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Hct medical test: Low, High, and Normal Ranges

Hematocrit Test – Request A Test

Hematocrit Test – Request A Test






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Hematocrit Blood Test

Hct, PCV, Packed Cell Volume

Test Code: 005058

Specimen Type: Blood

Description:

Hematocrit Blood Test

This test measures Hematocrit in a blood sample.  Hematocrit is the percentage of blood which is made up of red blood cells (RBC).  Red blood cells are produced in the bone marrow and carry oxygen throughout the body.  Typically the body continually produces new red blood cells to replace ones that are lost through bleeding or have aged and broken down.  Low hematocrit is often indicative of anemia and can be caused by excessive blood loss, nutritional deficiencies such as iron or B12, bone marrow disorders or kidney damage.  Higher than normal hematocrit can be caused by dehydration, lung disease, heart disease or kidney tumors.

A hematocrit test is often done as part of routine general health testing.  It is also ordered when a person is experiencing symptoms of anemia such as fatigue, lack of energy, paleness, shortness of breath or fainting.  This test can also be used to monitor treatment for anemia. 

Hematocrit is also part of a Complete Blood Count (CBC). 

Turnaround time for the Hematocrit test is typically 1 business day.

Note: Result turn around times are an estimate and are not guaranteed. Our reference lab may need additional time due to weather, holidays, confirmation/repeat testing, or equipment maintenance.

Requirements:

The Hematocrit test has no fasting requirements.

Categories:

Hematocrit Blood Test

Hct, PCV, Packed Cell Volume

Test Code: 509

Specimen Type: Blood

Description:

Hematocrit Blood Test

This test measures Hematocrit in a blood sample.  Hematocrit is the percentage of blood which is made up of red blood cells (RBC).  Red blood cells are produced in the bone marrow and carry oxygen throughout the body.  Typically the body continually produces new red blood cells to replace ones that are lost through bleeding or have aged and broken down.  Low hematocrit is often indicative of anemia and can be caused by excessive blood loss, nutritional deficiencies such as iron or B12, bone marrow disorders or kidney damage.  Higher than normal hematocrit can be caused by dehydration, lung disease, heart disease or kidney tumors.

A hematocrit test is often done as part of routine general health testing.  It is also ordered when a person is experiencing symptoms of anemia such as fatigue, lack of energy, paleness, shortness of breath or fainting.  This test can also be used to monitor treatment for anemia. 

Hematocrit is also part of a Complete Blood Count (CBC).

Turnaround time for the Hematocrit test is typically 1 business day.

Note: Result turn around times are an estimate and are not guaranteed. Our reference lab may need additional time due to weather, holidays, confirmation/repeat testing, or equipment maintenance.

Requirements:

The Hematocrit test has no fasting requirements.

Categories:

Hct, PCV, Packed Cell Volume

Test Code: 005058

Specimen Type: Blood

Description:

Hematocrit Blood Test

This test measures Hematocrit in a blood sample.  Hematocrit is the percentage of blood which is made up of red blood cells (RBC).  Red blood cells are produced in the bone marrow and carry oxygen throughout the body.  Typically the body continually produces new red blood cells to replace ones that are lost through bleeding or have aged and broken down.  Low hematocrit is often indicative of anemia and can be caused by excessive blood loss, nutritional deficiencies such as iron or B12, bone marrow disorders or kidney damage.  Higher than normal hematocrit can be caused by dehydration, lung disease, heart disease or kidney tumors.

A hematocrit test is often done as part of routine general health testing.  It is also ordered when a person is experiencing symptoms of anemia such as fatigue, lack of energy, paleness, shortness of breath or fainting.  This test can also be used to monitor treatment for anemia. 

Hematocrit is also part of a Complete Blood Count (CBC). 

Turnaround time for the Hematocrit test is typically 1 business day.

Note: Result turn around times are an estimate and are not guaranteed. Our reference lab may need additional time due to weather, holidays, confirmation/repeat testing, or equipment maintenance.

Requirements:

The Hematocrit test has no fasting requirements.

Categories:

Hematocrit Blood Test

Hct, PCV, Packed Cell Volume

Test Code: 509

Specimen Type: Blood

Description:

Hematocrit Blood Test

This test measures Hematocrit in a blood sample.  Hematocrit is the percentage of blood which is made up of red blood cells (RBC).  Red blood cells are produced in the bone marrow and carry oxygen throughout the body.  Typically the body continually produces new red blood cells to replace ones that are lost through bleeding or have aged and broken down.  Low hematocrit is often indicative of anemia and can be caused by excessive blood loss, nutritional deficiencies such as iron or B12, bone marrow disorders or kidney damage.  Higher than normal hematocrit can be caused by dehydration, lung disease, heart disease or kidney tumors.

A hematocrit test is often done as part of routine general health testing.  It is also ordered when a person is experiencing symptoms of anemia such as fatigue, lack of energy, paleness, shortness of breath or fainting.  This test can also be used to monitor treatment for anemia. 

Hematocrit is also part of a Complete Blood Count (CBC).

Turnaround time for the Hematocrit test is typically 1 business day.

Note: Result turn around times are an estimate and are not guaranteed. Our reference lab may need additional time due to weather, holidays, confirmation/repeat testing, or equipment maintenance.

Requirements:

The Hematocrit test has no fasting requirements.

Categories:

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Hematology | Johns Hopkins Medicine

What is hematology?

Hematology is the study of blood and blood disorders. Hematologists and hematopathologists are highly trained healthcare providers who specialize in diseases of the blood and blood components. These include blood and bone marrow cells. Hematological tests can help diagnose anemia, infection, hemophilia, blood-clotting disorders, and leukemia.

What is the difference between a hematologist and a hematopathologist?

  • A hematologist is usually a board-certified internist, or pediatrician who has completed additional years of training in hematology. The hematologist generally focuses on direct patient care and diagnosing and managing hematologic disease, especially cancers.

  • A hematopathologist is usually board-certified in both anatomical and clinical pathology and has additional years of training in hematopathology. Hematopathology is not only the study of disease of the blood and bone marrow. It is also the study of the organs and tissues that use blood cells to perform their physiologic functions. These include the lymph nodes, the spleen, thymus, and other lymphoid tissue. The hematopathologist focuses on the diagnosis of conditions of the hematopoietic and lymphocyte-rich tissues. This is usually done by direct exam of tissue and blood in the lab. 

Common hematology tests

Test

Uses

Complete blood count (CBC), which includes:

  • White blood cell count (WBC)
  • Red blood cell count (RBC)
  • Platelet count

  • Hematocrit red blood cell volume (HCT)
  • Hemoglobin concentration (HB). This is the oxygen-carrying protein in red blood cells.
  • Differential white blood count
  • Red blood cell indices (measurements) 
To aid in diagnosing anemia, certain cancers of the blood, inflammatory diseases, and to monitor blood loss and infection
Platelet count (usually done as part of the CBC)  To diagnose and/or to monitor certain types of bleeding and clotting disorders
Prothrombin time (PT)
Partial Thromboplastin Time (PTT)
International Normalized Ratio (INR) 
To evaluate bleeding and clotting disorders and to monitor anticoagulation (anticlotting) therapies

Bone marrow biopsy is not a common test in general, but is a common test for hematologists. It involves taking cells from the bone marrow for analysis for many types of disease. 

