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Hand, foot and mouth disease

Hand, foot and mouth disease is a common childhood illness that can also affect adults. It usually gets better on its own in 7 to 10 days.

Check if it’s hand, foot and mouth disease

The first signs of hand, foot and mouth disease can be:

  • a sore throat
  • a high temperature
  • not wanting to eat

After a few days mouth ulcers and a rash will appear.

Ulcers appear in the mouth and on the tongue. These can be painful and make it difficult to eat or drink.

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Raised spots usually appear on the hands and feet, and sometimes on the thighs and bottom as well. The spots can look pink, red, or darker than surrounding skin, depending on your skin tone.

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The spots become blisters which appear grey or lighter than surrounding skin and can be painful.

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The symptoms are usually the same in adults and children, but they can be worse in babies and children under 5.

It’s possible to get hand, foot and mouth disease more than once.

If you’re not sure your child has hand, foot and mouth disease

Look at other childhood rashes.

Information:

Hand, foot and mouth disease has nothing to do with foot and mouth disease that affects farm animals.

How to treat hand, foot and mouth disease yourself

You cannot take antibiotics or medicines to cure hand, foot and mouth disease. It usually gets better on its own in 7 to 10 days.

To help the symptoms:

  • drink fluids to prevent dehydration – avoid acidic drinks, such as fruit juice
  • eat soft foods like yoghurt – avoid hot and spicy foods
  • take paracetamol or ibuprofen to help ease a sore mouth or throat

A pharmacist can help with hand, foot and mouth disease

Speak to a pharmacist for advice about treatments, such as mouth ulcer gels, sprays and mouthwashes, to relieve pain.

They can tell you which ones are suitable for children.

Non-urgent advice: See a GP if:

  • your symptoms or your child’s symptoms do not improve after 7 to 10 days
  • you or your child has a very high temperature, or feels hot and shivery
  • you’re worried about your child’s symptoms
  • your child is dehydrated – they’re not peeing as often as usual
  • you’re pregnant and get hand, foot and mouth disease

Hand, foot and mouth disease can be spread to other people.

Check with your GP surgery before going. They may suggest a phone consultation.

Information:

Coronavirus update: how to contact a GP

It’s still important to get help from a GP if you need it. To contact your GP surgery:

  • visit their website
  • use the NHS App
  • call them

Find out about using the NHS during coronavirus

How to stop hand, foot and mouth disease spreading

Hand, foot and mouth disease is easily passed on to other people. It’s spread in coughs, sneezes, poo and the fluid in the blisters.

You can start spreading it from a few days before you have any symptoms, but you’re most likely to spread it to others in the first 5 days after symptoms start.

To reduce the risk of spreading hand, foot and mouth disease:

  • wash your hands often with soap and water – and children’s hands too
  • use tissues to trap germs when you cough or sneeze
  • bin used tissues as quickly as possible
  • do not share towels or household items like cups or cutlery
  • wash soiled bedding and clothing on a hot wash

Staying off school or nursery

Keep your child off school or nursery while they’re feeling unwell.

But as soon as they’re feeling better, they can go back to school or nursery. There’s no need to wait until all the blisters have healed.

Keeping your child away from other children for longer is unlikely to stop the illness spreading.

Hand, foot and mouth disease in pregnancy

Although there’s usually no risk to the pregnancy or baby, it’s best to avoid close contact with anyone who has hand, foot and mouth disease.

This is because:

  • having a high temperature during the first 3 months of pregnancy can lead to miscarriage, although this is very rare
  • getting hand, foot and mouth disease shortly before giving birth can mean your baby is born with a mild version of it

Speak to a GP or your midwife if you have been in contact with someone with hand, foot and mouth disease.

Page last reviewed: 12 February 2021
Next review due: 12 February 2024

Hand Rashes – American Osteopathic College of Dermatology (AOCD)

There are many ways a person can get a hand rash, but all have some aspects in common. The skin is exposed to something irritating. It reacts with a rash. Hand eczema is another name for the same thing.

Most hand rash cases are called “contact dermatitis” because they are caused by contact with substances found in the environment. A powerful irritant, like some industrial chemicals, acids or cleaning fluids, are obvious causes of contact dermatitis. More often, the irritant is milder and the problem starts out as dryness of the hands. A few of the more common irritants are over drying due to frequent hand washing, soaps, cleaning agents or even ingredients in skin and personal care products.

The inflammation appears as redness, swelling and itching. The skin looses its ability to serve as a barrier and keep the outside world out. It allows more outside irritants in. Until all the irritants are removed, the skin will not heal. Once skin becomes red and dry, even so called “harmless” things like water and baby products can irritate skin further. This is a cumulative irritant dermatitis, in that it is not one big irritant but a lot of small ones.

The tendency to get skin reactions is often inherited. People with these tendencies may have a history of hay fever and/or asthma in combination with food allergies and a skin condition called atopic dermatitis or eczema. Their skin can turn red and itch after contact with many substances that might not bother other people’s skin.

Less commonly, some cases of Hand dermatitis are allergic. This means after a period of exposure the substance caused sensitivity against it to develop in the skin to that, and only that, substance. The culprit could be anything, but rubber, metals and preservatives are common. Even prescription skin creams can do this. Then, afterward, whenever the skin is exposed to the same substance — even slightly –it becomes inflamed. An example of an allergic reaction it is poison ivy dermatitis.

The least common forms of hand dermatitis are often the most severe. Dyshidrotic hand dermatitis forms blisters under the skin, especially on the sides of the fingers and on the palms. It is internally produced, and seems to worsen with stress. Hyperkeratotic hand eczema develops thick scales and fissures. Either these may be forms of psoriasis, or at times psoriasis may look similar. These are more internally caused, and often also affect the feet.

Dermatologists use a combination of methods to heal the skin. A prescription ointment or cream will be prescribed. If this cream doesn’t seem to be helping after 7 to 10 days, call the doctor. It’s possible one may need an oral antibiotic if an infection is present. Patients with severe hand rashes may be given oral or injected steroids. Keep hands away from irritants. The next section will explain what to avoid while the skin is healing.

Frequent hand washing and water contact should be avoided. To do this, protect hands by using gloves and creams as barriers. Dirty the gloves, not the hands. Take rings off to wash because they trap soap and water next to the skin. Use lukewarm water and rinse thoroughly after washing with soap. Use a mild soap (Dove, Basis, Olay, Cetaphil) or a soap substitute (Cetaphil lotion, Oilatum-AD). Blot the skin dry carefully.

Apply moisturizer while the skin is still moist. Repeat after each hand washing, immediately after bathing and after removing gloves. The rule of thumb for moisturizers is: the messier, the better. Moisturizing creams are better because they are thicker and last longer on the skin. Lotions, which contain mostly water, are the least effective as moisturizers.

Wear waterproof gloves while peeling and squeezing lemons, oranges, or grapefruit, peeling potatoes, and handling tomatoes. Wear them for tasks such as dishes, folding laundry (the fabric soaks the moisture out of the hands), peeling vegetables or for handling citrus fruits or tomatoes. Always replace gloves that develop holes. One should have enough waterproof gloves so that the insides of the gloves can dry between uses.

Plastic or vinyl is better than latex and powder free is much better than powdered when choosing gloves for people with sensitive hands. Heavy-duty vinyl gloves are better than rubber gloves. One may become allergic to rubber. Also, if latex gloves are worn at work, keep in mind that petroleum jelly based products and some others will damage them. Be sure to use an approved moisturizer if latex gloves are worn. Buy 3 to 6 pairs and place them in convenient locations, such as the kitchen, bathroom, and laundry areas. Wear leather or heavy-duty fabric gloves when doing non-wet housework and gardening.

Use of thin white cotton gloves as an absorbent liner under them underneath the waterproof gloves is highly recommended. Cotton gloves can also be worn alone during the day to protect hands from irritation. These cotton gloves should be washed frequently. A greasy ointment (prescription or white petroleum jelly, “Vaseline”) applied to hands and covered with cotton gloves at night can really help.

Don’t pick at any loose ends of skin. These loose ends are best clipped off with a small nail clipper or scissor. Painful spits and cracks can be sealed with “New Skin” (or if one is really careful, Krazy glue). Minor, repeated friction with tools or papers is the main problem for some. Keep hands out of the cold, dry air and wind. Protect ones hands for at least four months after the dermatitis has healed. It takes a long time for skin to recover, and unless one is careful the dermatitis may recur.

