstract.

Scroggie DA, Albright A, Harris MD. The effect of glucosamine-chondroitin supplementation on glycosylated hemoglobin levels in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus: a placebo-controlled, double-blinded, randomized clinical trial. Arch Intern Med 2003;163:1587-90. View abstract.

Setnikar I, Cereda R, Pacini MA, Revel L. Antireactive properties of glucosamine sulfate. Arzneimittelforschung 1991;41(2):157-61. View abstract.

Setnikar I, Giacchetti C, Zanolo G. Pharmacokinetics of glucosamine in the dog and in man. Arzneimittelforschung 1986;36(4):729-35. View abstract.

Setnikar I, Pacini MA, Revel L. Antiarthritic effects of glucosamine sulfate studied in animal models. Arzneimittelforschung 1991;41(5):542-5. View abstract.

Setnikar I, Palumbo R, Canali S, et al. Pharmacokinetics of glucosamine in man. Arzneimittelforschung 1993;43:1109-13. View abstract.

Setnikar I, Rovati LC. Absorption, distribution, metabolism and excretion of glucosamine sulfate. A review. Arzneimittelforschung 2001;51:699-725. View abstract.

Shankar RR, Zhu JS, Baron AD. Glucosamine infusion in rats mimics the beta-cell dysfunction of non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus. Metabolism 1998;47:573-7. View abstract.

Shaygannejad, V., Janghorbani, M., Savoj, M. R., and Ashtari, F. Effects of adjunct glucosamine sulfate on relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis progression: preliminary findings of a randomized, placebo-controlled trial. Neurol Res 2010;32(9):981-985. View abstract.

Shikhman AR, Brinson DC, Valbracht J, Lotz MK. Differential metabolic effects of glucosamine and N-acetylglucosamine in human articular chondrocytes. Osteoarthritis Cartilage 2009;17(8):1022-8. View abstract.

Simental-Mendía M, Sánchez-García A, Vilchez-Cavazos F, Acosta-Olivo CA, Peña-Martínez VM, Simental-Mendía LE. Effect of glucosamine and chondroitin sulfate in symptomatic knee osteoarthritis: a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized placebo-controlled trials. Rheumatol Int. 2018 Aug;38(8):1413-1428. Epub 2018 Jun 11. Review. View abstract.

Simon RR, Marks V, Leeds AR, Anderson JW. A comprehensive review of oral glucosamine use and effects on glucose metabolism in normal and diabetic individuals. Diabetes Metab Res Rev 2011;27(1):14-27. View abstract.

Singh JA, Noorbaloochi S, MacDonald R, Maxwell LJ. Chondroitin for osteoarthritis. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2015 Jan 28;1:CD005614. View abstract.

Smidt D, Torpet LA, Nauntofte B, Heegaard KM, Pedersen AM. Associations between labial and whole salivary flow rates, systemic diseases and medications in a sample of older people. Community Dent Oral Epidemiol 2010;38(5):422-35. View abstract.

Stumpf JL, Lin SW. Effect of glucosamine on glucose control. Ann Pharmacother 2006;40:694-8. View abstract.

Sumantran VN, Chandwaskar R, Joshi AK, Boddul S, Patwardhan B, Chopra A, Wagh UV. The relationship between chondroprotective and antiinflammatory effects of Withania somnifera root and glucosamine sulphate on human osteoarthritic cartilage in vitro. Phytother Res 2008;22(10):1342-8. View abstract.

Swinburne LM. Glucosamine sulphate and osteoarthritis. Lancet 2001;357(9268):1617. View abstract.

Tallia AF, Cardone DA. Asthma exacerbation associated with glucosamine-chondroitin supplement. J Am Board Fam Pract 2002;15:481-4.. View abstract.

Tannis AJ, Barban J, Conquer JA. Effect of glucosamine supplementation on fasting and non-fasting plasma glucose and serum insulin concentrations in healthy individuals. Osteoarthritis Cartilage 2004;12:506-11. View abstract.

Tannock LR, Kirk EA, King VL, et al. Glucosamine supplementation accelerates early but not late atherosclerosis in LDL receptor-deficient mice. J Nutr 2006;136:2856-61. View abstract.

Theodosakis J. A randomized, double blind, placebo controlled trial of a topical cream containing glucosamine sulfate, chondroitin sulfate, and camphor for osteoarthritis of the knee. J Rheumatol 2004;31:826. View abstract.

Theoharides, T. C., Kempuraj, D., Vakali, S., and Sant, G. R. Treatment of refractory interstitial cystitis/painful bladder syndrome with CystoProtek–an oral multi-agent natural supplement. Can J Urol 2008;15(6):4410-4414. View abstract.

Thie NM, Prasad NG, Major PW. Evaluation of glucosamine sulfate compared to ibuprofen for the treatment of temporomandibular joint osteoarthritis: a randomized double blind controlled 3 month clinical trial. J Rheumatol 2001;28:1347-55. View abstract.

Tiku ML, Narla H, Karry SK, et al. Glucosamine Inhibits Advanced Lipoxidation Reaction and Chemical Modification of Lipoproteins by Scavenging Reactive Carbonyl Intermediates. American College of Rheumatology Meeting; October 25-29, 2002. Abstract 11.

Toegel S, Wu SQ, Piana C, Unger FM, Wirth M, Goldring MB, Gabor F, Viernstein H. Comparison between chondroprotective effects of glucosamine, curcumin, and diacerein in IL-1beta-stimulated C-28/I2 chondrocytes. Osteoarthritis Cartilage 2008;16(10):1205-12. View abstract.

Dudics, V., Kunstar, A., Kovacs, J., Lakatos, T., Geher, P., Gomor, B., Monostori, E., and Uher, F. Chondrogenic potential of mesenchymal stem cells from patients with rheumatoid arthritis and osteoarthritis: measurements in a microculture system. Cells Tissues.Organs 2009;189(5):307-316. View abstract.

Towheed TE, Anastassiades TP, Shea B, et al. Glucosamine therapy for treating osteoarthritis. Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2001;1:CD002946. View abstract.

Towheed TE, Maxwell L, Anastassiades TP, et al. Glucosamine therapy for treating osteoarthritis. Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2005;(2):CD002946. View abstract.

Towheed TE. Current status of glucosamine therapy in osteoarthritis. Arthritis Rheum 2003;49:601-4. View abstract.

Towheed, T. E. and Anastassiades, T. P. Glucosamine therapy for osteoarthritis. J Rheumatol 1999;26(11):2294-2297. View abstract.

Tsai CY, Lee TS, Kou YR, Wu YL. Glucosamine inhibits IL-1beta-mediated IL-8 production in prostate cancer cells by MAPK attenuation. J Cell Biochem 2009;108(2):489-98. View abstract.

Tsuji T, Yoon J, Kitano N, Okura T, Tanaka K. Effects of N-acetyl glucosamine and chondroitin sulfate supplementation on knee pain and self-reported knee function in middle-aged and older Japanese adults: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. Aging Clin Exp Res. 2016;28(2):197-205. View abstract.

Tsuruta A, Horiike T, Yoshimura M, Nagaoka I. Evaluation of the effect of the administration of a glucosamine containing supplement on biomarkers for cartilage metabolism in soccer players: A randomized double blind placebo controlled study. Mol Med Rep. 2018 Oct;18(4):3941-3948. Epub 2018 Aug 17. View abstract.

Uitterlinden EJ, Koevoet JL, Verkoelen CF, Bierma-Zeinstra SM, Jahr H, Weinans H, Verhaar JA, van Osch GJ. Glucosamine increases hyaluronic acid production in human osteoarthritic synovium explants. BMC Musculoskelet Disord 2008;9:120. View abstract.

Vetter G. [Topical therapy of arthroses with glucosamines (Dona 200)]. Munch Med Wochenschr 1969;111(28):1499-502. View abstract.

Vlad, S. C., LaValley, M. P., McAlindon, T. E., and Felson, D. T. Glucosamine for pain in osteoarthritis: why do trial results differ? Arthritis Rheum 2007;56(7):2267-2277. View abstract.

von Felden J, Montani M, Kessebohm K, Stickel F. Drug-induced acute liver injury mimicking autoimmune hepatitis after intake of dietary supplements containing glucosamine and chondroitin sulfate. Int J Clin Pharmacol Ther 2013;51(3):219-23. View abstract.

Wandel, S., Juni, P., Tendal, B., Nuesch, E., Villiger, P. M., Welton, N. J., Reichenbach, S., and Trelle, S. Effects of glucosamine, chondroitin, or placebo in patients with osteoarthritis of hip or knee: network meta-analysis. BMJ 2010;341:c4675. View abstract.

Wangroongsub Y, Tanavalee A, Wilairatana V, Ngarmukos S. Comparable clinical outcomes between glucosamine sulfate-potassium chloride and glucosamine sulfate sodium chloride in patients with mild and moderate knee osteoarthritis: a randomized, double-blind study. J Med Assoc Thai 2010;93(7):805-11. View abstract.

Weiden S and Wood IJ. The fate of glucosamine hydrochloride injected intravenously in man. J Clin Pathol 1958;11:343-349.

Weimann G, Lubenow N, Selleng K, et al. Glucosamine sulfate does not crossreact with the antibodies of patients with heparin-induced thrombocytopenia. Eur J Haematol 2001;66:195-9. View abstract.

Wilkens, P., Scheel, I. B., Grundnes, O., Hellum, C., and Storheim, K. Effect of glucosamine on pain-related disability in patients with chronic low back pain and degenerative lumbar osteoarthritis: a randomized controlled trial. JAMA 2010;304(1):45-52. View abstract.

Wu D, Huang Y, Gu Y, Fan W. Efficacies of different preparations of glucosamine for the treatment of osteoarthritis: a meta-analysis of randomised,double-blind, placebo-controlled trials. Int J Clin Pract 2013;67(6):585-94. View abstract.

Wu H, Liu M, Wang S, Zhao H, Yao W, Feng W, Yan M, Tang Y, Wei M. Comparative fasting bioavailability and pharmacokinetic properties of 2 formulations of glucosamine hydrochloride in healthy Chinese adult male volunteers. Arzneimittelforschung. 2012 Aug;62(8):367-71. View abstract.

Wu YL, Kou YR, Ou HL, Chien HY, Chuang KH, Liu HH, Lee TS, Tsai CY, Lu ML. Glucosamine regulation of LPS-mediated inflammation in human bronchial epithelial cells. Eur J Pharmacol 2010;635(1-3):219-26. View abstract.

Yamamoto, T., Kukuminato, Y., Nui, I., Takada, R., Hirao, M., Kamimura, M., Saitou, H., Asakura, K., and Kataura, A. [Relationship between birch pollen allergy and oral and pharyngeal hypersensitivity to fruit]. Nippon Jibiinkoka Gakkai Kaiho 1995;98(7):1086-1091. View abstract.

