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Tinea manuum | DermNet NZ

What is tinea manuum?

Tinea manuum is a dermatophyte infection of one or both hands. It is much less common than tinea pedis (tinea affecting the foot).

Tinea manuum

Who gets tinea manuum?

Tinea manuum results from:

  • Contact with another site of infection, particularly the feet (tinea pedis) or groin (tinea cruris)
  • Contact with another person with tinea
  • Direct contact with an infected animal or soil
  • Contact with a contaminated object such as a towel or gardening tool.

It is more likely in those doing manual work, who sweat profusely (hyperhidrosis,) or who already have hand dermatitis.

What causes tinea manuum? 

Zoophilic and geophilic dermatophytes:

  • Trichophyton erinacei — from a hedgehog
  • T. verrucosum — from cattle
  • Microsporum canis — from a cat or dog
  • Nannizzia gypsea — from the soil.

Anthropophilic dermatophytes:

  • T. rubrum
  • T. interdigitale
  • Epidermophyton floccosum.

What are the clinical features of tinea manuum?

Tinea manuum can occur as an acute inflammatory rash like tinea corporis. There is usually a raised border and clearing in the middle (ringworm). This is most likely when a zoophilic or geophilic fungus is responsible.

More frequently, tinea manuum causes a slowly extending area of peeling, dryness and mild itching on the palm of one hand (hyperkeratotic tinea). Skin markings may be increased. Generally, both feet appear similar (“one hand, two-foot syndrome”). The usual cause is an anthropophilic (human) fungus:

These fungi may also cause a blistering rash on the edges of the fingers or palm. The blisters appear in crops and contain a sticky clear fluid. They may have a peeling edge. This form of tinea manuum itches and burns.

Tinea manuum can be clinically distinguished from hand dermatitis.

  • In most cases of tinea manuum, only a single hand is involved.
  • If both hands are affected, involvement is asymmetrical.
  • Increased skin markings can be seen in dermatitis, but in chronic tinea manuum, they are white because of surface scale.
  • Involvement of both palm and back of the hand in contiguity.
  • The rash may have an elevated border.
  • Nearby nails may also be infected (tinea unguium). However, other skin conditions can also affect nails.

What are the complications of tinea manuum?

  • Spread of the fungal infection to other skin sites
  • Spread of the fungal infection to others

How is tinea manuum diagnosed?

Tinea manuum is a clinical diagnosis confirmed by microscopy and culture of skin scrapings (see Laboratory tests for fungal infection).

What is the differential diagnosis of tinea manuum?

What is the treatment of tinea manuum?

Mild tinea manuum is treated with topical antifungal agents, but if the treatment is unsuccessful, oral antifungal medicines may be considered, including terbinafine and itraconazole.

Ringworm (Tinea Corporis) Condition, Treatments, and Pictures for Teens – Overview


Information for

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Images of Tinea Corporis (Ringworm of Body)


Tinea infections are fungal infections of the skin; they are often called ringworm, though there is no worm involved, because the infection can look like a ring-shaped rash on the skin. Ringworm infections are spread by contact with infected people, animals, or objects (eg, towels and locker room floors).

The most common kind of ringworm is called tinea corporis (ringworm of the body). It can be found on any area of skin on the body but usually appears on exposed regions, such as the face, hands, and arms. Athletes who have skin-to-skin contact with others are frequently affected by ringworm. There are special names for ringworm infections on other parts of the body. For example, if the rash affects the feet it is called athlete’s foot (tinea pedis) and if it affects the groin it is called jock itch (tinea cruris). Write-ups for these specific areas are discussed separately.

Who’s at risk?

Ringworm can occur in anyone, though people more likely to develop ringworm include children, people with other tinea infections, athletes involved in contact sports, people with immune deficiencies, and people in contact with animals such as cats, dogs, horses, and cattle.

Signs and Symptoms

The most common locations for ringworm include the following:

  • Neck
  • Arms
  • Legs
  • Trunk (chest, abdomen, back)

Ringworm appears as red ring-shaped patches with a raised scaly border ranging from 1 to 10 cm. The central area may be clear of any redness. The border of the affected skin may contain blisters, bumps, or scabs.

Ringworm may cause itching or burning, especially in people with weak immune systems.

Self-Care Guidelines

If you suspect that you have ringworm, you might try one of the following over-the-counter antifungal creams or lotions:

  • Terbinafine
  • Clotrimazole
  • Miconazole

Apply the cream to each lesion and to the normal-appearing skin 2 cm beyond the border of the affected skin for at least 2 weeks until the areas are completely clear of lesions. Because ringworm is very contagious, avoid contact sports until lesions have been treated for a minimum of 48 hours. Do not share towels, hats, or clothing with others until the lesions are healed.

Since people often have ringworm infections on more than one body part, examine yourself for other infections, such as on the face (tinea faciei), in the beard area (tinea barbae), in the groin area (tinea cruris, jock itch), or on the feet (tinea pedis, athlete’s foot).

Make sure that any household pets are evaluated by a veterinarian to be certain that they do not have a dermatophyte infection. If the veterinarian discovers an infection, the animal should be treated.

When to Seek Medical Care

If large areas of the body are affected or if the lesions do not improve after 1–2 weeks of applying over-the-counter antifungal creams, see your doctor for an evaluation.

Treatments Your Physician May Prescribe

In order to confirm the diagnosis of ringworm, your physician might scrape some surface skin material (scales) onto a slide and examine it under a microscope. This procedure, called a KOH (potassium hydroxide) preparation, allows the doctor to look for tell-tale signs of fungal infection.

Once the diagnosis of ringworm has been confirmed, your physician will probably start treatment with an antifungal medication. Most ringworm infections can be treated with topical creams and lotions, including:

  • Terbinafine
  • Clotrimazole
  • Miconazole
  • Econazole
  • Oxiconazole
  • Ciclopirox
  • Ketoconazole
  • Sulconazole
  • Naftifine
  • Butenafine

Rarely, more extensive infections or those not improving with topical antifungal medications may require 3–4 weeks of treatment with oral antifungal pills, including:

  • Terbinafine
  • Itraconazole
  • Griseofulvin
  • Fluconazole
  • Ketoconazole

The infection should go away within 4–6 weeks after using effective treatment.

Trusted Links

Clinical Information and Differential Diagnosis of Tinea Corporis (Ringworm of Body)


Bolognia, Jean L., ed. Dermatology, pp.1174-1185. New York: Mosby, 2003.

Freedberg, Irwin M., ed. Fitzpatrick’s Dermatology in General Medicine. 6th ed. pp.1997-1998, 2239-2243. New York: McGraw-Hill, 2003.

Ringworm of the Skin | HealthLink BC

Topic Overview

Is this topic for you?

This topic is about ringworm of the skin, groin, or hands. For information about other fungal infections, see the topics:

What is ringworm of the skin?

Ringworm of the skin is an infection caused by a fungus.

Jock itch is a form of ringworm that causes an itchy rash on the skin of your groin area. It is much more common in men than in women. Jock itch may be caused by the spread of athlete’s foot fungus to the groin.

What causes ringworm?

Ringworm is not caused by a worm. It is caused by a fungus. The kinds of fungi (plural of fungus) that cause ringworm live and spread on the top layer of the skin and on the hair. They grow best in warm, moist areas, such as locker rooms and swimming pools, and in skin folds.

Ringworm is contagious. It spreads when you have skin-to-skin contact with a person or animal that has it. It can also spread when you share things like towels, clothing, or sports gear.

You can also get ringworm by touching an infected dog or cat, although this form of ringworm is not common.

What are the symptoms?

Ringworm of the skin usually causes a very itchy rash. It often makes a pattern in the shape of a ring, but not always. Sometimes it is just a red, itchy rash.

Jock itch is a rash in the skin folds of the groin. It may also spread to the inner thighs or buttocks.

Ringworm of the hand looks like athlete’s foot. The skin on the palm of the hand gets thick, dry, and scaly. And skin between the fingers may be moist and have open sores.

How is ringworm of the skin diagnosed?

If you have a ring-shaped rash, you very likely have ringworm. Your doctor will be able to tell for sure. He or she will probably look at a scraping from the rash under a microscope to check for the ringworm fungus.

How is it treated?

Most ringworm of the skin can be treated at home with creams you can buy without a prescription. Your rash may clear up soon after you start treatment, but it’s important to keep using the cream for as long as the label or your doctor says. This will help keep the infection from coming back. If the cream doesn’t work, your doctor can prescribe pills that will kill the fungus.

If ringworm is not treated, your skin could blister, and the cracks could become infected with bacteria. If this happens, you will need antibiotics.

If your child is being treated for ringworm, you don’t have to keep him or her out of school or daycare.

Can you prevent ringworm?

