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Grade 1 hypertension: High blood pressure symptoms and treatment

High blood pressure symptoms and treatment

Blood pressure is the force of blood pushing against your artery walls.
High blood pressure (HBP), also known as hypertension, means the pressure
in your arteries is higher than it should be. Hypertension can develop
over many years without showing any signs or symptoms; however, throughout
this time, damage is being done to your overall health. Thus giving this
condition the nickname “silent killer.” Hypertension can be
identified as primary (without a known cause) or secondary (having an
underlying condition as its cause).

Hypertension increases the workload of your heart and blood vessels. Over
time, this workload leads to the damage of your artery walls. In turn,
LDL (bad) cholesterol forms plaque along these damaged walls. Plaque build-up
is a condition known as
atherosclerosis. As plaque accumulates, the narrower the insides of the arteries become,
leading to not only higher blood pressure, but signifies the beginning
of a cycle that will further damage your heart and the rest of your body.

Causes of High Blood Pressure

Although the exact cause is unknown, certain conditions, traits or habits
may raise your risk for the condition. These are known as risk factors
and include:

Non-modifiable risk factors: These factors are irreversible and cannot be changed. The more of these
risk factors you have, the greater your chance of developing HBP.

  • Starting at age 18, ask your doctor for a blood pressure reading at least
    every two years. If you’re age 40 or older, or you’re 18 to 39 with a
    high risk of high blood pressure, ask your doctor for a blood pressure
    reading every year.
  • Family history/Genetics
  • African Americans and non-white Hispanic Americans are at higher risk for
    developing high blood pressure than any other group in the U. S.

Modifiable risk factors: These factors can be modified, treated or controlled through medications
or lifestyle changes.

  • Excessive alcohol consumption over many years.
  • Little to no physical activity
  • Excessive amounts of salt in diet that excess the recommended amounts of
    1,500 to 2,300 mg of sodium per day.
  • Long history of smoking and/or drug abuse
  • Extreme emotional stress

Other conditions that contribute to developing high blood pressure

  • Aldosteronism: a condition in which there is excessive secretion of aldosterone
    which disturbs the balance of sodium, potassium, and water in the blood
    leading to high blood pressure.
  • End-stage renal disease: a condition in which your kidneys have stopped
    working well and your body retains fluid.
  • Thyroid disease: a condition that is caused by the over or under function
    of the thyroid gland. The thyroid gland is an essential organ for producing
    thyroid hormones, which maintains the body’s metabolism.
  • Obstructive sleep apnea: a condition in which your breathing abruptly stops
    and starts while sleeping.
  • Certain medications such as cough, cold, inflammation and migraine/headache

Symptoms of High Blood Pressure

Most people with high blood pressure have no signs or symptoms. However,
once blood pressure reaches a certain level, symptoms begin to show:

  • Blurry or double vision
  • Lightheadedness/Fainting
  • Fatigue
  • Headache
  • Heart palpitations
  • Nosebleeds
  • Shortness of breath
  • Nausea and/or vomiting

*Anybody who experiences these symptoms should see their doctor immediately.

Diagnosis of High Blood Pressure

The best way to diagnose HBP is to have it measured. A blood pressure reading,
given in millimeters of mercury (mm Hg), has two numbers.

  • Systolic blood pressure (the top number) indicates how much pressure your blood is exerting against
    your artery walls during heartbeats.
  • Diastolic blood pressure (the bottom number) indicates how much pressure your blood is exerting
    against your artery walls while the heart is resting between beats.

Blood pressure measurements fall into four general categories. The American
Heart Association’s guidelines are as follow:

  • Normal blood pressure: A reading of less than 120 (systolic)
    and 80 (diastolic)
  • Elevated blood pressure: A reading ranging from 120 to 129 (systolic)
    and below 80 (diastolic)
  • Stage 1 hypertension: A reading ranging from 130 to 139 (systolic)
    or 80 to 89 (diastolic)
  • Stage 2 hypertension: A reading ranging from 140 or higher (systolic)
    or 90 (diastolic)
  • Hypertensive crisis (consult your doctor immediately): A reading higher than 180 (systolic)
    and/or 120 (diastolic)

*If you have an electronic blood pressure machine and would like to measure
your blood pressure at home, please follow The American Heart Association’s

  • Don’t smoke, drink caffeinated beverages or exercise within 30 minutes
    before measuring your blood pressure.
  • Empty your bladder and ensure at least 5 minutes of quiet rest before measurements.
  • Sit with your back straight and supported (on a dining chair, rather than
    a sofa). Your feet should be flat on the floor and your legs should not
    be crossed. Your arm should be supported on a flat surface (such as a
    table) with the upper arm at heart level. Make sure the bottom of the
    cuff is placed directly above the bend of the elbow. Check your monitor’s
    instructions for an illustration or have your healthcare provider show
    you how to do it.
  • It’s important to take the readings at the same time each day, such
    as morning and evening .
  • Take multiple readings and record the results. Each time you measure, take
    two or three readings one minute apart and record the results.
  • Don’t take the measurement over clothes.

