Headache nausea vomiting chills: What Is Norovirus Infection? Symptoms, Contagious Period & Treatment
Symptoms, Diagnosis, & Treatment
The majority of people infected with yellow fever virus will either not have symptoms, or have mild symptoms and completely recover.
For people who develop symptoms, the time from infection until illness is typically 3 to 6 days.
Because there is a risk of severe disease, all people who develop symptoms of yellow fever after traveling to or living in an area at risk for the virus should see their healthcare provider. Once you have been infected, you are likely to be protected from future infections.
- Most people will not have symptoms.
- Some people will develop yellow fever illness with initial symptoms including:
- Sudden onset of fever
- Severe headache
- Back pain
- General body aches
- Fatigue (feeling tired)
- Most people with the initial symptoms improve within one week.
- For some people who recover, weakness and fatigue (feeling tired) might last several months.
- A few people will develop a more severe form of the disease.
- For 1 out of 7 people who have the initial symptoms, there will be a brief remission (a time you feel better) that may last only a few hours or for a day, followed by a more severe form of the disease.
- Severe symptoms include:
- High fever
- Yellow skin (jaundice)
- Organ failure
- Severe yellow fever disease can be deadly. If you develop any of these symptoms, see a healthcare provider immediately.
- Among those who develop severe disease, 30-60% die.
- Yellow fever infection is diagnosed based on laboratory testing, a person’s symptoms, and travel history.
- More information on diagnostic testing is available on the For Healthcare Providers page.
- There is no medicine to treat or cure infection from yellow fever.
- Rest, drink fluids, and use pain relievers and medication to reduce fever and relieve aching.
- Avoid certain medications, such as aspirin or other nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, for example ibuprofen (Advil, Motrin), or naproxen (Aleve), which may increase the risk of bleeding.
- People with severe symptoms of yellow fever infection should be hospitalized for close observation and supportive care.
- If after returning from travel you have symptoms of yellow fever (usually about a week after being bitten by an infected mosquito), protect yourself from mosquito bites for up to 5 days after symptoms begin. This will help prevent spreading yellow fever to uninfected mosquitoes that can spread the virus to other people.
Is it stomach flu or food poisoning? | UCI Health
You’re feeling nauseated and your stomach is cramping. You wonder, was it something you ate or a stomach virus?
The constellation of symptoms — nausea, abdominal pain, diarrhea and vomiting — are virtually the same whether the gastrointestinal distress is caused by a virus or a food-borne bacteria.
Doctors say it’s hard to pin down the cause by symptoms alone, and most people get better in a day or two without medical intervention.
When people do seek help, “it’s because they’re vomiting and haven’t been able to keep food down for a while or are dehydrated from severe diarrhea,” says UCI Health emergency medicine specialist Dr. Shahram Lotfipour. “But it’s really hard to know if it’s food poisoning or not — unless they come in and say, ‘Hey, I just had some bad chicken or bad salad,’ or multiple people who ate it came down with the same symptoms. ”
Food poisoning is caused by bacterial contamination and usually comes on within two to six hours of eating, whereas a viral infection can appear within a few hours or a few days after exposure, according to the National Institutes of Health.
Gastroenteritis and norovirus
Stomach flu is not a flu, which is a respiratory illness caused by influenza viruses. Rather it is a viral infection that attacks the gastrointestinal system.
Viral gastroenteritis is usually caused by one of four types: rotavirus, adenovirus, astrovirus and the caliciviruses, the most common of which is the highly contagious norovirus.
Norovirus can be spread from person to person and by contact with surfaces touched days or weeks earlier by an infected person. It also can be transmitted by food handled by an infected person. In fact, norovirus causes 48 percent of food-borne illness outbreaks compared to 46 percent caused by the usual bacterial culprits — salmonella, E. coli, campylobacter, listeria and staphylococcus — put together, according to the Centers for Disease Control and Infection (CDC).
Related: Checking the spread of norovirus ›
A norovirus outbreak has been implicated in restaurant outbreaks and is frequently found to be the cause of mass illness on cruise ships. Infants, small child and the elderly, especially those in long-term care homes, are particularly vulnerable to norovirus.
Signs of food poisoning vs. a stomach virus
While it is hard to tell the difference between food poisoning and a stomach virus without a test, there are some tell-tale clues, says UCI Health infectious disease expert Dr. Shruti Gohil.
Acute stomach virus infections generally start with:
- Nausea and/or vomiting
- Watery diarrhea
- Abdominal pain or cramping
- Low-grade fever
Sometimes people also experience head and muscle aches as the infection runs its course. Symptoms usually resolve in one to three days, although it may take up to 10 days to completely recover, Gohil says.
Food poisoning, on the other hand, is caused by bacteria and can come on within hours of eating contaminated food. Symptoms include:
- Abdominal pain and cramping that can be severe
- Nausea and vomiting
- Fever and chills
If you develop a fever above 101.5 F (38.6 C) and chills, “you should see your doctor immediately,” Gohil says. “Some bacteria can be serious and lead to dehydration, kidney failure and arthritis. Depending on the cause, you may need antibiotics.”
Most food poisoning bouts clear up with a few days, although some can linger up to 10 days. Related: Should you go to the ER or urgent care? ›
Stay hydrated while the infection runs its course
Whether it is food poisoning or viral gastroenteritis, treatment is essentially the same:
- Ride it out and stay hydrated, says the CDC. Drinking fluids that contain added electrolytes can be beneficial. Untreated dehydration can lead to severe health problems.
- Once you’re able to hold food down, gradually add food to your diet. Start with bland foods such as saltine crackers, toast, gelatin, plain yogurt, bananas and fresh apples. Avoid fatty and sugary foods, milk products, caffeine and alcohol until you’ve completely recovered.
When it’s time to see your doctor
A viral stomach ailment is usually accompanied by a low-grade fever and sometimes head and muscle aches. Food poisoning may cause more severe belly pain or cramping.
Gohil recommends seeing a doctor immediately if your symptoms worsen, persist more than a few days or if you experience the following:
- Frequent vomiting, inability to keep liquids down
- Blood in vomit or stools
- Diarrhea lasting more than three days
- Extreme pain or severe abdominal cramping
- Fever above 101. 5 F (38.6 C) and chills
- Severe dehydration — excessive thirst, dry mouth, little or no urination, severe weakness, dizziness or lightheadedness
Take precautions to avoid spreading infection
Because viral gastroenteritis is contagious and can stay in the gut up to two weeks after recovery, it is important to avoid spreading the infection, according to the National institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases, which recommends that patients and their caregivers take the following precautions:
- Wash hands in warm, soapy water for at least 20 to 30 seconds after using the bathroom or changing diapers and before eating or handling food.
- Clean contaminated countertops and other surfaces with a mix of one cup of household bleach to a half-gallon of water.
- Avoid sharing food or drink.
- Stay home from work or school until the illness has run its course.
To prevent future infections, health experts recommend:
- Frequent hand washing
- Thorough cleaning of vegetables and fruit before serving or eating
- Cooking meat thoroughly
Food Poisoning or Stomach Flu: How to Tell the Difference
When you’re suddenly throwing up, dealing with diarrhea, or doing both at once, it’s only natural to wonder whether it’s because you have food poisoning or the stomach flu.
But while these two health issues are usually lumped together thanks to their intense G.I. symptoms, they’re definitely not the same thing. Also, you probably don’t want to swear off your favorite sandwich shop if it’s totally innocent in the matter. Here’s what you need to know about each—including the stomach flu symptoms and food poisoning symptoms to look out for—so you can determine what’s going on and feel better ASAP, if not sooner.
What Is Food Poisoning?
Food poisoning is an infection or irritation of your digestive tract that you get from having infected food and drinks, according to the National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases (NIDDK). It’s usually acute (meaning it comes on hard and fast), and most people get better on their own without treatment, the NIDDK says.