To prevent ringworm:

  • Don’t share clothing, sports gear, towels, or sheets. If you think you have been exposed to ringworm, wash your clothes in hot water with special anti-fungus soap.
  • Wear slippers or sandals in locker rooms and public bathing areas.
  • Shower and shampoo well after any sport that includes skin-to-skin contact.
  • Wear loose-fitting cotton clothing. Change your socks and underwear at least once a day.
  • Keep your skin clean and dry. Always dry yourself completely after showers or baths, drying your feet last.
  • If you have athlete’s foot, put your socks on before your underwear so that fungi do not spread from your feet to your groin.
  • Take your pet to the vet if it has patches of missing hair, which could be a sign of a fungal infection.

If you or someone in your family has symptoms, it is important to treat ringworm right away to keep other family members from getting it.


Ringworm infection is caused by a fungus. Fungi (plural of fungus) that cause ringworm live and spread on the outer layer of skin. Ringworm is not caused by a worm or other parasite.

Fungi are present everywhere in our environment, including on the human body. They thrive in warm, moist areas, such as locker rooms and swimming pools, and in skin folds. You can get ringworm of the skin by sharing contaminated towels, clothing, and sports equipment, and by direct contact with an infected person.

Ringworm of the skin (tinea corporis) is most commonly caused by the fungus Trichophyton rubrum, which spreads from one person to another. It can also be caused by Microsporum canis, which is spread by cats and dogs. This type is less common but causes a more severe infection.

People often get ringworm of the groin (“jock itch”) by accidentally spreading athlete’s foot fungus to their own groin area. People who have athlete’s foot also commonly spread it to their hands (tinea manuum).

Some people are more likely to get fungal infections than others. The tendency to get fungal skin infections or to have them return after treatment seems to run in families.


Most ringworm infections cause a rash that may be peeling, cracking, scaling, itching, and red. Sometimes the rash forms blisters, especially on the feet.

Symptoms of ringworm of the body include a rash:

  • On the chest, stomach, arms, legs, or back.
  • With edges that are red and scaly or moist and crusted. The rash also may have small bumps that look like blisters. The centre of the rash may be clear, giving it a ring-shaped appearance, or there may be a cluster of red bumps.
  • That may form large, round patches.

Symptoms of ringworm of the face include a rash:

  • On the face, the ears, or both.
  • With a border that may not be very distinct.
  • That may get worse after being in the sun.

Symptoms of ringworm of the groin (jock itch) include a rash:

  • On the groin, skin folds, inner thighs, or buttocks. The rash usually does not occur on the scrotum or penis.
  • With edges that are very distinct and may be scaly or have bumps that look like blisters.
  • That may have a red-brown centre.

Jock itch and athlete’s foot frequently occur at the same time.

Symptoms of ringworm on the hand include a rash:

  • On the palm that may be mistaken for eczema.
  • On the palm that is thickened, dry, and scaly, similar to athlete’s foot, while skin between the fingers may be moist and have open sores.
  • On the back of the hand that is red and scaly, with edges that have bumps that look like blisters.

Fingernails can also be infected. For more information, see the topic Fungal Nail Infections.

Ringworm of the skin may be confused with other conditions with similar symptoms, such as eczema or psoriasis.

What Happens

Ringworm of the skin can start as a small patch of itchy, red, or scaling skin. The rash can spread and cover a large area.

Clothing that rubs the skin can irritate the rash. Sweat, heat, or moisture in the air (humidity) can make the itching and infection worse.

As the infection becomes worse, the ring-shaped pattern and red-brown colour may become more visible. If not treated, the skin can become irritated and painful. Skin blisters and cracks can become infected with bacteria and require antibiotics.

Ringworm can also spread to other parts of the body, including the feet, nails, scalp, or beard.

After treatment, the rash will go away. But ringworm can return unless you follow steps to prevent it. The tendency to get fungal skin infections or to have them return after treatment seems to run in families.

What Increases Your Risk

Your risk of getting ringworm is higher if:

  • You come in contact with a person who has a fungal infection or with a carrier, a person who has the fungi but does not have symptoms.
  • You are susceptible to fungal infections or you have had a previous fungal infection.
  • You have an impaired immune system due to a disease such as diabetes or cancer.
  • You live in a warm, damp climate.
  • You wear tight-fitting clothes or you let your skin stay damp for long periods, such as by staying in a wet bathing suit or sweaty workout clothes.
  • You are a wrestler.

When should you call your doctor?

If you suspect you have ringworm of the skin, call your doctor if:

  • You have patches of skin that are itchy, red, or scaly with bumps that look like blisters, and they have not improved after 2 weeks of treatment with a non-prescription antifungal product.
  • Signs of bacterial infection develop. Signs may include:
    • Increased pain, swelling, redness, tenderness, or heat.
    • Red streaks extending from the area.
    • Discharge of pus.
    • Fever of 38°C (100.4°F) or higher with no other cause.
  • The rash appears to be spreading even after treatment.

Watchful waiting

Watchful waiting is a wait-and-see approach. If you get better on your own, you won’t need treatment. If you get worse, you and your doctor will decide what to do next.

You can treat ringworm at home with medicines you can buy without a prescription. If symptoms do not improve after 2 weeks of treatment with this medicine, call your doctor.

Any persistent, severe, or recurring infection should be checked by your doctor.

Who to see

Your family doctor or general practitioner can diagnose and treat ringworm of the skin. You may be referred to a specialist, such as a dermatologist.

Examinations and Tests

Doctors often can easily recognize ringworm by its ring-shaped rash. Your doctor will probably also look at a skin sample (KOH preparation) under a microscope to confirm that fungus is present.

Tests for ringworm of the skin include:

  • A KOH (potassium hydroxide) preparation. This test can help your doctor find out whether a fungus is causing your rash. The doctor will take a sample of your skin by lightly scraping the infected area. The sample is placed on a slide with potassium hydroxide (KOH) solution and gently heated. If fungus cells are present, the doctor can then see them with a microscope.
  • A Wood’s light examination. This test may be used to see if the rash is caused by a fungus. Your doctor will shine a special light on your skin where you have the rash. Certain kinds of fungi glow under this light.
  • A fungal culture (skin culture). This test can identify the type of fungus that is causing your infection. Usually a culture is only done if the diagnosis is difficult or the skin condition is not responding to treatment. This test may take up to 4 weeks, because it takes time for the fungus to grow.

Treatment Overview

Most cases of ringworm of the skin, including jock itch and ringworm of the hand, can be treated with creams or ointments that you put on your skin to kill fungi. These are called topical antifungals. You can get many topical antifungals without a prescription. Brand names include Canesten, Micatin, Monistat, and Tinactin.

You may need to take antifungal pills (oral treatment) if the ringworm does not go away after you have tried different topical antifungals or if the infection is widespread. Oral treatments include azoles such as fluconazole (Diflucan) and allylamines such as terbinafine (Lamisil).

Your rash may start to clear up soon after you begin treatment, but it is important to use the medicine exactly as the label or your doctor says. This will help keep the infection from coming back. You will probably need to continue treatment for 2 to 4 weeks.

If not treated, ringworm can spread and the skin can become irritated and painful. Skin blisters and cracks can become infected with bacteria. If this happens, you may need to take antibiotics.

What to think about

You should treat a fungal infection right away. Severe and widespread infections can be hard to treat.


To prevent ringworm of the skin:

  • Keep your skin clean and dry. Change your socks and underwear at least once a day.
  • Wear loose-fitting cotton clothing. Avoid tight underwear, pants, and panty hose.
  • Always dry yourself completely after showers or baths. After drying your skin with a towel, allow your skin to air-dry before putting your clothes on. You can also use a hair dryer, set on a cool setting, to dry your skin.
  • Do not share clothing, sports equipment, towels, or sheets. If you think you have been exposed to ringworm, wash your clothes in hot water with fungus-killing (fungicidal) soap.
  • Wear slippers or sandals in locker rooms, showers, and public bathing areas.
  • Shower and shampoo thoroughly after any sport that requires skin-to-skin contact.
  • If you have athlete’s foot, put your socks on before your underwear so that fungi do not spread from your feet to your groin. Also, when towelling off after a shower or bath, dry your feet last.
  • Take your pet to a veterinarian if it has patches of missing hair, which may be a sign of a fungal infection. Household pets can spread fungi that cause ringworm in people.

Home Treatment

In most cases, you can treat ringworm of the skin with antifungal creams or ointments. Many are available without a prescription. Use a non-prescription antifungal cream with miconazole or clotrimazole in it. Brand names include Canesten, Micatin, and Monistat.

  • Wash the rash with soap and water, and dry thoroughly. For large areas of blistered sores, use compresses such as those made with Burow’s solution (available without a prescription) to soothe and dry out the blisters.
  • Apply antifungal cream beyond the edge or border of the rash.
  • Follow the directions on the package. Don’t stop using the medicine just because your symptoms go away. You will probably need to continue treatment for 2 to 4 weeks.
  • If symptoms do not improve after 2 weeks, call your doctor.