HCT Auto Blood Test Results Meaning

There are a number of health conditions that the HCT auto blood test is able to detect or monitor. It measures what may occur when there are differences to the proportion of red blood cells in the blood compared to what normally should be there. It is often ordered as part of a complete blood count, but may also be ordered independently if there are certain health issues suspected or which require ongoing monitoring.

The most common health condition is anemia. It can detect low red blood cell numbers, low HCT and low hemoglobin levels. It can also detect high levels that may be leading toward toxicity. Medical providers will also use the HCT auto blood test to monitor anemia treatments, use the information to determine if blood transfusions are necessary, or even evaluate the severity of chronic dehydration.

It is typically ordered when there are signs and symptoms which may lead a medical provider to believe that anemia is a possibility. This includes an overall lack of energy, a pale complexion, shortness of breath, and unusual weakness. Disturbed vision, headaches, and flushing may be an indication of polycythemia, which the HCT auto blood test can also detect.

What Do My Test Results Mean?

In the average blood test sample, red blood cells will usually make up to 49% of the blood’s total volume. Someone with red blood cells as few as 37% of the blood volume, however, will still be considered within the normal range. Individual variability may also affect the results, as ethnicity, rate, gender, and age may affect the overall volume.

If the HCT auto blood test results are below 37%, then this is considered a low test result. This typically means that there is some form of anemia present. It can also mean there is a defect in the red blood cells themselves, such as a sickle cell disorder, or deficiencies in the enzymes that help to make the red blood cells.

Excessive bleeding is also a common cause of a low test result. This is normally seen in the digestive tract with an ulcer, polyps, or even cancer. Trauma to the digestive tract or heavy menstrual bleeding will also create this result, as will chronic inflammatory disorders. Low test results can also be seen when there is an iron, B12, or folate deficiency present.

The most common cause of high test results above 49% is dehydration. When the volume of fluids within the body drops, the actual percentage of red blood cells of the blood rises. Smoking and living at high altitudes are also common reason for higher than normal test results.

There are some serious conditions may also create high HCT auto blood test results. In some instances of congenital heart disease, reduced oxygen levels may occur if there is an abnormal connection between each side of the heart. Because of the lack of oxygen, there are more red blood cells produced. The same is true with lung diseases or disorders that do not supply enough oxygen to the body.

There are also genetic causes which may create higher than normal levels of red blood cells in the blood. Blood transfusions are known to affect results, as will a confirmed pregnancy.

Here’s What You Need To Know

The HCT auto blood test can only be conducted at an approved medical facility. There are no accurate home testing kits that are available for this blood test. The measurement comes not from a total count of red blood cells, but through the use of a centrifuge or calculation of blood cell values.

People with certain medical conditions will naturally have lower HCT auto levels that are detected with this blood test. Someone with an autoimmune disorder, such as celiac disease that is not well managed or rheumatoid arthritis, a chronic infection, or cancer will have test results that may put them in the low results range.
Certain people are also at risk for having abnormal HCT auto blood test results. Those with poor nutritional habits, lack access to vitamins or iron, or have recently had a surgery may not have accurate test results. Severe injuries that involve prolonged bleeding may also affect results. If there is a sickle cell disease present, then there will be an ongoing risk of anemia that may need to be managed over the course of a lifetime.

The HCT auto blood test results are often part of an annual exam. Having it ordered is not an indication that a medical provider believes that there is a health problem which needs to be diagnosed. It can be used as a screening tool or a monitoring tool based on the medical history of the patient involved. Only medical providers are able to interpret test result and how they relate to an individual’s medical history, so schedule an appointment and discuss any questions or concerns about specific results that may have been received.

Understanding Your Lab Test Results

When you have cancer it often seems like someone is always taking blood for some kind of test. Blood tests are done to help watch your body’s response to treatment. They can show small changes before problems get serious. Keeping track of your results lets your doctor take action as soon as your blood counts change to help prevent many cancer-related problems and cancer treatment side effects.

Here are 2 of the most common types of blood tests and what they can tell the doctor about your health: the complete blood count (CBC) and the chemistry panel.

Some people find it helps to ask for a copy of their lab results and have a member of their cancer care team go over the numbers with them. By getting a copy, you can also see what the normal ranges are for the lab that tested your blood and where your numbers fall within that range.

Complete blood count (CBC)

The most common lab test that you’ll have done during treatment is called a complete blood count, or CBC. Blood is made up of water, proteins, nutrients, and living cells. A CBC tells your cancer care team about the cells in your blood. It measures 3 basic types of blood cells:

  • Red blood cells
  • White blood cells
  • Platelets

Each of these cells has a special purpose. And each can be harmed by cancer and cancer treatments.

Red blood cells (RBCs)

RBCs carry oxygen to and carbon dioxide away from the cells in your body. The CBC measures red blood cells in many ways, but the simplest measure is either

Hemoglobin (Hgb), the part of each RBC that carries iron 
or
Hematocrit (Hct), the percent of RBCs in the blood

When the Hgb and Hct values fall too low, it’s called anemia (uh-NEE-me-uh).

Platelets (Plts)

Platelets help control bleeding. You may bruise or bleed easily when your platelet levels are low. The risk of bleeding goes up when platelet levels drop below 20,000.

When your platelet count is low, your health care team may call it thrombocytopenia (throm-bo-SY-tuh-PEEN-e-uh).

White blood cells (WBCs)

WBCs fight infection. There are many types of white blood cells and each fights infection in a special way.

The most important infection-fighting WBC is the neutrophil (NEW-truh-fil). The number doctors look at is called your absolute neutrophil count (ANC). A healthy person has an ANC between 2,500 and 6,000.

The ANC is found by multiplying the WBC count by the percent of neutrophils in the blood. For instance, if the WBC count is 8,000 and 50% of the WBCs are neutrophils, the ANC is 4,000 (8,000 × 0.50 = 4,000).

When the ANC drops below 1,000 it is called neutropenia (new-truh-PEEN-e-uh). Your doctor will watch your ANC closely because the risk of infection is much higher when the ANC is below 500.

Chemistry panel (metabolic profile)

Another type of blood test looks at blood chemistry. Chemistry panels may also be called by other names, such as metabolic profile or blood chemistry profile. One blood sample can be used to measure many things like:

  • Fats (lipids)
  • Proteins
  • Sugar (glucose)
  • Electrolytes (like potassium, magnesium, sodium, and calcium)
  • Enzymes

Certain blood chemistry tests can show how well your organs are working. For instance, liver function studies tell your doctor how well your liver is working. Other tests look at how well your kidneys are working. The chemistry panel may also show other problems with body function.

Some treatments can cause changes in your body’s blood chemistry, such as a drop in the amount of potassium in your blood. Your blood chemistry balance can also be changed by dehydration (not enough fluid in the body), which may be caused by nausea, vomiting, or diarrhea. Your doctor will do blood chemistry tests if there’s concern that you may have any of these problems.

If the tests show that certain electrolytes are too low, your doctor may decide to replace them. If the tests show you are dehydrated, you may be given intravenous (IV) fluids. It’s important to get the tests your doctor wants because most of the time you won’t have any symptoms until one or more blood chemistry values are dangerously low or high.

How to find normal values

Each lab has its own range for what it considers normal values for complete blood counts and chemistry panel results. What’s normal for one lab might not quite be normal for another, so it’s important to know what your lab’s normal range is when looking at your results. Normal ranges for some tests also vary by age and gender. As a rule, the normal ranges are printed on the lab report, next to your test results.