Having food poisoning (also known as foodborne illness) means your body is rebelling against viruses, bacteria, or other harmful substances in something you ate, Benjamin Chapman, Ph.D., an assistant professor and food-safety extension specialist at North Carolina State University, tells SELF. These pathogens can lurk in a wide variety of foods. You may also come down with food poisoning after reheating old food and drinking or eating something that has expired (especially dairy).
Food poisoning isn’t a rare thing—about 48 million people in the U.S. have food poisoning each year, the NIDDK says.
What Is the Stomach Flu?
First, it’s important to know that the stomach flu has no relation to the “regular” flu, a.k.a. influenza. Influenza is a highly contagious viral infection that causes fever, muscle aches, fatigue, and respiratory issues. In severe cases, influenza can be life-threatening (seriously, get your flu shot every year).
The stomach flu, on the other hand, is what’s known as viral gastroenteritis, and it happens when a virus causes an infection in your gut, according to the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
What Causes Food Poisoning?
When it comes to viruses, norovirus is the most common cause of foodborne illness in the U.S., the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) says. It typically hangs out in items like raw, ready-to-eat produce; shellfish; and contaminated water.
On the bacterial side, you have salmonella, listeria, shigella, campylobacter, E. coli, and more that can make you sick, according to the Mayo Clinic. These can show up in anything from hot dogs, milk, egg yolks, alfalfa sprouts, meat, poultry, and beyond.
Food contamination can happen at any point, whether it’s through soil as it’s grown, in a storage facility, or on your countertop when you leave food out for too long, the CDC says. You may also get food poisoning if someone with one of these illness-causing microorganisms in their system handles your food or utensils.
What Causes the Stomach Flu?
Norovirus—which you just read about—is also one of the most common causes of the stomach flu, leading to between 19 and 21 million viral gastroenteritis infections each year, per the CDC. So yes, the stomach flu can be a type of food poisoning.
You can pick up viruses that cause the stomach flu by touching a surface that someone with the infection touched or having direct contact with them. You can also get it through food, though, which brings us to the trippiest part of this entire conversation…
Covid 19 Symptoms And When To Seek Help
Is your persistent cough a sign of seasonal allergies, influenza, or COVID-19?
Mild cases of COVID-19 share plenty of symptoms in common with seasonal respiratory illnesses. For that reason, knowing whether you have contracted the disease and when you might need to get treatment can be confusing.
So, what does it actually feel like to have COVID-19? We asked M Health Fairview Infectious Disease Physician Susan Kline, MD, MPH, to shed some light on the subject.
“The most common symptoms people experience are cough, fever, and shortness of breath,” Kline said. “But not all these symptoms happen in every person. The disease quite variable and everyone is different. Many people who are infected show no symptoms, but can still spread the disease.”
Fever seems to be to one of the most common early markers of COVID-19, Kline noted. But you shouldn’t necessarily expect a high-grade fever with dangerously elevated temperatures. Many people with the disease run a low-grade fever for days, she said, and some may have no fever at all.
Other symptoms can include sore throat, nasal congestion, fatigue, myalgia or muscle aches, and headache – many of which are similar to cold and flu symptoms. People with COVID-19 might also experience gastrointestinal symptoms such as nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, and loss of appetite. Related symptoms include new loss of taste or smell.
These symptoms can appear between two and 14 days after exposure.
The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention’s (CDC) current list of identified symptoms includes:
- Fever or chills
- Shortness of breath or difficulty breathing
- Muscle or body aches
- New loss of taste or smell
- Sore throat
- Congestion or runny nose
- Nausea or vomiting
COVID-19 testing may help you identify whether you have the disease, or simply have allergies or another respiratory illness. Learn how you can get tested for COVID-19.
Not everyone will experience the same level of symptom severity, Kline noted. Some who have tested positive COVID-19 might only experience a mild or asymptomatic case. Others have reported having weakness and shortness of breath that was so severe they could barely sit up in bed.
Though most people who contract COVID-19 will be able to recover at home, there are a number of risk factors that increase the chances of someone experiencing a more severe case, Kline said.
Adults 65-74 years old are five times more likely to be hospitalized because of COVID-19 than people 18 to 29 years of age, according to CDC data.
“People over 60 as well as those with underlying heart or lung disease are more at risk for developing more serious complications,” Kline said. People with other chronic medical conditions like cancer, type 2 diabetes, or chronic kidney disease may also be at higher risk, according to the CDC.
“Though young people can still get a severe, life-threatening case of COVID-19, the risk appears to be much lower than in older adults,” Kline added.
When should you consider seeking advanced care for yourself or a loved one?
“If you are having a hard time breathing, that is a sign that you or a family member should contact a medical provider,” Kline said. Other emergency warning signs can include persistent pain or pressure in the chest, new confusion or inability to wake or stay awake, and a bluish lips or face.
If you suspect you have COVID-19 and are seeking treatment, Kline recommends that you call the hospital or clinic before arriving so that healthcare workers know you are coming and can prepare.
“If people have any questions, they should always contact their medical provider for advice,” Kline said. Those experiencing a medical emergency should always call 911.
When will you be able to get one of the COVID-19 vaccines in Minnesota, and are they safe? Visit our COVID-19 vaccine resource for updates.
Norovirus Fact Sheet – Minnesota Dept. of Health
Revised June 2009
Download a print version of this document:
Norovirus Fact Sheet (PDF)
What is norovirus?
Noroviruses are a group of viruses (previously known as Norwalk-like viruses) that can cause gastroenteritis, an inflammation of the stomach and intestines. Norovirus is the leading cause of foodborne illness outbreaks in Minnesota.
This infection is often mistakenly referred to as the “stomach flu”. Norovirus is not related to the flu (influenza), which is a common respiratory illness caused by the influenza virus.
What are the symptoms?
Common symptoms of norovirus infection include vomiting, diarrhea, and stomach cramping. Less common symptoms can include low-grade fever or chills, headache, and muscle aches. Symptoms usually begin 1 or 2 days after ingesting the virus, but may appear as early as 12 hours after exposure. The illness typically comes on suddenly. The infected person may feel very sick and vomit often, sometimes without warning, many times a day. Sometimes people infected with norovirus have no symptoms at all, but can still pass the virus to others.
How long does it last?
Most people recover in 1 or 2 days and have no long-term health effects. Dehydration can be a concern in the very young, the elderly, or people with weakened immune systems. Occasionally infected people may experience milder symptoms for a week or more.
How is it spread?
Noroviruses are very contagious. They are found in the stool (feces) or vomit of infected people. From there, noroviruses are transferred to food, water, or surfaces by the hands of infected people who have not washed adequately after using the bathroom.
People become infected with norovirus by:
- Eating food or drinking liquids contaminated by an infected person.
- Eating uncooked shellfish that has been harvested from contaminated waters.
- Touching contaminated surfaces or objects and then touching their mouth or eating without washing their hands first.
What should I do if I have symptoms?
- Drink plenty of fluids so you don’t become dehydrated.
- Wash your hands often and do not prepare food for others.
- Contact your health care provider (but remember that antibiotics don’t treat viruses).
How can I prevent norovirus infections?
- Wash your hands with warm, soapy water for 20 seconds
- After using the bathroom
- After changing diapers
- Before preparing foods
- Before eating
- Wash your hands more often when someone in your household is sick.
- Clean and disinfect surfaces with a household bleach solution immediately after vomiting or diarrheal accidents.
- Steam oysters before eating them.
- Avoid preparing food for others while you have symptoms and for at least 3 days after you recover.
To report a suspected foodborne illness, call the Minnesota Department of Health Foodborne Illness Hotline at
1-877-FOOD-ILL (or 651-201-5655 from the Twin Cities).