If your rash does not clear after you have tried different topical antifungals, or if the infection is widespread, you may need prescription antifungal pills.

If you have both athlete’s foot and ringworm of your groin or legs, you should treat both infections. This will prevent you from re-infecting your legs or groin with the athlete’s foot fungus, when you put on your underwear.


Most ringworm infections of the skin can be treated at home with non-prescription antifungal creams. The rash will usually improve within 2 weeks.

If the rash does not improve after you have used an antifungal cream and it is severe and widespread or returns frequently, you may need antifungal pills that your doctor prescribes. When you are treating ringworm, it is important to finish the full course of medicine prescribed, even if the symptoms have gone away, so that the infection does not return.

Medicine choices

The most common antifungals used to treat ringworm of the skin are:

  • Allylamines, such as terbinafine (Lamisil). Allylamines come as creams, pills, and spray forms.
  • Azoles. Oral prescription forms include fluconazole (Diflucan) and itraconazole (Sporanox). Some of these medicines are available without a prescription. Brand names include Canesten and Micatin.
  • Other antifungals such as tolnaftate (Tinactin). Tinactin is available without a prescription and comes in lotion, cream, gel, and spray forms.

Clotrimazole/betamethasone (Lotriderm), a combination antifungal and corticosteroid, is sometimes used to treat ringworm that is burning, itchy, and inflamed. This prescription medicine should be used with caution and for no longer than 2 weeks, because complications can occur with long-term use of corticosteroids.

What to think about

People who are taking antifungal pills should have a doctor monitor their blood counts and liver and kidney function during treatment to watch for any harmful side effects.


Current as of:
July 2, 2020

Author: Healthwise Staff
Medical Review:
Kathleen Romito MD – Family Medicine
Brian D. O’Brien MD – Internal Medicine
Adam Husney MD – Family Medicine
Martin J. Gabica MD – Family Medicine
John Pope MD – Pediatrics

▷ Hand Fungus – Pictures, Symptoms, Treatment and Causes – (2021

What is hand fungus (tinea manuum)?

This medical condition is a contagious skin rash. It can develop between your fingers or on the palms of your hands, usually developing on just one hand. Because the rash is similar to eczema or psoriasis some people confuse hand fungus with both of these. The fungi that can cause hand fungus are genus dermatophytes.

Hand Fungus Symptoms

The symptoms of hand fungus are similar to athlete’s foot in which the rash may appear red and scabby. It may also burn or itch. There are different types of hand fungus, or tinea manuum, that a person can have, each with their own symptoms.

  • Ringworm – the outer ridges of the circular rash associated with this type of hand fungus is usually raised with skin that looks normal in the middle of the circle. Over time they will become bigger unless treated.
  • Touching infected objects or person-to-person contact – blisters will normally form on the palms of your hands and commonly itch and burn. These blisters may appear in clusters. They will ooze fluid or peel and can bleed if your skin becomes cracked or dry.
  • Pityriasis nigra – with this type you will see spots of brown or black in color on your hands but they do not become scaly in texture nor do they move up.

Hand Fungus Causes

Although the general cause of a person developing hand fungus is from fungi found in the soil but the carriers of this medical condition will vary according to the type of hand fungus you have. Generally speaking it is transmitted by contact with a person who is infected with tinea manuum or spread by animals.

  • Ringworm – this type of hand fungus is spread by animals, especially cats. It is commonly found in children who have frequent contact with animals or play in the dirt. Gardeners can also contract this type of hand fungus. It is also known as tinea corporis. This is the most common type of hand fungus that a person gets.
  • You can also get hand fungus by touching objects that are infected with the fungi or from person-to-person contact with someone which is known as tinea manuum or tinea fungal virus.
  • Pityriasis nigra – this is a rare form of hand fungus and is also known as tinea nigra.

A person can get hand fungus from horses, cattle, and other animals if the animals are infected with hand fungus. This can put ranchers and hunters at risk for getting a hand fungus.

Hand Fungus Treatment

Hand fungus, or tinea manuum, can be treated in a variety of ways but it is advisable to take precautions to prevent it from developing. One way to help prevent you from developing hand fungus is after hunting or working around farm animals you remove any sweaty clothing. The reason is that the type of fungi that causes hand fungus thrives in moist areas. If you have an open sore you need to make sure that you keep it covered because your skin is more susceptible to fungal spores at this time. These fungal spores find it easier to enter your skin through a wound or cut.

You should also make sure that you are drying your skin thoroughly after taking a shower or bath. In a humid climate you can use talc powder to keep your skin dry. You should also make sure that you are not sharing towels, gardening tools, clothing, or any other objects that are infected with the fungi. Any surfaces that are shared with a person who has a hand fungus should be kept clean and disinfected. You should also make sure that you are washing your hands frequently.

To treat hand fungus your physician will have you treat it with an over-the-counter antifungal ointment or cream but if these do not seem to be helping your physician may give you a prescription for a stronger antifungal medication. It can take approximately thirty days before you are no longer considered contagious and for the rash to completely heal. If you have a severe rash that penetrates deep into your skin you may be given a prescription for oral medications. If the rash should become infected your physician may give use a prescription for antibiotics to be used along with the antifungal medications.

When using an antifungal cream or ointment, whether it is an over-the-counter or prescription medication you need to make sure that you are using the ointment or cream for the entire time that your physician recommends. If you find that you are still suffering from any of the symptoms you should see your physician to be re-examined. If your physician or dermatologist cannot treat your condition they may recommend you see a disease specialist to be treated.

There are also home remedies that you can use if you have hand fungus which can include:

  • Hydrogen peroxide – soak your hands in hydrogen peroxide are thought to kill the fungi effectively but the one side effect of this treatment is that it dries your hands out. After doing this treatment you should use a good moisturizer on your hands.
  • Vinegar – soaking your hands in vinegar, apple cider or white, can help to control your fungal infection.
  • Tea tree oil – this type of oil is thought to have antifungal and antimicrobial properties so soaking in a basin of water to which you have added a few drops of tea tree oil will help to relieve any discomfort that is associated with hand fungus.

Even if you use any of these home remedies you should still use an antifungal cream or ointment because you are still contagious until the rash has healed completely.

Hand Fungus Pictures

Collection of pictures of hand fungus…

What is Mucormycosis or Black fungus infection – Symptoms, treatment, Do’s and Donts | India News

NEW DELHI: With cases of mucormycosis, or black fungus infection, on the rise in states like Maharashtra and Delhi, the Union health ministry has issued a list of dos and don’ts for recovered Covid patients who could be experiencing the symptoms.
In a separate press statement, the Union health ministry answered some common questions about the infection.
Here’s what you need to know about the infection and the government’s advisory:
What is mucormycosis?
Mucormycosis or black fungus is a complication caused by fungal infection. People catch mucormycosis by coming in contact with the fungal spores in the environment. It can also develop on the skin after the fungus enters the skin through a cut, scrape, burn, or other type of skin trauma.
The disease is being detected among patients who are recovering or have recovered from Covid-19. Moreover, anyone who is diabetic and whose immune system is not functioning well needs to be on the guard against this.
According to an advisory issued by the Indian Council of Medical Research, the following conditions in Covid-19 patients increase the risk of mucormycosis infection:

  • Uncontrolled diabetes
  • Weakening of immune system due to use of steroids
  • Prolonged ICU/hospital stay
  • Co-morbidities/post organ transplant/cancer
  • Voriconazole therapy (used to treat serious fungal infections)

How is the infection related to Covid-19?
The disease is caused by a set of micro-organisms known as mucormycetes, which are present naturally in the environment, seen mostly in soil and in decaying organic matter like leaves, compost and piles.
In normal course, our body’s immune system successfully fights such fungal infections. However, the Covid-19 affects our immune system. Moreover, the treatment of Covid-19 patients involves intake of drugs like dexamethasone, which suppress our immune system response. Due to these factors, Covid-19 patients face a renewed risk of failing the battle against attacks mounted by organisms such as mucormycetes.
In addition, Covid patients undergoing oxygen therapy in ICU, where humidifier is used, are prone to fungal infection because of exposure to moisture.
But this does not mean that every Covid patient will get infected by Mucormycosis. The disease is uncommon in those not having diabetes but can be fatal if not treated promptly. Chances of recovery depend upon early diagnosis and treatment.
What are the common symptoms?
Mucormycosis begins to manifest as skin infection in the air pockets located behind our forehead, nose, cheekbones, and in between the eyes and teeth. It then spreads to eyes, lungs and can even spread to the brain. It leads to blackening or discoloration over the nose, blurred or double vision, chest pain, breathing difficulties and coughing of blood.