Yomogida S, Hua J, Sakamoto K, Nagaoka I. Glucosamine suppresses interleukin-8 production and ICAM-1 expression by TNF-alpha-stimulated human colonic epithelial HT-29 cells. Int J Mol Med 2008;22(2):205-11. View abstract.

Yomogida S, Kojima Y, Tsutsumi-Ishii Y, Hua J, Sakamoto K, Nagaoka I. Glucosamine, a naturally occurring amino monosaccharide, suppresses dextran sulfate sodium-induced colitis in rats. Int J Mol Med 2008;22(3):317-23. View abstract.

Yu JG, Boies SM, Olefsky JM. The effect of oral glucosamine sulfate on insulin sensitivity in human subjects. Diabetes Care 2003;26:1941-2. View abstract.

Yue QY, Strandell J, Myrberg O. Concomitant use of glucosamine may potential the effect of warfarin. The Uppsala Monitoring Centre. Available at: www.who-umc.org/graphics/9722.pdf (Accessed 28 April 2008).

Yun J, Tomida A, Nagata K, Tsuruo T. Glucose-regulated stresses confer resistance to VP-16 in human cancer cells through a decreased expression of DNA topoisomerase II. Oncol Res 1995;7:583-90. View abstract.

Zhang W, Doherty M, Arden N, et al. EULAR evidence based recommendations for the management of hip osteoarthritis: report of a task force of the EULAR Standing Committee for International Clinical Studies Including Therapeutics (ESCISIT). Ann Rheum Dis 2005;64:669-81. View abstract.

Zhang, W., Nuki, G., Moskowitz, R. W., Abramson, S., Altman, R. D., Arden, N. K., Bierma-Zeinstra, S., Brandt, K. D., Croft, P., Doherty, M., Dougados, M., Hochberg, M., Hunter, D. J., Kwoh, K., Lohmander, L. S., and Tugwell, P. OARSI recommendations for the management of hip and knee osteoarthritis: part III: Changes in evidence following systematic cumulative update of research published through January 2009. Osteoarthritis Cartilage 2010;18(4):476-499. View abstract.

Glucosamine – Mayo Clinic

Overview

Glucosamine is a natural compound found in cartilage — the tough tissue that cushions joints.

In supplement form, glucosamine is harvested from shells of shellfish or made in a lab. There are several forms of glucosamine, including glucosamine sulfate, glucosamine hydrochloride and N-acetyl glucosamine. These supplements aren’t considered interchangeable.

People use glucosamine sulfate orally to treat a painful condition caused by the inflammation, breakdown and eventual loss of cartilage (osteoarthritis).

Evidence

Research on glucosamine use for specific conditions shows:

  • Osteoarthritis. Oral use of glucosamine sulfate might provide some pain relief for people with osteoarthritis of the knee. Some research shows that it may also help slow knee joint degeneration associated with osteoarthritis. More studies are needed to determine the benefits of glucosamine sulfate supplements for osteoarthritis of the hip, spine or hand.
  • Rheumatoid arthritis. Early research suggests that oral use of glucosamine hydrochloride might reduce pain related to rheumatoid arthritis. However, researchers didn’t see an improvement in inflammation or the number of painful or swollen joints.

When considering glucosamine, read product labels carefully to make sure you choose the correct form. There’s less clinical evidence to support the use of N-acetyl glucosamine in treating osteoarthritis, and more research is needed to confirm its benefits.

Our take

Generally safe

Glucosamine sulfate might provide some pain relief for people with osteoarthritis. The supplement appears to be safe and might be a helpful option for people who can’t take nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs). While study results are mixed, glucosamine sulfate might be worth a try.

Safety and side effects

When taken in appropriate amounts, glucosamine sulfate appears to be safe. Oral use of glucosamine sulfate can cause:

  • Nausea
  • Heartburn
  • Diarrhea
  • Constipation

Other side effects may include:

  • Drowsiness
  • Skin reactions
  • Headache

Because glucosamine products might be derived from the shells of shellfish, there is concern that the supplement could cause an allergic reaction in people with shellfish allergies.

Glucosamine might worsen asthma.

There’s some concern that glucosamine might raise eye pressure. If you have glaucoma, talk to your doctor before taking glucosamine supplements.

Interactions

Possible interactions include:

  • Acetaminophen (Tylenol, others). Taking glucosamine sulfate and acetaminophen together might reduce the effectiveness of both the supplement and medication.
  • Warfarin (Jantoven). Taking glucosamine alone or in combination with the supplement chondroitin might increase the effects of the anticoagulant warfarin. This can increase your risk of bleeding.

Nov. 12, 2020

Show references

  1. Glucosamine and chondroitin for osteoarthritis pain. Arthritis Foundation. https://www.arthritis.org/health-wellness/treatment/complementary-therapies/supplements-and-vitamins/glucosamine-chondroitin-osteoarthritis-pain. Accessed Oct. 24, 2020.
  2. N-acetyl glucosamine (NAG). Natural Medicines. https://naturalmedicines.therapeuticresearch.com. Accessed Oct. 24, 2020.
  3. Osteoarthritis. National Institute of Arthritis and Musculoskeletal and Skin Diseases. https://www.niams.nih.gov/health-topics/osteoarthritis. Accessed Oct. 24, 2020.
  4. Glucosamine sulfate. Natural Medicines. https://naturalmedicines.therapeuticresearch.com. Accessed Oct. 24, 2020.
  5. Pizzorono JE, et al., eds. Glucosamine. In: Textbook of Natural Medicine. 5th ed. Elsevier, 2021. https://www.clinicalkey.com. Accessed Oct. 24, 2020.
  6. Vasiliadis HS, et al. Glucosamine and chondroitin for the treatment of osteoarthritis. World Journal of Orthopedics. 2017; doi:10.5312/wjo.v8.i1.1.
  7. Glucosamine hydrochloride. Natural Medicines. https://naturalmedicines.therapeuticresearch.com. Accessed Oct. 24, 2020.
  8. Rubin BR, et al. Oral polymeric N-acetyl-D-glucosamine and osteoarthritis. Journal of the American Osteopathic Association. 2001; https://jaoa.org/article.aspx?articleid=2092565. Accessed Oct. 28, 2020.


.

Uses, evidence, and side effects

Glucosamine plays a vital role in building and repairing cartilage. Many people take glucosamine supplements in the hope of boosting their joint health. Do they work?

Glucosamine is a natural sugar that exists in the fluid around the joints, as well as in animal bones, bone marrow, shellfish, and fungi.

The glucosamine in supplements usually comes from the shells of shellfish, though there is also a synthetic form.

According to the National Center for Complementary and Integrative Health, around 2.6% of adults in the United States used supplements of glucosamine, chondroitin, or both in 2012. Chondroitin is similar to glucosamine and also occurs naturally in joints.

These were the second most popular dietary supplement after fish oil and other types of omega-3 fatty acids.

However, experts have questioned whether glucosamine supplements are useful, citing a lack of scientific evidence.

In this article, we explain what glucosamine is, why people take it, and whether research indicates that the supplements can help. We also look at some possible side effects and other risks.

Share on PinterestThere is no conclusive evidence that glucosamine supplements can prevent or treat any conditions.

Glucosamine supplements typically come as tablets or capsules, but they are also available as injections.

Also, there are various types of glucosamine, and it is not clear whether they have different effects.

The types include:

  • glucosamine sulfate
  • glucosamine hydrochloride
  • N-acetyl glucosamine

Some supplements combine glucosamine with other ingredients, such as chondroitin sulfate, shark cartilage, or methylsulfonylmethane, known as MSM.

Some people say that these supplements help with joint pain, but there is not enough scientific evidence to confirm this.

The American College of Rheumatologists and the Arthritis Foundation advise people not to use glucosamine or chondroitin sulfate supplements for osteoarthritis. While they are likely to be safe for most people, experts have not confirmed that they work.

It is important to keep in mind that the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) do not regulate the production of glucosamine products or any other supplements. As a result, it is not possible to know exactly what they contain.

Supplements do not always, for example, contain the ingredients listed on their labels. Tests have shown that the glucosamine content in supplements can range from zero to over 100% of the amount advertised.

Also, in some cases, labels listed glucosamine hydrochloride when the supplements contained glucosamine sulfate.

The body uses glucosamine to build and repair cartilage. Cartilage is a flexible, tough, rubbery connective tissue that protects the bones in the joints. It provides padding and prevents the bones from rubbing together.

As people age, their cartilage can become less flexible and start to break down. This can lead to pain, inflammation, and tissue damage, which, for example, occurs in osteoarthritis.

There is some evidence that glucosamine might slow this process and benefit cartilage health.

Glucosamine occurs naturally in the body, but levels fall as people get older. In time, the reduction could contribute to joint deterioration.

People take glucosamine sulfate supplements for many reasons, including:

However, there is not enough evidence to show that it is effective in treating or preventing any of these conditions.

Does glucosamine help with osteoarthritis?

Many people take glucosamine supplements for osteoarthritis, especially that of the hip or knee. Some studies have indicated that it might help reduce pain and improve function.

However, results have varied, and scientists have not been able to identify how glucosamine supplements work, if indeed they do.

Some experts have suggested that any success could be due to a placebo effect, in which simply taking a supplement makes a person feel better.

Current guidelines do not recommend using glucosamine or chondroitin for osteoarthritis. This is because there is not enough evidence to show that they are safe or effective.

Can a placebo help people with chronic pain?

People use glucosamine to help treat or prevent a range of conditions, but scientific investigations into these uses have tended to be inconclusive or have found the supplement to be ineffective.

Some research in animals or human participants has indicated that specific forms of glucosamine may help:

There is no evidence, however, that glucosamine has any effect on chronic lower back pain, for example.

Side effects of glucosamine appear to be mild and infrequent, but they can include:

The National Institutes of Health (NIH) note that oral glucosamine supplements are “likely safe” when taken correctly and by adults, but that some people have experienced mild side effects, including drowsiness, skin reactions, and headaches.

They report that the injectable form is “possibly safe” when administered into muscle twice a week for up to 6 weeks.

Glucosamine may not be suitable for everyone, particularly for people who are dealing with:

Pregnancy and breastfeeding: It is not advisable to use glucosamine at these times, as its effect is unknown.

Cancer: Some supplements reduce the effectiveness of cancer treatment. If you are undergoing this type of treatment and wish to use glucosamine, speak to a doctor first.

Diabetes: One study found that glucosamine supplements might affect glucose levels in the body. This could make them unsuitable for people with diabetes or glucose intolerance.