Therapies for severe problems

Ultraviolet light, with and without a drug called psoralen is very effective even for the most severe cases. In topical PUVA, the psoralen is applied to the hands prior to putting them under the UVA light, making the skin more sensitive to the light. As a result, the allergy cells in the skin are altered. This temporarily controls the allergy.

Another therapy used to modify the cells involved in the inflammation is Grenz ray therapy. This is an older treatment that is safe and effective. Grenz ray is a form black light that has energy that borders on X-ray, but it does not penetrate beyond the skin. Both procedures require several sessions to complete, and are done in addition to all of the other treatments and precautions. Once completed, the therapeutic benefit can last up to 6 months.

For blistered or oozing hand dermatitis, compresses may be prescribed. After the acute condition subsides in a week or so, stop the soaks and apply the prescription creams and recommended moisturizers. Recurrences will still appear, and the treatment can be repeated.

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The medical information provided in this site is for educational purposes only and is the property of the American Osteopathic College of Dermatology. It is not intended nor implied to be a substitute for professional medical advice and shall not create a physician – patient relationship. If you have a specific question or concern about a skin lesion or disease, please consult a dermatologist. Any use, re-creation, dissemination, forwarding or copying of this information is strictly prohibited unless expressed written permission is given by the American Osteopathic College of Dermatology.

Causes and when to see a doctor

Hand rashes are a widespread problem because the hands come into contact with wind, dry air, soap, and many other irritating substances. Most hand rashes are not serious, but any sudden or severe rash warrants a call to the doctor.

In this article, we look at the possible causes of a rash on a person’s hands and when to seek medical help.

The National Eczema Association describe contact dermatitis as a condition that causes changes in skin color, itching, and irritation on a part of the body that comes into contact with an irritant.

Sometimes it is an allergic reaction. For example, a person might develop contact dermatitis after petting an animal or using a new lotion.

However, contact dermatitis can also appear when something irritates the skin, such as a tight ring on a finger. Contact dermatitis usually goes away once people remove the irritant.

Discover some triggers of contact dermatitis in this article.

Hives, sometimes called urticaria, is a rash that usually appears suddenly and then goes away. The bumps are itchy and may (blanch) become lighter when pressed. They signal an allergic reaction.

Hives are widespread, and about 20% of people will experience them at some time in their lives.

Sometimes hives can appear before a serious and life threatening allergic reaction called anaphylaxis.

Find out what causes hives and how to treat them.

Several substances can cause minor allergic reactions on the skin. These substances may affect the hands when a person is gardening, using a new lotion, or coming into contact with a chemical to which they are allergic.

Plants are a common trigger for these allergies. Poison ivy, oak, and sumac contain urushiol, an oil that triggers an allergic reaction in most people. According to the American Academy of Dermatology Association (AAD), the rash usually appears within 4–48 hours in people who have previously had a poison ivy, oak, or sumac rash.

If people have not had a previous rash from one of these plants, a rash can take 2–3 weeks to appear.

It is possible to treat many minor allergic reactions at home. Learn how here.

According to the American Academy of Allergy, Asthma, and Immunology (AAAI), anaphylaxis is a severe and potentially life threatening allergic reaction that causes the body’s immune system to react aggressively to a harmless substance. It sometimes begins with a slightly swollen rash similar to hives.

If the rash spreads quickly, it can lead to more severe symptoms, such as a swollen throat and trouble breathing.

A person who suddenly develops a rash following a sting, new medication, or exposure to another new substance should immediately call their doctor. If they develop other symptoms, they should call 911 or go to the emergency room.

Anaphylaxis is a life threatening condition. Learn more here.

Eczema, sometimes called atopic dermatitis, is a chronic skin condition. It causes scaly patches on the skin that may be darker or lighter than the rest of the skin. The patches may be all over the body or just on one place, such as the hands.

The rash often itches and may get worse when the skin is dry, or during cold or dry weather. The AAD indicate that eczema is more common in children than in adults. In children, eczema typically goes away by itself, but others have the condition in adulthood.

Dyshidrotic eczema is a more severe form of eczema that can cause small but very painful blisters. The National Eczema Association indicate that 50% of people who develop dyshidrotic eczema already have atopic dermatitis.

There is a variety of eczema types. Learn more here.

Psoriasis is an autoimmune disease that causes the body’s immune system to attack healthy tissue. It can affect any part of the body.

Psoriasis on the hands may make the nails look misshapen. A person may notice a red or dark scaly rash that may itch. People with psoriasis on their hands may eventually develop the rash elsewhere, such as on the scalp.

There is no cure for psoriasis, but some medications can help manage the condition.

More information on psoriasis is available here.

Sometimes a person applies suncream to their entire body but forgets to cover their hands. This can cause sunburn on the tops of hands and wrists.

Sunburn may hurt at first, and then begin itching. The skin may look dry, blister, or peel.

Find out how sunburn affects dark skin here.

Keratolysis exfoliativa causes the palms of the hands to peel, usually on a recurring basis. The peeling is not painful, and the skin is not usually discolored or swollen. Some people also notice peeling on their feet.

The peeling may get worse during the summer or after frequent hand washing or exposure to water.

Keratolysis exfoliativa is not dangerous, but it can be alarming. A person may worry about the cosmetic appearance of their hands. Few treatments are effective, so most doctors recommend tracking and avoiding triggers, such as harsh detergents.

Learn about other reasons why skin might peel.

Tinea manuum is a type of fungal infection of the hands, similar to athlete’s foot. It usually causes a ringworm-like rash with a raised border. The rash is often much larger and more irregularly shaped than ringworm, which is typically circular.

According to an older article, a person may get the infection from a person, animal, or soil with tinea manuum or from touching the feet of someone with athlete’s foot. The rash is usually very itchy and can cause the nails to discolor or look misshapen.

More information about tinea manuum is available here.

Lichen planus is a common inflammatory skin condition. It causes swelling, redness or darkening of the skin, and bumps. It can affect any part of the body, including the mouth and scalp, but some people first notice the rash on their wrists or hands.

According to the American Skin Association, some liver infections may cause lichen planus, but doctors cannot always find a specific cause. Some people notice that their symptoms get worse when stressed.

Find out all there is to know about lichen planus here.

Cellulitis is a bacterial infection of the deep layers of skin. If bacteria enter the skin, it can cause cellulitis.

According to the AAD, a variety of diseases or injuries can allow bacteria to penetrate the skin. A person can get cellulitis even after minor injuries, such as a cut from a razor or a bee sting.

Cellulitis may resemble a rash because it looks swollen and red or darker in color, but it is a dangerous infection that can spread quickly.

While cellulitis can affect any area of the body, the hands are most vulnerable because a person can easily cut them when preparing food, gardening, or using tools.

The skin may look like an orange peel, and a person may notice streaks. When a person touches the skin, it may feel hard, and the skin may be so sensitive that moving the hands or touching anything becomes painful.

Find out more about cellulitis here.

Treatment depends on the cause of the rash. It is usually safe to treat minor conditions, such as contact dermatitis and eczema, at home. The most common treatments include:

  • Steroid creams can treat many skin conditions, including eczema, lichen planus, and allergic reactions.
  • Calamine lotion and colloidal oatmeal may ease many itchy rashes, including from poison ivy, oak, and sumac, psoriasis, and eczema.
  • Keep skin moisturized. Aloe vera can ease the pain of sunburns.
  • Avoid the sun following sunburn. Stay indoors or wear loose-fitting clothes with long sleeves.
  • Creams that encourage the shedding of skin cells may ease symptoms of psoriasis. Some people also get relief from sunlight.
  • Antifungal creams may help with fungal infections.

It is not possible to prevent all rashes. However, some strategies that may help include:

  • Use fragrance-free moisturizers to reduce the risk of irritation and allergic reactions.
  • If a person has eczema, use a cream formulated for eczema, especially after washing hands.
  • Wear gloves when working in the yard or using irritating chemicals.
  • Avoid using medications, including medicated creams, unless absolutely necessary. This can reduce the risk of a medication-induced allergic reaction.
  • Ask a doctor about carrying an epi-pen if people have a history of severe allergic reactions.

See a doctor for any rash that does not go away on its own with home treatment or that starts spreading.

A person should call a doctor immediately if:

  • they have a fever, or the rash shows signs of infection such as pus or oozing
  • the rash is painful, not itchy
  • the skin is very swollen
  • they have other symptoms, such as symptoms of a cold or the flu

Go to the emergency room or call 911 if:

  • a rash appears all over the body, especially after an insect sting or taking medication
  • a person has a rash and has trouble breathing

Most rashes are not serious and will go away on their own, even without treatment. If a rash hurts, appears suddenly, or does not go away, it may signal a more serious problem.