Common terms and numbers you may see on a CBC report and what they mean are on this chart:

*Note that results are often given in short form, as shown on this table. For instance, a WBC result may be shown as 6.2 rather than 6,200, which is why the Units column shows multiplying by 1000 (x 1000), sometimes abbreviated as K. RBCs are often shown as multiples of a million, sometimes abbreviated as M. The /mm3 stands for cubic millimeter, which is the same as µL (microliter). Grams is shown by the letter g, and dL means deciliter.

# These number ranges vary somewhat among labs.

Here’s an example of CBC test results, in a person with anemia, or a low hemoglobin and hematocrit:

# These number ranges vary somewhat among labs.

Results that are high or low might have the letter (H) or (L) after the number, or may be printed to the side or in a different column to call attention to the abnormal result.

Again, getting a copy of your lab results lets you compare your numbers to the normal ranges and makes it easier to ask questions about the results and what they mean.

Hematocrit (HCT) Test Purpose, Procedure, Results and more

Hematocrit is the percentage of red blood cells in the total blood volume. Red blood cells are vital to your health. Imagine them as the subway system of your blood. They transport oxygen and nutrients to various locations in your body. For you to stay healthy, your body needs to have the correct proportion of red blood cells.

Also Known as: Hct, Crit, Packed Cell Volume, PCV, H and H (Hemoglobin and Hematocrit)

Test Panel: Hemoglobin, Red Blood Cells (RBC), HCT, MCV, MCH, MCHC, Platelets Count, White Blood Cells (WBC), DLC, ESR

Why Get Tested:

  • It is used to diagnose anemia.
  • It is used to diagnose leukemia
  • It is used to diagnose dehydration
  • It is used to diagnose dietary deficiencies
  • Hct is done in the patients with bleeding or blood loss.
  • It is part of complete blood count.

When to Get Tested:

  • when you have signs and symptoms of anemia (weakness, fatigue).
  • when you have signs and symptoms of polycythemia (dizziness, headache)
  • At regular intervals to monitor a disorder that affects RBCs and to evaluate the effectiveness of treatment

Sample Required:

  • The patient blood is taken in EDTA.
  • It is stable for 48 hours at 4 °C and 6 hours at 23 °C.
  • Fetal blood: Collected by percutaneous blood sampling.
Precautions for Sample:
  1. Perform the test within 6 hours of the blood collection.
  2. EDTA is the choice of blood anticoagulant.
  3. Avoid hemolysis.
  4. Avoid clotting of the blood. 
  5. Centrifugation must be adequate. This will give the high result.
  6. The buffy coat is not included in the hematocrit.
  7. Avoid excess of the EDTA.
  8. Avoid overdilution of the blood sample by the anticoagulant.
  9. Avoid Prolonged tourniquet, it can lead to hemoconcentration and error in the Hct.
  10. Drugs like penicillin and chloramphenicol decrease the Hct level.
Method to estimate the Hct:
  1. Microhematocrit tube method.
  2. Wintrobe hematocrit method is the macro method.
  3. Automated method.

Normal Value:

Test Name Male Female
HCT 38 – 52 % 38 – 52 %

Critical value of Hct = <15 % or >60 %

Increased Hct is seen in:

  1. Polycythemia Vera.
  2. Erythrocytosis.
  3. Extreme physical exercise or excitement.
  4. High Altitude.
  5. Dehydration leading to Hemoconcentration e.g. diarrhea, burns, and vomiting.
  6. Congenital heart failure.
  7. Severe chronic pulmonary obstructive disease (COPD).

Decreased Hct is seen in:

  1. Anemia.
  2. Hemoglobinopathies.
  3. Cirrhosis.
  4. Hemolytic anemia (Erythroblastosis fetalis, drug-induced hemolytic anemia, and paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria.
  5. Hemorrhage.
  6. Bone marrow failure
  7. Renal diseases.
  8. Normal pregnancy.
  9. Autoimmune diseases.
  10. malignancies like lymphoma, leukemia, multiple myeloma, and Hodgkin’s diseases.
  11. Normal pregnancy.
  12. Bone marrow failure.

CBC (Complete blood count) includes:

This is the measure of:

  1. Red blood cells.
  2. White blood cells.
  3. Platelet Count
  4. Hemoglobin
  5. Hematocrit (HCT)
  6. RBC indices.
    1. Mean corpuscular volume (MCV).
    2. Mean corpuscular hemoglobin (MCH).
    3. Mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration (MCHC)
    4. Red blood cell distribution width (RDW).
  7. White cell differential count (DLC) includes.
    1. Neutrophil count.
    1. Lymphocytes.
    1. Monocytes.
    1. Eosinophils.
    1. Basophils.
  8. Peripheral blood smear study.

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Possible References Used



Low HGB and HCT – What does it Mean in Blood Test

The bone marrow creates red blood cells (RBCs), which contains hemoglobin. With the help of hemoglobin, the RBC is able to carry oxygen and nutrients all over the body. For this reason, it is vital to have the normal amount of RBCs.

The hemoglobin (Hgb) and hematocrit (HCT) levels will help determine a person’s total red blood cell count. The HCT levels will reveal the percentage of RBCs in a certain amount of blood. The Hgb levels, on the other hand, will indicate the amount of hemoglobin in the blood.

It is vital that one must keep their HCT and Hgb levels within the normal range. A low Hgb and HCT will mean that there is insufficient oxygen circulating throughout the body. If the level is very low, it can be a life-threatening condition. For this reason, it is valuable to learn and understand the possible reasons why a person experiences a decrease in Hgb and HCT levels.

Normal Level of Hematocrit (HCT) and Hemoglobin (HGB)

The normal levels for hematocrit and hemoglobin will vary depending on your age and gender. The table below contains the normal HCT and Hgb values.

  Hemoblobin (Hgb)

Grams per Deciliter / Grams per Liter

Hematocrit (HCT)

Percentage of RBC in a Volume of blood

Newborns 14.5 to 24.5 g/dL or 145 to 245 g/L 0.44 to 0.64 volume fraction or

44% to 64%

Children 9.5 to 20.5 g/dL or 95 to 205 g/L 0.29 to 0.59 volume fraction or

29% to 59%

Men 14 to 17.4 g/dL or 140 to 174 g/L 0.42 to 0.52 volume fraction or

42% to 52%

Women 12 to 16 g/dL or 120 to 160 g/L 0.36 to 0.48 volume fraction or

36% to 48%

 

Causes of Low Hematocrit and Hemoglobin

Various medical conditions can cause low HCT and Hgb, which includes the following:

The most common cause of low Hgb and low HCT is bleeding, which can be either visible or hidden.

Most of the time, blood loss is a manageable condition as long as it is visible like in cases of injuries and heavy menstrual bleeding. A major problem occurs during internal bleeding because the blood loss can go on undetected for a long period. Most types of anemia are due to bleeding in the digestive tract. For severe blood loss in the gastrointestinal tract, the common causes are cancer or ulcer of the stomach, intestine, and esophagus.

When a patient has a low Hgb and HCT with no visible signs of bleeding, the doctor will order a stool examination to test for the presence of blood.

  • Premature Destruction of Red Blood Cells

Normally, RBCs can stay in the bloodstream for about 120 days. Then, the destruction of these blood cells occurs in the spleen and the bone marrow will release new RBCs.

