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Heart failure breathing problems: Shortness of breath: what causes it and how can you manage it?

Shortness of breath: what causes it and how can you manage it?

Are you dealing with shortness of breath? Breathlessness experts Dr Ann Hutchinson and Professor Miriam Johnson explain what causes it, how you can manage it, and where to get support.

Image created by Janice Tonge, who lives with breathlessness, and artist Anna Bean

What’s on this page?

  • What is shortness of breath?
  • What causes shortness of breath?
  • What are the different types of breathlessness?
  • How can breathlessness affect your life? 
  • How can you manage shortness of breath?
  • Information for people caring for you
  • Where to get more support

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What is shortness of breath? 

When you are short of breath, it may feel like you can’t get enough air into your lungs, or like you can’t catch your breath. Breathing may feel difficult or uncomfortable. The medical term for shortness of breath is dyspnoea.

What causes shortness of breath? 

Many people who have heart conditions experience shortness of breath every day. Heart conditions such as angina, heart attacks, heart failure and some abnormal heart rhythms like atrial fibrillation can all cause shortness of breath. 

These conditions may cause breathlessness for different reasons. If your heart isn’t pumping enough oxygen-containing blood around the body, your body responds by breathing faster to try to get more oxygen into your body, making you feel short of breath.   

Or if your heart isn’t working as well as it should, this could cause a build-up of fluid in the lungs, making it difficult to breathe.   

Other conditions, including anxiety, asthma, a blood clot in the lungs, cancer, or a chest infection like pneumonia, can also lead to shortness of breath. We also know that breathlessness  can affect some people after they have had Covid-19.   

When you experience shortness of breath, several things may make the problem worse: 

  • Breathlessness can be triggered by physical exertion (such as climbing stairs, gardening, shopping). This may cause you to stop doing those things, so your muscles may get weaker, and you become breathless even more quickly when you try to do them.
  • Breathlessness can feel frightening, and you may start having thoughts like “I’m going to die” or “I’m upset people are seeing me like this.” This may trigger feelings of panic, which can lead to rapid breathing, making your breathlessness worse.

If this sounds familiar to you, there are simple things that you can do, which many people with breathlessness find helpful. For example, try to stay active, so your muscles stay strong helping you to do everyday activities more easily, without feeling as breathless. Try to remind yourself that feeling breathless will not harm you.  

What are the different types of breathlessness?

For most people who experience shortness of breath related to their heart condition, there are two main forms:  

An episode of breathlessness that comes on suddenly (acute). If you have heart failure, this can happen if you have too much fluid in your body, which can build up in your lungs, making it difficult to breathe. If you have a heart rhythm problem, this can cause sudden breathlessness.  

Persistent breathlessness, every day (chronic). For example, if you have advanced heart failure you may feel breathless most of the time, even if your condition is being treated and managed as well as it can be.  

How can breathlessness affect your life?  

People with breathlessness tell us that it affects their lives in several ways. It can make it difficult to manage your everyday activities. It can also make you feel frustrated or frightened. But the good news is that there are many things that you can do to cope, so that you can live well with breathlessness.  

We often feel lonely and on the edge of things

Breathlessness can make daily activities difficult and stop you from being able to get out and about. It’s very normal to feel frustrated and isolated if you find you can’t do the things that you used to do. Many people tell us that it makes them feel overwhelmed, depressed and anxious. It can change your relationships with people and can make you fearful for the future.  

People who live with breathlessness have told us things like: “We often feel lonely and on the edge of things.” and “I am all the time worried – worried when this breathing will attack me again.”  

How can you manage shortness of breath?

Although shortness of breath can make things difficult, you can find ways to cope. Living well with breathlessness comes from a combination of accepting that your life has changed, adapting the way you do things, and continuing to take part in activities.  