Prompt medical treatment can ease the pain and treat the rash.

Vesicular hand dermatitis | DermNet NZ

Author: Amanda Oakley, Dermatologist, Hamilton New Zealand, 1997. Updated July 2014.


What is vesicular hand dermatitis?

Vesicular hand dermatitis is a form of hand eczema characterised by vesicles or bullae (blisters). A similar condition can affect the feet (vesicular foot dermatitis).

The most common variant of vesicular hand dermatitis is also called vesicular endogenous eczema, dyshidrotic eczema, and pompholyx; cheiropompholyx affects the hands and pedopompholyx affects the feet.

Vesicular hand/foot dermatitis

See more images of vesicular hand/foot dermatitis.

Who gets vesicular hand/foot dermatitis?

Vesicular hand/foot dermatitis most often affects young adults.

  • It is more common in females than in males.
  • It is often associated with palmoplantar hyperhidrosis.
  • There is a personal or family history of atopic eczema in 50%.

What causes vesicular hand/foot dermatitis?

Vesicular hand/foot dermatitis is multifactorial. In many cases, it appears to be related to sweating, as flares often occur during hot weather, humid conditions, or following an emotional upset. Other contributing factors include:

 Vesicles can also occur in other types of hand dermatitis.

What are the clinical features of vesicular hand/foot dermatitis?

Vesicular hand/foot dermatitis presents as recurrent crops of deep-seated blisters on the palms and soles. They cause intense itch or a burning sensation. The blisters peel off and the skin then appears red, dry and has painful fissures (cracks).

 

What are the complications of vesicular hand/foot dermatitis?

Secondary bacterial infection with Staphylococcus aureus and/or Streptococcus pyogenes is common in vesicular hand/foot dermatitis and results in pain, swelling, and pustules on the hands and/or feet.

When involving the distal finger adjacent or proximal to the nail fold, it can result in paronychia (nail fold swelling) and nail dystrophy with irregular pitting and ridges.

Infected vesicular hand dermatitis

How is vesicular hand/foot dermatitis diagnosed?

The clinical presentation of vesicular hand/foot dermatitis is typical.

  • Unilateral involvement is suspicious for a fungal infection (tinea pedis), and skin scrapings should be taken for mycology.
  • Patch testing is indicated in chronic or atypical cases.
  • Skin biopsy is rarely necessary. It shows spongiotic eczema.

Other forms of hand dermatitis should be considered in the differential diagnosis. 

What is the treatment for vesicular hand/foot dermatitis?

Vesicular hand/foot dermatitis is challenging to treat. Topical therapy is relatively ineffective because of the thick horny layer of skin of palms and soles.

General measures:

  • Wet dressings to dry up blisters, using dilute potassium permanganate, aluminium acetate or acetic acid
  • Cold packs
  • Soothing emollient lotions and creams
  • Potent antiperspirants applied to palms and soles at night
  • Protective gloves should be worn for wet or dirty work
  • Well-fitting footwear, with 2 pairs of socks to absorb sweat and reduce friction.

Contact with irritants such as water, detergents, and solvents must be avoided as much as possible and protective gloves worn to prevent irritant contact dermatitis. 

  • Note that cream cleansers are not antimicrobial; soap and water or a sanitiser is needed for washing hands in order to destroy pathogens such as the SARS-CoV-2 virus responsible for COVID-19.

People with vesicular hand dermatitis found to be allergic to nickel must try to avoid touching nickel items.

Prescription medicines:

Other options:

What is the outlook for vesicular hand/foot dermatitis?

Vesicular hand/foot dermatitis generally gradually subsides and resolves spontaneously. It may recur in hot weather or after a period of stress, and in some patients is recalcitrant.

Hand Dermatitis | Skin Support

HAND DERMATITIS

What are the aims of this leaflet?  

This leaflet has been written to help you understand more about the causes and treatment of hand dermatitis.  

What is hand dermatitis?

Hand dermatitis is also called hand eczema. It is common and can affect about one in every 20 people. It can start in childhood as part of an in-built tendency to eczema, but is commonest in teenagers and adults. Hand dermatitis may be a short-lived, transient problem. However, in some people, it lasts for years and can have a great impact on daily life.

Who is most likely to get hand dermatitis?

People who have had eczema in childhood (atopic eczema), as well as those who work in jobs with frequent water contact (wet work) have a high risk of getting hand dermatitis.

What causes hand dermatitis?

In many people, hand dermatitis happens because of direct damage to the skin by harsh chemicals as well as irritants, especially soap, detergent and repeated contact with water. This is called irritant contact dermatitis.

Skin contact with allergens such as perfumes, metals, rubber or leather can also cause dermatitis in people with an allergy to these substances. This is called allergic contact dermatitis.

In many cases, however, the cause of a patient’s hand dermatitis is unknown, and there is no identifiable trigger. It is also common for someone to have more than one cause of hand dermatitis, for example a combination of atopic dermatitis and irritant or allergic contact dermatitis.      

Is hand dermatitis hereditary?

No, it is not hereditary; however the tendency to get hand dermatitis can run in families along with atopic dermatitis, asthma and hay fever.

What are the symptoms of hand dermatitis?

The affected areas of skin feel hot, painful, rough, scaly and itchy.  There may be itchy little blisters or painful cracks. This may in turn, result in pain when moving the hand and fingers.

What does hand dermatitis look like?

In hand dermatitis, the skin is inflamed, red and swollen, with a damaged dried-out or scaly surface which makes it look flaky. There may be cracked areas that bleed and ooze. Sometimes small water blisters can be seen on the palms or sides of the fingers. Different parts of the hand can be affected such as the finger webs, fleshy fingertips or centre of the palms. There are several different patterns of hand dermatitis, but these do not usually tell us its cause and the pattern can change over time in one person.

Hand dermatitis may get infected with bacteria called Staphylococcus or Streptococcus. This causes more redness, soreness, crusting, oozing and spots or pimples.        

How is hand dermatitis diagnosed?

Diagnosing hand dermatitis is done by carefully examining the skin.  Examining other body areas will confirm the eczema is isolated to the hands, or suggest a more widespread skin condition is involved.

Identifying a cause for your hand dermatitis involves looking at the pattern of your hand dermatitis and highlighting potential triggers.

Patch testing is used to find out if an allergy (e. g. to metal) is causing allergic contact dermatitis. This is usually done in a dermatology department. This may be one of several causes for a person’s hand dermatitis. The tests are done over several days and on the final day should be read and explained by an expert. Most adults are tested for 50 or more common allergies.  More specific allergens may also be tested depending on the history of a patient’s hand dermatitis.

Can other skin complaints look like hand dermatitis?

Psoriasis of the hands can look similar to dermatitis, especially when there are thick, scaly patches on the palms. Ringworm or fungus infection also causes itchy scaly rashes. These conditions usually start on the feet or groin, but can spread to the hands and nails and sometimes affect only one hand. Skin samples from affected areas can be sent for fungal analysis (mycology) if this needs to be ruled out.

Which occupations often cause hand dermatitis?

Occupations with a high chance of hand dermatitis include cleaners, carers, people who look after young children, chefs, hairdressers, mechanics, doctors, dentists, nurses, florists, machine operators, aromatherapists, beauticians, and construction workers. Any job which involves repeated contact with water or hand washing more than 10 times a day (‘wet work’) has an increased chance of causing hand dermatitis. 

Can hand dermatitis be cured?

In most cases, treatment controls the condition but does not cure it. Early identification and treatment may avoid long standing issues related to hand dermatitis. In people with allergic contact dermatitis, avoiding the allergen(s) may help or even clear the hand dermatitis.

How can hand dermatitis be treated?

Moisturisers (emollients) are an essential part of treating hand dermatitis. They help repair the damaged outer skin and lock moisture inside the skin making it soft and supple again. They should be applied repeatedly throughout the day and whenever the skin feels dry.  They also serve to reduce the risk of secondary bacterial infection.

CAUTION: This leaflet mentions ‘emollients’ (moisturisers). Emollients, creams, lotions and ointments contain oils which can catch fire. When emollient products get in contact with dressings, clothing, bed linen or hair, there is a danger that a naked flame or cigarette smoking could cause these to catch fire. To reduce the fire risk, patients using skincare or haircare products are advised to be very careful near naked flames to reduce the risk of clothing, hair or bedding catching fire. In particular smoking cigarettes should be avoided and being near people who are smoking or using naked flames, especially in bed. Candles may also risk fire. It is advisable to wash clothing daily which is in contact with emollients and bed linen regularly.