The Indian Council of Medical Research has advised that not all cases of blocked nose should be considered as cases of bacterial sinusitis, particularly during/after the treatment of Covid-19 patients. One must seek medical help for detecting fungal infection.
How is it treated?
While the infection may just begin with a skin infection, it can spread to other parts of the body.
Treatment involves surgically removing all dead and infected tissue. In some patients, this may result in loss of upper jaw or sometimes even the eye.
Cure may also involve a 4-6 weeks course of intravenous anti-fungal therapy. Since it affects various parts of the body, treatment requires a team of microbiologists, internal medicine specialists, intensivist neurologists, ENT specialists, ophthalmologists, dentists, surgeons and others.
Controlling diabetes is one of the foremost prevention methods suggested by ICMR. Hence, Covid-19 patients who are diabetic need to take utmost care.
Self-medication and over-dosage of steroids can result in fatal events and hence doctor’s prescription should be strictly followed.
Speaking about the adverse effects of inappropriate use of steroids, Niti Aayog member Dr V K Paul says: “Steroids should never be administered at an early stage of Covid-19. They should be taken only after sixth day of infection. Patients should stick to appropriate doses of the drugs and take the drug for specific number of days as advised by the doctors. Rational use of medicines should be ensured to avoid adverse side effects of the drug.”
“Other than steroids, use of Covid-19 drugs such as Tocilizumob, Itolizumab also suppresses the immune system. And when these drugs are not used appropriately, it increases the risk, as our immune system fails to fight the fungal infection.” Dr Paul adds.
For patients on oxygen therapy, it should be ensured that the water in the humidifier is clean and is refilled regularly. Attention should be paid to ensure there is no leakage of water (to avoid wet surfaces where the fungus can breed). Patients should maintain proper hygiene by keeping their hands as well as body clean.

Warts and Fungal Skin Infections: Some Basic Facts

What are the most common summer illnesses? Along with sunburn, dehydration and food poisoning there is another candidate that is linked to hot and humid weather – warts and fungal skin infections. They are caused by HPV – the Human Papilloma Virus. This virus thrives on hot, sweaty skin and therefore doctors report more cases of skin infections such as Athlete’s Foot in summer. It is mostly harmless and clears quickly, however it can be quite infectious.

What are warts?

According to Medical News Today, a wart is “a small growth that appears on a person’s hand or feet and looks like a solid blister or a small cauliflower”. They erupt commonly on hands and feet, although they can also grow on other parts of the body. The HPV virus responsible for causing warts, using enters the human body through a bruise, cut or damaged skin. For instance, if you share a wet towel after a swim with someone who already has the HPV, you are at risk of getting the virus. It can spread through the use of public toilets and wet showers where the virus may be present. According to HPV Australia, there are 100 types of HPV.

There are a few different types of warts, the most common of which are:

  • The common wart: It usually appears on the back of a finger, toes and knees and is a very commonly found dome shaped wart.
  • Plantar warts: These are found on the sole of the foot and can often look like a cauliflower head.
  • Mosaic warts: Small black warts that resemble seeds appear all over the sole of the foot. They do not usually hurt but are also very difficult to treat.
  • Periungual warts: These are sometimes difficult to diagnose and are found around and under the nail.
  • Plane wart: These flat warts, often resembling a boil appear on on the hands, legs, face and other parts of the body.
  • Filiform warts: This wart, which often appears on the face, has a single stalk with a few heads on it.
  • Genital warts: These are sexually transmitted and need to be treated with care as some high-risk strains of the HPV have the potential to cause cancers.

Treatment for warts

If you have a small growth on the skin and you are not sure what it is, see your GP, who is best qualified to diagnose it. According to WebMD, depending on the type of wart, a GP may prefer not to treat the wart, but wait for it to go away on its own. Often the body develops an immune response to treat the wart. One-fifth of all common warts will disappear in 6 months and two-thirds of them will disappear in two years with no treatment. But since some warts are visually unattractive, people prefer to have them treated or at least reduced.

  • OTC products with salicylic acid – usually in gel, liquid or ointment form will soften and remove the abnormal growth of skin cells. Removing dead skin cells with something rough like a pumice stone helps speed the treatment, as does applying duct tape after applying the medication.
  • If OTC medication fails, then using liquid nitrogen is the next step. The wart can be frozen using liquid nitrogen. This is usually done by a GP, but there are some home treatments available as well.
  • The wart can also be burned using an electric needle or a laser. This procedure can only be done by a GP or referred to a specialist.
  • A severe case of warts can be treated by injecting medication to kill the HPV.

Whether you use salicylic acid to go the liquid nitrogen route, warts are unlikely to disappear with one treatment. It often requires persistence and repeated application before you see results. Sometimes the best option is a combination of treatment at the GP’s combined with follow up applications at home. That way your GP can monitor the progress.

What are fungal skin infections?

Fungal skin infections are very common and tend to flare up more in summer like warts. The two most commonly found fungal infections in Australia are Tinea and Candida. According to the Victorian Government’s Better Health Channel, the most common ones are athlete’s foot, jock itch, ringworm and yeast infection. Communal showers and locker rooms are the hot spots of these infections.

  • Athlete’s foot: This condition is also known as Tinea Pedis. It is an infection that occurs between your toes and can spread further if left untreated. It often looks like a patch of white skin, cracked with red areas visible from beneath. The patch may burn and itch. Also avoid sharing the same footwear and socks, that’s how they spread.
  • Jock itch: Also known as Tinea Cruris, this fungal infection that happens in the groin and inner thighs can turn red and super itchy. If you already have athlete’s foot, it can spread to your groin, causing Jock itch.
  • Ringworm: This infection is called Tine Corporis and is commonly called Ringworm because the eruption looks like a worm under the skin, but there is no worm involved. They appear in circular patches and are very itchy. The patches have clear skin in the middle.
  • Candidiasis: Candidiasis is commonly known as thrush and vaginal thrush happens to be the most common type. The infection causes a burning sensation along with itchiness in the genital area. Thrush can occur inside your mouth too and is known as Oral thrush. Symptoms include white patches on your tongue and inner cheeks and soreness. They can occur after a long course of antibiotics or those using steroid inhalers like asthmatics.

Treatment of fungal skin infections:

  • Bleach your shower and bathing areas to prevent spreading and relapse of the infection.
  • Wash your footwear in hot water, including socks, slacks and stockings.
  • To avoid any kind of contact and consequent spreading of the rash, try wearing thongs or no underwear at all.
  • In case you wear shoes most of the time, try using an antiperspirant to avoid sweaty feet and your condition from getting worse.
  • Apply the given ointments regularly and avoid using any other kind of chemical in the affected area.
  • Try keeping the affected area of the skin as dry as possible
  • Pets are common carriers of ringworm infections. If you happen to have pets at home, get them checked as soon as possible
  • Avoid sharing clothes with others and wash them after every use to prevent the infection from spreading elsewhere
  • You can also use OTC anti-fungal creams.

If the skin infection causes discomfort or you are not sure what it is (it is quite easy to misdiagnose), see your GP immediately, so that the exact HPV is identified and correctly treated. Remember hot and humid conditions in summer demand higher standard of hygiene. So be extra careful, especially when using communal facilities.

This blog is brought to you by DoctorDoctor who provides access to in-home after-hours medical care for GPs and their patients in Melbourne, Perth, Sydney, and Brisbane.

Medical information published on this website is of a general nature only and not intended to be a substitute for informed healthcare professional advice or clinical care. If you have specific healthcare concerns or issues you should consult with a qualified health care professional such as your own GP.

Tinea | healthdirect

Key facts

  • Tinea is a fungal infection found in moist, warm parts of the body.
  • Examples of types of tinea include athlete’s foot, ringworm and jock itch.
  • Symptoms of tinea include a red flaky rash that can crack, split and peel, plus blistering and itching.
  • Tinea can affect anyone, but is common among sportspeople and those who share communal change rooms.
  • Tinea is often treated with anti-fungal medicines, usually a cream, and can be prevented with good hygiene.

On this page

What is tinea?

Tinea is a common and contagious fungal skin or nail infection. The tinea fungus thrives in warm, moist environments, so areas like the feet, the groin, the scalp, under the breasts and sometimes the toe and fingernails are ideal places for the fungus to grow.

Most tinea infections are mild.

What are the types of tinea?

Tinea can affect many areas of the skin/nails and the infection will have a different name depending on the location and type of fungus. These different types include:

  • nail infection (onychomycosis) — a fungal infection of the toe or fingernails
  • athlete’s foot (tinea pedis) — a fungal infection of the skin on the feet
  • ringworm of the scalp (tinea capitis) — a fungal infection that develops on the head
  • ringworm of the body (tinea corporis) — a fungal infection of the body that develops on the top layer of the skin
  • jock itch (tinea cruris) — a rash in the moist, warm areas of the groin
Nail infection
Athlete’s foot
Jock itch

Who is at risk of tinea?

Tinea can affect anyone. Young people and men — as well as anyone who plays a lot of sport, spends time in communal changing rooms and showers, or who wears runners (sneakers) — are most likely to be affected by athlete’s foot.

What are the symptoms of tinea?