Some people tell us that breathlessness makes them feel more isolated. That can feel difficult, so do what you can to keep active and involved with others – that will help your life be as good as possible. Remember that breathlessness isn’t anything to be embarrassed about, or that you need to apologise for.  

Top tips for managing breathlessness

  • Find a comfortable position to ease your breathlessness, such as sitting on a chair leaning forwards, or lying on your side with your head propped up on cushions. 
  • Use a breathing technique – for example, taking slow, relaxed breaths that come from your tummy 
  • Cool your face with a wet flannel 
  • Use a hand-held battery-operated fan  (If Covid-19 remains a risk, then don’t use the fan if there are people from another household present.)
  • Having the window open to get some fresh air 
  • Arrange your home to make daily tasks easier 
  • Pace your activities so that you are able to complete them 
  • Plan your day and allow breaks for rest 
  • Stay as active as you can 
  • Try to do as much as you can, but accept help when you need it
  • Do things to help you deal with worries, such as listening to music, practicing mindfulness and doing gentle exercise
  • Remember that breathlessness is not harmful and your breathing will recover with rest
  • Eat little and often rather than one big meal 
  • Keep in touch with friends and family 
  • Be open about how breathlessness affects your life and seek help to manage it 

Information for people caring for you  

Even though breathlessness can have a huge effect on your life, it can be hard for other people to understand.   

Sometimes the effects of breathlessness can be difficult for the people caring for you. They may find it worrying to see you very breathless and will want to know how to help you. Having shortness of breath can also affect your relationships and make you both feel isolated. It’s important that people caring for you take time to look after themselves well and get support from friends, family, and also from professionals when needed.  

  • Listen to people describing their difficulties with breathlessness. 
  • Carers UK has useful guidance for carers or you can call their advice line on 0808 808. 
  • Supporting breathlessness has information on how to support someone to live with breathlessness.

Where to get more support

  • Doctors, nurses and physiotherapists can help you manage your breathlessness. Speak to your GP about your symptoms – they may be able to refer you to a local exercise class for people with heart conditions or to a clinic to learn more about managing breathlessness.
  • We also know that for some people breathlessness goes on for a long while after having Covid-19. Your Covid Recovery has helpful information about this.
  • Hull York Medical School has useful information on breathlessness.
  • St Christopher’s Hospice has information and videos to help you manage breathlessness.
  • Cambridge University Hospitals have useful information on managing breathlessness
  • View the Living with Breathlessness exhibition from Hull York Medical School

About the experts

Dr Hutchinson and Professor Johnson are based at the Wolfson Palliative Care Research Centre where they are carrying out research to help people with breathlessness, as well as work raising awareness of the difficulties breathlessness causes and what can be done to help people live well with breathlessness. 

Published June 2021

Heart Failure, Tachycardia, and More

Written by WebMD Editorial Contributors

  • Heart Problems That Affect Your Breathing
  • Check With Your Doctor

You breathe in and out thousands of times a day and rarely give it a thought — until it starts to feel hard. Breathing problems can happen for many reasons, like being out of shape, congestion, fever, or asthma. But in some cases, they’re a sign that something is wrong with your heart.

Whatever the reason, always take breathing issues seriously. Tell your doctor so they can help you figure out the cause. And if your problem is sudden and severe, you should get medical help right away.

Heart failure (sometimes called congestive heart failure). Even though “failure” is in the name, it doesn’t mean that your heart stops beating. It means that it’s not serving the needs of your body. Shortness of breath and feeling tired can be signs of the condition. Often people also have swelling in their ankles, feet, legs, and mid-section because the heart is not strong enough to pump blood properly.

In the early stages of heart failure, you may have trouble breathing after exercise, getting dressed, or walking across a room. But as the heart gets weaker, you may feel breathless even when you lie down. See your doctor if that’s happening to you. They can recommend medicines and treatments that can help.