Treatment of High Blood Pressure

Treatment for HBP depends on its severity and associated risks of developing
other diseases. Treatment options include:

Lifestyle changes

  • Avoid
  • Eat a
    heart-healthy diet, especially one that is low in salt.
  • Exercise under the directions of your doctor.
  • If you’re overweight, talk to your doctor about weight-loss options.
  • Limiting
    alcohol consumption to 1 drink per day for women and 2 drinks per day for men.
  • Manage
  • Make and keep appointments to see your doctor for routine check-ups and follow-up tests.


  • ACE inhibitors will help blood vessels relax and open up, leading to a
    lower blood pressure.
  • Angiotensin II receptor blockers will help blood vessels open up, leading
    to a lower blood pressure.
  • Beta blockers will help reduce your blood pressure.
  • Alpha blockers will help reduce the arteries’ resistance, relaxing
    the muscle tone of the vascular walls.
  • Alpha-2 receptor agonists will help reduce blood pressure by decreasing
    the activity of the sympathetic portion of the involuntary nervous system.
  • Calcium channel blockers will help relax and open up narrowed blood vessels,
    reduce heart rate and lower blood pressure.
  • Combined alpha and beta blockers are used as an IV drip for those patients
    experiencing a hypertensive crisis.
  • Central agonists will help decrease the blood vessels’ ability to
    tense up or contract.
  • Diuretics “water pills” will help reduce the amount of fluid
    retention in your body.
  • Peripheral adrenergic inhibitors will help reduce blood pressure by blocking
    neurotransmitters in the brain.
  • Vasodilators will help the muscle in the walls of the blood vessels to
    relax, allowing the vessel to dilate.

High blood pressure (hypertension) – Diagnosis & treatment


Hypertension FAQs

Leslie Thomas, M.D., a nephrologist at Mayo Clinic, answers the important questions you may have about hypertension (high blood pressure).

Hi. I’m Dr. Leslie Thomas, a nephrologist at Mayo Clinic. And I’m here to answer some of the important questions you might have about hypertension.

What is the best way to measure my blood pressure at home?

Measuring your blood pressure at home is a straightforward process. Many people have a slightly higher blood pressure in one arm versus the other. So it’s important to measure the blood pressures in the arm with the higher readings. It’s best to avoid caffeine, exercise and, if you smoke, smoking for at least 30 minutes. To prepare for the measurement, you should be relaxed with your feet on the floor and legs uncrossed, and your back supported for at least five minutes. Your arms should be supported on a flat surface. After resting for five minutes, at least two readings are taken one minute apart in the morning prior to medications and in the evening before the evening meal. Your blood pressure monitor should be checked for proper calibration every year.

What could be causing my blood pressure to be quite erratic?

This pattern of abrupt changes in blood pressure from normal to quite high is sometimes referred to as labile blood pressure. For those who develop labile blood pressure, heart problems, hormonal problems, neurological problems, or even psychological conditions might be present. Finding and treating the underlying cause of labile blood pressure can significantly improve the condition.

Should I restrict salt to reduce my blood pressure?

It’s important to note that some people with high blood pressure already consume a diet significantly restricted in sodium. And those people further restriction of dietary sodium would not necessarily be helpful or even recommended. In many people, dietary sodium intake is though relatively high. Therefore, an effective target to consider for those people is less than 1500 milligrams per day. Many though, will benefit from a target of less than a 1000 milligrams per day. Following dietary sodium restriction, it may take some time, even weeks, for the blood pressure to improve and stabilize at a lower range. So it is critically important to both be consistent with decreased sodium intake and patient when assessing for improvement.

How can I lower my blood pressure without medication?

This is a very common question. A lot of people want to avoid medication if they can, when trying to reduce their blood pressure. A few ways have been shown scientifically to reduce blood pressure. The first, and perhaps most important, is to stay physically active. Losing weight also can be important in a lot of different people. Limiting alcohol, reducing sodium intake, and increasing dietary potassium intake can all help.

What is the best medication to take for hypertension?