Various medical conditions can disrupt this normal process leading to low Hgb and low HCT. One example is hemolytic anemia, wherein there is a premature destruction of RBCs, and the bone marrow is unable to produce enough blood cells. In other types of anemia such as sickle cell and spherocytosis, the body attacks and destroys the RBCs with abnormal shapes.

The premature destruction of RBCs can also occur in other diseases that are unrelated to the blood. For example, infections caused by the Streptococci and Meningococci bacteria can lead to the rupturing of the RBC because of the toxins that these microorganisms produce.

  • Problems with the Bone Marrow

Because the bone marrow is the creator of RBCs, a disease or damage within this organ can lead to low levels of Hgb and HCT. An example of a bone marrow disease is aplastic anemia, which occurs when the bone marrow is not creating any blood cells. Lymphoma and leukemia are types of cancer that also affect this organ.

Damage to the bone marrow can occur due to various causes such as infections, toxins, medications, illegal substances, chemotherapy, and exposure to radiation. When there is damage to this organ, it can affect its production of RBCs.

In some cases, the body’s total number of RBCs is normal. However, because of the increase in plasma volume, or the fluid part of the blood, the number of blood cells decreases, which leads to low levels of Hgb and HCT.

Patients with congestive heart failure (CHF) and kidney diseases will experience an increase in plasma volume due to fluid retention. Women will normally experience an increase in their plasma volume during pregnancy because of the increase in aldosterone levels.

The kidneys have a role in RBC production because this organ releases erythropoietin (EPO), a hormone that signals the bone marrow to create blood cells. In patients with severe kidney diseases, their EPO production decreases leading to low levels of RBCs.

Various nutrients are essential for the production of RBCs such as folate, vitamin B12, and iron. A deficiency in these nutrients will lead to low Hgb and low HCT levels.

In most cases, a poor diet is the primary cause of the nutrient deficiency. However, patients with celiac disease may also experience a deficiency in iron and folate because of a damaged intestine, which reduces the absorption of these nutrients.

A decrease in the production of RBCs can also be due to several health conditions such as chronic inflammation, liver diseases, and thyroid problems.

Symptoms and Treatment:

Patients with low hemoglobin levels will experience symptoms that will often appear together, which includes the following:

  • Chronic fatigue that occurs even with sufficient amount of sleep
  • Rapid heartbeats that occur for no apparent reason
  • Shortness of breath
  • A pale or colorless skin
  • Hair loss including body hair

If you experience these symptoms, it is vital to consult your doctor and undergo blood testing. If your test result showed that your Hgb and HCT levels are low, your doctor may order additional tests to find the underlying cause of your condition.

Your doctor may recommend several treatments depending on the specific cause of the abnormality, which may include the following:

  • If the cause of the low hemoglobin is a nutrient deficiency, your doctor will prescribe some changes in your diet such as eating more animal protein and green leafy vegetables. He may also prescribe supplements to boost the levels of iron and B vitamins in your body.
  • A patient may undergo surgery for severe cases of internal bleeding, ulcer, or cancer. The doctor will prescribe blood transfusions if necessary.
  • If the low RBC count is due to a certain medication, you have to stop taking the medicine and ask your doctor for an alternative.
  • If your bone marrow has a problem, your doctor can prescribe some drugs and other treatment options depending on the underlying cause of the abnormality and your overall health condition.

Blood Hematocrit

Blood Hematocrit

Yet another potential source of error in breath-alcohol analysis involves the variability in the composition of the blood.

Whole blood is made up of a mixture of solid particles suspended in a liquid. The solid particles consist of red blood cells, white blood cells, and clotting platelets; the liquid portion is called plasma. The percentage by volume of the solid particles is called the hematocrit of the blood. Thus, for example, a hematocrit of .47 would indicate that the individual’s blood consists of 47 percent solid particles (cells and platelets) and 53 percent plasma.

Since plasma is a liquid and contains water, and alcohol is more soluble in water, it will contain a higher concentration of alcohol than will the solid particles in the blood. And the less plasma in the blood (i.e., the higher the hematocrit), the more concentrated the alcohol will be in the existing plasma. Thus the higher the hematocrit, the higher the alcohol concentration in the plasma. To put it another way, if two subjects have the same blood-alcohol concentration in their bodies but one has a higher hematocrit, that person’s plasma will have a higher concentration of alcohol.

Applying this to breath analysis, the air in the lung is absorbing alcohol by diffusion from the blood washing the alveolar sacs in the lung tissue. This process follows Henry’s Law, which applied to breath testing can be stated as: The concentration of alcohol in the deep lung air is directly proportional to the concentration of alcohol in the blood surrounding the alveolar sacs. However, Henry’s Law applies to liquids, not solids, and so the breath is going to reflect the alcohol concentration in the plasma (a liquid) more than it will the alcohol concentration in the solid particles of the blood.

Since blood with a smaller percentage of plasma (higher he matocrit) will have a higher concentration of alcohol, the lung air will reflect this – that is, there will be a higher concentration of alcohol in the air above the alveolar sacs. In other words, the plasma in blood with a higher hematocrit (less plasma) will have a higher BAG and this will cause the breath to have a higher BAG.

Bottom line: Breath machines report falsely high bloodalcohol readings for persons who have blood with a high hematocrit.
What is a normal hematocrit? And what is the range of variation? The average hematocrit for men is 47 percent, with a range of 42 to 52; women’s hematocrit averages 42 percent, and ranges from 37 to 47. But studies have shown that an individual’s hematocrit can vary in time by as much as 15 percent.

The hematocrit of an individual can easily be determined by an appropriate blood test. And if it is high, counsel should consider introducing evidence of that figure – along with expert evidence of its significance (if necessary, during cross-examination of the state’s expert).

The effect of an individual’s hematocrit on breath analysis can be mathematically computed. The partition ratio of 2100:1 uniformly used in breath testing presumably uses a male-female average hematocrit of 45 percent. If the client’s hematocrit is, say, 54 percent, the breath test result could be computed by multiplying it by 45/54. Assuming a breath test result of .11 percent, for example, the true BAG could be determined by the formula. 11 X 45/54 = .09. In other words, a person with a true BAG of .09 percent and a hematocrit of 54 percent would test on an otherwise accurate breath device as .11 percent.

Finally, there should be inquiry as to whether the subject was at the time of the arrest suffering from anemia. The percentage of plasma in an anemic subject’s blood will be higher than normal. In other words, his blood will have a higher percentage of water. As alcohol is attracted to water, there will be a higher percentage of alcohol in the blood. Technically, this may not be a defense: The offense consists of blood-alcohol concentration and, as with sexual and racial variation in alcohol metabolism, there is no allowance for physiological differences. Nevertheless, juries are human, and evidence that the BAG reading does not accurately reflect the amount of alcohol consumed – that the defendant is being prosecuted largely because of his anemic condition – will go a long way toward an acquittal.

90,000 Analysis for hCG – Medical Center Biomed

hCG (human chorionic gonadotropin) is a special pregnancy hormone, which is an important indicator of the development of pregnancy and its abnormalities. Chorionic gonadotropin is produced by the cells of the chorion (the shell of the embryo) immediately after it is attached to the wall of the uterus. Based on a blood test for chorionic gonadotropin, the doctor determines the presence of chorionic tissue in the body, and therefore the onset of pregnancy in a woman.

When can a hCG test be done?