Tachycardia is a fast heart rate — usually more than 100 beats per minute in an adult. There are several kinds, but one that may cause shortness of breath is SVT, or atrial tachycardia. In SVT, the heart rate speeds up because the heart’s electrical signals don’t fire properly. People who have SVT and are short of breath should get medical help right away. Your doctor may recommend other things that can help, too, like quitting smoking and drinking less coffee and alcohol.

Pulmonary edema. This condition means there’s extra fluid in your lungs, which makes it hard to breathe. It’s usually caused by heart problems. If the heart is ill or damaged, it cannot pump out enough of the blood it gets from the lungs. When that happens, pressure in the heart builds up and pushes fluid into the lungs’ air sacs, where it doesn’t belong. Breathing problems may happen over time, or they may come all of a sudden.

Get medical help right away if you have trouble breathing that’s worse when you lie down, if you have to gasp for breath, feel like you are drowning, have blue or gray skin color, cough up spit that may have blood in it, or feel your heartbeat is fast or irregular.

Cardiomyopathy is a serious problem with the heart muscle that makes it hard for it to pump and send blood to the body. There are different types of cardiomyopathy and many reasons it happens, such as a heart attack, diabetes, or cancer treatment. Or the reason could be linked to excess weight, too much alcohol, or high blood pressure. In some cases, doctors don’t know why it happens.

You may not notice any symptoms of cardiomyopathy at first. But as it gets worse you may feel breathless when you’re active or even at rest. You may get swollen legs, ankles, and feet. You could feel tired or dizzy, have a cough while lying down, a fast, fluttering heartbeat, or chest pain. If you have trouble breathing, or chest pain that lasts more than a few minutes, get emergency help.

If you have a breathing problem, you need to see a doctor. They will examine you and may want to check your blood or do other tests to find out what’s going on.

You might want to make notes about how you feel and bring them to your appointment. That way, you won’t forget the important details. You may also want to write down some questions you’d like to ask the doctor. The more your doctor knows, the better.

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How to distinguish between cardiac and pulmonary dyspnea, symptoms and treatment

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The author of the article shina Aleksandra Nikolaevna,


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Contents of the article

  • Shortness of breath in heart failure, symptoms and treatment
  • Causes, types and classification of dyspnea
  • How to distinguish between cardiac and pulmonary dyspnea
  • Shortness of breath after coronavirus
  • Ask an expert on the topic of the article

Shortness of breath due to heart failure, symptoms and treatment

provoked by shortness of breath . Doctors call shortness of breath dyspnea, in which the frequency of respiratory movements (RR) is disturbed. In this case, two conditions are distinguished: tachypnea and bradypnea.

With tachypnea, a person breathes shallowly, but very quickly, making more than 20 breaths per minute. Such “breath of a hunted beast” is observed in diseases of the blood, anemia, fever, hysteria. Bradypnea, on the contrary, is characterized by deep, but rare inhalations-exhalations (less than 12 respiratory movements (DR) per minute) and occurs against the background of acidosis, prolonged hypoxia, and brain damage.

In addition to impaired breathing, dyspnea is manifested by characteristic symptoms: suffocation, squeezing and tightness in the chest, sounds of noise when trying to breathe in, difficulty exhaling.

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Causes, types and classification of dyspnea

This condition occurs when the level of oxygen in the body (hypoxia) or in the blood (hypoxemia) decreases. This leads to irritation of the respiratory center in the brain, resulting in an involuntary increase in breathing, and there is a feeling of lack of air.

The main causes of hypoxia:

  • Intoxication of the body and pathologies of the heart, lungs, nervous system
  • Extrapulmonary diseases or conditions in which chest mobility is limited, for example, obesity, pregnancy, physical activity and pathological. The first is a short-term phenomenon associated with hard work or sports loads. The second is systemic or chronic in nature, appears in a calm state or with minimal physical exertion. The pathological form indicates a painful lesion of certain systems.

    Depending on the causes, there are 4 types of dyspnea.