There’s not one best medication for the treatment of hypertension for everyone. Because an individual’s historical and present medical conditions must be considered. Additionally, every person has a unique physiology. Assessing how certain physiological forces may be present to contribute to the hypertension in an individual allows for a rational approach to medication choice. Antihypertensive medications are grouped by class. Each class of medication differs from the other classes by the way it lowers blood pressure. For instance, diuretics, no matter the type, act to reduce the body’s total content of salt and water. This leads to reduction in plasma volume within the blood vessels and consequently a lower blood pressure. Calcium channel blockers reduce the relative constriction of blood vessels. This reduced vasoconstriction also promotes a lower blood pressure. Other classes of antihypertensive medication act in their own ways. Considering your health conditions, physiology, and how each medication works, your doctor can advise the safest and most effective medication for you.

Are certain blood pressure medications harmful to my kidneys?

Following the correction of blood pressure or the institution of certain blood pressure medications, it’s pretty common to see changes in the markers for kidney function on blood tests. However, small changes in these markers, which reflects small changes in kidney filtration performance shouldn’t necessarily be interpreted as absolute evidence of kidney harm. Your doctor can interpret changes in laboratory tests following any change in medication.

How can I be the best partner to my medical team?

Keep an open dialogue with your medical team about your goals and personal preferences. Communication, trust and collaboration are key to long-term success managing your blood pressure. Never hesitate to ask your medical team any questions or concerns you have. Being informed makes all the difference. Thanks for your time and we wish you well.

To diagnose high blood pressure, your health care provider examines you and asks questions about your medical history and any symptoms. Your provider listens to your heart using a device called a stethoscope.

Your blood pressure is checked using a cuff, usually placed around your arm. It’s important that the cuff fits. If it’s too big or too small, blood pressure readings can vary. The cuff is inflated using a small hand pump or a machine.

Blood pressure measurement

A blood pressure reading measures the pressure in the arteries when the heart beats (top number, called systolic pressure) and between heartbeats (bottom number, called diastolic pressure). To measure blood pressure, an inflatable cuff is usually placed around the arm. A machine or small hand pump is used to inflate the cuff. In this image, a machine records the blood pressure reading. This is called an automated blood pressure measurement.

The first time your blood pressure is checked, it should be measured in both arms to see if there’s a difference. After that, the arm with the higher reading should be used.

Blood pressure is measured in millimeters of mercury (mm Hg). A blood pressure reading has two numbers.

  • Top number, called systolic pressure. The first, or upper, number measures the pressure in the arteries when the heart beats.
  • Bottom number, called diastolic pressure. The second, or lower, number measures the pressure in the arteries between heartbeats.

High blood pressure (hypertension) is diagnosed if the blood pressure reading is equal to or greater than 130/80 millimeters of mercury (mm Hg). A diagnosis of high blood pressure is usually based on the average of two or more readings taken on separate occasions.

Blood pressure is grouped according to how high it is. This is called staging. Staging helps guide treatment.

  • Stage 1 hypertension. The top number is between 130 and 139 mm Hg or the bottom number is between 80 and 89 mm Hg.
  • Stage 2 hypertension. The top number is 140 mm Hg or higher or the bottom number is 90 mm Hg or higher.

Sometimes the bottom blood pressure reading is normal (less than 80 mm Hg) but the top number is high. This is called isolated systolic hypertension. It’s a common type of high blood pressure in people older than 65.


If you are diagnosed with high blood pressure, your provider may recommend tests to check for a cause.

  • Ambulatory monitoring. A longer blood pressure monitoring test may be done to check blood pressure at regular times over six or 24 hours. This is called ambulatory blood pressure monitoring. However, the devices used for the test aren’t available in all medical centers. Check with your insurer to see if ambulatory blood pressure monitoring is a covered service.
  • Lab tests. Blood and urine tests are done to check for conditions that can cause or worsen high blood pressure. For example, tests are done to check your cholesterol and blood sugar levels. You may also have lab tests to check your kidney, liver and thyroid function.
  • Electrocardiogram (ECG or EKG). This quick and painless test measures the heart’s electrical activity. It can tell how fast or how slow the heart is beating. During an electrocardiogram (ECG), sensors called electrodes are attached to the chest and sometimes to the arms or legs. Wires connect the sensors to a machine, which prints or displays results.
  • Echocardiogram. This noninvasive exam uses sound waves to create detailed images of the beating heart. It shows how blood moves through the heart and heart valves.

Taking your blood pressure at home

Your health care provider may ask you to regularly check your blood pressure at home. Home monitoring is a good way to keep track of your blood pressure. It helps your care providers know if your medicine is working or if your condition is getting worse.

Home blood pressure monitors are available at local stores and pharmacies.

For the most reliable blood pressure measurement, the American Heart Association recommends using a monitor with a cuff that goes around your upper arm, when available.

Devices that measure your blood pressure at your wrist or finger aren’t recommended by the American Heart Association because they can provide less reliable results.