Determination of the level of chorionic gonadotropin in the blood is the most reliable method for determining pregnancy in the early stages. Chorionic gonadotropin appears in a woman’s body from 5-6 days from the moment of fertilization. A common rapid pregnancy test, which every woman can use at home, is also based on the determination of chorionic gonadotropin in the urine, but the necessary level of this hormone in the urine for diagnosing pregnancy is reached a few days later.

In the absence of any pathology, in the first weeks of pregnancy, the level of the hormone doubles every 2 days, and its maximum concentration is reached by 10-11 weeks of pregnancy. After 11 weeks, the level of the hormone gradually decreases.

An increase in the level of human chorionic gonadotropin during pregnancy can occur at:

  • 90,030 multiple pregnancies;

  • toxicosis, gestosis;

  • 90,030 maternal diabetes mellitus;

  • 90,030 fetal pathologies, Down syndrome, multiple malformations;

  • incorrectly established pregnancy period;

  • 90,030 taking synthetic gestagens, etc.d ..

Increased values ​​can also be seen during the week when taking the analysis after the procedure for terminating the pregnancy. A high hormone level after a mini-abortion indicates a progressive pregnancy.

A low level of human chorionic gonadotropin during pregnancy may indicate an incorrect setting of the gestational age or be a sign of serious disorders, such as:

  • ectopic pregnancy;

  • non-developing pregnancy;

  • fetal growth retardation;

  • threat of spontaneous abortion;

  • chronic placental insufficiency;

  • fetal death (in the II-III trimester of pregnancy).

Determination of the level of chorionic gonadotropin is included in a triple test study, according to the results of which it is possible to judge the presence of some anomalies in the development of the fetus, but an accurate diagnosis cannot be made. The study only allows us to identify women who are at risk. In this case, women will need to make a serious additional examination.

What is the role of the hCG hormone in the human body?

In addition to establishing the fact of pregnancy, by quantifying the level of this hormone, one can judge the nature of the course of pregnancy, the presence of multiple pregnancies.

The most important task of human chorionic gonadotropin is to maintain the pregnancy itself. Under his control, the synthesis of the main hormones of pregnancy occurs: estrogens and progesterone. In the first trimester, until the placenta is completely formed (up to 16 weeks), chorionic gonadotropin maintains the normal functional activity of the corpus luteum, namely the production of progesterone.

Another important function of chorionic gonadotropin is to stimulate ovulation and maintain the vitality of the corpus luteum.

When does the doctor prescribe an HCG test?

In addition to diagnosing early pregnancy, chorionic gonadotropin is determined by:

  • for the detection of amenorrhea;

  • 90,030 exclusion of the possibility of an ectopic pregnancy;

  • to assess the completeness of induced abortion;

  • for dynamic monitoring of pregnancy;

  • in case of a threat of miscarriage and suspicion of an undeveloped pregnancy;

  • for the diagnosis of tumors – chorionepithelioma, cystic drift;

  • for prenatal diagnosis of fetal malformations.

How to take a blood test for the hCG hormone correctly?

Medical Center Biomed offers to undergo a laboratory test to determine the level of human chorionic gonadotropin.

The analysis is taken by taking blood from a vein, preferably in the morning and on an empty stomach. A laboratory test is recommended to be carried out no earlier than 4-5 days of delayed menstruation, and can also be repeated after 2-3 days to clarify the results. To identify fetal pathology in pregnant women, it is recommended to take the analysis from 14 to 18 weeks of pregnancy.

In the complex diagnosis of fetal malformations, it is also recommended to pass tests to determine the following markers: AFP (alpha-fetoprotein), E3 (free estriol), as well as to do an ultrasound.

Medical center “CONSULTANT” – General clinical research

The goal of general clinical studies is to obtain information about the nature, characteristics and a number of physicochemical properties of the studied biomaterial.

Most searched:

  • blood,
  • cal,
  • urine,
  • ejaculate,
  • as well as smears and scrapings.

Complete blood count is performed on the Sysmex hematology analyzer, XS series.

Sysmex XS-1000i (Japan)

The

XS-800i / 1000i hematology analyzer is a new model of the well-known line of X-series analyzers from Sysmex, which combines the best features of this series and has new capabilities, first of all – a unique blood collection system that has no analogue at the moment. the world.

The uniqueness lies in the fact that it is able to differentiate leukocytes into 5 populations using only 20 μl.whole or capillary blood regardless of the selected sampling mode. It is in this connection that the analyzer is recommended for use in pediatrics, perinatal centers, for oncological and hematological clinics, general hospitals and polyclinics.

All blood samples that are examined on hematology analyzers are evaluated by a doctor and, if necessary, microscopy of a blood smear is performed in order to:

  • Determine the shape and size of erythrocytes in case of suspicion of anemia, count the number of platelets, reticulocytes, determine the degree of maturity of leukocytes when calculating the leukocyte formula.
  • To track the dynamics of changes in the blood picture in leukemia, after chemotherapy and radiation therapy.
  • If you suspect the development of infectious mononucleosis (atypical mononuclear cells)

Determination of ESR is carried out using an ESR analyzer SRS 20 / II and an analyzer Roller 20 PN.

The erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR) is widely used to diagnose and monitor the course of infections, inflammatory diseases, malignant neoplasms and other pathological conditions.

In our center, ESR is measured according to the Westergren method.

This is the only standardized method according to the National Committee for Clinical Laboratory Standards (NCCLS).

ESR analyzer SRS 20 / II

Automatic ESR analyzer SRS 20 / II (ELECTA-LAB s.r.I-Italy), controlled by a microprocessor and designed exclusively for erythrocyte sedimentation rate analysis, does not depend on environmental factors (temperature, room humidity, etc.))

Roller 20 PN

The Italian company Alifax has developed ESR analyzers that have no analogues in the world, the principle of which is to change the parameters of erythrocyte aggregation as a phenomenon that directly depends on the magnitude of the inflammatory response. Thanks to this innovative approach, ESR is measured much faster, and the result no longer depends on the influence of most nonspecific factors (temperature of the room where the test is performed, errors in the deviation of capillaries from the vertical, errors in dilution with an anticoagulant, shortening or lengthening of the analysis, as well as factors that cannot be standardized, first of all – the number of red blood cells (hematocrit) and the size of red blood cells (MCV)).ESR on the Roller 20 PN analyzer reflects only the intensity of inflammation, and this is the world’s only ESR meter that works with both venous and capillary blood.

It should be noted that ESR on the Roller 20 PN analyzer varies within 2-120 mm / h, while the spectrum of the obtained values ​​according to the Panchenkov method was 2-67 mm / h, thereby being a more sensitive test for patients with inflammatory diseases and correlating with the values ​​of acute phase protein (CRP), the measurement of which is used as a reference method for inflammation and differentiation of bacterial and viral infections.

Newborn (0-1 months)
Children (1 month-1 year)
Children (1 year-14 years old)
Children (14-17 years old)
Women (not pregnant):
17-50 years old
Over 50 years old
Pregnant women:
Pregnancy 1-20 weeks.
20-30 weeks
30-39 weeks
Men:
17-50 years old
Over 50 years old

2-17 mm / h
2-10 mm / h
2-12 mm / h
2-15 mm / h

2-20 mm / h
2-30 mm / h

2-23 mm / h
2-26 mm / h
2-35 mm / h

2-15 mm / h
2-20 mm / h

General urine analysis is performed on urine analyzers.