Asthma: In 2008, authors of a study warned that glucosamine might trigger various adverse effects, including shortness of breath in people with asthma.

Allergies: Glucosamine products derived from shellfish may trigger allergic reactions.

Blood and circulation issues: Glucosamine may also affect blood pressure and blood clotting. People who take it should:

  • avoid using glucosamine with warfarin (Coumadin) and other blood thinners
  • monitor their blood pressure if they are using glucosamine

Oral glucosamine supplements appear to be relatively safe for adults without asthma, allergies, or diabetes, and for those who are not pregnant or breastfeeding.

However, conclusive evidence that it can treat joint complaints and other health issues is currently lacking.

Uses, evidence, and side effects

Glucosamine plays a vital role in building and repairing cartilage. Many people take glucosamine supplements in the hope of boosting their joint health. Do they work?

Glucosamine is a natural sugar that exists in the fluid around the joints, as well as in animal bones, bone marrow, shellfish, and fungi.

The glucosamine in supplements usually comes from the shells of shellfish, though there is also a synthetic form.

According to the National Center for Complementary and Integrative Health, around 2.6% of adults in the United States used supplements of glucosamine, chondroitin, or both in 2012. Chondroitin is similar to glucosamine and also occurs naturally in joints.

These were the second most popular dietary supplement after fish oil and other types of omega-3 fatty acids.

However, experts have questioned whether glucosamine supplements are useful, citing a lack of scientific evidence.

In this article, we explain what glucosamine is, why people take it, and whether research indicates that the supplements can help. We also look at some possible side effects and other risks.

Share on PinterestThere is no conclusive evidence that glucosamine supplements can prevent or treat any conditions.

Glucosamine supplements typically come as tablets or capsules, but they are also available as injections.

Also, there are various types of glucosamine, and it is not clear whether they have different effects.

The types include:

  • glucosamine sulfate
  • glucosamine hydrochloride
  • N-acetyl glucosamine

Some supplements combine glucosamine with other ingredients, such as chondroitin sulfate, shark cartilage, or methylsulfonylmethane, known as MSM.

Some people say that these supplements help with joint pain, but there is not enough scientific evidence to confirm this.

The American College of Rheumatologists and the Arthritis Foundation advise people not to use glucosamine or chondroitin sulfate supplements for osteoarthritis. While they are likely to be safe for most people, experts have not confirmed that they work.

It is important to keep in mind that the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) do not regulate the production of glucosamine products or any other supplements. As a result, it is not possible to know exactly what they contain.

Supplements do not always, for example, contain the ingredients listed on their labels. Tests have shown that the glucosamine content in supplements can range from zero to over 100% of the amount advertised.

Also, in some cases, labels listed glucosamine hydrochloride when the supplements contained glucosamine sulfate.

The body uses glucosamine to build and repair cartilage. Cartilage is a flexible, tough, rubbery connective tissue that protects the bones in the joints. It provides padding and prevents the bones from rubbing together.

As people age, their cartilage can become less flexible and start to break down. This can lead to pain, inflammation, and tissue damage, which, for example, occurs in osteoarthritis.

There is some evidence that glucosamine might slow this process and benefit cartilage health.

Glucosamine occurs naturally in the body, but levels fall as people get older. In time, the reduction could contribute to joint deterioration.

People take glucosamine sulfate supplements for many reasons, including:

However, there is not enough evidence to show that it is effective in treating or preventing any of these conditions.

Does glucosamine help with osteoarthritis?

Many people take glucosamine supplements for osteoarthritis, especially that of the hip or knee. Some studies have indicated that it might help reduce pain and improve function.

However, results have varied, and scientists have not been able to identify how glucosamine supplements work, if indeed they do.

Some experts have suggested that any success could be due to a placebo effect, in which simply taking a supplement makes a person feel better.

Current guidelines do not recommend using glucosamine or chondroitin for osteoarthritis. This is because there is not enough evidence to show that they are safe or effective.

Can a placebo help people with chronic pain?

People use glucosamine to help treat or prevent a range of conditions, but scientific investigations into these uses have tended to be inconclusive or have found the supplement to be ineffective.

Some research in animals or human participants has indicated that specific forms of glucosamine may help:

There is no evidence, however, that glucosamine has any effect on chronic lower back pain, for example.

Side effects of glucosamine appear to be mild and infrequent, but they can include:

The National Institutes of Health (NIH) note that oral glucosamine supplements are “likely safe” when taken correctly and by adults, but that some people have experienced mild side effects, including drowsiness, skin reactions, and headaches.

They report that the injectable form is “possibly safe” when administered into muscle twice a week for up to 6 weeks.

Glucosamine may not be suitable for everyone, particularly for people who are dealing with:

Pregnancy and breastfeeding: It is not advisable to use glucosamine at these times, as its effect is unknown.

Cancer: Some supplements reduce the effectiveness of cancer treatment. If you are undergoing this type of treatment and wish to use glucosamine, speak to a doctor first.

Diabetes: One study found that glucosamine supplements might affect glucose levels in the body. This could make them unsuitable for people with diabetes or glucose intolerance.

Asthma: In 2008, authors of a study warned that glucosamine might trigger various adverse effects, including shortness of breath in people with asthma.

Allergies: Glucosamine products derived from shellfish may trigger allergic reactions.

Blood and circulation issues: Glucosamine may also affect blood pressure and blood clotting. People who take it should:

  • avoid using glucosamine with warfarin (Coumadin) and other blood thinners
  • monitor their blood pressure if they are using glucosamine

Oral glucosamine supplements appear to be relatively safe for adults without asthma, allergies, or diabetes, and for those who are not pregnant or breastfeeding.

However, conclusive evidence that it can treat joint complaints and other health issues is currently lacking.

Uses, evidence, and side effects

Glucosamine plays a vital role in building and repairing cartilage. Many people take glucosamine supplements in the hope of boosting their joint health. Do they work?

Glucosamine is a natural sugar that exists in the fluid around the joints, as well as in animal bones, bone marrow, shellfish, and fungi.

The glucosamine in supplements usually comes from the shells of shellfish, though there is also a synthetic form.

According to the National Center for Complementary and Integrative Health, around 2.6% of adults in the United States used supplements of glucosamine, chondroitin, or both in 2012. Chondroitin is similar to glucosamine and also occurs naturally in joints.

These were the second most popular dietary supplement after fish oil and other types of omega-3 fatty acids.

However, experts have questioned whether glucosamine supplements are useful, citing a lack of scientific evidence.

In this article, we explain what glucosamine is, why people take it, and whether research indicates that the supplements can help. We also look at some possible side effects and other risks.

Share on PinterestThere is no conclusive evidence that glucosamine supplements can prevent or treat any conditions.

Glucosamine supplements typically come as tablets or capsules, but they are also available as injections.

Also, there are various types of glucosamine, and it is not clear whether they have different effects.

The types include:

  • glucosamine sulfate
  • glucosamine hydrochloride
  • N-acetyl glucosamine

Some supplements combine glucosamine with other ingredients, such as chondroitin sulfate, shark cartilage, or methylsulfonylmethane, known as MSM.

Some people say that these supplements help with joint pain, but there is not enough scientific evidence to confirm this.

The American College of Rheumatologists and the Arthritis Foundation advise people not to use glucosamine or chondroitin sulfate supplements for osteoarthritis. While they are likely to be safe for most people, experts have not confirmed that they work.

It is important to keep in mind that the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) do not regulate the production of glucosamine products or any other supplements. As a result, it is not possible to know exactly what they contain.

Supplements do not always, for example, contain the ingredients listed on their labels. Tests have shown that the glucosamine content in supplements can range from zero to over 100% of the amount advertised.

Also, in some cases, labels listed glucosamine hydrochloride when the supplements contained glucosamine sulfate.

The body uses glucosamine to build and repair cartilage. Cartilage is a flexible, tough, rubbery connective tissue that protects the bones in the joints. It provides padding and prevents the bones from rubbing together.

As people age, their cartilage can become less flexible and start to break down. This can lead to pain, inflammation, and tissue damage, which, for example, occurs in osteoarthritis.

There is some evidence that glucosamine might slow this process and benefit cartilage health.

Glucosamine occurs naturally in the body, but levels fall as people get older. In time, the reduction could contribute to joint deterioration.

People take glucosamine sulfate supplements for many reasons, including:

However, there is not enough evidence to show that it is effective in treating or preventing any of these conditions.

Does glucosamine help with osteoarthritis?

Many people take glucosamine supplements for osteoarthritis, especially that of the hip or knee. Some studies have indicated that it might help reduce pain and improve function.

However, results have varied, and scientists have not been able to identify how glucosamine supplements work, if indeed they do.

Some experts have suggested that any success could be due to a placebo effect, in which simply taking a supplement makes a person feel better.

Current guidelines do not recommend using glucosamine or chondroitin for osteoarthritis. This is because there is not enough evidence to show that they are safe or effective.

Can a placebo help people with chronic pain?

People use glucosamine to help treat or prevent a range of conditions, but scientific investigations into these uses have tended to be inconclusive or have found the supplement to be ineffective.

Some research in animals or human participants has indicated that specific forms of glucosamine may help:

There is no evidence, however, that glucosamine has any effect on chronic lower back pain, for example.

Side effects of glucosamine appear to be mild and infrequent, but they can include:

The National Institutes of Health (NIH) note that oral glucosamine supplements are “likely safe” when taken correctly and by adults, but that some people have experienced mild side effects, including drowsiness, skin reactions, and headaches.

They report that the injectable form is “possibly safe” when administered into muscle twice a week for up to 6 weeks.

Glucosamine may not be suitable for everyone, particularly for people who are dealing with:

Pregnancy and breastfeeding: It is not advisable to use glucosamine at these times, as its effect is unknown.

Cancer: Some supplements reduce the effectiveness of cancer treatment. If you are undergoing this type of treatment and wish to use glucosamine, speak to a doctor first.

Diabetes: One study found that glucosamine supplements might affect glucose levels in the body. This could make them unsuitable for people with diabetes or glucose intolerance.

Asthma: In 2008, authors of a study warned that glucosamine might trigger various adverse effects, including shortness of breath in people with asthma.

Allergies: Glucosamine products derived from shellfish may trigger allergic reactions.

Blood and circulation issues: Glucosamine may also affect blood pressure and blood clotting. People who take it should:

  • avoid using glucosamine with warfarin (Coumadin) and other blood thinners
  • monitor their blood pressure if they are using glucosamine

Oral glucosamine supplements appear to be relatively safe for adults without asthma, allergies, or diabetes, and for those who are not pregnant or breastfeeding.

However, conclusive evidence that it can treat joint complaints and other health issues is currently lacking.

Uses, evidence, and side effects

Glucosamine plays a vital role in building and repairing cartilage. Many people take glucosamine supplements in the hope of boosting their joint health. Do they work?