When to See Your Doctor
Signs You Can Likely Use Self-Care
If you are in motion (car, bus, train, boat, plane, etc.) and had no symptoms prior to starting your journey, your nausea and vomiting may be motion sickness. Self-care is appropriate, as are over-the-counter motion sickness medications.
If you had nausea or diarrhea prior to vomiting, these are signs that your vomiting is most likely due to a stomach bug. It could be a virus such as gastroenteritis or bacteria such as E. coli or salmonella. While most cases get better on their own, children and those with weak immune systems can develop complications.
Food poisoning can be suspected if others who dined with you in the past few hours are also having symptoms of nausea, vomiting, or diarrhea. You may also have painful abdominal cramps and could have a low-grade fever.
Most cases of food poisoning will resolve with self-care so long as dehydration or more concerning symptoms do not develop, or any cramping or fever do not become progressively worse.
Starting a new medication or treatment (such as chemotherapy) may produce nausea and vomiting. Self-care is usually appropriate if there are no other symptoms, but you should call your doctor to report your symptoms and get advice about whether to change medications.
Signs such as a missed menstrual period and new onset of nausea and vomiting may indicate morning sickness common to pregnancy. If you could possibly be pregnant, take a pregnancy test. If you are pregnant, self-care is appropriate for morning sickness, but you should see a healthcare provider for prenatal care.
It is common to have nausea and vomiting after drinking alcohol, as it can upset the stomach both at the time you are drinking and when experiencing a hangover. Use self-care to feel better.
Typical Appearance of Vomit
Most vomit starts out looking like whatever it was you ate last. An orange color is expected if you are vomiting hours after eating, as food that is being digested will give vomit this hue.
If you have been vomiting repeatedly, your vomit will often become clear as all of the food has been ejected and only digestive juices remain. These characteristics do not point to serious causes, but they do not rule them out either.
If you have a stomach bug or any other more benign cause of vomiting, lay down and do not attempt to participate in any physical activities while you are sick.
If you do not vomit for a period of 15 to 20 minutes, you can try to introduce small sips of clear liquids (water or an electrolyte drink such as Gatorade or Pedialyte). Continue clear liquids for at least six hours.
While actively vomiting, it is best to avoid eating and stick with sips of clear liquids. This will help prevent dehydration and it reduces the risk of choking when vomiting.
Once you are able to keep clear liquids down for six hours or more, you can progress to a bland diet. After the risk of vomiting has subsided, continue to avoid spicy, fatty, and salty foods, as well as those that have a strong odor, until you are tolerating food well.
Chills – Symptoms, Causes, Treatments
Having chills refers to feeling excessively cold, even when you are wearing warm clothing or are wrapped in blankets. When you have the chills, you may also be shivering or look pale.
Chills are often related to fever, an increase in body temperature above normal (98.6 degrees Fahrenheit). Fever is a sign of inflammation or infection in the body.
Part of your body’s response to infection is to create a fever by raising body temperature. Chills are caused by rapid contraction and relaxation of the muscles to increase body temperature. A fever can help to kill infectious pathogens or prevent their spread because most pathogens that cause infection survive best at a normal body temperature.
Chills and fever can be caused by fairly benign conditions, such as a cold, or by serious conditions, such as influenza, malaria or meningitis. Chills and fever are more common in children than adults because even minor illnesses produce a fever in children. Children also tend to get higher fevers than adults.
Exposure to cold temperatures and a low body temperature (hypothermia, a body temperature at or below 95 degrees) can also cause chills as muscles contract and relax to warm the body. Autoimmune and inflammatory disorders, as well as some cancers, can also cause a fever and chills.
Chills can be a symptom of a serious or life-threatening infection or hypothermia.
Seek prompt medical care or talk with a medical professional about your symptoms if they persist more than two days or if they cause you concern.
Fever in infants and very young children can quickly become serious. Infants do not usually develop chills, but
seek prompt medical care for a fever in a child less than one year old.
Seek immediate medical care (call 911) if you, or someone you are with, have been exposed to cold temperatures or cold water or have other symptoms, such as lethargy, difficulty breathing, stiff neck, or confusion.
Information for the public
Prevention of infectious and parasitic diseases
Prevention of infectious diseases in the summer
Dear residents of Vologda!
Ahead – vacations for children, vacations, trips to nature, hot summer days! To avoid health problems and not spoil the rest for yourself and your children, you need to know what infectious diseases can await us and what measures to take so as not to get infected, for example, acute intestinal infections, not to get food poisoning, not to suffer from tick sucking, etc. etc.
Acute intestinal infections, which are most common among the population of our region, are dysentery, salmonellosis, rotavirus, norovirus infections and some others. Most AEI occur with symptoms of intoxication (fever, weakness, loss of appetite), abdominal pain, vomiting (nausea), loose stools (diarrhea).
A feature of diarrhea at dysentery is frequent loose stools in small portions (like a lump of mucus with a small amount of feces), with an admixture of blood (due to ulcerative lesions of the mucous membrane of the large intestine) and false urge to defecate (tenesmus).A lethal outcome can occur from severe intoxication of the body.
A feature of diarrhea at salmonellosis
is profuse, watery, offensive loose stools with a greenish tinge, in rare cases there may be an admixture of blood and mucus. The onset of the disease is similar to acute respiratory infections with abdominal syndrome, the clinical manifestation of OCI appears on days 2-3, in addition to the characteristic loose stools, abdominal pain, there may be vomiting. In a severe degree, intoxication is very pronounced, up to convulsions.In the absence of the necessary treatment and restoration of water balance, death can occur, especially in children under one year old.
Rotavirus infection occurs with repeated profuse frothy watery liquid stools of yellow-orange color, repeated vomiting, dehydration occurs quickly, which is very dangerous for young children and can also be fatal. Characterized by signs of acute respiratory viral infections (redness in the pharynx).
Norovirus infection begins abruptly, unexpectedly, with nausea and repeated vomiting, mushy stools of normal color, body temperature, as a rule, subfebrile (37 – 37. 9 degrees Celsius).The duration of the disease is 1-2 days. You can also get infected by airborne droplets, inhaling particles of vomit during close contact with a sick person.
Viral hepatitis A – an infection that is transmitted as OCI: water, food and contact-household routes (“dirty hands disease”). As a rule, begins with symptoms of acute respiratory infections, especially in children, or is asymptomatic. In the clinical picture of acute viral hepatitis A, the features are jaundice of the skin and sclera ( eyes), light stools (“white stools”) and dark urine (“dark beer” colors).
Prevention of acute intestinal infections
– wash your hands often and with soap yourself and teach children, especially after using the toilet, before eating, after coming from the street, before preparing food, etc.
– keep the house clean, avoid insects (flies, cockroaches)
– drink only boiled or bottled clean water
– do not swallow water when swimming
– buy products at official points of sale, watch the expiration dates of products, observe the “commodity” neighborhood of products in a bag, refrigerator, when preparing food (separately from products that are not subject to heat treatment, store meat, chicken, eggs), have a separate cutting inventory at home (knife, board) for raw meat, chicken and ready-made products (bread, cheese, butter, boiled vegetables, boiled meat).
– Before eating, thoroughly wash vegetables, fruits, herbs under running water, then rinse with boiled water or pour over with boiling water.
Airborne infections, including influenza and ARVI
The main airborne infections in the region are influenza and ARVI, community-acquired pneumonia, as well as chickenpox and scarlet fever.
In the clinical picture Influenza
the leading symptom is intoxication of the body, acute onset, high body temperature (38-40 degrees Celsius) for at least 5 days, aching muscles, joints, pain when moving the eyes.
Acute respiratory viral infections (ARVI) in Vologda residents are caused by several viruses, including parainfluenza viruses, adenoviruses, RS viruses, etc.