    • Pulmonary – disease of the bronchi and lungs, respiratory failure.
    • Cardiac – with heart failure associated with heart disease, cardiomyopathies, myocarditis, myocardial infarction;
    • Central – pathologies of the central nervous system, neuroses and exposure to neurotropic poisons.
    • Hematogenous – liver failure, poisoning, decompensated diabetes mellitus, anemia.

    More often than others, cardiac and pulmonary dyspnea are diagnosed, which are important to distinguish from each other in order to prescribe adequate treatment and provide effective assistance.

    How to distinguish cardiac from pulmonary dyspnoea

    The real cause is accompanied by symptoms of the disease that provoke dyspnea, which can be: – saved in for several weeks or months

When there is an acute form, an ambulance must be called urgently.

The tables list the causative diseases and their signs, as well as recommendations for medical care. This will help determine the type of shortness of breath and take appropriate measures.

Pulmonary dyspnea – causes and signs

9009 0

9 0170

Disease Symptoms Medical assistance
Asthma Wheezing that starts spontaneously, accompanied by and caused by exposure to provoking factors (upper respiratory tract infections, allergens, cold air, exercise) Examination by a doctor to determine respiratory rate and airway function
Pneumothorax Suddenly disturbed respiratory rate and acute pain in the chest. Often occurs spontaneously and also after trauma and in people with COPD Chest x-ray
Pulmonary embolism Spontaneous chest pain that worsens with inspiration, rapid heart rate and breathing CT and angiography examination
Pulmonary hypertension 900 94

Gradually increasing intensity of dyspnea, cough, weakness, swelling of the legs Echocardiography, cardiac catheterization
Restrictive diseases Difficulty in breathing occurs against the background of professional activities associated with prolonged inhalation of irritants Chest x-ray,

lung function test
Exacerbation of COPD (chronic obstructive pulmonary disease) Productive or non-productive cough (with or without sputum), inhalation-exhalation through pursed lips, wheezing Examination by a doctor, x-ray chest
Pneumonia Severe chest pain on inspiration, fever, cough, weakness, unusual lung sounds Examination by a doctor, chest x-ray
Obstructive pulmonary disease Violation of respiratory rate provokes heavy smoking, history of emphysematous chest Chest x-ray, examination of respiratory functions

Cardiac dyspnea – causes and signs

disease symptoms medical care
Heart failure, ischemic heart disease
  • In acute form – shortness of breath increases when lying on the back or begins at night 1-2 hours after falling asleep. The condition is accompanied by swelling of the legs, the appearance of foamy pink sputum, noises in the lungs.
  • In subacute or chronic, a feeling of constriction in the chest, with pain that may radiate to the arm or jaw.
  • Listening with a stethoscope, blood test for brain natriuretic peptide (BNP), echocardiography, chest x-ray.
  • Electrocardiography, stress test, cardiac catheterization.
Heart attack or acute myocardial ischemia Feeling of deep pressure in the chest, which may be accompanied by pain radiating to the jaw or arm

Electrocardiography, cardiac catheterization, blood tests

All three the form of shortness of breath requires consultation with a cardiologist, pulmonologist, endocrinologist or other specialists who will prescribe an appropriate examination and select the correct methods of treatment.


  • “Diseases of the lungs and respiratory tract. Symptoms of lung diseases. Dyspnea”, MSD Handbook
  • “How to understand the “language” of shortness of breath?”, Journal “Atmosphere. Pulmonology and Allergology, No. 4, 2012
  • “Evidence Based Treatment of Dyspnea in Patients with End-stage Cardiovascular and Pulmonary Diseases”, Journal of Palliative Medicine and Rehabilitation, No. 2, 2005
  • clinical aspects”, Journal “Therapeutic archive”, № 3, 2005

Shortness of breath after coronavirus

After the coronavirus epidemic, doctors faced shortness of breath as a post-COVID symptom. It occurs at the slightest load and even at rest. It manifests itself in the form of rapid breathing, pressing pain in the chest, dry cough, inability to take a deep breath. Also, like the loss of smell, it can persist for a long time.