More Information


Changing your lifestyle can help control and manage high blood pressure. Your health care provider may recommend that you make lifestyle changes including:

  • Eating a heart-healthy diet with less salt
  • Getting regular physical activity
  • Maintaining a healthy weight or losing weight
  • Limiting alcohol
  • Not smoking
  • Getting 7 to 9 hours of sleep daily

Sometimes lifestyle changes aren’t enough to treat high blood pressure. If they don’t help, your provider may recommend medicine to lower your blood pressure.


The type of medicine used to treat hypertension depends on your overall health and how high your blood pressure is. Two or more blood pressure drugs often work better than one. It can take some time to find the medicine or combination of medicines that works best for you.

When taking blood pressure medicine, it’s important to know your goal blood pressure level. You should aim for a blood pressure treatment goal of less than 130/80 mm Hg if:

  • You’re a healthy adult age 65 or older
  • You’re a healthy adult younger than age 65 with a 10% or higher risk of developing cardiovascular disease in the next 10 years
  • You have chronic kidney disease, diabetes or coronary artery disease

The ideal blood pressure goal can vary with age and health conditions, particularly if you’re older than age 65.

Medicines used to treat high blood pressure include:

  • Water pills (diuretics). These drugs help remove sodium and water from the body. They are often the first medicines used to treat high blood pressure.

    There are different classes of diuretics, including thiazide, loop and potassium sparing. Which one your provider recommends depends on your blood pressure measurements and other health conditions, such as kidney disease or heart failure. Diuretics commonly used to treat blood pressure include chlorthalidone, hydrochlorothiazide (Microzide) and others.

    A common side effect of diuretics is increased urination. Urinating a lot can reduce potassium levels. A good balance of potassium is necessary to help the heart beat correctly. If you have low potassium (hypokalemia), your provider may recommend a potassium-sparing diuretic that contains triamterene.

  • Angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors. These drugs help relax blood vessels. They block the formation of a natural chemical that narrows blood vessels. Examples include lisinopril (Prinivil, Zestril), benazepril (Lotensin), captopril and others.
  • Angiotensin II receptor blockers (ARBs). These drugs also relax blood vessels. They block the action, not the formation, of a natural chemical that narrows blood vessels. angiotensin II receptor blockers (ARBs) include candesartan (Atacand), losartan (Cozaar) and others.
  • Calcium channel blockers. These drugs help relax the muscles of the blood vessels. Some slow your heart rate. They include amlodipine (Norvasc), diltiazem (Cardizem, Tiazac, others) and others. Calcium channel blockers may work better for older people and Black people than do angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors alone.

    Don’t eat or drink grapefruit products when taking calcium channel blockers. Grapefruit increases blood levels of certain calcium channel blockers, which can be dangerous. Talk to your provider or pharmacist if you’re concerned about interactions.

Other medicines sometimes used to treat high blood pressure

If you’re having trouble reaching your blood pressure goal with combinations of the above medicines, your provider may prescribe:

  • Alpha blockers. These medicines reduce nerve signals to blood vessels. They help lower the effects of natural chemicals that narrow blood vessels. Alpha blockers include doxazosin (Cardura), prazosin (Minipress) and others.
  • Alpha-beta blockers. Alpha-beta blockers block nerve signals to blood vessels and slow the heartbeat. They reduce the amount of blood that must be pumped through the vessels. Alpha-beta blockers include carvedilol (Coreg) and labetalol (Trandate).
  • Beta blockers. These medicines reduce the workload on the heart and widen the blood vessels. This helps the heart beat slower and with less force. Beta blockers include atenolol (Tenormin), metoprolol (Lopressor, Toprol-XL, Kapspargo sprinkle) and others.

    Beta blockers aren’t usually recommended as the only medicine prescribed. They may work best when combined with other blood pressure drugs.

  • Aldosterone antagonists. These drugs may be used to treat resistant hypertension. They block the effect of a natural chemical that can lead to salt and fluid buildup in the body. Examples are spironolactone (Aldactone) and eplerenone (Inspra).
  • Renin inhibitors. Aliskiren (Tekturna) slows the production of renin, an enzyme produced by the kidneys that starts a chain of chemical steps that increases blood pressure.

    Due to a risk of serious complications, including stroke, you shouldn’t take aliskiren with ACE inhibitors or ARBs.

  • Vasodilators. These medicines stop the muscles in the artery walls from tightening. This prevents the arteries from narrowing. Examples include hydralazine and minoxidil.
  • Central-acting agents. These medicines prevent the brain from telling the nervous system to increase the heart rate and narrow the blood vessels. Examples include clonidine (Catapres, Kapvay), guanfacine (Intuniv) and methyldopa.