Urine station IRIS including iChem Velicity automatic urine analyzer and iQ200 automatic urine microscopy analyzer Beckman Coulter

The

IRIS optimizes and enhances urine analysis with a patented digital flow cell imaging technology. Designed specifically for urine microscopy and particle counting, this solution enables the laboratory to deliver accurate patient results faster and reduce subjectivity.

Workflow Optimization

  • Single sample loading point
  • Combining the results of microscopy and urine chemistry into one answer form for more rapid analysis of the data obtained
  • One connection to the laboratory information system (LIS)
  • Less subjectivity: standardize results with APR (Automatic Particle Recognition) software.Decrease in the number of microbiological tests
  • Evaluation of the need for additional microbiological examination based on a comprehensive result of urine analysis on a test strip and microscopy, including registration of the presence of esterase of leukocytes, nitrites, leukocytes, bacteria and ASP (All Small Particles). ASP is a unique system parameter that reflects the total content of all small particles in a sample.

High clinical confidence

  • Comprehensive urinalysis: a complete picture of the sample based on multiple parameters
  • Minimal risk of sample contamination due to simplified sample preparation
  • Reliable clinical results thanks to technology and standardization

Flow Cell Digital Imaging Technology enables Iris to provide clear, clinically valid images of objects that can be viewed on the analyzer screen.

Flow cell digital imaging separates, identifies and characterizes particles on the screen, significantly reducing the need for manual microscopy. The analyzers use a high-resolution digital camera that takes 500 frames for each sample. The particle images are then automatically classified using APR (Automatic Particle Recognition) software for quick on-screen verification.

Proven technology for quality results

  • Patented software automatically recognizes and quantifies 12 classes of objects in urine
  • Additionally, 27 more subclasses are available for manual classification when analyzing images of objects on the system screen.
  • Quality control of studies with statistical and graphical analysis of results
  • A standardized automated process produces correct, comparable results
  • Image Archive for Patient Monitoring and Staff Training

Shortening the time for issuing the result

  • No additional sample preparation required
  • No centrifugation step
  • Combine verification and validation of results in one step

CL- 500 (USA)

High-speed automated urine analyzer for measuring up to 14 parameters.
Productivity: 500 analyzes per hour.

Tests: Urobilinogen, Bilirubin, Ketones, Erythrocytes, Protein, Nitrite, Leukocytes, Glucose, Relative density, pH, Ascorbic acid, Creatinine, Calcium, Microalbumin.

The analysis includes microscopy of urine sediment. The presence of cellular elements, as well as salts and cylinders, is determined in the urine sediment.

In case of suspicion of infectious and inflammatory diseases of the kidneys and urinary tract, together with a general urine test, 2 and 3 glass urine samples are often used.The patient is offered to urinate in two vessels. The initial portion (50-60 ml) is collected in the first vessel, the rest in the second. The degree of turbidity and color of urine is determined in a laboratory, then urine sediments are examined under a microscope. Residual urine after prostate massage is collected in the third vessel.

Normally, urine in both samples should be transparent, free of sediment and pathological impurities: erythrocytes, leukocytes, atypical cells, mucus.

  • Clouding and leukocytes in the first glass of urine indicate the presence of pathology (inflammation, swelling, trauma) in the lower urinary tract and is more often observed with urethritis.
  • Cloudiness and leukocytes in the second glass confirm damage to the prostate gland or seminal vesicles.
  • In the presence of pus in all portions, it indicates a total inflammatory process in the bladder, pelvis or kidneys (cystitis, pyelonephritis)
  • A change in the third portion of urine indicates localization of the disease in the prostate gland.

To determine the number of formed elements in 1 ml of urine (leukocytes, erythrocytes and cylinders), urine analysis according to Nechiporenko is performed.Collect a one-time (preferably morning) portion of urine in the middle of urination.

Analysis of urine according to Zimnitsky allows you to assess the concentration function of the kidneys (i.e., the ability of the kidneys to concentrate and dilute urine).

Daily proteinuria (protein in daily urine) – reflects the functional state of the kidneys. The main indications for the appointment: examinations, pathology, diabetes mellitus, cardiovascular diseases, infections.

You can ask a question to a specialist at the following email addresses: [email protected], [email protected]