Symptoms of tinea depend on where in the body it is:

  • Skin: a red flaky rash that can crack, split and peel; the rash can spread out in a red ring, with normal-looking skin in the middle. This is called ‘ringworm’, but this can be a little misleading because there is no worm involved.
  • Feet: Itchy, red blisters between the toes, cracked skin
  • Nails: Thick and crumbly nails
  • Groin: Itchy and painful rash
  • Head: Itchy, red areas on the scalp; bald patches

CHECK YOUR SYMPTOMS — Use the rashes and skin problems Symptom Checker and find out if you need to seek medical help.

How is tinea treated?

If you think you have tinea, check with your doctor. They may take a small sample to confirm which fungus is causing the infection.

Tinea is treated with anti-fungal medications, which usually come as a cream, ointment, gel or nail lacquer. You can purchase these over-the-counter from any pharmacy and from some supermarkets. Follow the application instructions on the package carefully and speak to your pharmacist if you have questions.

It can take weeks or even months for tinea to clear up, depending on what type of fungus it is. It is important to keep using the anti-fungal medication as instructed even after the tinea appears to have gone.

Some people might need prescription tablets if the tinea is widespread, if the treatment to the skin has not worked, if it is on the head, if it is in the nails, or if it keeps coming back.

All medicines can have side effects. Before using tinea medicines you can ask your doctor or pharmacist about:

  • the side effects of your tinea medicines
  • their benefits
  • what to do if you miss a dose
  • what to do if you experience side effects

Talk to your doctor as soon as possible if you feel unwell when taking your medicines. Do not stop or change your medicines without talking to your doctor. You can look up information about medicines here.

The infected area should be kept clean and dry because the fungus prefers to grow in moist, warm conditions.

FIND A HEALTH SERVICE — The Service Finder can help you find doctors, pharmacies, hospitals and other health services.

ASK YOUR DOCTOR — Preparing for an appointment? Use the Question Builder for general tips on what to ask your GP or specialist.

Can tinea be prevented?

Good personal hygiene can help prevent you from getting a tinea infection. Keeping the body clean will also stop the infection from spreading to other areas.

There are several things you can do to help manage or avoid the condition:

  • Tinea is contagious so it’s important not to share towels, flannels, bathmats, treatment creams or shoes. Wear thongs when showering in a communal shower.
  • After washing, dry the skin thoroughly, especially between the toes, in the groin and under the breasts.
  • Wash your hands thoroughly with soap and water after cleaning the infected area to make sure you do not spread your infection to other parts of your body or onto other people.
  • Use antiperspirants to help control excessive sweating.
  • Try not to scratch your rash as you may spread the infection to other parts of your body.
  • Try to expose the skin to as much fresh air as possible.

In addition to good hygiene, your choice of clothing and footwear can also make a difference:

  • Make sure your feet are completely dry before putting on socks, stockings or tights.
  • Wear clothing made from natural fibres instead of synthetics to prevent sweating and to avoid warm, moist skin areas developing.
  • Wear socks and shoes made from natural materials, such as cotton, when possible and try to choose footwear that keeps your feet cool and dry.
  • Change socks, tights or stockings and bra every day.

90,000 ways of infection and methods of treatment

Full description

Fungal infection on the nails of the hands or onychomycosis is caused by specific fungi, mainly Trichophyton rubrum or red trichophyton. The danger of infection with fingernail fungus also lies in the fact that the pathogenic microorganism is not localized in only one place, the boundaries of the focus of infection are constantly expanding, and the fungus itself is able to spread throughout the body with the flow of the blood and lymphatic channels.

The fungus that causes the infection is able to penetrate into the epithelial tissue under the nail plate through microcracks and wounds on the nail, and from there spread to other areas, thus increasing the area of ​​infection on the skin.

The course of this infectious disease is also complicated by constant relapses that occur in the case of unscrupulous treatment, non-compliance with the rules of personal hygiene and prolonged neglect of developing pathologies inside the body. Doctors confirm the presence of a relapse in more than 20% of people who have suffered from a fungal infection of the nail plate of the hands.

The fungus, although it is quite resistant to environmental changes, temperature changes and various stress factors, is capable of reproduction only under suitable conditions, which include sufficient moisture and heat, a certain pH level (optimal condition is alkaline environment). The fungus also grows well in dark, closed places where there is no direct sunlight and air currents.

Transmission of fingernail fungus is most often carried out from an infected person to a healthy person, but it must be remembered that through physical contact, the fungus is transmitted only if you regularly do not follow basic principles of hygiene and if your immune system is too weakened. For this reason, dermatologists often diagnose hand nail fungus in people infected with HIV, in whom the body’s resistance is rather weak against the onslaught of pathogens of various infections.

Factors that contribute to the occurrence of fungus on the nail plates of the hands are frequent stressful situations at home and at work, non-observance of the daily biorhythms of the body, which includes lack of sleep, as well as a large amount of fatty, fried, spicy and salty foods in the daily diet, neglect daily hygiene rules, frequent wearing of closed shoes, poor-quality processing of manicure tools.

Representatives of the fairer sex are fans of various cosmetic procedures for care, for example, building or gluing artificial nails. The source of onychomycosis can often be hidden under artificial nails, since they block direct air access to the nail plate and nail bed, which provides an optimal environment for the growth of the fungus. If artificial nails remain on the nail plate for a rather long period, the fungus can expand the boundaries of parasitism, moving to other nails and nearby epithelial tissues.
Frequent intake of aggressive medications, for example, antibiotics, contraceptives, diuretics and hormonal drugs, significantly reduce the body’s resistance to various infections, which can also provoke the development of fungus on the nail plates of the hands.

Reduce the body’s ability to fight off attacks of pathogenic microflora, diseases of the cardiovascular system, gastrointestinal tract and urinary tract, as well as violations of the hormonal background and the integrity of the integumentary tissues.Especially often doctors find fingernail fungus in people suffering from diabetes mellitus, liver and kidney failure, prone to the appearance of various dermatological diseases.

Since fungal spores remain on the personal belongings of an infected person, it is highly undesirable to use shared towels, wardrobe items, washcloths, bed linen and shoes. It is important to remember that a fungal disease of toenails can also cause an infection on the nail plate of the hand, so it is important to prevent infection and consult a dermatologist in time.

Symptoms of infection with a fungal infection are quite similar to such ailments as eczema, psoriasis, lichen planus, pachyonychia and Norwegian scabies, so it is better to entrust the diagnosis of the disease to an experienced doctor, completely excluding self-medication.

Symptoms of hand nail fungus infection do not appear immediately, since the disease has a certain incubation period lasting from 14 days to several months. To prevent the further development of the fungus even in the initial stages, it is necessary to visit a dermatologist for preventive purposes at least once every six months.
Characteristic signs of a parasitic fungus on the nail plate of the hands are changes in the color of the nail from pale pink to white or yellow in the case of localization of the fungus on the surface of the epidermis, the green color of the nail plate indicates infection with mold fungi, and purple, dark brown and black reveals the activity of yeast-like fungi Candida.

Under the nails, when infected with a fungus, keratinized cells accumulate, forming hard coarse masses, which is externally manifested by a thickening of the structure of the nail and an increase in the nail bed.

The nail can bend inward, forming a small fossa, and can also bend outward, thickening, which occurs in response to the development of inflammatory reactions on nearby tissues. Thickening of the nail is called hyperkeratosis and is a hallmark of an infectious disease.

The nail plate usually continues to grow, but already with subsequent delamination, which looks like a nail, consisting of several layers. With an advanced form of the disease, the nail plates can also be separated from the nail bed, but no more than half.The skin under the nails is usually porous and loose, divided by transverse and longitudinal grooves. The edges of the nail are jagged and the epithelial tissue around the nail bed itches and flakes.

Treatment of the nail plate fungus of the hands consists of general and local therapy. In this case, it is not worthwhile to apply both general and local treatment at the same time, since the method of treatment depends on the severity and stage of development of the disease. Mild to moderate fungal infections are successfully treated with topical preparations such as creams, varnishes, lotions, sprays and gels.Tablets, antibiotics and laser therapy are used for moderate to severe disease, when local drugs do not give the desired effect. With especially advanced forms of an infectious disease, the nail can be removed surgically.

Creams, lotions, varnishes, gels and sprays are basic products for combating nail plate fungus. They are quite mild for our body, rarely cause allergic reactions, they are not characterized by the presence of contraindications.

The most common varnishes for the effective elimination of nail fungus are Loceryl, Cycloperox, Batrafen and Demicten.Dermatologists often prescribe topical nail polish therapy to patients because they are able to remain on the nail plate for a fairly long period, which maximizes the effectiveness of the funds, and are also able to penetrate the nail into the nail bed and nearby tissues, reducing the spread of fungal infection. It is recommended to use it no more often than once every 6-7 days.

Also, experts advise people suffering from fungus of the nail plate of the hands to pay attention to the therapeutic creams Lotseril, Nizoral and Microspor. You need to use creams 2-3 times a day directly on the affected area of ​​the nail and epidermis.