Glucosamine is a natural sugar that exists in the fluid around the joints, as well as in animal bones, bone marrow, shellfish, and fungi.

The glucosamine in supplements usually comes from the shells of shellfish, though there is also a synthetic form.

According to the National Center for Complementary and Integrative Health, around 2.6% of adults in the United States used supplements of glucosamine, chondroitin, or both in 2012. Chondroitin is similar to glucosamine and also occurs naturally in joints.

These were the second most popular dietary supplement after fish oil and other types of omega-3 fatty acids.

However, experts have questioned whether glucosamine supplements are useful, citing a lack of scientific evidence.

In this article, we explain what glucosamine is, why people take it, and whether research indicates that the supplements can help. We also look at some possible side effects and other risks.

Share on PinterestThere is no conclusive evidence that glucosamine supplements can prevent or treat any conditions.

Glucosamine supplements typically come as tablets or capsules, but they are also available as injections.

Also, there are various types of glucosamine, and it is not clear whether they have different effects.

The types include:

  • glucosamine sulfate
  • glucosamine hydrochloride
  • N-acetyl glucosamine

Some supplements combine glucosamine with other ingredients, such as chondroitin sulfate, shark cartilage, or methylsulfonylmethane, known as MSM.

Some people say that these supplements help with joint pain, but there is not enough scientific evidence to confirm this.

The American College of Rheumatologists and the Arthritis Foundation advise people not to use glucosamine or chondroitin sulfate supplements for osteoarthritis. While they are likely to be safe for most people, experts have not confirmed that they work.

It is important to keep in mind that the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) do not regulate the production of glucosamine products or any other supplements. As a result, it is not possible to know exactly what they contain.

Supplements do not always, for example, contain the ingredients listed on their labels. Tests have shown that the glucosamine content in supplements can range from zero to over 100% of the amount advertised.

Also, in some cases, labels listed glucosamine hydrochloride when the supplements contained glucosamine sulfate.

The body uses glucosamine to build and repair cartilage. Cartilage is a flexible, tough, rubbery connective tissue that protects the bones in the joints. It provides padding and prevents the bones from rubbing together.

As people age, their cartilage can become less flexible and start to break down. This can lead to pain, inflammation, and tissue damage, which, for example, occurs in osteoarthritis.

There is some evidence that glucosamine might slow this process and benefit cartilage health.

Glucosamine occurs naturally in the body, but levels fall as people get older. In time, the reduction could contribute to joint deterioration.

People take glucosamine sulfate supplements for many reasons, including:

However, there is not enough evidence to show that it is effective in treating or preventing any of these conditions.

Does glucosamine help with osteoarthritis?

Many people take glucosamine supplements for osteoarthritis, especially that of the hip or knee. Some studies have indicated that it might help reduce pain and improve function.

However, results have varied, and scientists have not been able to identify how glucosamine supplements work, if indeed they do.

Some experts have suggested that any success could be due to a placebo effect, in which simply taking a supplement makes a person feel better.

Current guidelines do not recommend using glucosamine or chondroitin for osteoarthritis. This is because there is not enough evidence to show that they are safe or effective.

Can a placebo help people with chronic pain?

People use glucosamine to help treat or prevent a range of conditions, but scientific investigations into these uses have tended to be inconclusive or have found the supplement to be ineffective.

Some research in animals or human participants has indicated that specific forms of glucosamine may help:

There is no evidence, however, that glucosamine has any effect on chronic lower back pain, for example.

Side effects of glucosamine appear to be mild and infrequent, but they can include:

The National Institutes of Health (NIH) note that oral glucosamine supplements are “likely safe” when taken correctly and by adults, but that some people have experienced mild side effects, including drowsiness, skin reactions, and headaches.

They report that the injectable form is “possibly safe” when administered into muscle twice a week for up to 6 weeks.

Glucosamine may not be suitable for everyone, particularly for people who are dealing with:

Pregnancy and breastfeeding: It is not advisable to use glucosamine at these times, as its effect is unknown.

Cancer: Some supplements reduce the effectiveness of cancer treatment. If you are undergoing this type of treatment and wish to use glucosamine, speak to a doctor first.

Diabetes: One study found that glucosamine supplements might affect glucose levels in the body. This could make them unsuitable for people with diabetes or glucose intolerance.

Asthma: In 2008, authors of a study warned that glucosamine might trigger various adverse effects, including shortness of breath in people with asthma.

Allergies: Glucosamine products derived from shellfish may trigger allergic reactions.

Blood and circulation issues: Glucosamine may also affect blood pressure and blood clotting. People who take it should:

  • avoid using glucosamine with warfarin (Coumadin) and other blood thinners
  • monitor their blood pressure if they are using glucosamine

Oral glucosamine supplements appear to be relatively safe for adults without asthma, allergies, or diabetes, and for those who are not pregnant or breastfeeding.

However, conclusive evidence that it can treat joint complaints and other health issues is currently lacking.

Uses, evidence, and side effects

Glucosamine plays a vital role in building and repairing cartilage. Many people take glucosamine supplements in the hope of boosting their joint health. Do they work?

Glucosamine is a natural sugar that exists in the fluid around the joints, as well as in animal bones, bone marrow, shellfish, and fungi.

The glucosamine in supplements usually comes from the shells of shellfish, though there is also a synthetic form.

According to the National Center for Complementary and Integrative Health, around 2.6% of adults in the United States used supplements of glucosamine, chondroitin, or both in 2012. Chondroitin is similar to glucosamine and also occurs naturally in joints.

These were the second most popular dietary supplement after fish oil and other types of omega-3 fatty acids.

However, experts have questioned whether glucosamine supplements are useful, citing a lack of scientific evidence.

In this article, we explain what glucosamine is, why people take it, and whether research indicates that the supplements can help. We also look at some possible side effects and other risks.

Share on PinterestThere is no conclusive evidence that glucosamine supplements can prevent or treat any conditions.

Glucosamine supplements typically come as tablets or capsules, but they are also available as injections.

Also, there are various types of glucosamine, and it is not clear whether they have different effects.

The types include:

  • glucosamine sulfate
  • glucosamine hydrochloride
  • N-acetyl glucosamine

Some supplements combine glucosamine with other ingredients, such as chondroitin sulfate, shark cartilage, or methylsulfonylmethane, known as MSM.

Some people say that these supplements help with joint pain, but there is not enough scientific evidence to confirm this.

The American College of Rheumatologists and the Arthritis Foundation advise people not to use glucosamine or chondroitin sulfate supplements for osteoarthritis. While they are likely to be safe for most people, experts have not confirmed that they work.

It is important to keep in mind that the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) do not regulate the production of glucosamine products or any other supplements. As a result, it is not possible to know exactly what they contain.

Supplements do not always, for example, contain the ingredients listed on their labels. Tests have shown that the glucosamine content in supplements can range from zero to over 100% of the amount advertised.

Also, in some cases, labels listed glucosamine hydrochloride when the supplements contained glucosamine sulfate.

The body uses glucosamine to build and repair cartilage. Cartilage is a flexible, tough, rubbery connective tissue that protects the bones in the joints. It provides padding and prevents the bones from rubbing together.

As people age, their cartilage can become less flexible and start to break down. This can lead to pain, inflammation, and tissue damage, which, for example, occurs in osteoarthritis.

There is some evidence that glucosamine might slow this process and benefit cartilage health.

Glucosamine occurs naturally in the body, but levels fall as people get older. In time, the reduction could contribute to joint deterioration.

People take glucosamine sulfate supplements for many reasons, including:

However, there is not enough evidence to show that it is effective in treating or preventing any of these conditions.

Does glucosamine help with osteoarthritis?

Many people take glucosamine supplements for osteoarthritis, especially that of the hip or knee. Some studies have indicated that it might help reduce pain and improve function.

However, results have varied, and scientists have not been able to identify how glucosamine supplements work, if indeed they do.

Some experts have suggested that any success could be due to a placebo effect, in which simply taking a supplement makes a person feel better.

Current guidelines do not recommend using glucosamine or chondroitin for osteoarthritis. This is because there is not enough evidence to show that they are safe or effective.

Can a placebo help people with chronic pain?

People use glucosamine to help treat or prevent a range of conditions, but scientific investigations into these uses have tended to be inconclusive or have found the supplement to be ineffective.

Some research in animals or human participants has indicated that specific forms of glucosamine may help:

There is no evidence, however, that glucosamine has any effect on chronic lower back pain, for example.

Side effects of glucosamine appear to be mild and infrequent, but they can include:

The National Institutes of Health (NIH) note that oral glucosamine supplements are “likely safe” when taken correctly and by adults, but that some people have experienced mild side effects, including drowsiness, skin reactions, and headaches.

They report that the injectable form is “possibly safe” when administered into muscle twice a week for up to 6 weeks.

Glucosamine may not be suitable for everyone, particularly for people who are dealing with:

Pregnancy and breastfeeding: It is not advisable to use glucosamine at these times, as its effect is unknown.

Cancer: Some supplements reduce the effectiveness of cancer treatment. If you are undergoing this type of treatment and wish to use glucosamine, speak to a doctor first.

Diabetes: One study found that glucosamine supplements might affect glucose levels in the body. This could make them unsuitable for people with diabetes or glucose intolerance.

Asthma: In 2008, authors of a study warned that glucosamine might trigger various adverse effects, including shortness of breath in people with asthma.

Allergies: Glucosamine products derived from shellfish may trigger allergic reactions.

Blood and circulation issues: Glucosamine may also affect blood pressure and blood clotting. People who take it should:

  • avoid using glucosamine with warfarin (Coumadin) and other blood thinners
  • monitor their blood pressure if they are using glucosamine

Oral glucosamine supplements appear to be relatively safe for adults without asthma, allergies, or diabetes, and for those who are not pregnant or breastfeeding.

However, conclusive evidence that it can treat joint complaints and other health issues is currently lacking.

Glucosamine for people in the body – what is it and what is it for, norms

Types of glucosamine

Glucosamine is produced in the form of two salts – glucosamine sulfate and glucosamine hydrochloride, which differ slightly in their properties and effectiveness.

Glucosamine sulfate and chloride break down in the stomach to form glucosamine and salt. Glucosamine, isolated from both the sulfate and hydrochloride forms, practically do not differ in chemical properties and clinical effect.

How does glucosamine work in the body?

Active glucosamine from the intestine enters the blood vessels and then into the cartilage. Its main task is to maintain the function of chondrocytes. Chondrocytes are special cells that work like mini-factories. They produce the building blocks for cartilage: collagen, hyaluronic acid, chondroitin sulfate and other important substances.