Laboratory price list | Polyclinic TsAGI

Name Cost
Amebiasis Antibodies to Entamoeba histolytica, lgG (ser.) 330
Antiphospholipid syndrome Antibodies to phospholipids (cardiolipin, phosphatmidylserine, phosphatidylinositol, phosphatidylic acid), total (ser.) 540
Antiphospholipid syndrome IgM class antibodies to phospholipids (cardiolipin, phosphatmidylserine, phosphatidylinositol, phosphatidylic acid) (ser.) 330
Antiphospholipid syndrome Antibodies of IgG class to phospholipids (cardiolipin, phosphatmidylserine, phosphatidylinositol, phosphatidylic acid) (ser.) 330
Autoimmune endocrinopathies Antibodies to thyroid-stimulating hormone receptors (syv.) 900
Borreliosis Antibodies to borrelia, lgM (ser.) 300
Borreliosis Antibodies to borrelia, lgG (serum) 300
Brucellosis Antibodies to brucella, lgA (ser.) 200
Brucellosis Antibodies to brucella, lgG (ser.) 200
Typhoid fever Antibodies to the Vi antigen of Salmonella typhi (ser.) 250
Herpes simplex virus type I and II Herpes virus (DNA Herpes simplex virus type I) (all types of biological material) 220
Herpes simplex virus type I and II Herpes virus (DNA Herpes simplex virus type II) (all types of biological material) 220
Herpes simplex virus type I and II Herpes virus (DNA Herpes simplex virus types I and II) (all types of biological material) 170
Herpes simplex virus type I and II Toxoplasma (DNA Toxoplasma gondii) 200
Epstein-Barr virus Antibodies to Epstein-Barr virus, lgM (ser.) 400
Epstein-Barr virus Antibodies to Epstein-Barr virus, lgG (ser.) 400
Vitamins, fatty acids Vitamin B 9 (folic acid) (raw) 350
Vitamins, fatty acids Vitamin B 12 (cyanocobalamin) (raw) 300
Gardnerells Gardnerella (DNA of Gardnerella vaginalis) (all types of biological material) 220
Helminthiasis Antibodies to opisthorchis, lgG (ser.) 160
Helminthiasis Antibodies to echinococcus, lgG (serum) 160
Helminthiasis Antibodies to toxocaras, lgG (ser.) 160
Helminthiasis Antibodies to Trichinella, lgG (ser.) 160
Helminthiasis Antibodies to schistosomes (Schistosoma mansoni), lgG (ser.) 330
Helminthiasis Antibodies to intestinal acne (Strongyloides stercoralis), lgG (ser.) 420
Helminthiasis Antibodies to pork tapeworm (Taenia solium), lgG (ser.) 360
Helminthiasis Antibodies to hepatic fluke (Fasciola hepatica), lgG (ser.) 290
Helminthiasis Antibodies to roundworm (Ascaris lumbricoides), lgE (ser.) 260
Helminthiasis Antibodies to roundworm (Ascaris lumbricoides), lgG (ser.) 260
HEMOSTASIS Fibrinogen (blood with citrate) 160
HEMOSTASIS Thrombin time (blood with citrate) 210
HEMOSTASIS APTT (blood with citrate) 180
HEMOSTASIS Lupus anticoaculant (screening) (blood with citrate) 430
HEMOSTASIS D-dimer (blood with citrate) 700
GENETIC STUDIES Genetic risk of disorders of the coagulation system (blood with EDTA) 2850
GENETIC STUDIES Genetic risk of coagulation disorders (buccal epithelium) 2850
GENETIC STUDIES Genetic defects in folate cycle enzymes (blood with EDTA) 1900
GENETIC STUDIES Genetic risk of pregnancy complications and fetal pathology (blood with EDTA) 4750
GENETIC STUDIES Genetic risk of breast cancer (blood with EDTA) 4300
GENETIC STUDIES Genetic risk of breast cancer (buccal epithelium) 4300
GENETIC STUDIES Congenital dysfunction of the adrenal cortex (blood with EDTA) 3000
GENETIC STUDIES Genetic factors in the development of polycystic ovary syndrome (blood with EDTA) 1100
Herpetic infection Antibodies to herpes simplex virus types I, II, lgM (ser.) 340
Herpetic infection Antibodies to herpes simplex virus types I, II, lgG (ser.) 340
Herpetic infection IgG avidity to herpes simplex virus type I, II (ser.) 300
Pituitary-adrenal system ACTH (adrenocorticotropic hormone) (blood with aprotinin) 750
Pituitary-adrenal system Cortisol (Ser.) 400
Pituitary-adrenal system Blood catecholamines (adrenaline, norepinephrine, dopamine) (blood with EDTA) 2100
URINE HORMONES Urine cortisol (daily portion of urine with preservative) 900
Diagnosis of urolithiasis Methanifrins common urine (daily portion of urine with preservative) 1200
Others STH (growth hormone) (blood with aprotinin) 750
Others Somatomedin S (IGF-I) (ser.) 1050
Fecal examination General analysis of feces (feces) 400
Fecal examination Analysis of feces for helminth eggs (feces) 230
Fecal examination Analysis of feces for protozoa (feces) 230
Fecal examination Study of scraping for enterobiasis (smear from perianal folds) 230
Candida Candida (DNA of Candida albicans) (all types of biological material) 220
Tick-borne encephalitis Antibodies to tick-borne encephalitis virus, lgM (syv.) 320
Tick-borne encephalitis Antibodies to tick-borne encephalitis virus, lgG (ser.) 320
Whooping cough and para-whooping cough Antibodies to Bordetella pertussis and Bordetella parapertussis, total (s) 530
Lipid exchange Triglycerides (ser.) 140
Lipid exchange Total cholesterol (raw) 160
Lipid exchange Cholesterol-HDL (ser.) 160
Lipid exchange LDL-cholesterol (ser.) 160
Lipid exchange Homocysteine ​​(ser.) 700
Giardiasis Antibodies to lamblia, total (ser.) 260
Giardiasis Antibodies to lamblia, lgM (ser.) 210
Markers of osteoporosis Parathyroid hormone (ser.) 650
Markers of osteoporosis Calcitonin (blood with aprotinin) 900
Mycoplasmas Mycoplasma (DNA of Mycoplasma hominis) (all types of biological material) 200
Mycoplasmas Mycoplasma (DNA of Mycoplasma genitalium) (all types of biological material) 200
MICROBIOLOGICAL RESEARCH Culture for flora with determination of sensitivity to the main spectrum of antibiotics (discharge from the genitourinary organs, mammary glands, sputum, puncture fluid, discharge from the eye, discharge from the upper respiratory tract, discharge from the ear, bile) 780
MICROBIOLOGICAL RESEARCH Culture of urine for flora with determination of sensitivity to the main spectrum of antibiotics (urine) 780
MICROBIOLOGICAL RESEARCH Culture for flora with determination of sensitivity to an extended spectrum of antibiotics (discharge from the genitourinary organs, mammary glands, sputum, puncture fluid, discharge from the eye, discharge from the upper respiratory tract, discharge from the ear, bile) 900
MICROBIOLOGICAL RESEARCH Culture of urine for flora with determination of sensitivity to the extended spectrum of antibiotics (urine) 900
MICROBIOLOGICAL RESEARCH Culture for flora with determination of sensitivity to the main spectrum of antibiotics and bacteriophages (discharge from the urogenital organs, mammary glands, sputum, puncture fluid, discharge from the eye, discharge from the upper respiratory tract, discharge from the ear, bile) 800
MICROBIOLOGICAL RESEARCH Culture of urine for flora with determination of sensitivity to the main spectrum of antibiotics and bacteriophages (urine) 800
MICROBIOLOGICAL RESEARCH Culture for flora with determination of sensitivity to an extended spectrum of antibiotics and bacteriophages (discharge from the urogenital organs, mammary glands, sputum, puncture fluid, discharge from the eye, discharge from the upper respiratory tract, discharge from the ear, bile) 1000
MICROBIOLOGICAL RESEARCH Culture of urine for flora with determination of sensitivity to an extended spectrum of antibiotics and bacteriophages (urine) 1000
MICROBIOLOGICAL RESEARCH Culture for Mycoplasma hominis and Ureaplasma urealyticum with determination of sensitivity to antibiotics (discharge from the genitourinary organs (cervical canal, cervix, prostate secretion, sperm, urethra, uterine cavity, vagina)) 1240
MICROBIOLOGICAL RESEARCH Sowing on Candida fungi with identification and determination of sensitivity to antimycotic drugs (discharge from the genitourinary organs, puncture fluid, discharge from the eye, sputum, discharge from the upper respiratory tract, discharge from the ear, bile, feces) 730
MICROBIOLOGICAL RESEARCH Blood culture for sterility with determination of antibiotic susceptibility (blood) 950
MICROBIOLOGICAL RESEARCH Culture of Corynebacterium diphtheriae (swab from the nose, throat, sinuses) 820
MICROBIOLOGICAL RESEARCH Culture of Staphylococcus aureus with determination of sensitivity to antibiotics (swab from the nose, pharynx, sinuses, discharge from the mammary glands, discharge from the ear, feces) 660
MICROBIOLOGICAL RESEARCH Culture of Streptococcus pyogenes with determination of sensitivity to antibiotics (swab from the nose, throat, sinuses) 820
MICROBIOLOGICAL RESEARCH Research on vaginal biocenosis (vaginal smear) 900
MICROBIOLOGICAL RESEARCH Culture for anaerobic bacteria and antibiotic susceptibility (bile from the ear) 660
MICROBIOLOGICAL RESEARCH Culture for Clostridium difficile (feces, bile) 550
MICROBIOLOGICAL RESEARCH Dysbacteriosis with determination of sensitivity to phages (feces) 1350
MICROBIOLOGICAL RESEARCH Dysbacteriosis with determination of sensitivity to antibiotics and phages (feces) 1470
MICROBIOLOGICAL RESEARCH Culture for yersiniosis with determination of antibiotic susceptibility (feces) 700
MICROBIOLOGICAL RESEARCH Culture for pathogens of intestinal infections (salmonella, shigella) with the determination of antibiotic susceptibility (feces) 700
MICROBIOLOGICAL RESEARCH Inoculation for E.coli O157: H7 and antibiotic susceptibility (feces) 700
Microscopic examination MAR test (lgA antibodies) (semen) 780
Microscopic examination MAR test (lgG antibodies) (semen) 780
Neisseria Neisseria (DNA of Neisseria gonorrhoeae) (all biological material) 220
Iron exchange Ferritin (Ser.) 240
Iron exchange Total iron binding capacity of whey (dry) 160
ONCOMARKERS AFP (alpha-fetoprotein) (ser.) 400
ONCOMARKERS CEA (cancer-embryonic antigen) (syv.) 400
ONCOMARKERS Antigen CA 125 (s) 400
ONCOMARKERS PSA (prostate-specific antigen) total (sensitive.) (ss.) 90 346