A feature of the clinical picture parainfluenza
there is a dry, “barking” cough, hoarse voice, sore throat, as the larynx and vocal cords are affected.There may be a slight chill, muscle aches. The maximum temperature is reached for 2-3 days, the rest of the time the temperature is not higher than 38 degrees Celsius. Also, the patient is worried about a severe rhinitis with serous discharge.
Adenovirus infection , its clinical manifestations are diverse: acute febrile pharyngitis (“sore throat”), inflammation of the upper respiratory tract, adenoviral pneumonia (characterized by severe and prolonged course), conjunctivitis, whooping cough syndrome (spastic cough), hemorrhagic syndrome ( increased fragility of blood vessels, etc.). The onset of the disease is usually acute.
RS infection (caused by respiratory syncytial virus), begins acutely with body temperature up to 37.5-38 ° C, chills, moderate headache, weakness, apathy. Perhaps the appearance of pain in the muscles, sometimes – aches throughout the body. Symptoms can be up to severe toxicosis, accompanied by severe headaches, vomiting, nosebleeds, and small-point hemorrhages in the soft palate. The leading symptom of the disease is a dry, paroxysmal cough, exhausting the patient, which can persist for up to 3 weeks.The disease is often complicated by pneumonia (pneumonia).
Prevention of influenza and ARVI:
– avoid contact with sick flu and SARS
– use disposable masks in case of contact
– often wash hands or treat with skin antiseptics, especially after caring for a sick person, after traveling on public transport
– keep your house clean, often ventilate the premises, quartzing in the apartment can be used for preventive purposes.
Chickenpox – acute onset, body temperature can be normal or 38-39 degrees Celsius, by the end of the first, on the second day, a characteristic rash appears on the body and in the scalp (spots that turn into papules after a few hours (protrude above the skin surface ), and then bubbles (vesicles) Bubbles turn into crusts that cannot be torn off, as scars will remain, the crusts will fall off by themselves . The duration of the disease is at least a week. Weakened children and adults may develop serious complications (pneumonia, encephalitis, myocarditis, hepatitis).
Prevention of chickenpox:
– avoid contact with sick VO
– isolation of the patient (until recovery or until the crusts fall off)
– separation of family contact children under the age of 7 who did not have chickenpox, from the 11th to the 21st day (removed from kindergarten)
– in kindergarten, the group is quarantined from the 11th to the 21st day.
– caused by the bacterium streptococcus, in the clinical picture, an acute onset, chills, an increase in body temperature to 38-39 degrees Celsius on the first day, headache, weakness, bright redness of the soft palate, tonsils, pharynx (“flaming pharynx”), enlargement of the tonsils. From the 3-4th day – “raspberry tongue”. Swollen lymph nodes. Against the background of facial redness, a pale nasolabial triangle stands out clearly. From the 2nd day, a punctate rash appears with a thickening in the axillary and groin areas.At the 2nd week – pityriasis peeling on the trunk, after 15 days – lamellar peeling on the palms and feet. When treating a patient with scarlet fever, it is important to adhere to bed rest for 5-6 days, since if the restrictive regimen is violated, otitis media (ear inflammation), sinusitis (sinusitis) and severe complications: myocarditis, endocarditis (inflammation of the heart muscle and membranes), glomerulonephritis ( inflammation of the kidneys), vasculitis (inflammation of the blood vessels).
Prevention of scarlet fever:
– avoid close and prolonged contact with a patient with scarlet fever
– observe the rules of personal hygiene when caring for the patient
– keep the apartment clean, airing, quartzing the premises
– the kindergarten group is quarantined for 7 days
– there is no quarantine at the school, but within 7 days, children in grades 1-3 are under medical supervision.
Tick attack season is in full swing.
Non-specific prophylaxis attacks (suction) of ticks:
– when entering a natural hearth – tight-fitting light-colored clothing, a hat, closed shoes
– self- and mutual inspection at least in 30-40 minutes
– the use of repellents (these are agents that repel ticks and other blood-sucking insects)
– it is forbidden to remove and crush the sucked tick with hands without gloves, including from pets
– you cannot sit and lie on the grass, especially in the forest
– if you find a sucked tick, it must be removed at the nearest medical facility and in the first 4 days receive emergency prophylaxis (for example, anti-tick immunoglobulin).
Please note that when drinking water from rivers, lakes, ponds and other bodies of water, especially in those places where corpses of rodents were found on the shore, you can become infected with severe natural focal infections that are characteristic of the territory of our region, for example, tularemia, leptospirosis, hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome (HFRS).
Dear residents of Vologda! Be healthy!
Take care of yourself and your children
against infectious diseases!
Prevention of infections transmitted by ticks.
Winter is ending, and with the arrival of spring and warm days, ticks will wake up. As long-term observations show, in mid-late March, the spring-summer season of tick activity will begin in our area.
After sucking, ixodid ticks can infect a person with a number of tick-borne infections, including tick-borne encephalitis, ixodic tick-borne borreliosis (Lyme disease), ehrlichiosis, anaplasmosis, tularemia and other infectious diseases. The incidence of tick-borne infections in the Vologda Oblast exceeds the national average by more than 2 times.
The most dangerous is tick-borne encephalitis. This is a natural focal disease endemic (characteristic) for the entire territory of our region.
Tick-borne encephalitis virus attacks the central nervous system. The disease can end in death or lead to disability due to paralysis of the muscles of the arms, neck (head drooping), the development of periodic seizures (epilepsy), and the possible development of dementia. The main clinical symptoms of tick-borne encephalitis are an increase in body temperature above 37.5 degrees, headache, nausea, irritability appear.The earlier the diagnosis is made and effective treatment is prescribed, the greater the likelihood of complete recovery without the transition of the disease to a chronic form, subsequent disability and death.
Untreated ixodic tick-borne borreliosis leads to damage to the musculoskeletal system, nervous and cardiovascular systems, to long-term disability, human disability. A characteristic symptom is erythema annulus – a red spot with enlightenment in the center, appearing at the site of tick suction.
The main measures for the prevention of tick-borne infections remain vaccination and seroprophylaxis in tick-borne encephalitis. With tick-borne borreliosis and ehrlichiosis – antibiotic prophylaxis.
Vaccination against tick-borne encephalitis is carried out throughout the year with the proviso that in the spring-summer season, within 2 weeks after vaccination, one should avoid visiting a natural focus (forest, summer cottage, park, cemeteries, trips to nature, etc.). Vaccinated against tick-borne enephalitis twice with an interval of 1-7 months., the third vaccination is carried out one year after the second, later – revaccination with a frequency of 1 time in 3 years.
Going into nature, remember about personal prevention measures against tick attacks. Special clothing is important (closed, light-colored, with long sleeves, cuffs either with elastic bands or with buttons, trousers tucked into socks, high boots). The upper part of the garment should be tucked into the trousers. A hood or other headgear is desirable on the head. A particularly effective result is achieved when protective clothing is combined with chemicals.
It is necessary to carry out self- and mutual examinations every 1.5-2 hours to detect ticks and remove them. Most often, mites stick to where the skin is the thinnest and most delicate: behind the ears, on the neck, under the armpits, in the scalp. It is necessary to remove adhering ticks from clothes, body and pets with rubber gloves, since the tick-borne encephalitis virus from a crushed tick can enter the human blood through microtraumas, microdamages on the skin of the hands. Sometimes people can suffer from ticks brought into the house with wildflowers, branches, on outerwear.
Both insecticidal and acaricidal personal protective equipment against ticks and repellents that do not kill, but scare away ticks are effectively used.
If tick sucking still occurs, it is necessary to seek medical help as soon as possible to remove the tick and carry out sero- and antibiotic prophylaxis.
If it is impossible to seek medical help, the tick should be removed on its own, trying not to tear off the proboscis immersed in the skin, and the wound should be disinfected with an iodine solution.Next, you need to contact the nearest medical organization for the appointment of emergency prevention of tick-borne infections.