Always take blood pressure medicines as prescribed. Never skip a dose or abruptly stop taking blood pressure medicines. Suddenly stopping certain ones, such as beta blockers, can cause a sharp increase in blood pressure called rebound hypertension.

If you skip doses because of cost, side effects or forgetfulness, talk to your care provider about solutions. Don’t change your treatment without your provider’s guidance.

Treating resistant hypertension

You may have resistant hypertension if:

  • You take at least three different blood pressure drugs, including a diuretic. But your blood pressure remains stubbornly high.
  • You’re taking four different medicines to control high blood pressure. Your care provider should check for a possible second cause of the high blood pressure.

Having resistant hypertension doesn’t mean your blood pressure will never get lower. If you and your provider can determine the cause, a more effective treatment plan can be created.

Treating resistant hypertension may involve many steps, including:

  • Changing blood pressure medicines to find the best combination and dosage.
  • Reviewing all your medicines, including those bought without a prescription.
  • Checking blood pressure at home to see if medical appointments cause high blood pressure. This is called white coat hypertension.
  • Eating healthy, managing weight and making other recommended lifestyle changes.

High blood pressure during pregnancy

If you have high blood pressure and are pregnant, discuss with your care providers how to control blood pressure during your pregnancy.

Potential future treatments

Researchers have been studying the use of heat to destroy specific nerves in the kidney that may play a role in resistant hypertension. The method is called renal denervation. Early studies showed some benefit. But more-robust studies found that it doesn’t significantly lower blood pressure in people with resistant hypertension. More research is underway to determine what role, if any, this therapy may have in treating hypertension.

More Information

Clinical trials

Explore Mayo Clinic studies testing new treatments, interventions and tests as a means to prevent, detect, treat or manage this condition.

Self care

A commitment to a healthy lifestyle can help prevent and manage high blood pressure. Try these heart-healthy strategies:

  • Eat healthy foods. Eat a healthy diet. Try the Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension (DASH) diet. Choose fruits, vegetables, whole grains, poultry, fish and low-fat dairy foods. Get plenty of potassium from natural sources, which can help lower blood pressure. Eat less saturated fat and trans fat.
  • Use less salt. Processed meats, canned foods, commercial soups, frozen dinners and certain breads can be hidden sources of salt. Check food labels for the sodium content. Limit foods and beverages that are high in sodium. A sodium intake of 1,500 mg a day or less is considered ideal for most adults. But ask your provider what’s best for you.
  • Limit alcohol. Even if you’re healthy, alcohol can raise your blood pressure. If you choose to drink alcohol, do so in moderation. For healthy adults, that means up to one drink a day for women, and up to two drinks a day for men. One drink equals 12 ounces of beer, 5 ounces of wine or 1.5 ounces of 80-proof liquor.
  • Don’t smoke. Tobacco injures blood vessel walls and speeds up the process of hardening of the arteries. If you smoke, ask your care provider for strategies to help you quit.
  • Maintain a healthy weight. If you’re overweight or have obesity, losing weight can help control blood pressure and lower the risk of complications. Ask your health care provider what weight is best for you. In general, blood pressure drops by about 1 mm Hg with every 2.2 pounds (1 kilogram) of weight lost. In people with high blood pressure, the drop in blood pressure may be even more significant per kilogram of weight lost.
  • Get more exercise. Regular exercise keeps the body healthy. It can lower blood pressure, ease stress, manage weight and reduce the risk of chronic health conditions. Aim to get at least 150 minutes a week of moderate aerobic activity or 75 minutes a week of vigorous aerobic activity, or a combination of the two.

    If you have high blood pressure, consistent moderate- to high-intensity workouts can lower your top blood pressure reading by about 11 mm Hg and the bottom number by about 5 mm Hg.

  • Practice good sleep habits. Poor sleep may increase the risk of heart disease and other chronic conditions. Adults should aim to get 7 to 9 hours of sleep daily. Kids often need more. Go to bed and wake at the same time every day, including on weekends. If you have trouble sleeping, talk to your provider about strategies that might help.
  • Manage stress. Find ways to help reduce emotional stress. Getting more exercise, practicing mindfulness and connecting with others in support groups are some ways to reduce stress.
  • Try slow, deep breathing. Practice taking deep, slow breaths to help relax. Some research shows that slow, paced breathing (5 to 7 deep breaths per minute) combined with mindfulness techniques can reduce blood pressure. There are devices available to promote slow, deep breathing. According to the American Heart Association, device-guided breathing may be a reasonable nondrug option for lowering blood pressure. It may be an good option if you have anxiety with high blood pressure or can’t tolerate standard treatments.