Medicines and drugs against fungal infections are usually developed on the basis of itraconazole, terbinafine, naftifine, ketaconazole and fluconazole. These substances are synthetic antifungal substances that fight against the problem of the development of the fungus, inhibiting its vital activity and removing the propagation products that cause such secondary symptoms as itching, burning and peeling of the surface layers of the epidermis.They are usually used for long-term parasitism of the fungus and in severe forms of an infectious disease under the supervision of the attending physician, since they have many side effects and contraindications.

So that the appearance of fungus on the nail plates of your hands does not come as a complete surprise to you, you must regularly adhere to the basic rules of daily hygiene and systematically visit a dermatologist for a preventive examination for infectious diseases. The appearance of fungus on the nails of the hands is always easier to prevent than to cure.

90,000 causes, symptoms, treatment and prevention

Health and beauty of hands is an indispensable component of external attractiveness. And fungal infections of the nails hopelessly spoil the overall impression. Therefore, the topic of combating nail fungus does not lose its sharpness.

Fungus-affected fingernails are not a sight for the faint of heart. Onychomycosis, due to its extreme infectiousness, is a dangerous infection.The disease not only disfigures the hands, but also reduces the quality of life, undermines the body’s defenses.

What are the causes of the appearance of nail fungus on the hands

Fungal spores cannot be seen with the naked eye. However, they are found wherever it is warm and damp. Engaging in daily activities, a person touches a variety of objects with his hands, without thinking about what can become infected with the fungus. A strong immune system helps to contain the onslaught of pathogenic microorganisms. But as soon as it fails, the mushrooms begin to attack and win.

Trichophyton rubrum is the main enemy of beautiful and healthy nails. Such mycobacteria as Aspergillus, Trichophyton interdigitale, Candida albicans, Epidermophyton floccosum are always ready to accompany him.

Symptoms of fungal infection of nails

You can understand that an uninvited guest has settled on your hands by noticing spots on the nail plate. But usually a person pays attention to this problem when it is no longer possible to ignore it: the spots take up more and more space, the nail loses its shine, strength and changes color, and the skin around the nail becomes rough and dry.The areas affected by the fungus begin to itch and cause considerable discomfort to the person.

Diagnosis of fungal nail disease

In order not to be mistaken with the diagnosis, one examination is not enough. Looking through a microscope at a piece of a diseased nail, a specialist will be able to determine the nature of the harmful agent and outline the most appropriate course of treatment.

Treatment of fungus on the nails of the hands

When deciding on the treatment of a disease, one should be prepared for the fact that it may be delayed and require a lot of effort.Treating such infections on your own is a waste of time. A doctor specializing in diseases of the skin and nails will help navigate the modern market for drugs designed to combat pathological fungi. At the service of patients today – special varnishes, ointments, sprays. At the initial stage of the disease, only them are enough. If the infection is not treated for a long time, it affects different organs and systems. Then you will inevitably have to take special drugs (antimycotics) in the form of tablets.These measures will be ineffective if you do not take care of strengthening the defenses of the whole body.

Prevention of the appearance of fungus on the nails of the hands

The easiest way to get infected with onychomycosis is when you visit public places. Therefore, people who lead an active lifestyle and pay much attention to their health and external attractiveness are at risk. These include:

90,078 90,079 visitors to gyms and swimming pools;

90,079 clients of nail salons;

90,079 visitors to shoe stores (contaminated toenails are often the cause of fingernail fungus).

Being in close contact with representatives of their family, people with onychomycosis infect their loved ones. The infection is transmitted through towels, baths, tactile contact.

Therefore, the best ways to prevent fungal infections of the nails of the hands is to observe the rules of personal hygiene, to carry out activities aimed at strengthening the immune system, and to be attentive to any changes in your well-being.

90,000 Nail fungus – causes, symptoms and treatment

In medicine, nail fungus is officially called onychomycosis. This is a fungal disease that affects the nail plates on the fingers or toes. According to the WHO, this is a fairly common disease. It occurs in about 27% of people, and the pathology is diagnosed on the legs 2 times more often than on the hands. The problem of nail fungus is very delicate, since the unpleasant appearance of the affected plates makes the patient feel uncomfortable and hide them from others.

Symptoms and signs of nail fungus

Onychomycosis is very easy to recognize, since its signs on the nails cannot be overlooked.At first, the nail plates become dull and rough, losing their glossy shine. Then, instead of pink, the nail acquires a dirty yellow, whitish or gray color. Further, other characteristic symptoms of the fungus appear:

  • increase in plate thickness;
  • defects in the form of stripes, bends, irregularities and waves;
  • delamination and crumbling of the plate;
  • bad smell from nails.

As a result, the nail completely collapses and even exfoliates, exposing the bed of the nail. The skin next to the plates turns red and causes severe itching.

Do you have symptoms of nail fungus?

Only a doctor can accurately diagnose the disease.
Do not delay the consultation – call by phone

+7 (495) 775-73-60

Causes of occurrence

The main reason for the development of fungal infections is the ingestion of a pathogen on the body or inside the human body. As a rule, these are microsporums, trichophytons and epidermophytos. These are the fungi that cause onychomycosis most often.

When ingested, such fungi are localized on keratinized derivatives of the skin, i.e. nails and hair. This is due to the nutrition of the parasites, for which they use the keratin fibrillar protein found in nails and hair.

Ways of infection

The risk of contracting fungus is especially high in humid public places. These are saunas, swimming pools, gyms, public baths, etc. The most common routes of infection:

  • direct contact with an infected person. Here, the fungus gets from its habitat to healthy areas, thereby causing an infection;
  • household way. In this case, infection occurs when using the patient’s personal belongings: shoes, personal hygiene items, etc.

Risk Factors

The incidence of onychomycosis increases by the age of 60. At this time, the likelihood of developing such an infection is 60%, which is explained by a slowdown in metabolism, especially in the distal (distant) parts of the body, which are just the fingers and toes.

Other risk factors for the development of nail fungus include:

  • diabetes mellitus;
  • varicose veins;
  • 90,079 injuries to nails and adjacent tissues;

  • HIV and other conditions of immunodeficiency;
  • long-term use of antibiotics;
  • weakened immunity;
  • vascular and skin diseases, dermatitis, diaper rash;
  • violations of the blood supply to the extremities;
  • insufficient hygiene.


In an uncomplicated course, the disease causes symptoms traditional for the fungus, which cause only severe discomfort in a person. But without treatment, onychomycosis can cause complications. Most often, they manifest themselves in the addition of a bacterial infection.

Sometimes onychomycosis is very acute with the appearance of blisters, ulceration and weeping areas on the skin next to the nail. In severe cases, the disease takes on a generalized form. This means that the nail fungus spreads to internal organs and systems, and then the patient will already need emergency hospitalization.

When to see a doctor

Many who have come across onychomycosis know that the disease develops slowly and is treated with incredible difficulty. That is why it is very important to see a doctor when the first signs of the disease appear. A dermatologist is engaged in the treatment of nail onychomycosis in our clinic in the center of Moscow. The specialist will provide competent assistance and will guide you until complete recovery.

Preparing to visit a doctor

Before visiting a dermatologist, it is important not to treat the affected areas of the nails with anything, because.e. do not use medications, including iodine and brilliant green. It is also necessary to exclude the use of creams and ointments from the fungus. At the reception, it is worth taking all previously passed tests, including those for other diseases. Affected nails should not be cut for 3-4 days prior to consultation.

Diagnosis of nail fungus

First of all, the patient is sent for microscopy, which allows to identify the presence of the pathogen. In the future, it is necessary to determine its type in order to choose the correct treatment for toenail fungus.The JSC “Medicine” (the clinic of Academician Roitberg) in the center of Moscow practices the most modern and common methods for diagnosing onychomycosis:

  • Cultural study of a biological sample of affected tissues. To do this, it is placed in an artificial nutrient medium, where the pathogen is grown in order to determine its type;
  • polymerase chain reaction (PCR) method for detecting the DNA of the pathogen in a sample of affected tissues.


At an early stage of the disease, as a rule, local therapy is prescribed, which consists in the use of creams and ointments with antifungal effects.

Antiseptic solutions are also used as external remedies for nail fungus. In addition to effective remedies for nail onychomycosis, antihistamines and desensitizing drugs are prescribed, which relieve swelling, inflammation and sensitivity.

If the nail is completely affected by the fungus and drug treatment does not give positive results, then the plate is surgically removed. Also, with the total form of onychomycosis, antimycotic drugs are prescribed orally in the form of tablets, which have a systemic effect on the body.