Causes of shortness of breath after coronavirus:

  • Fibrosis. With inflammation, the lung spongy tissue is replaced by connective tissue, which does not absorb oxygen.
  • Frosted glass. The situation when the alveoli are filled with fluid and do not participate in the process of gas exchange. Ground glass can develop into fibrosis.
  • Psychogenic factor. Doctors use the terms “post-covid depression” or “respiratory neurosis.” Shortness of breath is often accompanied or provoked by panic attacks.
  • Heart problems. In most cases, this is due to the fact that coronavirus complicates chronic diseases of the cardiovascular system.

Due to the fact that shortness of breath occurs for various reasons, it is important to see a doctor for diagnosis.

The specialist will select the right therapy, which consists of methods such as:

  • oxygenation – oxygen therapy
  • inhalation
  • physiotherapy
  • medical treatment
  • breathing exercises
  • therapeutic massage
  • psychological or psychotherapeutic assistance

At home, the patient can help to restore normal breathing in the following ways:

  • humidification
  • breathing exercises, pool swimming
  • physiotherapy exercises for all muscle groups
  • daily outdoor walks
  • taking vitamin D, over-the-counter sedatives

Ask an expert on the topic of the article

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pain, lack of air, tingling in the heart


  • 1 1 Causes and symptoms of respiratory problems
  • 1.2 Chest pain
  • 1.3 Shortness of breath
  • 1.4 Stinging in the heart
  • 1.5 Asthma
  • 1.6 Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD)
  • 1.7 Pneumonia
  • 1.8 Bronchitis
  • 1.9 Pleurisy
  • 1.10 Emphysema
  • 1.11 Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA)
  • 1 .12 Chronic heart failure
  • 1.13 Allergic reactions
  • 1.14 Viral infections
  • 1.15 Influenza
  • 1.16 Kidney failure
  • 1.17 Tumors
  • 1.18 Tuberculosis
  • 1.19 Related videos:
  • problems?
  • What causes respiratory problems?
  • 1. 20.0.3 What symptoms may indicate respiratory problems?
  • Can chest pain be related to breathing problems?
  • What precautions can be taken to avoid breathing problems?

Do you feel pain when you inhale, shortness of breath and tingling in the heart area? Breathing problems can have a variety of causes, from a simple runny nose to serious medical conditions. In this article, you will find detailed information about possible causes and home remedies to relieve symptoms. Be sure to see your doctor if your condition worsens or lasts longer than a few days.

Respiratory problems can be caused by a variety of factors and their symptoms can vary. Feeling chest pain, shortness of breath, and tingling in the heart can be signs of serious problems that require medical attention. Such symptoms may indicate diseases of the lungs, heart, or respiratory system as a whole.

One of the most common causes of respiratory problems is asthma. In people with asthma, the airways become inflamed and constricted, leading to a feeling of suffocation, an inability to breathe properly, and chest pain. In addition to asthma, these symptoms can also be caused by obstructive bronchitis, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), or other lung conditions.

Some breathing problems may be related to heart failure. In heart failure, the heart cannot pump blood efficiently around the body, which can lead to fluid retention in the lungs. This causes not only breathing difficulties, but also chest pains, tingling or tingling in the heart. With such symptoms, it is important to immediately consult a doctor in order to begin treatment and prevent possible complications.

Causes and symptoms of respiratory problems

Breathing problems can be caused by a variety of causes and can manifest themselves in a variety of ways. One of the main causes that affects breathing is the pathology of the respiratory system. Diseases such as asthma, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), bronchitis, pneumonia, and others can cause breathing problems.

Other causes of respiratory problems can be allergies, infections, stress, increased physical activity, exposure to harmful substances or environments such as car fumes, smoke, dust, chemicals, etc. They can cause irritation or inflammation of the respiratory tract, resulting in respiratory problems and discomfort.