Therefore, the addition of glucosamine to the diet helps to activate our internal “building factories” that repair cartilage connections, thereby relieving us of joint pain.

Has glucosamine been proven to have a beneficial effect on humans?

The first studies of glucosamine were carried out in the 80s of the last century in Italy. In the course of clinical studies, it was found that with prolonged use of glucosamine inside, it reduced pain and improved joint movement, slowed down the progression of osteoarthritis. Most of the patients noticed a significant reduction in pain after just one month of taking glucosamine. The results were confirmed when studying X-ray images of patients after a course of glucosamine intake: a slowdown in joint destruction was noted.Subsequent experiments confirmed the data obtained and even showed an increase in the effect when combined with glucosamine and chondroitin.

In addition, it should be mentioned that glucosamine is recommended by the European Society for the Clinical and Economic Aspects of Osteoporosis and Osteoarthritis as the first line of therapy for osteoarthritis and other degenerative joint diseases due to its ability to control pain and slow the development of structural changes in the joints.

At the same time, glucosamine with another chondroprotective substance, chondroitin sulfate, has shown particularly high efficiency in osteoarthritis.The effectiveness of the combined use of these substances has been well studied in various comparative studies. It has been shown that in terms of effectiveness against the symptoms of osteoarthritis – pain, dysfunction of the joint – the combination of glucosamine and chondroitin, when used systematically, is not inferior to the most modern non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs and at the same time has a positive effect on the structure of joint tissues. In this case, one should take into account the doses of glucosamine and chondroitin, which were used in the largest foreign studies and are currently considered sufficient or therapeutic.For example, a therapeutic daily dose of glucosamine (1500 mg) and chondroitin (1200 mg) is contained in 3 capsules of the Teraflex preparation and is therefore recommended for the first 3 weeks of treatment.

Indications for use

Glucosamine has been proven to be effective and irreplaceable in the treatment of many joint diseases. It is actively used for osteochondrosis, arthrosis, arthritis and other diseases. It should only be remembered that the effects of glucosamine, as well as chondroitin sulfate, develop gradually.Therefore, the main indications for use are various manifestations of osteoarthritis:

  • Pain
  • Bondage
  • Crunch (characteristic sound when bending the limbs)
  • Swelling in the area of ​​the joints
  • Bone outgrowths (in case of advanced form of osteoarthritis)

Treatment or prevention?

Based on the above, we can conclude that glucosamine can be used not only for the treatment of joint diseases, but also for the prevention of further progression of cartilage destruction.In order to contain dystrophic changes, the agent is prescribed when the first signs of the disease appear, as a rule, to athletes and people over 40, since it is these groups that are most susceptible to the development of joint diseases. Glucosamine has established itself as an excellent substance in terms of its efficacy and safety profile, which has been popular for several decades.

The effectiveness of taking glucosamine to maintain joint health has been proven in combination with chondroitin.The combination of these substances promotes the restoration of cartilage tissue, increases the resistance of the cartilage to destruction and helps to reduce pain 1 .

This combination is presented in the line of Teraflex and Teraflex Advance products, which helps to reduce pain due to the presence of ibuprofen (non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug) in the composition, and the combination of glucosamine and chondroitin simultaneously begins to stimulate the renewal of cartilage tissue.

90,000 Glucosamine maximum tablets 30 pcs.

Glucosamine Maximum is a combination of glucosamine and chondroitin, which have been used by doctors all over the world for many years for the prevention and complex treatment of diseases of the musculoskeletal system, including osteoarthritis.

Roster

Active ingredients:
glucosamine sulfate – 750 mg,
chondroitin sulfate – 250 mg;

Glucosamine and chondroitin are natural components of the articular cartilage, necessary for the normal synthesis of the connective tissue of the cartilage and helping to prevent the destruction of cartilage.The interaction of these components and the high content of the active substance provide a pronounced and lasting beneficial effect on the joints and spine.

Helps to improve the condition with:
pain in joints and spine
stiffness in movement and crunching in joints
joint inflammation

Adults take 1 tablet daily with meals, which provides an adequate level of glucosamine sulfate consumption by 100% (750 mg), chondroitin sulfate – by 60% (250 mg).Duration of admission is 2 months.
It is recommended to consult a doctor before use.

Allergic reactions.

Hypersensitivity.

class = “h4-mobile”>

Glucosamine for Osteoarthritis | Cochrane

This Cochrane Review summary presents research findings on the effects of glucosamine on the course of osteoarthritis.

People with osteoarthritis take glucosamine:

– May Reduce Pain

– May lead to improved joint function

– Probably no side effects.

What are osteoarthritis and glucosamine?

Osteoarthritis (OA) is the most common form of arthritis that affects the joints of the hand, hip, shoulder and knee joints. In OA, the cartilage that covers and protects the ends of the bones is damaged, causing pain and swelling. Various medicinal and non-medicinal therapies are used to reduce pain and / or swelling.

Glucosamine is a natural component of the body (organism), in which it is used to build the elements of cartilage.Glucosamine can be taken as a tablet as a food supplement, or sometimes as an injection. It can be in the form of a combination with other supplements (such as chondroitin), or by itself as glucosamine salts (hydrochloride or sulfate). The usual recommended dose is 1500 mg per day or 500 mg three times a day.

In Europe, glucosamine is available by prescription from a healthcare professional. However, in North America, people can buy glucosamine as a dietary supplement without a prescription.This means that glucosamine use is not regulated in North America, and the true amount of glucosamine in a tablet may not match what is indicated on the label.

Best estimate of what happens in about 6 months

Pain: High quality studies showed that pain relief was similar in patients taking glucosamine or placebo (fake empty pills).When all the studies (including low quality and older studies) are considered, glucosamine reduced pain more than placebo.

Patients who took placebo had a pain level of 7 points (on a scale from 0 to 100 points). When glucosamine was taken, pain relief was noted by 10 or more points in comparison with placebo.

In trials that only tested original glucosamine (Rotta) formulations (including low quality studies and older studies), glucosamine resulted in greater improvement in joint function compared to placebo.Individuals who took placebo had a pain score of 6 points (on a scale of 0 to 20). People who took the original glucosamine preparations (Rotta) rated their pain 3 points lower than people who did not take glucosamine.

Function: High quality studies have shown that glucosamine resulted in improved joint function compared to placebo when measuring joint function in one way, but when measured in another way, the effect of glucosamine was comparable to placebo.

In trials that only tested original glucosamine (Rotta) formulations (including low quality studies and older studies), glucosamine resulted in greater improvement in joint function compared to placebo. In persons who took placebo, the functional state of the joints was 22 points (on a scale from 0 to 68 points). The people who took the original glucosamine preparations (Rotta) had 2 points better functional state of the joints than the patients who did not take glucosamine.

There was no difference in the number of people who had side effects. Side effects mainly included dyspepsia and joint pain.

PHARMA NORD BIOACTIVE GLUCOSAMINE FORTE PLUS tablets, 80 pcs.

Nutritional Supplements and Diet Nutrition

Glucosamine sulfate and chondroitin sulfate for bones and cartilage.

Contains glucosamine sulfate and chondroitin sulfate, which are important components of cartilage.The product also contains vitamin C, which contributes to the production of collagen, which is necessary for the normal functioning of cartilage and bones. The hygienic blister pack protects the tablets from exposure to air. Manufactured in Denmark following the most stringent quality and documentation requirements for pharmaceuticals.

BIOACTIVE GLUCOSAMINE FORTE PLUS tablets, 80 pcs.

€ 13.29

18,99 € *

13.29
18.99
EUR

€ 13.29

18,99 € *

13.29
18.99
EUR

Age: From the age of 12
Product Form for Medicines, Food Supplements and Medicines: pills
Suitable for: For men and women

2-3 tablets daily or as directed by your healthcare professional.

Glikozamīna sulfāts 2KCl, mikrokristāliskā celuloze (E460), silīcija dioksīds (E551), hidroksipropilmetilceluloze (E464), Titāna dioksīds (E171), talks (E553b), indigokarm2, C13 sāļi (E 470b)

instructions for use, analogs, composition, indications

Pharmacodynamics
Glucosamine
Mechanism of Action
Glucosamine hydrochloride is a salt of the amino monosaccharide glucosamine, which is an endogenous component and a preferred substrate for the synthesis of glycosaminoglycans and proteoglycans of articular cartilage and synovial fluid.Glucosamine hydrochloride inhibits the activity of interleukin-1 beta and other inflammatory mediators.
Clinical efficacy and tolerability
The safety and efficacy of glucosamine hydrochloride has been confirmed in clinical trials with a treatment duration of up to three years. Short and medium-term clinical studies have shown that the effectiveness of glucosamine hydrochloride in relation to the symptoms of osteoarthritis is noted after 2-3 weeks of its use.However, unlike non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), glucosamine hydrochloride has a long-lasting effect that lasts from six months to three years.
Clinical studies with daily intake of glucosamine hydrochloride for a period of up to three years have shown a gradual improvement in the symptoms of the disease and a slowdown in structural changes in the joint, as demonstrated by conventional radiography.
Glucosamine hydrochloride has been shown to be well tolerated during short and long term treatments.
Evidence of drug efficacy was demonstrated when it was used for three months, with a residual effect for two months after discontinuation. The safety and effectiveness of the drug have also been confirmed in clinical trials for up to three years. Continuous treatment for more than three years cannot be recommended, as there is no safety data for glucosamine supplementation for more than three years.
Chondroitin sulfate
Chondroitin sulfate is a high molecular weight mucopolysaccharide.It is the main component of proteaglycans, which together with collagen fibers make up the cartilage matrix.
Pharmacokinetics
Glucosamine
Absorption
After oral administration of 14C-labeled glucosamine, it is rapidly and almost completely absorbed, and about 90% of the radioactive label is recorded in the systemic circulation. The absolute bioavailability of glucosamine in humans after oral administration was 44%, taking into account the first passage.After a daily oral intake of 1500 mg of glucosamine hydrochloride by healthy volunteers under fasting conditions, the maximum plasma concentrations in a stationary state (C max , CC ) averaged 3 hours (T max ) about 1602 ± 426 ng / ml. At steady-state, the AUC was 14564 ± 4138 ng ∙ h / ml. It is not known whether food intake has a significant effect on oral bioavailability. The pharmacokinetics of glucosamine is linear in the dose range of 750-1500 mg, with deviations from linearity at a dose of 3000 mg due to lower bioavailability.There are no gender differences in absorption and bioavailability of glucosamine. The pharmacokinetics of glucosamine were similar in healthy volunteers and patients with knee osteoarthritis.
Distribution
Following oral absorption, glucosamine is distributed in various vascular compartments, including synovial fluid, with an apparent volume of distribution 37 times greater than the total volume of human fluid. Glucosamine does not bind to blood plasma proteins. Therefore, it is extremely unlikely that glucosamine is capable of drug interactions when taken together with other drugs that strongly bind to blood plasma proteins.
Metabolism
The metabolic profile of glucosamine has not been studied, since, being an endogenous substance, it is used as a “building material” for the biosynthesis of articular cartilage components. Glucosamine is mainly metabolized by conversion to hexosamine, regardless of the cytochrome system. It does not act as an inhibitor or inducer of human CYP450 isoenzymes, including CYP 3A4, 1A2, 2E1, 2C9 and 2D6.00. There is no clinically significant interaction of glucosamine with other drugs that could be realized by inhibiting and / or inducing human CYP450 isoforms.
Excretion
In humans, the half-life of glucosamine from plasma is 15 hours. After oral administration of 14C-labeled glucosamine, excretion in urine was 10 ± 9%, with feces – 11.3 ± 0.1% of the administered dose. The average excretion of unchanged glucosamine after oral administration in humans is about 1% of the administered dose, which suggests that the kidneys and liver do not play a significant role in the elimination of glucosamine, its metabolites and / or its degradation products.
Pharmacokinetics in various categories of patients
In patients with renal and hepatic insufficiency
Studies of the pharmacokinetics of glucosamine in patients with renal or hepatic insufficiency have not been conducted. These studies were considered inappropriate due to the insignificant contribution of the liver and kidneys to the metabolic process, degradation and excretion of glucosamine. Therefore, given the favorable safety profile and good tolerability of glucosamine, no dose adjustment is required in patients with renal or hepatic insufficiency.
Children and adolescents
Studies of the pharmacokinetics of glucosamine in children and adolescents have not been conducted.
Elderly patients
Pharmacokinetic studies in elderly patients have not been conducted, however, in clinical trials of the efficacy and safety of glucosamine, mainly elderly patients were included. It has been shown that in this category of patients there is no need for dose adjustment.
Chondroitin sulfate
Pharmacokinetics have not been studied.