More Information

Alternative medicine

Diet and exercise are the best ways to lower blood pressure. But some supplements are promoted as heart healthy. These supplements include:

  • Fiber, such as blond psyllium and wheat bran
  • Minerals, such as magnesium, calcium and potassium
  • Folic acid
  • Supplements or products that increase nitric oxide or widen blood vessels — called vasodilators — such as cocoa, coenzyme Q10, L-arginine and garlic
  • Omega-3 fatty acids, found in fatty fish, high-dose fish oil supplements and flaxseed

Researchers are also studying whether vitamin D can reduce blood pressure, but evidence is conflicting. More research is needed.

Talk to your care provider before adding any supplements to your blood pressure treatment. Some can interact with medicines, causing harmful side effects that could be life-threatening.

Deep breathing or mindfulness are alterative medicine techniques that can help you relax. These practices may temporarily reduce blood pressure.

More Information

Coping and support

High blood pressure isn’t something that you can treat and then ignore. It’s a condition that requires regular health checkups. Some things you can do to help manage the condition are:

  • Take medicines as directed. If side effects or costs pose problems, ask your provider about other options. Don’t stop taking your medicines without first talking to a care provider.
  • Schedule regular health checkups. It takes a team effort to treat high blood pressure successfully. Work with your provider to bring your blood pressure to a safe level and keep it there. Know your goal blood pressure level.
  • Choose healthy habits. Eat healthy foods, lose excess weight and get regular physical activity. Limit alcohol. If you smoke, quit.
  • Manage stress. Say no to extra tasks, release negative thoughts, and remain patient and optimistic.
  • Ask for help. Sticking to lifestyle changes can be difficult, especially if you don’t see or feel any symptoms of high blood pressure. It may help to ask your friends and family to help you meet your goals.
  • Join a support group. You may find that talking about any concerns with others in similar situations can help.

Preparing for your appointment

If you think you may have high blood pressure, make an appointment with your health care provider for a blood pressure test. You might want to wear a short-sleeved shirt to your appointment so it’s easier to place the blood pressure cuff around your arm.

No special preparations are necessary for a blood pressure test. To get an accurate reading, avoid caffeine, exercise and tobacco for at least 30 minutes before the test.

Because some medicines can raise blood pressure, bring a list of all medicines, vitamins and other supplements you take and their doses to your medical appointment. Don’t stop taking any medicines without your provider’s advice.

Appointments can be brief. Because there’s often a lot to discuss, it’s a good idea to be prepared for your appointment. Here’s some information to help you get ready.

What you can do

  • Write down any symptoms that you’re having. High blood pressure rarely has symptoms, but it’s a risk factor for heart disease. Let your care provider know if you have symptoms such as chest pains or shortness of breath. Doing so can help your provider decide how aggressively to treat your high blood pressure.
  • Write down important medical information, including a family history of high blood pressure, high cholesterol, heart disease, stroke, kidney disease or diabetes, and any major stresses or recent life changes.
  • Make a list of all medicines, vitamins or supplements that you’re taking. Include dosages.
  • Take a family member or friend along, if possible. Sometimes it can be difficult to remember all the information provided to you during an appointment. Someone who accompanies you may remember something that you missed or forgot.
  • Be prepared to discuss your diet and exercise habits. If you don’t already follow a diet or exercise routine, be ready to talk to your care provider about any challenges you might face in getting started.
  • Write down questions to ask your provider.

Preparing a list of questions can help you and your provider make the most of your time together. List your questions from most important to least important in case time runs out. For high blood pressure, some basic questions to ask your provider include:

  • What kinds of tests will I need?
  • What is my blood pressure goal?
  • Do I need any medicines?
  • Is there a generic alternative to the medicine you’re prescribing for me?
  • What foods should I eat or avoid?
  • What’s an appropriate level of physical activity?
  • How often do I need to schedule appointments to check my blood pressure?
  • Should I monitor my blood pressure at home?
  • I have other health conditions. How can I best manage them together?
  • Are there brochures or other printed material that I can have? What websites do you recommend?

Don’t hesitate to ask any other questions that you might have.

What to expect from your doctor

Your health care provider is likely to ask you questions. Being ready to answer them may reserve time to go over any points you want to spend more time on. Your provider may ask:

  • Do you have a family history of high cholesterol, high blood pressure or heart disease?
  • What are your diet and exercise habits like?
  • Do you drink alcohol? How many drinks do you have in a week?
  • Do you smoke?
  • When did you last have your blood pressure checked? What was the result?

What you can do in the meantime

It’s never too early to make healthy lifestyle changes, such as quitting smoking, eating healthy foods and getting more exercise. These are the main ways to protect yourself against high blood pressure and its complications, including heart attack and stroke.