Using moisturisers as soap substitutes is very important as they clean the skin without drying and damaging it like liquid soap and bar soap can.

Steroid creams and ointments are the commonest prescribed treatment for hand dermatitis. They relieve symptoms and calm inflamed skin. Stronger strength steroids are usually needed as mild steroids (1% hydrocortisone) do not work on thick skin. They are applied up to twice a day. If they are over-used, there is a risk of skin thinning. However, when used as suggested by your doctor or nurse, topical steroids do not usually cause these problems.

Antihistamine tablets are not often helpful in hand dermatitis. Non-sedating antihistamines are not helpful for most people with eczema. Sedating antihistamines are sometimes taken for a few days when eczema flares up to help sleep. Sedating antihistamines cause drowsiness and should not be taken before driving and using machinery.

Calcineurin inhibitors are creams and ointments used to treat dermatitis instead of steroids. While they may work less well than strong steroids, they do not carry any risk of skin thinning. They can often cause burning or stinging after application.  

Ultraviolet (UV) Therapy is a hospital-based treatment for very severe hand dermatitis. It involves visiting hospital for treatment two or three times a week for about six weeks.

Steroid tablets may be given for a few weeks for a severe flare of hand dermatitis. The dose is usually decreased gradually over a few weeks. Longer-term use is not advisable due to the side effects.

Alitretinoin is based on vitamin A and is prescribed by specialists for severe long-standing hand dermatitis. A treatment course usually lasts up to 6 months.  It must never be taken during pregnancy. For more on the important side-effects associated with alitretinoin, please see the BAD leaflet.

Systemic immunosuppressants are powerful treatments sometimes prescribed by specialists to treat severe hand dermatitis. These medications used include azathioprine, ciclosporinand methotrexate. These treatments are  usually reserved for more severe cases or when other treatment options have failed to control symptoms. They are not suitable for all people. People taking these tablets need to be monitored carefully and have regular blood tests. 

Preventing hand dermatitis – what can I do?

Always use protective gloves at work and at home when in contact with irritating chemicals and water. Wear cotton gloves underneath or chose cotton-lined gloves if you have to work for longer periods of time.

The best choice of glove material (rubber, PVC, nitrile etc) will depend on which chemicals or allergens are being handled. Gloves should be clean and dry inside and not broken.

Some people have boxes of nitrile gloves in the kitchen and bathroom, to help remember to use these when preparing food, cleaning surfaces and washing hair.

If gloves cannot be worn, a barrier cream should be applied before exposure to irritants. After exposure, wash the hands carefully with a soap substitute, rinse, dry thoroughly then moisturise.

The BAD has a leaflet on How to care for your hands.

Where can I get more information about hand dermatitis?

Health and Safety Executive website: www. hse.gov.uk/food/dermatitis.htm

For details of source materials please contact the Clinical Standards Unit ([email protected]).

This leaflet aims to provide accurate information about the subject and is a consensus of the views held by representatives of the British Association of Dermatologists; individual patient circumstances may differ, which might alter both the advice and course of therapy given to you by your doctor.

This leaflet has been assessed for readability by the British Association of Dermatologists’ Patient Information Lay Review Panel

BRITISH ASSOCIATION OF DERMATOLOGISTS
PATIENT INFORMATION LEAFLET
PRODUCED SEPTEMBER 2012
UPDATED JANUARY 2016, AUGUST 2019
REVIEW DATE AUGUST 2022

Palm Rash – Symptoms, Causes, Treatments

Rash is a symptom that causes the affected area of skin to turn red and blotchy and to swell. A rash may cause spots that are bumpy, scaly, flaky, or filled with pus. Rashes can vary in location, pattern and extent and may occur in any area of the body. A rash on your palm can have a variety of causes, and it may indicate something occurring around the palm itself or suggest a systemic (body-wide) condition.

Contact dermatitis (skin inflammation) is caused by an adverse reaction to something that touches the skin, including chemicals found in a detergent, soap or a fragrance. For example, you may develop a rash on your palm after you try a new brand of soap or lotion. Other forms of contact dermatitis include exposure to certain plants, such as poison oak or ivy, an animal bite, or an insect sting. Rocky Mountain spotted fever is a tick-borne illness that causes rash; it starts on the arms and legs and can spread to the palms of the hands. Syphilis, a sexually transmitted disease, can also produce a characteristic rash on the palms.

Allergies to food and medications are potentially serious sources of rash. Peanuts, shellfish, strawberries and avocados are just some of the foods that can trigger allergic reactions. These foods may cause mild reactions; however, in some cases, reactions could develop into potentially life-threatening conditions characterized by vomiting, difficulty breathing, and swelling. Allergic purpura is a serious, often life-threatening allergic reaction that can cause a skin rash but can also affect the joints, gastrointestinal tract.

Rashes may also occur in skin conditions such as eczema, psoriasis and impetigo. The palm is a common location for psoriasis eruptions, which cause scaly white spots and inflammation. Some chronic skin conditions may flare up for a time, then resolve. Scabies, a contagious disease caused by tiny mites, typically starts on the palms, in the grooves between the fingers. Other causes of rash include autoimmune disorders that occur when the body is attacked by its own immune system, which normally serves to protect it from foreign invaders (antigens). Many viruses that occur during flu season, or those associated with childhood diseases, can produce rash. Hand-foot-and-mouth disease, a condition that occurs in children, is associated with palm rash.

Rashes can be caused by an allergic reaction to food, medications, or products such as lotions or detergents. These reactions can range from mild to potentially life threatening, especially if swelling and constriction of breathing occurs, which could indicate anaphylaxis.
Seek immediate medical care (call 911) if a rash is accompanied by any serious symptoms, including swelling of the face, swelling and constriction of the throat, difficulty breathing, fainting, change in level of consciousness or alertness, pale skin, or purple rash.

Seek prompt medical care if a rash is persistent or causes you concern.

Skin rashes in children – Injuries & first aid

Childhood rashes are common and aren’t usually a cause for concern. Most rashes are harmless and disappear without the need for treatment.

However, see your GP if your child has a rash and seems unwell, or if you’re worried. They’ll be able to investigate the cause and recommend any necessary treatment.

This page may give you a better idea about what could be causing the rash, but don’t use this to self-diagnose your child’s condition – always see a GP for a proper diagnosis.

The most common causes of rashes in children are:

The skin rash of meningitis is also covered on the page. Although meningitis has become less common over recent years, it’s important to be aware of the rash and the other signs and symptoms of meningitis.

Cellulitis

Cellulitis is an infection of the deeper layers of skin and underlying tissue. The affected area will be red, painful, swollen and hot. It often affects the legs, but can occur anywhere on the body. Your child will probably also have a fever.

See your GP immediately if an area of your child’s skin suddenly turns red, hot and tender. If you can’t see your GP on the same day, go to a walk-in centre or minor injuries unit.

Cellulitis can usually be diagnosed by assessing the symptoms and examining the skin. It usually responds well to treatment with antibiotics.

Chickenpox

Chickenpox is a viral illness that most children catch at some point. It most commonly affects children under 10 years of age.

A rash of itchy spots turns into fluid-filled blisters. They crust over to form scabs, which after a while drop off. Some children only have a few spots, whereas others have them over their entire body. The spots are most likely to appear on the face, ears and scalp, under the arms, on the chest and belly, and on the arms and legs.

There’s no specific treatment for chickenpox, but you can take steps to relieve the symptoms. For example, paracetamol can help relieve fever (don’t give aspirin to children under 16), and calamine lotion and cooling gels can be used to ease itching.

Read more about treating chickenpox.

Eczema

Eczema is a long-term condition that causes the skin to become itchy, red, dry and cracked. The most common type is atopic eczema, which mainly affects children but can continue into adulthood.

Atopic eczema commonly develops behind the knees or on the elbows, neck, eyes and ears. It isn’t a serious condition, but if your child later becomes infected with the herpes simplex virus, it can cause the eczema to flare up into an outbreak of tiny blisters called eczema herpeticum, and will cause a fever.

About one in five children in the UK has eczema, and in eight out 10 cases it develops before the age of five, often before a child’s first birthday. 

Read about treating atopic eczema.

Erythema multiforme

Erythema multiforme is a skin rash (usually mild) that’s caused by an allergic reaction to the herpes simplex virus.

The spots look like targets, with a dark red centre and paler ring around the outside. The hands or feet tend to be affected first, followed by the limbs, upper body and face.

Your child will probably feel unwell and may have a fever, which you should be able to treat with over-the-counter medicine. It may take from two to six weeks before they feel better. See your GP if your child has a rash and seems unwell.