The following frequency of adverse reactions was determined using the following note: very often (≥ 1/10), often (≥ 1/100 to
General profile of adverse events
The most common adverse reactions associated with oral glucosamine and chondroitin sulfate are nausea, abdominal pain, indigestion, flatulence, constipation, and diarrhea.These side reactions were usually mild and transient. In the following table, adverse reactions were grouped based on the MedDRA classification.

Class of systems or organs Very often
≥ 1/100
Often
≥ 1/100 to <1/10
Uncommon
≥ 1/1000 to <1/100
Rarely
≥ 1/10000
up to <1/1000
Very rare
<1/10000
Unknown *
From the immune system Allergic reactions **
On the part of metabolism and nutrition Inadequate glycemic control in diabetes
Mental disorders Insomnia
From the nervous system Headache
Drowsiness
Dizziness
On the part of the organ of vision Visual impairment
From the side of the heart Arrhythmias, including tachycardia
From the vascular system Tides
From the respiratory system, chest and mediastinum Asthma / worsening of asthma
From the gastrointestinal tract Diarrhea
Constipation
Nausea
Flatulence
Abdominal pain
Dyspepsia
Vomiting
On the part of the skin, subcutaneous tissue Erythema
Itching
Rash
Angioedema
Hives
From the liver and biliary tract Increased levels of “liver” enzymes in the blood and jaundice ***
General violations Fatigue Edema / peripheral edema
On the part of laboratory and physiological parameters Increased liver enzymes, blood glucose levels, increased blood pressure, fluctuations in INR

* Frequency cannot be estimated from available data.
** Prone patients may develop severe allergic reactions to glucosamine.
*** Cases of increased liver enzymes and the development of jaundice have been reported, but a causal relationship with glucosamine intake has not been established.
Cases of hypercholesterolemia have been reported, but a causal relationship with glucosamine intake has not been established.
Suspected adverse reactions reported
Medical professionals are encouraged to send information about any suspected adverse reactions and drug ineffectiveness to the address: Republican Unitary Enterprise “Center for Examination of Tests in Healthcare”, Tovarishchekiy Lane., 2a, 220037, Republic of Belarus, e-mail: [email protected]

GLUCOSAMINE MAXIMUM tablets 750mg + 250mg No. 60

Please wait, loading…

719.8

1241

106

847.6

Yekaterinburg, 8 March 120

8 March 120
Yekaterinburg,

(343) 385-67-62,
[email protected]

803.9

Ekaterinburg, Belinsky 198

Belinsky 198
Yekaterinburg,

(343) 210-41-10,
apt183 @ zhivika.ru

1007

Yekaterinburg, Soyuznaya 8

Union 8
Yekaterinburg,

(343) 3856708,
[email protected]

1083

Ekaterinburg, Shchorsa 96

Shchorsa 96
Yekaterinburg,

(343) 286-58-29,
[email protected]

828

Ekaterinburg, Academician Sakharov 68

Academician Sakharov 68
Yekaterinburg,

(343) 205-93-81,
apt470 @ zhivika.ru

828

Yekaterinburg, Wilhelma de Gennin 34

Wilhelm de Gennin 34
Yekaterinburg,

(343) 300-69-03,
[email protected]

843.1

Yekaterinburg, Wilhelma de Gennin 37

Wilhelm de Gennin 37
Yekaterinburg,

(343) 205-94-41,
apt078 @ zhivika.ru

784.6

Ekaterinburg, Wilhelma de Gennin 31

Wilhelm de Gennin 31
Yekaterinburg,

(343) 206-00-51,
[email protected]

828

Ekaterinburg, Mekhrentseva 32

Mekhrentseva 32
Yekaterinburg,

(343) 205-94-44,
apt442 @ zhivika.ru

818.7

Ekaterinburg, Shamanova 21

Shamanova 21
Yekaterinburg,

(343) 300-69-94,
[email protected]

791.7

Yekaterinburg, 8 March 179a

8 March 179a
Yekaterinburg,

(343) 266-53-77,
[email protected]

810.four

Yekaterinburg, Belinsky 173

Belinsky 173
Yekaterinburg,

(343) 210-34-04,
[email protected]

828.8

Yekaterinburg, Rhodonitovaya 12

Rhodonite 12
Yekaterinburg,

(343) 220-30-06,
[email protected]

828.8

Yekaterinburg, Rhodonitovaya 27

Rhodonite 27
Yekaterinburg,

(343) 218-59-89,
apt074 @ zhivika.ru

853.6

Yekaterinburg, Rhodonitovaya 5

Rhodonite 5
Yekaterinburg,

(343) 218-63-87,
[email protected]

763.3

Ekaterinburg, Savvy Belykh 3

Savvas Belykh 3
Yekaterinburg,

(343) 311-31-34,
[email protected]

803.nine

Yekaterinburg, Vikulova 38a

Vikulova 38a
Yekaterinburg,

(343) 242-24-89,
[email protected]

880.4

Yekaterinburg, Vikulova 46

Vikulova 46
Yekaterinburg,

(343) 232-44-06,
[email protected]

793.3

Ekaterinburg, Vikulova 61/3

Vikulova 61/3
Yekaterinburg,

(343) 300-29-77,
apt137 @ zhivika.ru

898.5

Yekaterinburg, Zavodskaya 17

Factory 17
Yekaterinburg,

(343) 231-50-06,
[email protected]

900.3

Yekaterinburg, Kraulya 44

Kraulya 44
Yekaterinburg,

(343) 300-27-87,
[email protected]

719.eight

Yekaterinburg, Metallurgov 87 AUCHAN

Metallurgov 87 Auchan
Yekaterinburg,

(343) 379-22-20,
[email protected]

798

Ekaterinburg, Papanina 7/1

Papanina 7/1
Yekaterinburg,

(343) 368-39-98,
[email protected]

876.9

Yekaterinburg, Military 6

Military 6
Yekaterinburg,

(343) 210-88-67,
apt018 @ zhivika.ru

1108

Yekaterinburg, Sanatornaya 3

Sanatorium 3
Yekaterinburg,

(343) 256-46-47,
[email protected]

989

Yekaterinburg, Selkorovskaya 60

Selkorovskaya 60
Yekaterinburg,

(343) 256-87-87,
[email protected]

1007

Yekaterinburg, Gagarina 6

Gagarina 6
Yekaterinburg,

(343) 216-16-16,
apt099 @ zhivika.ru

902.7

Yekaterinburg, Komsomolskaya 1

Komsomolskaya 1
Yekaterinburg,

(343) 286-18-13,
[email protected]

902.7

Yekaterinburg, Komsomolskaya 6

Komsomolskaya 6
Yekaterinburg,

(343) 375-31-85,
[email protected]

1208

Ekaterinburg, Malysheva 146

Malysheva 146
Yekaterinburg,

(343) 286-18-19,
apt217 @ zhivika.ru

820.1

Yekaterinburg, Sofia Kovalevskoy 1

Sofia Kovalevskoy 1
Yekaterinburg,

(343) 385-65-16,
[email protected]

763.3

Ekaterinburg, Bisertskaya 133

Bisertskaya 133
Yekaterinburg,

(343) 206-44-25,
apt311 @ zhivika.ru

941.1

Ekaterinburg, Sverdlova 22

Sverdlova 22
Yekaterinburg,

(343) 385-67-26,
[email protected]

818.7

Ekaterinburg, Sverdlova 66

Sverdlova 66
Yekaterinburg,

(343) 354-32-99,
[email protected]

825.five

Yekaterinburg, Chelyuskintsev 19

Chelyuskintsev 19
Yekaterinburg,

(343) 385-73-97,
[email protected]

803.9

Yekaterinburg, Sirenevy Boulevard 1

Lilac Boulevard 1
Yekaterinburg,

(343) 348-79-67,
[email protected]

803.nine

Yekaterinburg, Syromolotova 24

Syromolotova 24
Yekaterinburg,

(343) 347-55-06,
[email protected]

792.2

Yekaterinburg, Syromolotova 7

Syromolotova 7
Yekaterinburg,

(343) 222-67-13,
[email protected]

828

Yekaterinburg, Opalikhinskaya 27

Opalikhinskaya 27
Yekaterinburg,

(343) 300-18-58,
apt261 @ zhivika.ru

886.7

Yekaterinburg, Opalikhinskaya, 21

Opalikhinskaya, 21
Yekaterinburg,

(343) 300-27-67,
[email protected]

1241

Yekaterinburg, Bakhchivandzhi 16

Bakhchivandzhi 16
Yekaterinburg,

(343) 264-40-71,
[email protected]

1188

Ekaterinburg, Latvian 18

Latvian 18
Yekaterinburg,

(343) 385-67-05,
apt260 @ zhivika.ru

828

Yekaterinburg, Krasnolesya 10/3

Redwood 10/3
Yekaterinburg,

(343) 290-01-04,
[email protected]