Home Remedies

Before using products for home treatment, you should consult your doctor. With his permission, you can use the following recipes:

  • iodine. Before use, the feet must be steamed, washed with laundry soap, and then removed the affected areas of the nail plates. Next, treat the nails and skin between the fingers with iodine, soak them in a bath with a soda solution for 20-30 minutes and dry thoroughly;
  • vinegar.Take 1 tbsp for 3 liters of water. apple cider vinegar and add a little potassium permanganate. Soak feet in the bath for 20-30 minutes, then dry thoroughly;
  • hydrogen peroxide. After thoroughly steaming the legs, remove the affected areas of the nail plates. Put cotton pads moistened with hydrogen peroxide on them, wrap with a bandage and leave for half an hour.

Myths and dangerous misconceptions in the treatment of nail fungus

One of the most important and dangerous myths is that nail fungus is not considered a serious disease.In fact, onychomycosis, as it progresses, can lead to serious consequences up to deformation and complete rejection of the nails from the nail bed.

In addition, an infected person poses a daily danger to loved ones, because, being near him, they also risk getting sick. That is why it is important to know how to cure nail fungus in time.


To prevent the development of onychomycosis, it is necessary to exclude the negative impact on the body of risk factors:

  • to treat systemic diseases in time;
  • do not wear someone else’s shoes;
  • in the pool and sauna to walk in shale;
  • change socks daily and follow the rules of personal hygiene;
  • Do not wear wet shoes – dry them thoroughly;
  • Avoid direct contact with potential carriers of the fungus.

How to make an appointment with a dermatologist

To make an appointment with a dermatologist, use the online form on the website or contact us at the contact number +7 (495) 775-73-60. JSC “Medicine” (the clinic of Academician Roitberg) is located in the center of Moscow, not far from the metro stations Tverskaya, Belorusskaya, Chekhovskaya, Mayakovskaya and Novoslobodskaya. Experts work daily, so you can make an appointment for a consultation even on a weekend or holiday.

Effective treatment of nail fungus – meds.ru

Nail fungus: what is it

Pathology is provoked by pathogenic fungi, the spores of which settle on the epidermis and nails. Parasitizing healthy tissues, the infection causes their destruction, leads to decay processes and disrupts the metabolism in the affected area.

The emerging signs of nail fungus are a signal that an urgent need to consult a dermatologist or mycologist.Lack of timely treatment leads to severe deformations of the nail plate, which are not always amenable to correction.

Causes of nail fungus

Onychomycosis is difficult to treat, so the most effective way to fight the disease is to prevent it. To prevent an ailment, you need to know not only what the fungus on the nails looks like, but also its main causes. Avoiding causal factors will help to reliably insure against possible infection. So, let’s look at the main causes of nail fungus:

  • frequent stress;
  • long-term use of hormonal drugs and antibiotics;
  • 90,079 gastrointestinal disorders;

  • endocrine pathologies;
  • Wearing tight, poorly breathable shoes;
  • non-observance of personal hygiene rules;
  • regular contact with water;
  • 90,079 visits to common areas (showers, saunas).

Risk factors

The most common symptoms of nail fungus occur in people who are constantly in a humid environment. The risk group includes kitchen workers (cleaners, washers, cooks), swimmers, housewives. It is easy to become infected with onychomycosis through poorly disinfected manicure tools, someone else’s shoes. To avoid the development of the disease, it is recommended to protect your hands from moisture with silicone gloves during cleaning, and to replace low-quality shoes with a more comfortable alternative.

Nail fungus: symptoms

Quite often, the disease affects not only the nail plate, but also the skin of the hands / feet. In this case, the ailment begins with itching, flaking and redness. The appearance of puffiness in the region of the periungual roller is possible. When mycosis spreads directly to the nail, the patient has a pronounced darkening of the nail plate.The corneous plates acquire a brown or yellowish tint. In addition, the symptoms of toenail and toenail fungus include changes in the structure of the nail. Keratinous tissue becomes excessively soft and loose, which leads to its increased fragility and stratification. As a result of the multiplication of fungi in the nail, the process of decay begins, as evidenced by an unpleasant odor.

How to identify nail fungus

Timely diagnosis of onychomycosis guarantees a successful treatment result, therefore it is necessary to make an appointment with a dermatologist or mycologist at the first symptoms of the disease.Self-medication is not recommended, as such actions increase the risk of complications. During the appointment, the doctor will hold a conversation to clarify the nature of the symptoms, assess the external condition of the nail plate. Without fail, the diagnosis includes an analysis for nail fungus, which is performed by scraping and carrying out bacterial sowing. In some cases, direct DNA diagnostics is used, which allows you to get the most accurate result within 24 hours.

Treatment of fungal nail infections

A therapeutic course is compiled by a doctor on the basis of data obtained during examinations.The intensity of treatment and the methods used depend on the severity of the disease and the reasons that provoked the nail fungus. The initial stage of onychomycosis is corrected with local antifungal drugs in combination with multivitamins. If the pathology is caused by stress and hormonal disturbances, it is recommended to take general antifungal and sedatives, as well as corticosteroid therapy. Chronic nail fungus is treated with laser correction and special medicated varnishes.With a pronounced deformation of the nail, the patient is shown prosthetics of the nail plate.

Treatment of nail fungus on the hands

Nail fungus is a pathological process caused by one of the strains of the fungus, accompanied by inflammation and structural changes in the nail plate. At first, the disease develops asymptomatically, then characteristic signs appear. Fragility and thinning of the nail plate, loss or discoloration, yellow stripes that appear on the outer and inner sides of the nail, the appearance of skin and nail particles under the plate are symptoms of fungal infection.

Nail fungus develops when receiving microtraumas, against the background of infectious and chronic diseases, with weakened immunity, allergies, with age-related changes. High humidity and temperature can provoke active growth of pathological microflora. Treatment: external and internal antifungal drugs, hygiene procedures, disinfection of shoes and personal hygiene items.

Mycologists of Moscow – latest reviews

The doctor is excellent.It’s okay, thanks. As a result, I received a referral for tests. Victoria Stepanovna explained everything in an accessible way, I was satisfied with the quality of the reception. I recommend this specialist.


October 22, 2021

Lyubov Alexandrovna did not help me in any way at the reception.I am not satisfied with the consultation. I will not recommend a doctor and will not reapply to her.


October 15, 2021

The doctor is good, attentive.Things are good. At the reception, Elena Alexandrovna conducted an examination, a survey, listened, complained, told how that, consulted. I put everything on the shelves. Everything is as it should be. I am satisfied. As a result, I received a prescription for treatment, I realized that I had to go to the doctors on time. I cannot estimate the result yet. I recommend this specialist.


October 15, 2021

At the appointment, the doctor examined her, gave her recommendations and prescribed treatment.The doctor is attentive, explains everything clearly and easily, a professional in his field. I can recommend this specialist to my friends, if necessary, and if necessary, I can apply again. I was pleased with the quality of the reception.


September 28, 2021

Everything was perfect! Oybek Adkhamovich advised me properly and explained everything clearly.The most important problem I have addressed has been fixed. The doctor is a very kind, cheerful and generally pleasant person. I will come to him more than once because it is clear that the person knows his job perfectly well. It is a pleasure to contact such specialists!


September 24, 2021

The reception went well, I liked everything.The doctor conducted an examination, ordered to be tested. Evgenia Sergeevna is competent in her field, attentive. Explains everything clearly, intelligibly. I will recommend the doctor to my friends. And I myself will go for a second appointment with this specialist.


September 18, 2021

The doctor is young, very friendly, she examined my feet, took the tests, did everything quickly enough, made recommendations, we are awaiting the test results and then the doctor referred me to the specialists.She is not a bad specialist, she understands the problem with which I turned to her.


07 August 2021

Professional doctor.She consulted me, took tests and made an appointment.


May 26, 2021

The doctor explained everything correctly, conducted an examination and wrote out a further treatment plan.The doctor is a very nice, sweet girl, she calmly explained everything and answered all questions.


02 february 2019

Marina Aleksandrovna asked me in detail about the symptoms that were before, which doctors they went to, what they said and what happened to the child.She was tactful and welcoming. The doctor also explained everything with regards to our disease, why it could have gone, why and what treatment to take. The attitude was great. I was very pleased and will recommend it to my friends if necessary!


October 23, 2021

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How to protect nails from fungal diseases – Rossiyskaya Gazeta

Shoes soaked in the rain, tight and warm shoes, low immunity – all this increases the risk of onychomycosis.

Mushrooms attack in autumn

Unpleasant cracks on the leg between the toes and yellow toenail? You may have contracted the fungus. About 10% of the world’s population suffers from this microscopic enemy, and over the past 10 years, the number of victims of onychomycosis (or nail fungus) has more than doubled.

Both men and women are equally successful victims of it. But the risk of getting sick increases with age. For example, after 70 years, every second person suffers from onychomycosis.

Fortunately, children are exposed to infection much less often, since babies’ nails grow much faster than adults, and the fungus, on the contrary, develops rather slowly.

Where can you get a fungus? Yes, most likely from their own loved ones.