In rare cases, erythema multiforme can be triggered by a reaction to certain medications, such as an antibiotic or anticonvulsant. This more severe form is called Stevens-Johnson syndrome and it can be life-threatening.

Hand, foot and mouth disease

Hand, foot and mouth disease is a common, contagious infection that causes mouth ulcers and spots and blisters on the palms of the hands and soles of the feet.

It’s most common in young children (particularly those under 10), but it can also affect older children and adults.

There’s no cure for hand, foot and mouth disease and it’s easily spread, so you should keep your child away from school or nursery until they’re better. Your child’s immune system will fight the virus and it should clear up after about seven to 10 days.

Make sure your child drinks plenty of fluid, and if eating and swallowing is uncomfortable, give them soft foods, such as mashed potatoes, yoghurt and soup.

Impetigo

Impetigo is a common and highly contagious skin infection that causes sores and blisters. It isn’t usually serious and often improves within a week of treatment. There are two types of impetigo – bullous and non-bullous.

Bullous impetigo typically affects the trunk (the area of the body between the waist and neck), and causes fluid-filled blisters that burst after a few days to leave a yellow crust.

Non-bullous impetigo typically affects the skin around the nose and mouth, causing sores that quickly burst to leave a yellow-brown crust.

See your GP if you think your child has impetigo. Antibiotics, in the form of a cream or tablets, will be prescribed. This should reduce the length of the illness to around seven to 10 days.

Keratosis pilaris (“chicken skin”)

Keratosis pilaris is a common and harmless skin condition. The skin on the back of the upper arms becomes rough and bumpy, as if covered in permanent goose pimples. Sometimes, the buttocks, thighs, forearms and upper back can also be affected.

Keratosis pilaris typically begins in childhood and gets worse during puberty. Some people find it improves after this and may even disappear in adulthood.

There’s no cure for keratosis pilaris, and it often gets better on its own without treatment. However, there are some measures you can take that may improve your child’s rash, such as using non-soap cleansers rather than soap, and an emollient to moisturise their skin. Your GP or pharmacist will be able to recommend a suitable cream.

Measles

Measles is a highly infectious illness that most commonly affects young children. It’s now rare in the UK because of the effectiveness of the measles, mumps and rubella (MMR) vaccine.

The measles rash is red-brown blotches. It usually starts on the head or upper neck and then spreads outwards to the rest of the body. Your child may also have a fever and cold-like symptoms.

Call your GP surgery immediately if you think your child has measles. It’s best to phone before visiting because the surgery may need to make arrangements to reduce the risk of spreading the infection to others.

Measles usually passes in about seven to 10 days without causing further problems. Paracetamol or ibuprofen can be used to relieve fever, aches and pains (don’t give aspirin to children under 16). Also, make sure your child drinks plenty of water to avoid dehydration.

Read more about treating measles.

Molluscum contagiosum

Molluscum contagiosum is a viral skin infection that causes clusters of small, firm, raised spots to develop on the skin.

It commonly affects young children aged one to five years, who tend to catch it after close physical contact with another infected child.

The condition is usually painless, although some children may experience some itchiness. It usually goes away within 18 months without the need for treatment.

Molluscum contagiosum is highly infectious. However, most adults are resistant to the virus, which means they’re unlikely to catch it if they come into contact with it.

Pityriasis rosea

Pityriasis rosea is a relatively common skin condition that causes a temporary rash of raised, red scaly patches to develop on the body. Most cases occur in older children and young adults (aged between 10 and 35).

The rash can be very itchy. In most cases, it clears up without treatment in 2 to 12 weeks, although in rare cases it can last up to five months.

Emollients, steroid creams and antihistamines can be used to help relieve the itchiness. The rash doesn’t usually leave scars, although the skin can sometimes be discoloured afterwards.

Prickly heat (heat rash)

Prickly heat (heat rash), also known as miliaria, is an itchy rash of small, raised red spots that causes a stinging or prickly sensation on the skin.

It occurs when the sweat ducts in the outer layer of skin (epidermis) are obstructed. You can get a heat rash anywhere on your body, but the face, neck, back, chest or thighs are most often affected.

Infants can sometimes get a prickly heat rash if they sweat more than usual – for example, when it’s hot and humid or if they’re overdressed. It isn’t a serious condition and rarely requires any specific treatment.

Psoriasis

Psoriasis is a long-lasting (chronic) skin condition that causes red, flaky, crusty patches of skin covered with silvery scales.

The severity of psoriasis varies greatly from person to person. For some people, it’s just a minor irritation, but for others it can have a major impact on their quality of life. 

There’s no cure for psoriasis, but there are a number of treatments that can help improve the symptoms and appearance of skin patches. For example, topical corticosteroids are creams and ointments that can be applied to the skin.

Ringworm

Ringworm is a highly infectious fungal skin infection that causes a ring-like red or silvery patch on the skin that can be scaly, inflamed or itchy.

Ringworm often affects the arms and legs, but it can appear almost anywhere on the body. Other similar fungal infections can affect the scalp, feet, groin and nails.

Ringworm can usually be easily treated with antifungal medicines, which are available from a pharmacy. Ringworm of the scalp can cause scaling and patches of hair loss. It’s treated with antifungal tablets, often combined with antifungal shampoo.

Scabies

Scabies is a contagious skin condition that’s intensely itchy. It’s caused by tiny mites that burrow into the skin.

In children, scabies is usually spread through prolonged periods of skin-to-skin contact with an infected adult or child – for example, during play fighting or hugging.

The mites like warm places, such as skin folds, between the fingers, under fingernails, or around the buttock creases. They leave small red blotches, which are often found on the palms of the hands or soles of the feet. In infants, blisters are commonly found on the soles of the feet. 

See your GP if you think your child has scabies. It’s not usually a serious condition, but it does need to be treated. Your GP will prescribe a lotion or cream. Read more about treating scabies.

Scarlet fever

Scarlet fever is a highly contagious bacterial infection that usually affects children between two and eight years of age. It causes a distinctive pink-red rash, which feels like sandpaper to touch and may be itchy.

It often starts with a sore throat, fever and headache, with the rash developing two to five days after infection. The rash usually occurs on the chest and stomach before spreading to other areas of the body, such as the ears and neck.

Scarlet fever usually clears up after about a week, but see your GP if you think your child may have it. Antibiotics are used to treat it (liquid antibiotics, such as penicillin or amoxicillin, are often used to treat children).

Slapped cheek syndrome

Slapped cheek syndrome – also known as fifth disease or parvovirus B19 – is a viral infection that’s common in children aged six to 10.

It causes a distinctive bright red rash to develop on both cheeks. This can look alarming, but it usually clears up by itself in one to three weeks.

Unless your child is feeling unwell, they don’t need to stay away from school. Once the rash appears, the infection is no longer contagious. However, it’s a good idea to notify your child’s school about the infection.

Urticaria (hives)

Urticaria – also known as hives, weals, welts or nettle rash – is a raised, itchy rash that can affect one part of the body or be spread across large areas. It’s a common skin reaction that often affects children.

Urticaria occurs when a trigger causes high levels of histamine and other chemical messengers to be released in the skin. These substances cause the blood vessels in the skin to open up, resulting in redness or pinkness, and swelling and itchiness.

There are many possible triggers of urticaria, including allergens, such as food or latex, irritants, such as nettles, medicines, and physical factors, such as heat or exercise. Sometimes, a cause can’t be identified.

The rash is usually short-lived and mild, and can often be controlled with antihistamines.

90,000 frost allergies – how do people react to cold?

How do people react to cold? A strange question, you might say. Shiver, chill, can feel goosebumps and even tremble. But for some people, even warm clothing does not save them from a red itchy rash, blisters, and even fever and joint aches! This is what a cold allergy looks like.

There are no exact statistics on frost allergy. It is known that it manifests itself most often at the age of 14 to 30 years, and about 70% of those suffering from it are women.The reaction occurs when the thermometer drops to + 4 ° C and below. In humid air and in strong winds, manifestations are more acute, since the cold is felt more acutely.

I cannot tell if the red rash that occurs on my skin in winter is an allergy to frost or a sign of another problem. Is it possible to determine exactly?

First of all, the opening of the body is affected – the nose, earlobes, face, hands. But rashes can appear under clothing if the person is cold enough.First, the classic urticaria appears – a red rash with swelling, blisters and itching. Then white and pink rashes can join it. If cooling continues, systemic reactions of the body may begin – chills, fever, headache. There is even a fever and joint aches. The most dangerous reaction is Quincke’s edema. Swelling of the eyelids, lips, mucous membranes of the mouth and respiratory tract. Itching and coughing begins in the throat, breathing may be disturbed.