828

Ekaterinburg, Krasnolesya 18

Redwood 18
Yekaterinburg,

(343) 385-67-56,
[email protected]

992

Ekaterinburg, Michurina 235

Michurina 235
Yekaterinburg,

(343) 254-22-35,
apt123 @ zhivika.ru

839

Yekaterinburg, Bluchera 18

Blucher 18
Yekaterinburg,

(343) 374-71-45,
[email protected]

825.8

Yekaterinburg, Bluchera 47a

Blucher 47a
Yekaterinburg,

(343) 360-40-48,
[email protected]

988.6

Yekaterinburg, July 25

July 25
Yekaterinburg,

(343) 278-25-23,
[email protected]

861.9

Yekaterinburg, Pioneers 12/3

Pioneers 12/3
Yekaterinburg,

(343) 385-72-83,
[email protected]

988.6

Yekaterinburg, Sulimova 38

Sulimova 38
Yekaterinburg,

(343) 286-20-98,
apt213 @ zhivika.ru

787.3

Yekaterinburg, Uralskaya 61

Uralskaya 61
Yekaterinburg,

(343) 369-48-08,
[email protected]

786.9

Ekaterinburg, Baikalskaya 23

Baikalskaya 23
Yekaterinburg,

(343) 262-06-16,
[email protected]

1071

Ekaterinburg, Bebel 138

Bebel 138
Yekaterinburg,

(343) 305-07-30,
apt109 @ zhivika.ru

835.3

Yekaterinburg, Bilimbaevskaya 28

Bilimbaevskaya 28
Yekaterinburg,

(343) 322-90-80,
[email protected]

849.6

Yekaterinburg, Nadezhdinskaya 8

Nadezhdinskaya 8
Yekaterinburg,

(343) 366-22-90,
[email protected]

984.6

Ekaterinburg, Pekhotintsev 10

Infantrymen 10
Yekaterinburg,

(343) 385-66-95,
[email protected]

791.7

Yekaterinburg, Technical 36

Technical 36
Yekaterinburg,

(343) 300-60-23,
[email protected]

856.7

Yekaterinburg, Technical 66

Technical 66
Yekaterinburg,

(343) 205-90-10,
apt511 @ zhivika.ru

990

Ekaterinburg, Shcherbakova 7

Shcherbakova 7
Yekaterinburg,

(343) 218-34-14,
[email protected]

803.9

Yekaterinburg, Illich 71

Ilyich 71
Yekaterinburg,

(343) 320-30-37,
[email protected]

1211

Ekaterinburg, Kosmonavtov 53

Cosmonauts 53
Yekaterinburg,

(343) 312-29-98,
apt333 @ zhivika.ru

1180

Yekaterinburg, Cosmonauts 80

Cosmonauts 80
Yekaterinburg,

(343) 321-32-10,
[email protected]

828.8

Yekaterinburg, Machine builders 12

Mechanical engineers 12
Yekaterinburg,

(343) 338-77-20,
apt064 @ zhivika.ru

790.8

Ekaterinburg, Novatorov 8v

Novatorov 8c
Yekaterinburg,

(343) 286-71-60,
[email protected]

897.7

Yekaterinburg, Victory 5

Victory 5
Yekaterinburg,

(343) 320-59-21,
[email protected]

1180

Yekaterinburg, Victory 53

Victory 53
Yekaterinburg,

(343) 330-77-80,
apt315 @ zhivika.ru

837.1

Yekaterinburg, Suvorovsky lane 3

Suvorovsky lane 3
Yekaterinburg,

(343) 385-67-43,
[email protected]

818.7

Yekaterinburg, Ural workers 28

Ural workers 28
Yekaterinburg,

(343) 214-38-01,
apt014 @ zhivika.ru

1185

Yekaterinburg, Borodina 24

Borodin 24
Yekaterinburg,

(343) 258-58-60,
[email protected]

1155

Yekaterinburg, Griboyedova 20

Griboedova 20
Yekaterinburg,

(343) 258-65-85,
[email protected]

1155

Yekaterinburg, Griboedova 28

Griboedova 28
Yekaterinburg,

(343) 286-58-22,
apt358 @ zhivika.ru

1188

Yekaterinburg, Engineering 31

Engineering 31
Yekaterinburg,

(343) 258-58-07,
[email protected]

820.1

Ekaterinburg, Belinsky 84

Belinsky 84
Yekaterinburg,

(343) 257-01-20,
[email protected]

797.6

Ekaterinburg, Bolshakova 155

Bolshakova 155
Yekaterinburg,

(343) 286-57-04,
[email protected]

903.8

Yekaterinburg, Weiner 60

Weiner 60
Yekaterinburg,

(343) 286-20-99,
[email protected]

852.1

Yekaterinburg, Vostochnaya 76

Eastern 76
Yekaterinburg,

(343) 262-31-58,
apt027 @ zhivika.ru

803.9

Yekaterinburg, Vostochnaya 158

Eastern 158
Yekaterinburg,

(343) 385-71-57,
[email protected]

997

Ekaterinburg, Kuibysheva 21

Kuibysheva 21
Yekaterinburg,

(343) 385-82-33,
[email protected]

836.one

Yekaterinburg, Lenina 58

Lenin 58
Yekaterinburg,

(343) 385-65-34,
[email protected]

792.8

Yekaterinburg, Lenina 69/3

Lenin 69/3
Yekaterinburg,

(343) 358-93-98,
[email protected]

803.9

Yekaterinburg, Lunacharskogo 210 B

Lunacharsky 210 B
Yekaterinburg,

(343) 385-65-39,
apt295 @ zhivika.ru

909.5

Yekaterinburg, Lunacharsky 133

Lunacharsky 133
Yekaterinburg,

(343) 385-67-27,
[email protected]

803.9

Yekaterinburg, Lunacharsky 189

Lunacharsky 189
Yekaterinburg,

(343) 385-83-80,
[email protected]

828.eight

Yekaterinburg, Lunacharsky 48

Lunacharsky 48
Yekaterinburg,

(343) 286-18-06,
[email protected]

798

Yekaterinburg, Lunacharsky 78

Lunacharsky 78
Yekaterinburg,

(343) 370-75-97,
[email protected]

909.5

Yekaterinburg, Malysheva 5

Malysheva 5
Yekaterinburg,

(343) 286-58-40,
apt428 @ zhivika.ru

1085

Yekaterinburg, Airplane 43

Aircraft 43
Yekaterinburg,

(343) 286-58-47,
[email protected]

875.1

Yekaterinburg, Baumana 1

Bauman 1
Yekaterinburg,

(343) 385-65-02,
[email protected]

909.one

Yekaterinburg, Krasnoflottsev 1a

Krasnoflottsev 1a
Yekaterinburg,

(343) 300-69-92,
[email protected]

958.6

Ekaterinburg, Krasnoflottsev 24

Krasnoflottsev 24
Yekaterinburg,

(343) 286-18-92,
[email protected]

1026

Yekaterinburg, Red commanders 27

Red commanders 27
Yekaterinburg,

(343) 331-03-22,
apt150 @ zhivika.ru

803.9

Yekaterinburg, Star. Bolsheviks 91

Old. Bolsheviks 91
Yekaterinburg,

(343) 306-69-60,
[email protected]

969.6

Ekaterinburg, Taganskaya 8

Taganskaya 8
Yekaterinburg,

(343) 336-21-31,
[email protected]

828

Yekaterinburg, Chernomorsky 2

Black Sea 2
Yekaterinburg,

(343) 331-81-31,
apt011 @ zhivika.ru

803.9

Yekaterinburg, Bardina 19

Bardin 19
Yekaterinburg,

(343) 232-02-62,
[email protected]

803.9

Yekaterinburg, Bardina 25/2

Bardeen 25/2
Yekaterinburg,

(343) 385-72-68,
[email protected]

848.one

Yekaterinburg, Bardina 48

Bardeen 48
Yekaterinburg,

(343) 267-23-02,
[email protected]

803.9

Yekaterinburg, Belorechenskaya 17/1

Belorechenskaya 17/1
Yekaterinburg,

(343) 234-18-02,
[email protected]

803.9

Yekaterinburg, Belorechenskaya 28a

Belorechenskaya 28a
Yekaterinburg,

(343) 305-02-04,
apt068 @ zhivika.ru

825.3

Ekaterinburg, Belorechenskaya 7

Belorechenskaya 7
Yekaterinburg,

(343) 234-74-20,
[email protected]

1167

Yekaterinburg, Volgogradskaya 45

Volgogradskaya 45
Yekaterinburg,

(343) 232-02-61,
[email protected]

843.nine

Yekaterinburg, Denisova-Uralsky 16

Denisov-Uralsky 16
Yekaterinburg,

(343) 300-12-14,
[email protected]

786.4

Yekaterinburg, Posadskaya 31

Posadskaya 31
Yekaterinburg,

(343) 385-77-47,
[email protected]

787.four

Yekaterinburg, Posadskaya, 45

Posadskaya, 45
Yekaterinburg,

(343) 286-18-05,
[email protected]

1159

Ekaterinburg, Chkalova 139

Chkalova 139
Yekaterinburg,

(343) 385-67-32,
[email protected]

1007

Pharmacy delivery

Delivery
Yekaterinburg,

(343) 216-16-16,
hotline @ zhivika.ru

Instructions for use

GLUCOSAMINE MAXIMUM tablets 750mg + 250mg No. 60 buy in Zhivika online pharmacy in Yekaterinburg

Indications

Structure

Mode of application

Glucosamine Maximum can be used at the first signs of impaired activity of the musculoskeletal system, as well as those who are at risk for the prevention of diseases.Glucosamine Maximum is a reliable basis for constructive prevention of diseases of the musculoskeletal system and an essential component of the daily diet of people suffering from diseases of the joints and spine.

Glucosamine sulfate, chondroitin sulfate.

Adults take 1 tablet daily with meals, which provides an adequate level of glucosamine sulfate consumption by 100% (750 mg), chondroitin sulfate – by 60% (250 mg).Duration of admission is 2 months.
It is recommended to consult a doctor before use.