Hypertension: degrees, symptoms, treatment in Krasnoyarsk

A sedentary lifestyle, constant strong stress, bad habits can lead to the appearance of heart pathologies. Hypertension is one of the most frequent diseases of modern man. This pathology is characterized by high blood pressure at rest and for a long time.

Why is hypertension dangerous?

The heart moves blood through the blood vessels, providing all the cells of the body with oxygen and nutrients. When the blood vessels become clogged or lose their elasticity, the heart begins to work harder and increases the pressure inside the vessels.

Against the background of the disease with untimely treatment, serious pathologies such as acute heart failure, hypertensive crisis, stroke, myocardial infarction can occur.

The complexity of hypertension is that it often proceeds almost asymptomatically for years and the person does not know about the existence of the disease. Symptoms are often observed – headache, fatigue, memory loss, dizziness, high blood pressure, to which a person simply does not pay attention. This may indicate the beginning of the development of the disease.

Symptoms of hypertension

  • ongoing migraines;
  • numbness of limbs;
  • redness of the face;
  • excessive sweating;
  • “midges” before the eyes;
  • chills;
  • palpitations.

Causes of hypertension

  • Overweight. Obese people are several times more likely to suffer from heart disease. Also, excess weight is the cause of increased levels of calcium and sodium in the blood, disruption of the normal functioning of the kidneys and diseases of the internal organs. This, in turn, is an additional factor for the development of hypertension.
  • Arterial sclerosis. Due to the presence of atherosclerotic plaques on the walls of blood vessels, normal blood circulation stops. The heart has to work harder to increase the pressure in the vessels.
  • Stressful situations. During stress, blood pressure rises due to the release of the hormone adrenaline into the blood. By acting on the heart, adrenaline makes it beat faster, throwing more blood into the vessels.
  • Bad habits. Smoking, drinking alcohol, fatty and heavy foods increase pressure in blood vessels, form spasms of blood vessels and lead to their damage.
  • Age. Over the years, a person’s heart wears out. The risk of developing hypertension increases with age if you do not pay due attention to your health. It is necessary to undergo preventive examinations and give up bad habits, if any. High blood pressure often develops in people over 35 years of age.
  • Genetic predisposition. If first-line relatives (father, mother, siblings, sisters, grandparents) suffer from hypertension, the risk of developing the disease increases.
  • Sedentary lifestyle. With a low level of stress, metabolism slows down, the nervous system and other body systems are weakened, and immunity is lowered. The risk of developing hypertension increases by 50%.

Hypertension vs Hypertension: What’s the Difference?

Hypertension is a chronic disease characterized by a persistent increase in blood pressure and general muscle tone.

Hypertension is a state of the human body with increased pressure. Unlike hypertension, which is an independent disease, hypertension is a symptom of a pathological condition.

Types of cardiac hypertension

There are many classifications of the disease, which are based on the appearance of the patient, the level of pressure, the reasons for the increase in blood pressure, the nature of the course of the disease. However, doctors everywhere use a classification according to the degree of the course of the disease.

Hypertension 1 degree – also called the preclinical stage. This is the mildest form of hypertension, in which blood pressure reaches 140/90 mm. mercury column. There are mild headaches, decreased performance, general fatigue. During the patient’s stay in a calm state, the pressure normalizes.

Hypertension 2 degree – moderate stage, in which the pressure increases to 180/110 mm. rt. Art. there is the formation of atherosclerotic plaques, hypertrophy of the left ventricle of the heart, an increased concentration of creatinine.

Hypertension grade 3 – pressure rises to 220/115 mm. rt. Art. in this case, the risk of complications is high. With this degree of development of the pathology, the blood supply to the internal organs is impaired. Grade 3 disease can manifest itself as kidney failure, hemorrhage from the eyes, blindness.

How to diagnose a disease?

When the first symptoms of hypertension appear, consult a cardiologist. He will inspect and send for tests:

  • general blood and urine analysis;
  • blood test for hemoglobin;
  • urinalysis for protein and glucose;
  • electrocardiography;
  • echocardiography;
  • chest x-ray;
  • biochemical blood test to detect the level of cholesterol, urea, glucose and calcium;
  • phosphates and uric acid;
  • computed tomography;
  • ultrasound.

According to the results of the tests, the attending physician will determine whether there is hypertension, the stability of the increase in pressure, the degree of development of pathological changes in the internal organs, the cause of the increased pressure.

Treatment of hypertension

The method of therapeutic therapy depends on the degree of development of the disease. At the first preclinical stage, it is possible to maintain a normal level of blood pressure without the use of medications. The patient needs to balance the diet, give up bad habits, lead an active lifestyle and normalize sleep and work patterns.

When treating grade 2 hypertension, the doctor prescribes a medication for long-term use and with a minimum number of contraindications, combined with moderate activity and the rejection of bad habits. The drug is prescribed by a cardiologist after examining the patient. The drugs must be taken continuously, as this can cause a stroke or heart attack.