Of course, all these symptoms can be associated with other causes.To make sure that the cold air is to blame, a “frost test” is done. A piece of ice is placed on the back of the hand and held for 2-5 minutes. If after some time after removal, swelling and a rash appear in this place, this is a sign of allergy. Some tests can be effective in distinguishing frost allergies from other conditions.

Previously, I was not allergic to cold. The blisters on the skin, which I comb until painful, began to appear after 25 years. How do you explain the appearance of these itchy spots?

Primary cold allergy occurs on its own, its causes are not precisely determined.There is evidence that within 10 years after the first attack, the reaction to cold disappears by itself in about 25% of people.

There is a so-called secondary allergy to cold, which occurs as a result of other diseases. For example, after a person, especially a child, has had chickenpox, pneumonia, infectious mononucleosis. It also develops against the background of chronic diseases, especially immune disorders, liver and gastrointestinal tract diseases, helminthiasis.

Although medicine is not sure about the causes of primary cold allergy, the mechanism of the reaction is quite clear.Under the influence of cold – no matter whether from air, water or from some surface – in the vessels of the skin, special immune compounds, cryoglobulins, are intensively produced. They give such a skin reaction.

On the one hand, the strategy for dealing with cold allergies seems to be clear: dress warmer, stay in the cold less, do not swim in cold water, etc. But sometimes circumstances are stronger than us, and going out into the cold and starting to choke from Quincke’s edema is not the best outcome. Plus, as already mentioned, the reaction to cold can be a manifestation of serious internal diseases.Finally, a cold reaction can easily be confused with Raynaud’s disease. In her case, a person reacts in a similar way to cold, but not because of the production of cryoglobulins, but because of paroxysmal spasms of small blood vessels. It leads to ulcers and tissue necrosis.

Therefore, it is better to contact an allergist, diagnose and receive recommendations for the removal of an acute condition.

I’m going to see an allergist. What analyzes need to be prepared in advance?

Indeed, to save time, you can conduct a study of some blood parameters even before visiting a doctor and come to him with ready-made results.

You can choose either liver biochemistry or liver exam, since half of the tests are the same.

Biochemical blood test, basic will assess the general condition of the liver and the risk of vascular atherosclerosis. Based on it, it will immediately become clear whether it is possible to assume a primary allergy to frost, or this reaction is clearly a consequence of some kind of disease. It is advisable to take it in the first half of the day, do not eat for 8-14 hours before taking blood, you can drink only ordinary non-carbonated water.

Liver examination, basic – a set of tests that allows you to assess the state of liver cells and its work. Usually it is prescribed for increased fatigue and the presence of heaviness or pain in the right hypochondrium. If there is a reaction to cold, it will help to determine whether the allergy is a consequence of toxic, viral or other liver damage. It is given in the same way as a biochemical blood test.

Cryoglobulins – a study that will reveal the very immune complexes with which the body responds to frost.It is better to check them, since their presence in crocs is accompanied by kidney damage. They can also indicate viral hepatitis and some other diseases. The analysis is taken in the morning after an 8-hour hunger, you can drink ordinary water without restrictions.

If there is a suspicion of Raynaud’s syndrome, often associated with rheumatic diseases, it is necessary to pass a rheumatological extended set of laboratory tests.

Accelerate diagnosis and rule out serious illnesses by having all tests done in one go in a conveniently located laboratory office.

Allergy to household chemicals – symptoms and treatment

Long-awaited cleaning – the windows shine with cleanliness, the floor shines, everything in the apartment is arranged on the shelves, the dust is wiped off the surfaces, beauty! And suddenly, unexpectedly, you start sneezing, coughing and other signs of allergies. It is quite possible that this is due to the reaction of your body to household chemicals. What leads to the development of allergy to household chemicals, can it be avoided? How to protect yourself from exacerbation, and are there treatments that can completely cure this type of allergic reaction? Answers in this material.

What is a household chemical allergy?

  • Allergy to household chemicals means hypersensitivity to substances in the composition of various cleaning and detergents, as well as shampoos and soaps. These substances provoke skin damage, increasing its permeability to chemicals, and are themselves serious allergens 1, 2 .

What are the reasons for it?

The most powerful factor in the development of sensitization, that is, increased sensitivity to foreign substances, is contact of the skin or respiratory tract with household chemicals.In this case, contact can occur not only when using cleaning and hygiene products, but also be mediated – that is, through things and household items, on which residues of detergents or cleaning substances have remained.

After contact, the substances enter the body, causing a reaction on the part of the immune system, the cells of which enter into battle with the substances, trying to destroy them as quickly as possible. The biological and immunological processes taking place during this battle lead to the formation of special complexes and antibodies, which in the future must fight allergens.

  • It is important to remember that the complexes are specific: some develop for insect bites or plant pollen, others for cleaning products or animals, that is, in each case, the antigen is different. This explains a kind of paradox, in which some people have a reaction to household chemicals, others – to animals, but at the same time all of them can safely use ordinary detergents 1.3 .

What household substances and products can provoke an allergic reaction?

There are many substances that can lead to allergy to household chemicals 1.2 .

  • Detergents.

  • Cleaning products, including those containing chlorine.

  • Surfactants, including those that are part of washing powders and other household chemicals.

  • Solvents, adhesives.

  • Food additives and certain food products.

  • Means for coloring and hair care.

  • Household plants and preparations for their care.

What are the symptoms of a household chemical allergy?

  • This type of allergy refers to contact, and the first symptoms appear at the site of direct penetration of the allergen into the body. Most often it is the skin and mucous membrane of the respiratory tract – the main places of contact of household chemicals with the body.So, for example, a rash and itching, dryness, redness, peeling, cracking or blistering, a rash in the form of urticaria, etc., may appear on the skin.If the allergen has penetrated the mucous membrane of the respiratory tract, then the allergy is manifested by a respiratory syndrome: runny nose, profuse secretion of mucus, a feeling of nasal congestion, itching and soreness in the nose and nasopharynx, cough. But when an allergen enters through the eyes, an allergic inflammation of the mucous membrane of the eye develops – that is, the conjunctiva.If the agent was swallowed by inhalation and penetrated into the digestive system, then the symptoms may be similar to symptoms of poisoning: nausea, vomiting, stool disturbances.

Severe allergies to household chemicals can be manifested by bronchospasm, Quincke’s edema, anaphylactic shock 2, 3 .

Rash during sports and physical activity

Hello dear doctor! the problem is already long enough! at the age of 18, a year and a half ago, a rash appeared with foci.Basically, all small lesions were located on the chest-legs .. after a couple of weeks the lesion remained alone, in the center of the chest with a diameter of 4-5 cm bright red .. all the lesions bothered with itching .. when alcohol-containing liquids hit the affected area of ​​the skin, a burning sensation was felt, when pressed and letting go, the skin turned yellow for a couple of seconds .. ointments and tablets prescribed by local doctors did not help. helped “enterosgel” for a week of admission completely removing the manifestation of the rash. later, during the year, small lesions appeared, in particular on the leg and abdomen, closer to the groin…. itching similar to the reaction after mosquito bites. When I tried to scratch, the itching got worse! repeated doses of enterosgel, complexes of active biological additives “lymphosan” managed to muffle disturbing rashes. on probing, only a flocculent sediment was found in the bile, which was explained by the stagnation of bile caused by the 2nd inflection of the bile…. now, for a couple of months, no rash has been observed, But when playing sports, with physical exertion, an indication is almost instantly felt, itching on the skin and a short-term rash appears mainly on the chest and arms. the same rash, only less intense sometimes appears after a regular shower. here is the description of my problem. I apologize for being so voluminous .. I tried not to miss the little things. Thanks in advance and really hope for your advice!

Hello! Perhaps you have manifestations of atopic dermatitis and urticaria, food allergies are possible, I do not deny helminthic invasion, you must follow a hypoallergenic diet, donate blood to the allergens panel (food and household allergens), visit an allergist and dermatologist with the test results, come and help

90,000 Why do rashes occur on the palms

A rash can appear all over the body, including the palms.During the day, your hand comes into contact with different people, the environment, and other stimuli that can trigger a reaction. Analyzing the symptoms and causes of a rash on the palms can help a doctor diagnose your condition.

8 causes of rashes on the palms

A rash is a symptom that can cause itching, burns, or swelling of the skin. While a rash is not always indicative of a more serious condition, it can be a sign of infection or exposure to an allergen.