400
ONCOMARKERS PSA (prostate-specific antigen) free (serum) 750
ONCOMARKERS Antigen CA 15-3 (ser.) 400
ONCOMARKERS Squamous cell carcinoma antigen (SCCA) (ser.) 680
ONCOMARKERS Oncoprotein E7 HPV 16 and 18 types (ser.) 1700
Papillomavirus Human Papillomavirus (DNA Type 16) (all types of biological material) 140
Papillomavirus Human Papillomavirus (DNA Type 18) (all types of biological material) 140
Papillomavirus Human Papillomavirus (DNA Human Papillomavirus 31/33 types) (all types of biological material) 140
Papillomavirus Human Papillomavirus (DNA Human Papillomavirus 6/11 types) (all types of biological material) 140
Papillomavirus Papillomavirus (Human Papillomavirus DNA of high carcinogenic risk (16,18,31,33,35,39,45,51,52,56,58,59,66 types) with type definition).(all kinds of biological material) 370
Papillomavirus Human Papillomavirus (DNA Human Papillomavirus 16/18 types), quantitative (all types of biological material) 230
Prenatal diagnosis PAPP-A (pregnancy-associated protein A) (serum) 680
Prenatal diagnosis Placental lactogen (serum) 350
Pseudotuberculosis and yersiniosis Antibodies to Yersinia pseudotuberculosis and Yersinia enterocolitica (lgA + lgG) (ser.) 330
Renin-angiotensin system Renin and angiotensin-1 (blood with aprotinin) 870
Renin-angiotensin system Aldosterone (ser.) 450
Salmonellosis Antibodies to Salmonela A, B, C1, C2, D, E (ser.) 300
Reproduction tests FSH (follicle stimulating hormone) (serum) 400
Reproduction tests LH (luteinizing hormone) (ser.) 400
Reproduction tests Prolactin (s) 400
Reproduction tests Estradiol (s.) 750
Reproduction tests Progesterone (ser.) 400
Reproduction tests 17-OH-progesterone (ser.) 700
Reproduction tests Androstenedione (s) 900
Reproduction tests DHEA sulfate (dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate) (s.) 700
Reproduction tests Testosterone total (s) 400
Reproduction tests Free testosterone (s) 700
Reproduction tests Dihydrotestosterone (ser.) 1300
Reproduction tests SHBG (sex hormone binding globulin) (serum) 480
Reproduction tests Inhibin B (ser.) 480
Reproduction tests Anti-Müllerian hormone (ser.) 480
Trichomonas Trichomonas (DNA of Trichomonas vaginalis) (all types of biological material) 200
Tuberculosis Antibodies to Mycobacterium tuberculosis, total (ser.) 400
Ureaplasma Ureaplasma (DNA Ureaplasma urelyticum) (all types of biological material) 200
Ureaplasma Ureaplasma (DNA Ureaplasma parvum) (all types of biological material) 200
Ureaplasma Ureaplasma (DNA of Ureaplasma species) (all types of biological material) 200
Ureaplasma Ureaplasma (DNA of Ureaplasma species), quantitatively (all types of biological material) 200
Pancreatic function C-peptide (ser.) 440
Thyroid function TSH (thyroid stimulating hormone) (serum) 400
Thyroid function T4 (thyroxine) free (raw) 400
Thyroid function T3 (triiodothyronine) free (s) 400
Thyroid function Anti-TG (antibodies to thyroglobulin) (ser.) 400
Thyroid function Anti-TPO (antibodies to microsomal thyroperoxidase) (ser.) 400
Thyroid function Thyroglobulin (ser.) 600
Helicobacteriosis Antibodies to Helicobacter pylori, lgA (ser.) 330
Helicobacteriosis Antibodies to Helicobacter pylori, lgM (ser.) 330
Helicobacteriosis Antibodies to Helicobacter pylori, lgG (ser.) 200
Chlamydia Chlamydia (DNA of Chlamydia trachomatis) (all types of biological material) 200
Cytomegalovirus Cytomegalovirus DNA (blood) (blood with EDTA) 250
Cytomegalovirus Cytomegalovirus DNA (blood), quantitative (blood with EDTA) 170
Cytomegalovirus Cytomegalovirus (DNA Cytomegalovirus) (all types of biological material) 220
Cytomegalovirus infection Antibodies to cytomegalovirus lgM (ser.) 400
Cytomegalovirus infection Antibodies to cytomegalovirus lgG (ser.) 400
Cytomegalovirus infection IgG avidity to cytomegalovirus (serum) 300
Shigellosis Antibodies to Shigella flexneri 1-V, V1 and Shigella sonnei (ser.) 330
Electrolytes and trace elements Na / K / Cl (dry) 150
Electrolytes and trace elements Total calcium (ser.) 200
Electrolytes and trace elements Calcium ionized (blood with heparin) 550
Electrolytes and trace elements Lead (dry) 450

hemoglobin, leukocytes, ESR – Medical Center Protos

A clinical blood test is performed to diagnose quantitative and qualitative changes in blood cells: erythrocytes, leukocytes and platelets.Their changes can be caused by disturbances in the process of hematopoiesis, but most often they are reactive in nature – they reflect the reaction of hematopoiesis to other pathological conditions and diseases. Therefore, a clinical blood test is one of the most common routine examinations and is used by doctors of various specialties, it is assigned a leading role in the primary diagnostic search.

Parameters determined in study
Red blood cells (RBCs) are non-nuclear cells formed in the bone marrow from reticulocytes, have the shape of a biconcave disc, which allows to achieve the maximum possible surface area for oxygen binding.12 per liter (trillion cells per liter).

Hemoglobin (HGB) – a protein, the main component of erythrocytes, has an affinity for oxygen, which ensures the transport function of erythrocytes. Oxygenated hemoglobin gives red blood cells and blood in general a red color.

Hematocrit (HCT) – characterizes the ratio of the volume of red blood cells to plasma. This is a calculated parameter – the hematology analyzer calculates the volume of red blood cells from their number and the average volume of one cell (MCV).
Mean Corpuscular Volume (MCV) – calculated by the analyzer by dividing the sum of cell volumes by the number of red blood cells. May be normal if there is both microcytosis and macrocytosis in the blood. In such situations, pay attention to the RDW parameter. The unit of measurement is femtoliter.

White Blood Cell (WBC) is a heterogeneous population of nucleated blood cells, the main function of which is to protect the body from foreign agents.Leukocytes include cells of granulocytic (eosinophils, basophils, neutrophils), monocytic and lymphoid (T- and B-lymphocytes) series. Modern analyzers can differentiate the main five types of leukocytes, however, smear microscopy is still the most accurate method for assessing the leukocyte population, since it allows not only to determine the number of different leukocytes, but also to reveal changes in their morphology, as well as to detect atypical cells.

Erythrocyte sedimentation rate.In infectious-inflammatory, autoimmune and some tumor (especially paraproteinemic hemoblastoses) diseases, the protein composition of the plasma changes towards an increase in the content of proteins (for example, immunoglobulins). All protein molecules reduce the membrane charge of erythrocytes, promoting their adhesion to each other and increasing the sedimentation rate. The test is carried out within an hour, the height of the resulting sediment is measured in millimeters.

.