Recent studies have established that it is in the family that the nail fungus is most often infected, even if it consists of two people. The risk group includes people who have increased sweating, weakened immunity, flat feet.Too narrow shoes can provoke the disease: in them, the skin of the foot and nails are more prone to injury. Stockings and socks made of synthetic fibers, poor ventilation in autumn and winter shoes creates a humid microclimate for the feet. Frequent hand contact with household detergents and cleaning products injures the nails on the hands, and the fungus just prefers weakened and damaged nail plates, a healthy nail is practically invulnerable to fungal infection. Here are the main causes of onychomycosis:

Cracks and scratches in the skin, trauma to the nail, constantly wet feet.

Presence of diseases: diabetes mellitus, AIDS, obesity, reduced immunity. The risk of getting sick increases if the vascular tone of the legs is disturbed, for example, with heart failure or varicose veins.

Taking antibiotics, oral contraceptives.

The disease occurs first on the skin of the feet, more often in the interdigital folds. A parasite fungus that has settled on the skin is capable of poisoning the life of anyone.

Over time, the affected area captures the nails not only on the legs, but also on the hands.Sooner or later, another person will step on the fallen skin scales and become infected.

Externally, the appearance of nail fungus may look like this: the color and thickness of the nails changes, the nails begin to crumble or collapse.

Where the infection is found

You can pick up the fungus both in public places (the floor in the dressing rooms of gyms, in the bathhouse, swimming pools, a nail / pedicure salon, in a hotel, on the beach), and in your own home.

Shared shoes at home in a family, in the country or at a visit, walking barefoot, household items and furnishings (towels, rugs, coverings) – these are the factors that determine the transmission of fungus between members of the same family, their relatives and friends.

The most effective means of fighting nail fungus is primary prevention. It is better to avoid infection than to heal for a long time. To avoid getting infected with nail fungus, follow these simple rules:

1 Never use someone else’s shoes and do not share your shoes with others, even close people.

2 Do not use the same manicure accessories on diseased and healthy nails.

3 If possible, disinfect all objects that come into contact with the patient’s feet and hands.

4 Do not go barefoot in public areas, and it is better not to do this at home.

5 When visiting the bathhouse, sauna or swimming pool, use closed rubber slippers that protect against splashes. On the beach, too, go only in slippers.

6 After the pool, take a shower.

7 Never visit saunas and swimming pools if cracks appear on your soles.

8 After visiting public places, treat your feet with boric alcohol or an antifungal ointment, cream, gel or spray.Almost any antifungal agents or alcoholic solutions of antiseptics are suitable for prophylaxis.

9 Do not wear rubber boots or uncomfortable shoes that rub your feet for a long time.

10 Do not overuse synthetic socks or tights, change them daily.

See a doctor immediately!

At the first suspicion that you have contracted a fungal infection, you should consult a mycologist or dermatologist.The doctor will not only conduct an examination, assess the thickness, structure of the nail, but also make tissue scrapings for analysis. Only in this way will he be able to determine the presence of the fungus, its type and prescribe the correct treatment.

If onychomycosis is left untreated, it can lead to nail loss. The infection damages the entire body. The fungus releases toxic substances, provoking allergic reactions and decreased immunity.

It is necessary to clearly know that in the early stages it is quite easy to get rid of the infection. If the disease is not started, local treatment can be carried out: cut off the affected areas of the nail, cover the remaining nail with an antifungal varnish, lubricate with antifungal ointments, of which there are many today.

Remember that the longer the fungus lives on your nails, the harder it is to lime. In the later stages, when several years have passed after infection (and the toenails of the big toes are affected), fungal diseases are difficult to treat.

What you need to know

  • It is necessary to sound the alarm at the first signs of skin fungus. Fungal infections on the skin are easier and faster to treat than on the nails. It is enough just a week to lubricate the affected areas with one of the antifungal agents, which are in abundance in any pharmacy.
  • The fungus can also affect hair, although the most common are nail fungi.
  • Sometimes a change in the appearance of nails is not associated with a fungus, but is caused by the condition of internal organs: cardiovascular and pulmonary insufficiency, kidney or liver dysfunction. The nails can turn yellow after taking strong medications. Damage to the nails is also caused by lichen planus, eczema, psoriasis, and finally nail injuries. But most often, the appearance of the nails still changes from a fungal infection.

Folk recipes

Treatment of nail fungus with folk remedies is rarely effective. Nevertheless, here are two recipes.

1. Apply a piece of kombucha to the affected nail and bandage your finger. This will soften the nail and make it easy for you to cut. Repeat the procedure until the nail is completely soft. Then steam your legs well and lubricate with this mixture: take one part of vinegar essence, two parts of glycerin, two parts of 96 percent alcohol.Prepare the garlic oil: grate the garlic and pour sunflower oil heated to sixty degrees (the oil should cover the garlic) – mix everything and let it brew for a couple of days in a tightly sealed container. Soak a cotton swab in this oil, apply it to a sore nail and re-bandage. Put on a plastic bag on top – this way you will not stain the bedding, since such treatment must be done before going to bed. The course of treatment is 10-15 days.

2. Wash your feet well before bed.Soak a cotton swab in 9% vinegar and place it on your nail. Wrap the finger on top with foil and fix it with a plaster. Repeat the procedure the next morning. Wash your feet a day after this treatment. Tidy up your nails – where to trim, where to clean. Repeat the procedure several times on the sole.

Treatment of nail fungus in a child

Onychomycosis, or nail fungus, is an infectious disease caused by pathogenic fungi. Due to the structure of the nail plate and unformed protective forces in children, this disease develops much faster.The fungus usually affects the feet and, if left untreated, can spread to the hands.

Causes of fungal infection

A healthy nail is able to resist the penetration of pathogenic fungi. Infection occurs through contact with the carrier, the use of general hygiene items, and visiting public places, especially with high humidity. The factors that weaken local and general defenses are the following:

  • transferred infectious diseases: mononucleosis, tonsillitis, herpes, etc.;

  • long-term antibiotic therapy;

  • trauma to the nail plate and periungual ridges, including an ingrown nail;

  • flat feet;

  • corns and calluses – gateways for infection;

  • excessive sweating;

  • transferred operations;

  • lack of vitamins and minerals, poor diet.

Fungus in the immediate family of the child and / or people living with him is the main cause of the disease.

Symptoms and Manifestations

Fungus of nails in a child can be suspected by characteristic signs, such as yellowness or gray color of the nail plate, a change in its structure. Grooves and streaks may appear on the nails, redness and dryness of the skin around. The child notes itching and burning of the skin of the feet.

The skin in the area between the fingers may also be affected.If untreated, the nail may thicken, crumble, the skin becomes covered with cracks, which is accompanied by pain, bleeding, and makes walking very difficult. If the integrity of the skin is violated, the likelihood of a secondary bacterial infection increases.

Diagnostic Methods

For effective treatment of nail fungus in children, the doctor accurately identifies the causative agent of the infection. For this purpose, not only a visual examination is carried out, but also laboratory diagnostics:

  • microscopic examination of scrapings from affected areas of the skin, nail plate;

  • bacteriological crops with a high probability of bacterial infection;

  • PCR to determine the causative agent of the disease.

If necessary, a small patient can be referred to other specialists of a narrow profile.

Features of treatment

Effective treatment consists of an integrated approach. The following methods can be involved:

  • the use of local and systemic antifungal agents;

  • hardware cleaning, softening and removal of the affected nail plate;

  • photodynamic therapy.

The treatment regimen for nail fungus in children is selected in each case strictly individually. The doctor will take into account the type of pathogen, the duration of the appearance of the first symptoms, the individual characteristics of the child.

The most effective methods of treatment are local (liquids, creams, ointments, medicated nail varnishes) and systemic drugs, sometimes with the addition of photodynamic treatment. Sometimes treatment is preceded by the cleansing of the nail plates and skin with exfoliating and softening agents or with the help of hardware cleaning.

If your skin is cracked, your doctor will also prescribe medications to speed up healing. The accession of a bacterial infection is the basis for antibiotic therapy, usually local measures are sufficient to eliminate inflammation, but in rare cases, systemic treatment is carried out. The doctor will also explain the preventive measures: he will recommend choosing the right shoes, and will tell you about how to protect the child when he visits public places.

A timely visit to a doctor will help preserve the nail, quickly eliminate the focus of infection and prevent bacterial and other complications.When the first symptoms appear, it is important to consult a pediatric dermatologist. The Family Doctor clinic specialists are highly qualified and have extensive experience. We have ample opportunities for laboratory diagnostics.

To make an appointment at a convenient time for you, call the unified contact center in Moscow +7 (495) 775 75 66, use the online appointment service, or contact the clinic’s registry.


dermatovenerologist, oncologist, cosmetologist, Ph.MD, leading specialist of the clinic

dermatovenerologist, cosmetologist, trichologist

dermatovenerologist, trichologist, candidate of medical sciences, associate professor