REMINDER: Prevention of yellow fever
Yellow fever is a viral disease transmitted to humans through the bite of Aedes and Haemogogus mosquitoes. The disease comes in two forms: jungle fever (transmitted by mosquitoes from infected monkeys) and human settlements fever (transmitted by mosquitoes from person to person).Natural reservoir is monkeys. The incubation period is 6 days.
In the clinical picture, there is a pronounced pain syndrome: severe headache, especially in the occiput; muscle pain extending to the lumbar region, lower extremities. Patients are agitated, in severe cases delirium appears. There is a sharp redness and puffiness of the face, swelling of the eyelids, a bright injection of the vessels of the opaque membranes and conjunctiva, the eyes seem to be bloodshot. Appetite is reduced or absent. The tongue is bright red, there is bleeding of the gums, nosebleeds.There is often profuse vomiting mixed with bile and blood. The patients suffer from thirst. After 3-4 days, the condition of the patients improves somewhat, the temperature drops to 37-38 ° C, headaches, muscle pains disappear, sleep and appetite improve. With a mild course, the disease goes into a recovery period. In severe and moderately severe cases, the phase of venous stasis soon begins with a repeated increase in temperature, increased toxic and hemorrhagic manifestations. There are bloody repeated vomiting, profuse mushy black stools.Multiple hemorrhages appear on the skin and mucous membranes. The redness of the face is replaced by pronounced cyanosis, jaundice of the skin and mucous membranes develops, and collapse may develop. Mortality in yellow fever ranges from 5-10 to 20-25% and even 60% in severe epidemic outbreaks.
According to the Federal Service of Rospotrebnadzor, more than 200 thousand cases of yellow fever are registered annually in the world, 30 thousand cases end in the death of the patient. Currently, 42 countries in Africa, South and Central America have reported cases of yellow fever (list of countries is attached).Thus, in Brazil, as of January 27, 2017, 550 cases of suspected yellow fever were registered.
Vaccination is the only reliable way to prevent yellow fever. Yellow fever vaccines provide protection against infection 10 days after vaccination; a single vaccination gives lifelong immunity. Individuals vaccinated against yellow fever receive an International Certificate of Vaccination.
In the absence of vaccination against yellow fever, persons traveling to the territory of countries where this disease is registered may be quarantined for 6 days or denied entry into the country.
In the Vologda Oblast, immunization against yellow fever is carried out with the subsequent issuance of an International Certificate of Vaccination at the BUZ VO “Cherepovets City Polyclinic No. 1” (Cherepovets, Milyutina St., 6, tel. (8-820-2) -51- 67-50).
countries endemic for yellow fever
LIST OF COUNTRIES require an international certificate of vaccination against YELLOW FEVER FOR ALL TRAVELERS
Antigua and Barbuda
Egypt Zimbourne 9000 Gonutik
Pakistan4 Christmas Island
Saint Kitts and Nevis
Saint Vmnscent Grenadines
San Tom Principe
Senate Saudi Arabia
Senwillan 9000 and Tobago
Tristan da Cunha
Ethiopia FEVER, WHEN LEAVING IN WHICH EVERYONE Travelers recommends a yellow fever vaccination
Trinidad and Tobago
Central African Republic
Democratic Republic of the Congo5 French Ecophyan
Democratic Republic of the Congo5 French Gaborian 5 Gabviana
BUZ VO “Center for the Prevention of Infectious Diseases”
Please use the site search:
90,000 When a headache becomes deadly: important symptoms
How to get rid of a headache? Read in the new book by Sergei Agapkin.
Photo: Ivan MAKEEV
The well-known TV presenter Sergei Agapkin wrote the book “Don’t let your head split”, in which he describes in detail the dangerous situations associated with headaches: headaches or even get rid of them completely. But there are cases in which one cannot hesitate even a minute! No exercise, no pills, no self-medication – run to the doctor or to the phone – call the ambulance team! “
With the permission of the publisher we are publishing an excerpt from the book.
When a headache cannot be tolerated
An ordinary headache, although it causes various sensations from simple discomfort to incredible torment, is not dangerous and does not threaten life. But in some situations, pain in the head does not arise by itself, but is a symptom of dangerous conditions and diseases. These headaches are called secondary headaches.
Secondary headaches occur as a consequence of pathological processes that develop inside the body, and often – not in the head, but in other parts of the body.To distinguish these headaches from common (primary) headaches, doctors have developed a system of “red flags” – identified symptoms that indicate a life-threatening condition.
“Red flags”: headache danger signals
* Sudden onset of severe “thundering” headache.
* Emergence of a new headache that differs from the usual one.
* Significant increase in habitual headaches.
* Headache with aura (visual disturbances, less often – sensory disorders in the form of tingling or numbness in the lips, tongue, one half of the face), which lasts more than 1 hour or is accompanied by symptoms of weakness in the limbs.
* Appearance of aura without headache if migraine has not occurred before.
* Aura that first appeared while taking hormonal contraceptives.
* First-onset headache in a person over 50 years of age.
* Increased headache when changing the position of the head or during loads associated with increased intracranial pressure (coughing, sneezing, blowing your nose, physical exertion, sexual activity).
* New-onset headache in a person suffering from a cancer process, HIV infection or an immunodeficiency state.
* Headache is accompanied by deafness, confusion and memory loss.
* Headache is accompanied by symptoms of intoxication: pain in muscles, joints, fever, chills, etc.
* The headache, without stopping, lasts several weeks and progresses in intensity of pain.
Cover of the book by Sergei Agapkin.
When to see a doctor urgently
You also need to be vigilant and immediately consult a doctor if the headache is accompanied by:
* vomiting that does not bring relief;
* severe dizziness;
* increase in body temperature;
* severe diarrhea;
* difficulty breathing;
* visual impairment;
* disorders of coordination of movements;
* promiscuous or confused speech;
* loss of smell;
* constant ringing in the ears;
* the appearance of facial asymmetry;
* the appearance of pupil asymmetry;
* muscle tension in the occiput, in which a person cannot tilt his head forward;
* inability to keep the head upright;
* the appearance of a red rash on the skin;
* increased blood pressure;
* lack of response to pain medications.
Another “red flag” signaling the need for urgent medical attention is a headache that occurs after a head or neck injury, as well as after surgery in these areas.
In general, secondary headaches can occur for many reasons: due to inflammation of the vessels of the face, inflammation of the tooth, increased intracranial pressure, side effects of certain drugs, diseases of the endocrine system, diseases of the ear, throat and nose.
8 most dangerous causes of headaches
1. Ischemic stroke
Loss of sensitivity, creeping or numbness, most often in one side of the body; severe weakness; double vision, blurred vision or complete loss of vision; speech disorders; noise in ears; swallowing disorders; dizziness, nausea, and vomiting; impaired coordination of movements; swallowing disorders; delirium, impaired consciousness, in some cases – loss of consciousness.
2. Transient ischemic attack
Similar to the manifestations of a stroke, but last no more than 24 hours.
3. Aneurysm of cerebral vessels
With an unruptured aneurysm – visual impairment, eye pain, dilated pupils, numbness or weakness in one half of the face, sensory disturbances in the extremities, epileptic seizures. With a ruptured aneurysm – nausea, vomiting, double vision, photophobia, tension in the muscles of the neck and occiput, drooping of the eyelid, convulsions, often – loss of consciousness.
4. Tumors of the brain
Vomiting in the morning, on an empty stomach, without prior nausea; dizziness; deterioration of vision; memory impairment, concentration, thinking; hearing impairment; speech disorders; impaired coordination of movements; sudden fainting; sudden mood swings; epileptic seizures; hallucinations.
5. Poisoning with toxic substances
Depends on the effect of the specific toxic substance.