There are a number of conditions that can trigger a rash in your palm. Some of the most common:

1. Allergic reaction

Food or drug allergies can cause an allergic reaction, which can manifest as a rash, itching, blistering or even hives.

Other common symptoms that may accompany a rash on the palms include:

  • vomiting;
  • 90,053 diarrhea;

    90,053 itching in the mouth;

  • shortness of breath;
  • 90,053 edema;

  • difficulty swallowing;
  • anaphylactic shock.

Severe allergic reaction and anaphylactic shock are considered a medical emergency. You should see your doctor immediately if you have these or any more serious symptoms.

2. Dry skin

During the cold season, the weather can dry out the skin, causing itching and flaking of the skin of the hands. This can also directly touch the palms.

Eczema and certain medications also sometimes cause dry skin and rashes.Scratching your palms can make your symptoms worse.

3. Ringworm

This fungal infection is a common but treatable disease. Ringworm is a skin infection that appears as a ring-shaped rash on various parts of the body. But on the palms, the characteristic ring-shaped pattern does not develop.

In addition to a rash on the skin of your palms, you may experience:

  • dryness;
  • deep cracks;
  • coarsening;
  • inflammation.

4. Contact dermatitis

Contact dermatitis is a form of eczema that causes a rash when your skin or hands touch an irritant. A skin rash develops within 48 hours if the reaction to such an irritant appears for the first time. If you are in contact with the trigger again, the re-reaction to it may develop more quickly.

Contact dermatitis usually occurs after contact with:

You may also develop rashes on your palms from touching cleaning products, bleach, and certain types of soaps.If you have a rash in the palm of your hand that does not go away or is accompanied by a constant burning sensation, see your doctor immediately.

5. Psoriasis

This skin condition is a condition that can cause inflammation in various parts of the body. Psoriasis is inherited and can also be caused by trauma to the epidermis, other skin conditions, or infection.

In addition to psoriatic inflammation on the palms, it can also occur:

  • redness;
  • dryness and flaking of the skin;
  • plaques or thickening of the epidermis in the affected area;
  • painful cracks.

6. Enteroviral vesicular stomatitis

Enteroviral vesicular stomatitis is a highly contagious condition that often occurs in children. It is a viral infection that can cause sores and rashes in the mouth, hands and feet.

Other symptoms of this infection include:

  • fever;
  • sore throat;
  • 90,053 blisters on the tongue;

  • red rash on palms or soles;
  • decreased appetite.

This condition is likely to resolve within a few days with few signs of symptoms. If your symptoms get worse or don’t get better, make an appointment with your doctor.

7. Dyshidrotic eczema

A specific type of eczema that causes small, itchy blisters. If you are diagnosed with dyshidrotic eczema, you may develop blisters on your toes and feet. They are usually painful and clumpy.

This disease most often occurs in women, less often in men.

Blisters will dry and exfoliate within three weeks. To date, there is no cure for this disease, but your doctor can advise you on symptomatic treatment.

8. Impetigo

Another common skin infection in children is impetigo. This condition causes blisters on the face, neck, and arms.

Children are more likely to develop this infection if they already have other skin conditions such as eczema or contact dermatitis caused by plant chemicals.

Impetigo is contagious, spreads from person to person or through contact with things touched by an infected person. Impetigo is also itchy and can spread to other parts of the body.

Do you need treatment

Treatment of a rash on the palms depends on the underlying cause of the symptom. Some rashes can go away on their own and do not require treatment. In other cases, therapy may be simple, but only a doctor can establish the cause of the disease and find remedies for its elimination.

If you have an allergic reaction, you will be prescribed appropriate allergy medication after examination. When the rash is due to atopic dermatitis, eczema, or psoriasis, your doctor may prescribe a topical cream. Such a cream should be applied 30 minutes before going out into the cold, as well as at night and in all other cases when the dryness of the epidermis is pronounced.

For eczema and psoriasis, avoid potential triggers and keep your hands moist to prevent dry skin.

For bacterial or viral infections, your doctor may prescribe a topical or oral antibiotic. If your symptoms do not improve or worsen after treatment, see your doctor again immediately.

Forecast

A rash on the palms is often a minor symptom that can be healed within a few days. However, some cases of this rash could be a sign of a more serious skin condition or infection.

If you start to feel additional symptoms with a rash on your palms, or if the condition of the rash worsens, see your doctor.He will diagnose your disease and select the right treatment.

Allergic urticaria in adults and children: treatment, symptoms and

Urticaria – allergic skin symptoms that look like a nettle burn. The same blisters, swelling and itching appear, but not from a meeting with a burning plant, but from contact with an allergen. Every fifth person has experienced hives at least once in their life1. Let’s understand the reasons and methods of treatment.

HOW DOES ALLERGIC URETTES DEVELOP IN ADULTS AND CHILDREN

We owe the appearance of unpleasant symptoms to a special substance – histamine.It is produced and stored in mast cells. When an allergen enters the body, histamine is released and triggers an allergic reaction: the capillaries become more permeable, edema develops, and itching appears.

Urticaria symptoms:

  • blisters: if you press on the middle, it turns pale;
  • redness and swelling;
  • itching, sometimes unbearable.

The rash can appear anywhere on the body, spread to other parts, disappear for a while, and then reappear.With allergic urticaria, such a reaction develops instantly – in the first minutes and hours after contact with the allergen.

If the reaction involves the larynx and it interferes with breathing, call an ambulance.

Allergic urticaria is more often caused by:

  • Foods such as nuts, chocolate, fish, tomatoes, eggs, berries and milk;
  • preservatives, colorants and flavors;
  • medicines such as aspirin or ibuprofen, ACE inhibitors;
  • latex;
  • house ticks;
  • 90,053 plant poison;

  • pollen;
  • 90,053 insect bites2.

Sometimes a specific allergen triggers a reaction, but it is often difficult to determine the exact cause. A rash similar to urticaria can appear against the background of an infection or autoimmune disease, hormonal disorders, so it is better to leave the diagnosis to the doctor.

TREATMENT OF ALLERGIC urticaria in adults and children

The essence of the treatment is to block the action of histamine – the main substance that causes allergies.

Previously, such drugs did not act selectively on histamine receptors, penetrated the nervous system, and therefore caused drowsiness, affected memory and nervous functions. Now such second-generation antihistamines as “Erius” have been developed, which are devoid of the disadvantages of first-generation drugs. In addition, these drugs are non-addictive and last longer than first-generation drugs3. “Erius” tablets are suitable for adults and adolescents from 12 years old, and a syrup has been developed for children from 6 months.More details on the scheme of use and contraindications can be found in the instructions.

HOW TO RELIEVE THE ITCHING IN THE NETTLE BREAKS

It is useless to comb the rash: the itching from this only intensifies.

The best non-drug treatment for hives is to eliminate potential allergens, including drugs that can trigger hives, such as aspirin4.

The use of antihistamines, for example, “Erius”, is effective for relieving itching in urticaria.It inhibits the secretion of histamine and also has anti-inflammatory, decongestant and antipruritic effects. Erius has been proven to significantly reduce itching in urticaria.

  1. Hives (Urticaria) // American College of Allergy, Asthma and Immunology.
  2. Hives and your skin // WebMD.
  3. Smirnova G.I. New possibilities of treating allergic diseases in children with the use of desloratadine // Questions of modern pediatrics, 2004, vol. 3, no. 3. – p. 33–38.
  4. Federal clinical guidelines for the diagnosis and treatment of urticaria / Russian Association of Allergists and Clinical Immunologists. – Moscow, 2013.

90,000 Urticaria and Quincke’s edema – Treatment of allergies and asthma in Allergomed

Urticaria is a disease caused by various factors, characterized by the appearance of a skin rash, the primary element of which is a blister.

Quincke’s edema (giant urticaria, angioedema) is a hereditary or acquired disease characterized by edema of the skin, subcutaneous tissue, as well as the mucous membranes of various organs and systems (respiratory, digestive, urinary).

The most common causes of urticaria and angioedema 90 140

  1. Food products: fish, fish roe, crustaceans (crayfish, shrimp, crabs), milk, eggs, nuts, legumes, citrus fruits, chocolate, honey, cheese, strawberries, food colors and preservatives.
  2. Medicines: antibiotics, B vitamins, protein preparations (plasma, blood, immunoglobulin), muscle relaxants, radiopaque substances, anti-inflammatory drugs, etc.
  3. Insect bites.
  4. Parasites (protozoa, helminths).
  5. Infectious agents: viruses (hepatitis B and C), bacteria, fungi. Most patients have foci of infection in the ENT – organs, oral cavity, digestive system, in the urogenital tract.
  6. Physical factors pressure, cold, heat, insolation, physical activity.
  7. Chemicals: metal salts (chromium, nickel, cobalt), latex, ointments, creams, household chemicals.
  8. Aero-allergens: household (house dust), epidermal, pollen (see.(See section Allergic rhinitis – classification of allergens).
  9. Psychogenic factors (neuropsychic stress, acute stressful situation, chronic anxiety).
  10. Diseases of the digestive system, neoplastic diseases, collagenoses, porphyria.
  11. Often, the cause of urticaria and angioedema cannot be identified. In this case, one speaks of idiopathic urticaria.