This product can also be bought in Zhivik pharmacies in cities

Mound

,
Shadrinsk

,
Novosibirsk

,
Kungur

,
Permian

,
Alapaevsk

,
Artemovskiy

,
Asbestos

,
Berezovsky

,
Bogdanovich

,
IN.Salda

,
Verkh-Neyvinsk

,
Verkhniy Tagil

,
Upper Pyshma

,
Degtyarsk

,
Yekaterinburg

,
Zarechny

,
Irbit

,
Kamensk-Uralsky

,
Kamyshlov

,
Karpinsk

,
Kachkanar

,
Kirovgrad

,
Krasnoturinsk

,
Krasnoufimsk

,
Kushva

,
Forest

,
N.Lyalya

,
Nevyansk

,
Lower Sergi

,
Nizhny Tagil

,
Lower Tura

,
Novouralsk

,
Pervouralsk

,
Polevskoy

,
Revda

,
Dir

,
Reftinsky

,
Serov

,
Sredneuralsk

,
Sukhoi Log

,
Sysert

,
Tavda

,
Talitsa

,
Troitsky

,
Tyumen

,
Verkhniy Ufaley

,
Dolgoderevenskoe

,
Emanzhelinsk

,
Zlatoust

,
Kasli

,
Kopeysk

,
Korkino

,
Kyshtym

,
Magnitogorsk

,
Miass

,
Ozersk

,
Stratum

,
Satka

,
Snezhinsk

,
Trekhgorny

,
Troitsk

,
Chebarkul

,
Chelyabinsk

,
Yuzhnouralsk

Glucosamine sulfate for joints and ligament strengthening: biochemistry, production, functions

Glucosamine is also the name of a dietary supplement based on amino sugars from crab and lobster shells.

With age, after diseases and injuries, less glucosamine is synthesized in the body, that is, the amount of shock-absorbing and shock-absorbing material is steadily decreasing. With a lack of glucosamine, the quality of the synovial fluid, which washes and lubricates the joint tissues, decreases. Additional glucosamine is necessary for people whose activities are accompanied by high physical activity – athletes, bodybuilders.

Functions of glucosamine

The main tasks of glucosamine are the supply of nutrients with synovial (joint) fluid, as well as the metabolism of cartilage and bone tissues.

Glucosamine:

  • Provides active nutrients to joints.
  • Makes joints more mobile.
  • Provides prevention of joint and ligament diseases during intense training and competition.
  • Reduces inflammation.
  • Accelerates the restoration of cartilage, joints, ligaments.
  • Corrects the condition in chronic diseases of the articular-ligamentous apparatus.

By providing tissues with nutrients, amino sugar makes them stronger, more resistant to damage, and increases resistance to inflammation.

Where is glucosamine found?

Glucosamine is produced by the human body. Like collagen, it makes tissues strong and resistant to stretching.

In nature, the monosaccharide is found in the exoskeletons of crustaceans (crabs, lobsters, shrimps, etc.), bone tissue and bone marrow of animals. Certain types of mushrooms also contain glucosamine.

In production, grain is sometimes used – corn, wheat.

Suitable for Whom?

For medical purposes, glucosamine preparations are used in the complex treatment of osteoarthritis.

Aminosaccharide supplements are recommended for athletes of all levels and for active lifestyles. They are especially useful during drying and restrictive diets, when the volume of food is reduced and, as a result, the intake of nutrients decreases.

For those who regularly engage in sports or exercise-related activities, drugs can help prevent damage caused by years of repetitive movement. Glucosamine promotes the production of proteoglycans (building proteins), and therefore restores joint tissues and improves their functionality.

Powerlifters lead a group of people who need such support, because they constantly risk damaging the deep layers of connective tissue.Especially in the lumbar region, shoulder and knee joints.

How does glucosamine work?

The introduction of supplements stimulates the renewal of cartilage, has a positive effect on tissue elasticity, which is invaluable for athletes and people with joint problems. This can happen against the background of age-related changes, when, due to a lack of glucosamine, stiffness, stiffness, pain when moving and at rest appear.

For bodybuilders, supplements will strengthen tendons, repair damaged ligaments, and replenish the deficiency of endogenous cartilage glucosaminoglucans.With regular use:

  • Stimulates the production of collagen and proteoglycans;
  • has a positive effect on the permeability of the joint capsules;
  • normalizes enzymatic processes in the cartilage matrix;
  • slows down the development of degenerative processes in the spine and joints.

Another beneficial property of the monosaccharide is the ability to prevent metabolic damage caused by nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs and glucocorticoids.Finally, glucosamine is able to neutralize free radicals, which has a mild anti-inflammatory effect.

Forms of issue

Pharmacy preparations:

  • Ointment
  • Tablets, capsules
  • Solutions for injection.
  • Sachet powder.

Sports Supplements:

  • Powder for dilution in water.
  • Capsules.
  • Pills

There are two types of glucosamine on the market – glucosamine sulfate and glucosamine hydrochloride. The latter is less common, its properties and action are identical to sulfate. This is because sulfate is converted to hydrochloride in the stomach. If we consider pharmaceuticals, the leaders are “Don” with glucosamine sulfate and “Artron Flex” based on hydrochloride.

Regardless of what salt is included in the formula, glucosamine preparations slow down degenerative-dystrophic changes in the joints, can be prescribed for the prevention and treatment of osteopathy, osteochondropathy, periodontopathy, arthrosis, fractures and pain.

In addition to medicines, dietary supplements and sports supplements are popular, most often produced by American companies. The difference between a medicine and a dietary supplement is in the applied quality standards and the level of control. Medicines are more expensive, dietary supplements are many times more affordable.

How does glucosamine affect the body?

The use of glucosamine manifests itself over time, as the substance heats up and, accordingly, works only gradually. On the other hand, its deficit is eliminated for a long time.This is confirmed by trials in which both pure glucosamine and a combination with chondroitin were used. Tests have confirmed that by understanding what glucosamine is and how it works, it is possible to improve the structure of cartilage, eliminate inflammation, and eliminate the pain symptom.

Benefit

Externally supplied glucosamine has many-sided effects. Its capabilities are wide:

  • The structure of ligaments, joints, cartilage improves.

  • Calcium is better absorbed.

  • The composition of the biological lubricant is restored due to a change in the synovial fluid and an improvement in the work of hyaluronate (hyaluronic acid).

  • The action of aggressive enzymes that lead to the destruction of cartilage is suppressed.

  • Pains, inflammations disappear.

The use of products with glucosamine slows down negative changes and helps to restore ease of movement.

Harm

Possible side effects:

  • From the gastrointestinal tract – the appearance of nausea, stomach pain, bloating, constipation or diarrhea.

  • Subjective moments – weakness, dizziness, drowsiness, migraine.

  • Skin manifestations – rash, itching.

Occasionally, a slight decrease in body weight is possible (if taking glucosamine for health purposes is longer than recommended).

Application

The indications include:

  • Pain, stiffness, stiffness in the shoulder, knee, elbow joints.

  • Sports injuries.

  • Osteoarthritis.

Glucosamine reduces unpleasant symptoms by helping to return to previous performance.

As a medicine, amino sugar is indicated in the presence of diseases of the musculoskeletal system, decreased mobility in the joints and spines, pain symptom. There are more indications for taking dietary supplements:

  • Prevention and slowing down of cartilage and joint destruction.
  • The rehabilitation period after sprains, fractures.
  • Compensation of a substance deficiency in old age, with hard physical labor, against the background of intensive training.

Prophylactic use of glucosamine will hedge the athlete, improve the function of bone and cartilage tissue. Aminosaccharide is primarily recommended if the athlete is doing weighted squats, deadlifts, bench and shoulder presses, pull-ups, etc.

By itself, glucosamine is unable to restore the previous state of already affected tissues.Therefore, doctors prescribe it only within the framework of a therapeutic complex in order to increase the effectiveness of treatment without resorting to non-steroidal drugs. Solo use of glucosamine is advisable to prolong remission.

Contraindications

There are both relative and unconditional contraindications to the use of drugs based on glucosamine (any of its salts). In the first case, violation of contraindications will not cause critical damage to health, in the second, the harm-benefit ratio will be much more harmful.Let’s take a separate look at the factors that are accompanied by unproven harm.

Proven Contraindication:

  1. Allergic reaction to glucosamine.
  2. Allergic reactions to other ingredients in the preparation with glucosamine.
  3. All forms of phenylketonuria.
  4. Exacerbation of liver and kidney diseases.
  5. Blood clotting disorder.

The risk of using glucosamine in such situations is not well understood:

  • Diabetes mellitus.
  • Pregnancy.
  • Lactation.
  • Children and adolescents (up to 15 years old).

Conditional contraindications:

  • Bronchial asthma.
  • Heart disease.
  • Epilepsy.
  • Low blood pressure.

Before taking it, you need to find out what glucosamine is, undergo an examination and consult a doctor.This will make sure of the presence (absence) of obvious and hidden contraindications for the use of the drug.

Daily allowance, regimen

The recommended rate of glucosamine sulfate is 700 mg per day (for adults). You can find other recommendations, most of which boil down to the advice to take 500 mg of glucosamine 3 r. / Day with food.

Glucosamine (powder) is used by dissolving the drug in water. Each portion of the diluted powder is drunk with meals.Standard dosage – 1 sachet (sachet, measuring spoon) per serving. The dose can be adjusted according to the individual recommendations of the doctor.

The bioavailability of the substance is low – no more than ¼ of the accepted one will reach the targeted tissues in an unchanged form. That is, only 25% of the dose will reach the goal. This explains the need for long-term intake – so the valuable component will have time to accumulate, assimilate by the body and start working, i.e. have a therapeutic effect.

For a pronounced effect, glucosamine should be drunk in courses lasting from 3-4 to 7-8 weeks, depending on the indications and goals.As you can see, the treatment takes at least a month. Otherwise, there will be no tangible effect. The best option: drink powdered glucosamine for 2-3 months, then take a break for 2 months and repeat the course.

Tableted and encapsulated glucosamine are taken in the same way. However, the duration of the course of administration, if you use tablets, will be longer – from 3 months to six months. This is due to the fact that the concentration of the active substance is usually lower in the tablets than in the powder. After the course of taking the pills, the same break is taken – 2 months.

Combination of glucosamine with other drugs

Glucose Sulfate has been proven to be more effective when used in combination with Chondroitin Sulfate. Such a duo works in a complex manner, activates regenerative processes in cartilage, counteracts enzymes that can destroy cartilage tissue.

Equally effective is the alliance of glucosamine with hyaluronic acid or methylsulfonylmethane (MSM).

When using several agents at the same time, you need to take into account how glucosamine interacts with them, what is the cumulative effect on the body.It is known that glucosamine enhances the absorption of antibiotics containing tetracycline, but reduces the absorption of penicillin, chloramphenicol. But the effect of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs will be higher if combined with glucosamine.

How to choose

There are mainly complex sports supplements on the market, in which glucosamine can be present together with MSM, hyaluronic acid, chondroitin, herbal extracts and other ingredients.

A striking example of such a complex is the Maxler Joint Pak multicomponent additive in powder for preparing a drink. The formula includes 4 special blends designed to support joints, cartilage and bones, and reduce pain and inflammation associated with high-intensity workouts.