Therapy of the 3rd degree of hypertension is carried out with the help of 1-2 drugs from different drug groups in conjunction with an active lifestyle and stabilization of nutrition and sleep patterns.

  • Diuretics with a diuretic effect are prescribed for salt and water retention in the body;
  • to normalize blood circulation – ACE inhibitors;
  • calcium antagonists – to reduce the oxygen demand of the heart muscle;
  • beta-blockers for atrial fibrillation or other comorbidities.

Therefore, when determining therapeutic therapy, the doctor must know the entire medical history of the patient, take into account contraindications, lifestyle and physical characteristics (body weight, height).

Hypertension is treated in Krasnoyarsk at the Mediunion Medical Center. We have experienced cardiologists who will conduct a complete examination and examination, friendly medical staff and high-quality equipment. To sign up for a consultation with a specialist or find out more information, leave a request on the website or call the clinic 201-03-03.

degrees and stages of hypertension

The main classification used by Russian cardiologists in diagnosing hypertension is subdivision into grades according to levels of elevated blood pressure. What are these criteria and whether they can be corrected, we tell in our article.

What are the degrees of arterial hypertension

Each degree of arterial hypertension corresponds to a certain range of stable high blood pressure. This approach is the most objective, since the disease is often asymptomatic. To determine and control it, strictly measurable indicators are needed.

The Ministry of Health of the Russian Federation uses a simple, clear and understandable classification. In the table, SBP should be understood as systolic blood pressure, DBP – diastolic blood pressure. The abbreviation AH stands for “arterial hypertension”.

Isolated systolic hypertension is common in patients over 60 years of age. Requires the same careful monitoring as “usual” arterial hypertension, including pressure self-monitoring. ISAH also has three degrees, which are determined in accordance with the indicators of systolic blood pressure – 1, 2 and 3rd.

If the doctor during the reception fixes the pressure, which is defined in the table as high normal, the patient is recommended further self-monitoring. So you can identify hidden hypertension. With her, the pressure “in ordinary life” is higher than after measurement in a hospital or clinic.

How the diagnosis is made

Classification according to the level of stable high blood pressure is used to diagnose hypertension and prescribe therapy. To confirm the disease, you need at least two blood pressure measurements during two different visits to the doctor.

If the disease is diagnosed for the first time, its degree should always be indicated in the medical records. When the indicators of the tonometer are in different groups (degrees) according to the classification, the condition is diagnosed as belonging to a higher one. For example, if systolic blood pressure is 140 mm Hg. Art., and diastolic – 105, the second degree of hypertension is recorded.

In persons older than 50 years, the level of systolic blood pressure allows predicting cardiovascular complications more accurately than the level of diastolic blood pressure; in patients younger than 50 years, the opposite is true

At 1st degree, treatment begins with lifestyle correction. If such tactics do not give the desired result within the established time period, drug therapy is prescribed. At the 2nd and at the 3rd degree, the intake of antihypertensive drugs is mandatory, even if there are no visible cardiovascular risk factors.

Also, drug therapy can be prescribed by a doctor for any degree of diagnosed hypertension, if there are strong indications for this in the form of risk factors, concomitant diseases and target organ damage.

When diagnosing hypertension, in addition to the degree, stage is also determined – I, II or III. These concepts are confused in some cases, but it is incorrect to correlate them. The degrees reflect the level of pressure, and the stages reflect the severity of the disease, while the severity of damage to specific organs plays an extremely important role. When choosing therapy, both classifications are important.

What should be the pressure after treatment

Hypertension any degree is the main risk factor in the development of severe diseases of the heart and blood vessels (heart failure, heart attack, microcirculation disorders, atherosclerosis), with the likelihood of ischemic stroke and kidney damage.

To prevent severe and irreversible conditions, blood pressure for any degree of arterial hypertension during treatment should be reduced to target values ​​- below 140/90 mmHg Art., and with good susceptibility and tolerability of drug therapy – up to the target level of 130/80 mm Hg. or lower, due to a proven reduction in the risk of cardiovascular complications.

Patients aged 65 years and older who are taking antihypertensive drugs and do not have senile asthenia, it is necessary to reduce systolic blood pressure to a target value of 130-139 mm Hg. Art. This recommendation is valid regardless of the presence of age-related factors that determine cardiovascular risk, diagnosed heart and vascular diseases in hypertensive patients. It is important that when the indicated pressure level is reached, the patient feels well. The indicators of diastolic blood pressure, which must be achieved with antihypertensive therapy in hypertensive patients with diabetes mellitus, are not higher than 80 mm Hg.