6. Infectious meningitis
Fever; the appearance of a hemorrhagic rash; photophobia; intolerance to sounds; nausea and gushing vomiting that does not bring relief; tension in the muscles of the neck, which prevents the head from tilting forward delirium, hallucinations, convulsions, confusion, coma.
7. Hypertensive crisis
A sudden sharp increase in blood pressure by 20-50 mm. rt. Art.in comparison with the usual indicators; nausea and vomiting; pulsation in the temples; tachycardia; dyspnea; a burning sensation and pain in the chest; speech disorders, coordination of movements; sensitivity disorders; urination disorders; the emergence of a strong fear of death.
8. Acute attack of glaucoma
Pain in the eye area; the appearance of rainbow circles around light sources, blurred vision, a strong decrease in visual acuity; nausea and vomiting; dizziness; discomfort in the region of the heart, heart rhythm disturbances, pain in the heart; sometimes – abdominal pain; general weakness; chills.
INSTEAD OF WITHDRAWAL
Of course, not every severe headache indicates a life-threatening condition. Symptoms need to be assessed collectively. After all, for example, nausea and vomiting with primary headaches are also quite common. Migraines can cause photophobia, visual or auditory phenomena that a person may mistake for hallucinations. In addition, secondary headaches account for only 2-5% of the total number of headaches.
However, it is worth carefully assessing your condition or the condition of the person you are trying to help for red flags.Especially if the pain in the head is not something common for a person. Vigilance never hurts, especially when life and health are at stake.
Enterovirus infection | uzalo48.lipetsk
Enterovirus infection (EVI) is a disease caused by enteroviruses, which are very resistant to the environment.
Enteroviruses tolerate low temperatures well : in a frozen state, the activity of enteroviruses persists for many years, in a refrigerator they persist for several weeks, in tap water they survive up to 18 days, in river water – about a month, in treated wastewater – up to two months.
The source of the disease is a sick person or host. You can get infected through contaminated food, water, objects that surround a person, dirty hands, as well as through the air when sneezing, coughing, talking. Risk factors are also bathing in reservoirs contaminated with viruses, the use of unwashed vegetables and fruits, and drinking water of dubious quality.
Viruses enter the human body through the mouth or upper respiratory tract. The period from the entry of the virus into the human body until the first clinical signs appear in all EVIs is the same – from 2 to 10 days, more often 2-5 days.The disease begins acutely – with an increase in body temperature to 38-39 ° C, which most often lasts 3-5 days, then decreases to normal values. Very often the temperature has an undulating current. When the temperature rises, a person, especially a child, feels weakness, drowsiness, headache, nausea, and vomiting may occur.
Enteroviruses can infect different body systems – the central and peripheral nervous systems, oropharyngeal mucosa, eye mucosa, skin, muscles, heart, intestinal mucosa, liver, therefore, several forms of enterovirus infection are distinguished.
The most severe diseases are with damage to the nervous system , when serous meningitis and encephalitis develop. These diseases are characterized by an acute onset, the sick have severe headache, nausea, vomiting, an increase in body temperature to 39-40 0 C, convulsions, paresis and paralysis, loss of consciousness.
With damage to the mucous membrane of the oropharynx , enteroviral herpangina develops, when there is an increase in body temperature, general intoxication (weakness, headache, drowsiness) and a rash in the form of bubbles filled with fluid on the mucous membrane of the oropharynx and tonsils.The bubbles burst, and ulcers are formed in their place, filled with white bloom. After recovery, no traces remain at the site of the ulcers.
With skin lesions , exanthema may appear – reddening of the skin, most often on the upper half of the body (head, chest, arms) and the appearance of a rash of various types, similar to a rash with rubella, measles, which usually appears on 1-2 days of illness and disappears after 4-6 days.
With the defeat of the intestinal mucosa , loose stools are observed.Symptoms are similar to those of an intestinal infection. Stool of normal color (yellow or brown), liquid, without various (mucus, blood) impurities. The appearance of loose stools can be either against the background of an increase in temperature, or without it.
When eyes are affected, conjunctivitis develops, which manifests itself in the form of photophobia, lacrimation, redness and swelling of the eyes. The presence of hemorrhages in the conjunctiva of the eye is possible.
With muscle damage , myositis develops – pain in the muscles.Pain appears against the background of an increase in temperature. Soreness is observed in the chest, arms and legs. With a decrease in body temperature, pain decreases or disappears altogether.
Enterovirus infections can affect various parts of the heart with the development of myocarditis and pericarditis, and with liver damage, acute hepatitis develops.
For the diagnosis of enterovirus infection in patients, depending on the clinical manifestations, the lavage from the nose, throat or feces, cerebrospinal fluid are taken to study.Research is carried out in a virological laboratory.
There is no specific treatment for enterovirus infection. Treatment is carried out symptomatically, depending on the manifestations of the infection – angina, conjunctivitis, myositis, loose stools, heart damage, encephalitis, meningitis, hepatitis, exanthema. If necessary, prophylaxis of bacterial complications is carried out. If symptoms of enterovirus infection appear, you should consult a doctor.
Prevention of enterovirus infection
Personal hygiene rules must be observed.Wash your hands thoroughly with soap and water before preparing food, before eating, after coming home from the street and using the toilet.
Keep children’s hands clean, teach them to observe personal hygiene measures from childhood. Wash doorknobs, taps, toilet flush handles. Wash and keep children’s toys regularly.
Do not swim yourself and do not allow children to swim in bodies of water where it is not recommended or prohibited. Swim only in approved places, teach children not to swallow water when bathing.
Do not use water from open reservoirs for drinking and household needs (in exceptional cases, only after boiling for 5-7 minutes), water from a well must be boiled. Drink only boiled or bottled water.
Wash fruits, berries, vegetables thoroughly under running tap water, and for small children it is advisable to wash fruits with boiled water or scald with hot boiled water after washing.
When buying, be sure to read the expiration dates and storage conditions of foodstuffs indicated on the packaging, strictly follow them in everyday life.Watch out for placing food in the refrigerator. Pack each product in a separate, clean package to protect food from contamination. Do not allow contact between uncooked and cooked foods. Set aside kitchen utensils (knives, cutting boards) separately for raw and cooked foods.
If you are going to rest in the near or far abroad, be sure to ask the tour operator about the epidemiological situation in the host country, about measures to prevent infectious diseases.
Remember, disease is easier to prevent than to cure! Be healthy!
90,000 What to do in case of poisoning / Articles / Newslab.Ru
In the fall, as a rule, doctors begin to talk about the second seasonal wave of poisoning associated with the consumption of canned food rather than fresh fruits and vegetables. It is important to clearly know the symptoms of specific poisoning, so that in case of an undesirable effect from the eaten canned food, we can help ourselves or those around us before the doctors arrive.
At the slightest suspicion of poisoning, first of all, you need to call an ambulance. The victim should be put to bed, even if he / she feels normal.
Types of food poisoning
Symptoms appear after 5-7 hours (if poisonous mushrooms are in the jar, then much faster): convulsions, acute abdominal pain, nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, dizziness, rare pulse. Need immediate hospitalization.
If you are in the country, before the arrival of the doctors, you can do a gastric lavage, an enema with the addition of chamomile infusion (a tablespoon of flowers per 300 ml of water).After that, give the patient a laxative, warm him up, make him drink strong tea. Put a cold compress on your head and a heating pad on your stomach.
Poisoning with compote and jam
Signs appear after 7-8 hours: nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, shortness of breath. Rinse the stomach with salted water or a weak solution of potassium permanganate, give a laxative, make an enema. When vomiting stops, give an activated charcoal tablet (you can replace it with kefir or egg white).Drink plenty of fluids. After that, it is better to starve for a day, and then switch to soups and decoctions.