Main symptoms

Urticaria and Quincke’s edema are acute and chronic.

Urticaria is characterized by the appearance of blisters of various sizes, accompanied by itchy skin. Blisters appear suddenly and disappear after a few hours or days. Often the body temperature rises, weakness appears, and blood pressure may decrease.

Quincke’s edema is manifested by dense painless infiltrates localized on the face (lips, eyelids), in the oral cavity (soft palate, tongue, tonsils). In about a quarter of patients, damage to the respiratory tract (larynx, trachea, bronchi) is observed.A barking cough, attacks of suffocation and asphyxia appear. In 30% of cases, edema of the esophagus, stomach, intestines appears, which manifests itself in nausea, vomiting, impaired swallowing, abdominal pain, flatulence, intestinal obstruction. Localization of the process can manifest itself on the part of the urinary and nervous systems, which, accordingly, will manifest itself with urinary retention and symptoms of dizziness, nausea, vomiting, lethargy.

Diagnosis of urticaria

  1. Characteristic allergological history.
  2. Blood eosinophilia.
  3. Increased level of immunoglobulin E.
  4. Positive provocative tests for cold, physical effort, vibration, etc.
  5. A complete examination of the gastrointestinal tract is required, and in some cases, immunological studies are necessary.

Treatment of urticaria and angioedema

  • Elimination of allergens or causally significant disease factors.
  • Drug therapy is prescribed depending on the identified cause of urticaria or angioedema.
  • Non-drug therapy (see Non-drug treatments).

Despite the fact that urticaria and Quincke’s edema are among the most difficult to treat allergic pathologies, the effectiveness of complex treatment is 95-98% of good and excellent results.

In the clinic “Allergomed” there are unique methods of treating these pathologies.

Allergy to the sun – photodermatitis (photodermatosis) and its prevention

The sun’s rays not only warm us with their warmth in the spring-summer period and delight us in winter, but also help to strengthen the immune system.Unfortunately, exposure to the sun can cause an allergic reaction in some people.

Allergies to the sun, photodermatitis (photodermatosis) are diseases caused by increased sensitivity of the skin to the sun’s rays. This is not at all a rare occurrence. Statistics show that about 20% of people around the world are faced with this disease.

Sun allergy actually means photodermatitis or photodermatosis. The toxic or allergic effect of the sun is manifested when the sun (ultraviolet) rays interact with any substance on the skin (exogenous photodermatitis) or in the skin (endogenous photodermatitis).

Sun allergy in the form of exogenous photodermatitis

The most striking example of exogenous photodermatitis is the so-called meadow dermatitis. In the summer, during the flowering period, many meadow plants secrete special substances – furocoumarins, which are deposited on the skin when a person is in these places. With simultaneous exposure to ultraviolet radiation, some people who are sensitive to it may experience redness of the skin and vesicles (erythema, vesicles, bullae).The rash is accompanied by severe itching. In the future, long-term pigmentation remains on the affected skin areas.

Allergies to the sun or photodermatitis can also occur if, before going out into the sun, a person who is sensitive to it is anointed with cream or ointment, or has used perfume and deodorant. Substances in various cosmetics and perfumery products can react with ultraviolet rays and cause an allergic reaction. Such properties are possessed, for example, by eosin, which can be found in lipstick, and para-aminobenzoic acid (PAVA), which is part of some sunscreens.In addition, polyunsaturated fatty acids, retinoids, bergamot oil, St. John’s wort, rose, musk, sandalwood, dill juice, parsley, boric acid, salicylic acid, phenol, mercury preparations have a similar effect.

People with fair skin and small children, whose skin defense mechanisms are much weaker, are more likely to suffer from sun allergies.

Photodermatitis is often caused by many drugs. This effect is possessed, in particular, by sulfonamides, barbiturates, chlorpromazine, some antibiotics (doxycycline, tetracycline), antihistamines, some cardiovascular agents (amiodarone, trasicor), cytostatics, some nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (ibuprofen, aspirin), oral contraceptives.

In addition, an increased reaction of the skin to the sun’s rays appears when the skin is “weakened” by some additional effect – peeling, tattooing with cadmium salts.

Sun allergy in the form of endogenous photodermatitis

This group of photodermatitis includes quite rare diseases, in the development of which disturbances in the functioning of the body’s immune system, as well as various metabolic disturbances (disturbances in metabolism) play an important role.Endogenous photodermatitis includes, in particular, porphyria, pigmented xeroderma, solar eczema, solar pruritus, Hydroa vacciniformia, polymorphic photodermatosis.

As a rule, these reactions can proceed by two mechanisms: 1) phototoxic reaction and 2) photoallergic reaction. Phototoxic reactions are much more common than photoallergic reactions.

How does sun allergy or photodermatitis usually manifest?

The main symptoms of photodermatosis:

  • redness and inflammation of the skin,
  • peeling skin,
  • often accompanied by intense itching and burning,
  • rashes can be in the form of folliculitis (abscesses) or papules.

Often this condition does not develop immediately. Unlike a burn, it can occur several hours after you left the beach, and in some cases even after returning from the resort. A phototoxic reaction can occur several hours after exposure to the sun, while a photoallergic reaction can occur even a few days after exposure to the sun.

Increased risk of sun allergy:

  • in people with naturally fair skin;
  • 90,053 in pregnant women;

    90,053 in young children;

  • A number of drugs can make skin burn faster – these include tetracycline antibiotics, sulfa drugs, pain relievers, etc.;
  • 90,053 who have relatives with sun allergies. You are more likely to be allergic to the sun if you have a brother, sister, or parent who is allergic to the sun;

  • Also, the presence of atopic dermatitis or another type of dermatitis increases the risk of sun allergy;
  • Certain skin allergy symptoms are triggered when your skin is exposed to a certain substance and then sunlight. Some common substances responsible for this type of reaction include fragrances, disinfectants, bleach, and even some of the chemicals used in sunscreens;
  • those who abuse tanning salons;
  • In addition, an allergic reaction from exposure to the sun can also develop in those who, the day before, performed cosmetic procedures using cadmium salts (tattooing, chemical peeling).

Photosensitizers – the cause of sun allergies

Certain vegetables and plants can cause sun sensitivity when they come into contact with the skin. Mango peels, lime juice, parsnips, celery can cause temporary discoloration (darkening) of the skin exposed to the sun. Major phototoxic fruits and vegetables: celery, carrots, rice, parsley, parsnips, and all types of citrus fruits. Therefore, before going to the beach, do not eat oranges, tangerines or grapefruits.There may be swelling, redness and itching on the surface of the skin, where there are drops of juice from these fruits. And the more active the sun, the sharper the reaction of the body will be.

Prevention of sun allergy (photodermatitis and photodermatosis)

Unfortunately, there are not many methods of preventing such allergies.

If you have very sensitive skin, make it a rule to sunbathe under an awning or umbrella. Avoid sun exposure during the most active hours (11:00 to 16:00).Protect yourself with a headgear and loose clothing made from natural fabrics: linen, cotton. Children have a very weak protective reaction of the skin, so babies under three years old are generally categorically not recommended to be in direct sunlight.

Use sunscreens with high photoprotection of well-known brands, and with regularity at least every two hours. Pay attention that the cream contains protection from UVB rays (SPF) and UVA rays (PPD) – they influence the occurrence of photodermatosis.

Note that wavelength plays a big role. Try not to travel to resorts where the sun is especially active.

Recommendations for the prevention of photoallergy on the beach:

  1. Do not use cologne, perfumes or regular moisturizers before going to the beach. They contain alcohol, which can cause burns in the sun.
  2. Sunscreen should be used in your case as often as possible. Just pay attention to its composition.A fat-based product can trigger allergies. It is better to choose a hypoallergenic spray with a protective SPF factor.
  3. It is best not to use a waterproof sunscreen – it will clog your pores and cause ulcers to develop on your skin. When going to the beach, you should opt for a water-soluble product.

If it is not possible to see a doctor, how to relieve acute manifestations of allergy to the sun?

Nothing.