“Risk groups” – pickled and salted mushrooms rolled up in jars under sealed lids, squash, eggplant and other types of homemade caviar, as well as mixed canned food (for example, vegetable hodgepodge with mushrooms). The first signs of the disease are blurred vision (split eyes, fog), dilated pupils, a feeling of dryness and scratching in the throat, spasms of the muscles of the tongue.When you try to drink water, liquid is poured out through the nose.
The disease makes itself felt in 12 hours (sometimes in a day or two) after the spoiled canned food has been tasted. Call an ambulance immediately! If the victim is not taken to the hospital, death from respiratory paralysis can occur. Before the arrival of doctors, flush the stomach with a warm 2% solution of soda, give the patient a laxative.
To avoid encounters with less dangerous, but no less unpleasant bacteria, doctors recommend paying attention to the following products
- Cooked rice that has been warm for a long time.In it, you can find the bacillus Echinocereus (Bacillus Cereus), which causes vomiting an hour after eating, later – diarrhea. With already known procedures, recovery occurs quickly. And to prevent poisoning from happening, the rice must be cooled and kept in the refrigerator.
- With blood dripping from raw poultry, Campylobacterjejuni can get on ready-made food, then you are guaranteed abdominal pain, nausea, bloody diarrhea. Symptoms appear within 2-6 and last up to 10 days.Only doctors can solve your problems here.
- Clostridium Perfringens reproduces actively in minced meat, meat gravy or filling over low heat or in a warm place. Cramps in the lower abdomen, diarrhea and headache, perhaps the temperature will pass within a day. An ambulance will ease your condition faster.
- You can suffer up to 10 days with similar symptoms in case of E. coli (Escherichia Coli) poisoning, which does well in uncooked meat patties and other minced meat products.This serious form of poisoning is treated only in hospitals.
- Salmonella is commonly ingested from raw eggs, undercooked poultry, and prepared foods that are left outside the refrigerator for several hours.
- Staphylococcus is easily ingested by infected people. Poisoning sources include ham, poultry and cream baked goods. Symptoms of poisoning with these types of bacteria are the same: pain in the lower abdomen, nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, chills, weakness, dizziness.Do not try to heal without medical help.
If symptoms of food poisoning appear, you should try to remember which food could be of poor quality, and not throw away its leftovers. This will help determine which bacteria caused your illness, which means that doctors will be able to help you without waiting for the results of bacteriological laboratories.
Acids and medicines
If poisonous liquids come into contact with eyes, rinse immediately with cool water.
If poisons get into the stomach, you need to induce vomiting to remove them. Repeat gastric lavages to remove any venom. Between calls to vomiting, you need to force the victim to drink 3-4 glasses of water. In case of drug poisoning, the stomach is best washed with a weak solution of potassium permanganate. In case of poisoning with methyl alcohol, a solution of baking soda is used to wash the stomach. But you cannot induce vomiting in case of poisoning with caustic substances, since when it moves back along the esophagus, its mucous membrane is repeatedly injured.
Vomiting should not be induced in unconscious persons. Care must be taken so that the victim does not suffocate. They turn him on his stomach or on his side and hang his head down, supporting him with his hand.
In case of poisoning with cauterizing liquids, the victim is allowed to drink egg yolks loosened in water (6 pieces per 0.5 liters of water).
In case of acid poisoning, in no case should you give a soda solution to drink!
After gastric lavage, you need to take pre-crushed activated charcoal tablets.
You should put a hot water bottle with ice, a towel soaked in cold water or something cold on your head. This will reduce the effect of the poison on the brain.
It is necessary to measure the body temperature of the victim. In case of poisoning with paralytic substances, the temperature usually drops. In this case, the victim is wrapped warmly. At elevated temperatures, ice is placed on the groin areas, where large blood vessels pass, and cold water is given to drink.
If you cannot count on medical assistance, then after activated charcoal, the victim is given Glauber’s salt.It prevents fluid from being absorbed by the intestines. You need to dilute a tablespoon of salt in half a glass of warm water.
Alcohol is characterized by psychotropic properties, since it has a narcotic effect on the central nervous system. It leads to inhibition of the processes of excitation and assimilation of oxygen.
At the beginning, there are signs of neurological disorders, patients have no contact with others, pain sensitivity disappears.If intoxication continues, then a deep coma sets in – a complete loss of consciousness occurs, all reflexes are lost, the work of the respiratory and cardiovascular systems is disrupted.
Recovery is slow, but if there is no improvement within 3 hours, it means that the patient has other diseases. Most often, the serious condition of the patient is based on craniocerebral trauma or cerebrovascular accident.
Before hospitalization, you need to flush the stomach, create conditions for normal airway patency, and give humidified oxygen.Alcohol surrogates include substances that are prepared on the basis of ethyl alcohol or other alcohols (methyl, isoamyl). They are much more harmful.
Methyl (wood) alcohol poisoning is very common. It causes damage to the central nervous system and optic nerve in the body and can contribute to blindness.
It is necessary to deliver the patient to the toxicology department as soon as possible. First aid – a glass of vodka (ethyl alcohol in the body replaces methyl alcohol in biochemical reactions).
In preparing the article, materials from the sites www.mosmedclinic.ru and www.alladvice.ru were used
A hypertensive crisis is understood as all cases of a sudden and significant increase in blood pressure, accompanied by a sharp deterioration in the patient’s general well-being and the appearance of complaints about:
- Headaches, especially in the back of the head;
- Chest pain;
- Dizziness, confusion;
- “Midges”, flashing of flies before the eyes;
- Nausea, vomiting;
- Shortness of breath;
- Noise, ringing in the ears, deafness;
- Loss of performance, fatigue;
- Redness of the face, chest;
- Insomnia, anxiety, fear.
It is customary to divide crises into crises of I and II order.
Hypertensive crisis of the 1st order. It is characterized by a rapid onset against the background of a relatively satisfactory state of health, pronounced neurovegetative manifestations with agitation, chills, trembling in the limbs, anxiety, severe sweating. There is a throbbing headache, dizziness, nausea, vomiting, and sometimes blurred vision. Redness of the face, or on the contrary, its pallor. Rapid heartbeat is characteristic.Pain in the region of the heart, a feeling of lack of air is clearly expressed. Often there is an increase in urination, after the relief of the crisis, a large amount of light urine is released. The crisis is short-term, usually no more than 2–4 hours. As a rule, there are no complications.
A second-order hypertensive crisis develops gradually and lasts longer (from 6 hours to 10 days). It is accompanied by a number of syndromes.
Water-salt, or edematous, syndrome . Lethargy, drowsiness, depression of patients, sometimes disorientation in time and space are noted.A typical appearance of patients: a pale puffy face, swollen eyelids, swollen fingers. General symptoms: severe and increasing headache, nausea and vomiting. There may be transient symptoms: speech and memory disorders, the appearance of “flies”, “nets” before the eyes, deterioration of vision, hearing, double vision, numbness of the limbs.
Epileptiform syndrome is caused by cerebral edema. Usually occurs during a crisis in patients with a persistent increase in blood pressure. The syndrome is characterized by a sharp headache, nausea, vomiting, visual impairment.GARDEN – more than 200-250 mm Hg. Art., DBP – more than 120-150 mm Hg. Art. Numbness of the extremities, a disorder of consciousness occurs quickly, TIA, strokes, convulsions are possible.
Cardiac syndrome develops more often in patients with concomitant coronary artery disease. It is based on acute coronary and left ventricular failure. Manifested by pain in the heart, severe shortness of breath or heart rhythm disturbances.
Also, hypertensive crises are usually divided into complicated and uncomplicated.Complicated hypertensive crises are accompanied by acute or progressive damage to target organs, pose a direct threat to the patient’s life and require an immediate, within 1 hour, decrease in blood pressure. Uncomplicated hypertensive crises are characterized by the absence of signs of acute or progressive damage to target organs, do not pose an immediate threat to the patient’s life. BP can be reduced gradually over 12-24 hours.
Complications of a hypertensive crisis are:
- Acute coronary insufficiency (angina attack, myocardial infarction).
- Acute left ventricular failure (cardiac asthma, pulmonary edema).
- Violations of the rhythm and conduction of the heart.
- Acute disorders of cerebral circulation, strokes, intracerebral hemorrhage, cerebral edema.
- Aortic dissecting aneurysm, ruptured aneurysm.
- Retinal detachment, retinal hemorrhage.
- Acute renal failure due to renal vascular necrosis.
- Nasal, pulmonary and gastrointestinal bleeding, blood in the urine.
Author: Makarova A.S., acting cardiologist
Salmonellosis ›Diseases› DoctorPiter.ru
Salmonellosis is an acute infectious disease in which the gastrointestinal tract is mainly affected.
There are three forms of salmonellosis, which are divided into several variants of the course:
- gastric variant
- gastroenteric variant
- gastroenterocolitic variant
- typhoid variant
- septic version
The most commonly recorded gastroenteric variant of the gastrointestinal form of salmonellosis.It develops acutely a few hours after infection. The disease begins with a sharp rise in temperature, chills, headache, aching joints. After a while, nausea, vomiting and abdominal pains join, mainly in the stomach and around the navel. The belly is swollen. At the same time, the stool is at first just liquid, and after a while it becomes watery, frothy, with an unpleasant odor and a greenish color. Moreover, the urge to defecate is not painful. But urine becomes less and less, as the amount of fluid in the body decreases.The skin of a person suffering from gastroenteric salmonellosis is pale, but in the case of a severe course of the disease, cyanosis is possible.
With severe dehydration, clonic cramps are possible (rapid muscle contractions, following each other after a short period of time). Most often, they occur in the muscles of the legs.
Symptoms gastroenterocolitic variant gastrointestinal form resemble those of gastroenteric variant.However, in this case, bowel movements are accompanied by painful urges, and on the 2-3rd day of illness, the volume of stool decreases, mucus and blood appear in the feces.
For gastritic variant , repeated vomiting and pain in the stomach area are characteristic. However, in this case, there is no diarrhea at all, and the symptoms of intoxication (headache, fever, chills, body aches) are weak.
The generalized form of salmonellosis develops, as a rule, after gastrointestinal. Typhoid variant of generalized form begins with nausea, vomiting and diarrhea, but then these symptoms subside or disappear altogether. But the temperature rises, there is pain. Patients feel weak, they suffer from insomnia. Their skin is pale, but a rare pink rash appears on the skin of the abdomen and lower chest. The patient’s condition resembles that of typhoid fever, which, of course, complicates the diagnosis.
Septic variant of the generalized form of salmonellosis can also begin with manifestations of gastroenteritis, but then it is replaced by fever with chills.When the temperature drops, the patient sweats, his muscles ache, and tachycardia develops. This state can last for a long time. Moreover, during the illness, secondary purulent foci can form in the lungs, muscles, subcutaneous tissue, kidneys. Eyes (iridocyclitis) may also be affected.
Those who have undergone salmonellosis for about a month after recovery excrete Salmonella during tests. This is acute bacterial excretion . However, in some cases, bacterial excretion continues for three months after recovery, in this case it is said about chronic bacterial excretion .Bacteria excretion without clinical manifestations of the disease is also possible, in this case they speak of transient bacterial excretion .
The causative agents of salmonellosis are bacteria of the genus Salmonella. These are small gram-negative rods that can persist in the environment. So, in water they last about 5 months, in meat – about 6 months, and in a carcass of birds – more than a year. Salmonella remains on eggshells from 17 to 24 days, but it is known that with prolonged storage of eggs, bacteria can penetrate through the shell and multiply in the yolk.In some foods, such as milk, butter, cheese, salmonella can multiply without changing the taste of the product. At a temperature of 70 ° C, salmonella die within 5-10 minutes. There are strains of Salmonella that are resistant to many antibiotics and disinfectants.
Salmonella is ubiquitous. The reservoir and source of infection are cattle, pigs, domestic and wild birds. When examining domestic animals and birds, as well as their meat, salmonella was found in 1-5% of the cattle, in 4-30% of all surveyed sheep, 5-15% of pigs.Salmonella was also found in 50% of ducks and geese. In healthy animals, these bacteria do not cause discomfort, animals and birds are simply carriers of bacteria. However, in weakened animals, they penetrate from the intestines into organs and tissues and cause inflammatory diseases. A person with low immunity can also become infected from salmonellosis, but this is rare and only in hospitals.
Salmonella enter the human body with food, most often with poorly cooked poultry, eggs, meat.In hospitals, contact transmission of infection through towels, toys, playpens, hands is possible. People are very easily infected with salmonellosis.
So, through the mouth, Salmonella enter the gastrointestinal tract, reach the small intestine, attach to the intestinal epithelial cells and release toxins. After a while, bacteria penetrate into the epithelial cells. Phagocytes (white blood cells that protect the body by absorbing foreign particles and microorganisms) prevent this, as they can.In the process of absorption, inflammation develops. And when Salmonella is destroyed, endotoxin is released, which stimulates the outflow of fluid into the intestinal lumen, increasing its peristalsis (contractions). This leads to the development of diarrhea and dehydration. Due to the intoxication of the body and its dehydration, the work of the cardiovascular system is disrupted – tachycardia develops, and blood pressure decreases. Dehydration also contributes to impaired microcirculation of blood in the kidneys, which leads to the development of acute renal failure.
In most (95-99%) cases, Salmonella does not penetrate beyond the submucous layer of the intestine. However, sometimes bacteria enter the bloodstream, then a generalized form of salmonellosis develops. This usually occurs in immunocompromised patients.
Salmonellosis is dangerous not only due to dehydration, it also has other serious complications – infectious-toxic shock, peritonitis, toxic expansion of the intestine.
The diagnosis of salmonellosis is made by an infectious disease specialist or gastroenterologist.Feces and vomit are taken for analysis. They also do general and biochemical blood tests and a general urine test. To assess the severity of the patient’s condition, you need:
Salmonellosis is differentiated from cholera, typhoid fever, shigellosis, escherichiosis, mushroom and heavy metal poisoning. Also, in some cases, it is necessary to exclude acute myocardial infarction, acute appendicitis and an attack of gallstone disease.
In an acute or complicated course of the disease, the patient is hospitalized.In other cases, they are left at home, having assigned bed rest.
If the patient’s condition allows, treatment begins with gastric lavage, enemas and intake of enterosorbents. This is done to remove bacteria that have not yet invaded the epithelial layer of the intestine. In most cases, however, this cannot be done, as these methods contribute to even greater dehydration.
With dehydration, glucose-salt solutions are prescribed inside. At home they are taken orally (by mouth), in the hospital they are given intravenous infusions.
Antibiotics for the gastrointestinal form are rarely prescribed, more often they are used for the generalized form of the disease.
In the course of treatment, the patient is shown diet No. 4.
The main prevention of salmonellosis is epidemiological and epizootic surveillance, which should be jointly carried out by the veterinary and sanitary-epidemiological services. It is necessary to carefully check both livestock and meat in markets and in stores.
It is important to properly cook meat, poultry and eggs, and wash your hands when returning home from public places and before eating.
© Dr. Peter
Headache and migraine – treatment with osteopathy
Osteopathic treatment is a special branch of medicine, which uses both an independent therapeutic approach and a complex one in combination with medical treatment, depending on the severity of the patient’s symptoms, as well as the degree of complexity of his disease.
A distinctive feature of osteopathy is that the specialist perceives the patient’s body as a whole, a system in which everything is interconnected.
The osteopathic doctor diagnoses the root cause of the disease, which saves time for the patient.