If you are experiencing any breathing problems, it is important to see a doctor for professional medical advice and diagnosis. He will be able to determine the cause of the problem and recommend the appropriate treatment or examination regimen to eliminate unpleasant symptoms and improve your quality of life.

Chest pain

Chest pain is one of the most common symptoms of respiratory problems. It can be caused by various factors, such as diseases of the heart, lungs, spine, stomach, chest muscles.

One of the most common causes of chest pain is angina pectoris, a heart disease caused by insufficient blood supply to the heart muscle. With angina pectoris, chest pain may be felt as sharp and aching, accompanied by a feeling of constriction, pressure, or burning.

Another common and serious condition that causes chest pain is myocardial infarction. It develops as a result of the cessation of blood supply to the heart muscle and requires immediate medical attention.

It is always important to see a doctor if chest pain occurs, especially if it is accompanied by other symptoms such as shortness of breath, loss of consciousness, dizziness, nausea.

Shortness of breath

Shortness of breath is a condition in which a person feels difficulty or shortness of breath. The main symptom of shortness of breath is a feeling of an active need for air, difficulty breathing, or a feeling that you cannot take a full breath. Shortness of breath can cause discomfort and increased anxiety.

The causes of shortness of breath can be varied and include many diseases and conditions. One of the most common causes is asthma, a chronic condition that causes spasm and inflammation of the airways. Other causes may include chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), pneumonia, pleural effusion, pneumothorax, and heart failure.

If you experience symptoms of shortness of breath, see a doctor to diagnose and determine the cause of your discomfort. Treatment for shortness of breath will depend on the underlying condition and may include medication, physical rehabilitation, or surgical intervention in various cases. Stay vigilant and monitor your symptoms to get the help you need and get relief from your condition.

Tingling in the heart

Tingling in the heart may be one of the possible symptoms of respiratory problems. It can occur as a result of various causes, such as contraction of the muscles of the heart, contraction of the diaphragm, or irritation of nerve endings. This symptom may be temporary or permanent and may be accompanied by other symptoms such as pain, shortness of breath and palpitations.

Another possible cause of heart tingling is asthma, a chronic respiratory disease. In this case, the contraction of the diaphragm and pectoral muscles can cause discomfort in the region of the heart. In addition, asthma can be accompanied by shortness of breath, wheezing and coughing.

It is important to remember that tingling in the heart can also be a manifestation of other problems, such as reflux esophagitis or acute emotional stress. For recurring or severe tingling sensations in the heart, you should consult a doctor for diagnosis and appropriate treatment.


Asthma is a chronic disease of the airways characterized by inflammation and narrowing of the airways. It leads to a range of symptoms, including bouts of shortness of breath, coughing, shortness of breath, and tingling in the heart.

The main causes of asthma are genetic predisposition and exposure to various allergens and environmental irritants. Many patients develop asthma in response to plant pollen, house dust, mite pollen, food allergens, tobacco smoke, and other substances.

Asthma symptoms may vary from patient to patient, but the most common are bronchial tenderness, shortness of breath, difficulty breathing, feeling of choking, coughing (especially at night or after exercise) and tingling in the heart.

To diagnose asthma, a doctor may do a physical examination, including auscultation of the lungs and analysis of symptoms. Spirometry, peak flow, and allergy tests may also be ordered to rule out other possible causes of symptoms. Asthma treatment is based on controlling airway inflammation and preventing attacks. Inhaled drugs such as bronchodilators and corticosteroids are commonly used. In some cases, a course of glucocorticosteroids or immunosuppressants may be prescribed.

In conclusion, asthma is a chronic disease characterized by inflammation and narrow airways. It can present with a variety of symptoms, including bouts of shortness of breath, difficulty breathing, and tingling in the heart. Diagnosis and treatment of asthma require professional medical support.

Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD)

Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is a progressive disease characterized by chronic airway obstruction and inflammation of the lungs.

Symptoms of COPD include severe chest pain, frequent shortness of breath, tingling in the heart, cough with copious expectoration, worsening general condition, progressive weight loss, and increased fatigue.

Treatment for COPD includes bronchodilators to widen the airways, corticosteroids to reduce lung inflammation, and anti-inflammatory drugs to slow the progression of the disease. Regular exercise and lifestyle changes can also help improve the patient’s condition.

Prevention of COPD includes smoking cessation and avoidance of exposure to harmful substances in the air. Early detection and treatment of respiratory problems also play an important role in preventing the progression of COPD and improving the quality of life of patients.


Pneumonia is an inflammatory lung disease that can be caused by a variety of infections, including bacterial, viral, and fungal infections. It is characterized by the presence of inflammation in the lung tissue, which can lead to various symptoms.

The main symptoms of pneumonia are:

  • Chest pain: With pneumonia, the pain can be sharp and worse with deep breathing or coughing. This is due to inflammation of the lung tissue and irritation of the nerve endings.
  • Shortness of breath: One of the main symptoms of pneumonia is difficulty breathing or feeling short of breath. This is due to a disruption in the normal function of the lungs due to inflammation and filling them with fluid.
  • Stinging in the heart: Pneumonia may cause a feeling of tingling or discomfort in the area of ​​the heart. This may be due to irritation of the nerve endings or increased stress on the heart due to difficulty breathing.

Other possible symptoms of pneumonia include cough with or without sputum, fever, weakness, fatigue, loss of appetite, and muscle and joint pain.


Bronchitis is an inflammation of the bronchi that can be acute or chronic. Acute bronchitis usually presents with a gradual increase in cough, sputum, and shortness of breath. Chronic bronchitis is characterized by symptoms lasting more than three months a year for two consecutive years.

The main cause of bronchitis is viruses or bacteria that enter the bronchi and cause inflammation. Other risk factors include smoking, air pollution, prolonged exposure to high humidity or dust.

Symptoms of bronchitis may include coughing, especially in the morning, phlegm, feeling short of breath, feeling tired and weak, and tingling in the heart on exertion. In acute bronchitis, symptoms usually resolve within a few weeks, while chronic bronchitis can progress to other serious respiratory problems.


Pleurisy is an inflammatory process affecting the pleura, the membrane covering the lungs and the inner surface of the chest cavity. The main symptoms of pleurisy include chest pain worsened by taking a deep breath or coughing, and feeling short of breath.

Pleurisy can occur due to various causes such as infectious diseases (eg pneumonia or tuberculosis), chest trauma, lung cancer, systemic connective tissue diseases (eg rheumatoid arthritis) and others.

Diagnosis of pleurisy includes examination of the patient, auscultation of the lungs, chest X-ray and other instrumental methods of investigation. Treatment depends on the underlying cause of pleurisy and may include antibiotics or anti-inflammatory drugs, pleural drainage, or even surgery.

Pleurisy is a serious disease that requires timely diagnosis and treatment. At the first suspicion of pleurisy, you should consult a doctor to receive qualified medical care.


Emphysema is a chronic, irreversible lung disease characterized by destruction of the alveolar walls and increased air volume in the lung tissue.

Emphysema is the deformation and destruction of the alveoli (small air sacs where gas exchange between blood and air takes place). This leads to the loss of a surface for gas exchange and a decrease in the elasticity of the lungs. As a result, the lungs become larger, but less efficient at transferring oxygen to the blood and removing carbon dioxide.

The main symptoms of emphysema are deterioration in breathing, a feeling of lack of air, an increase in the need to inhale and exhale, shortness of breath, fatigue during exercise, increased heart rate, tingling in the chest.

The causes of emphysema can vary, but smoking is the most common. Other possible factors include genetic predisposition, air pollution, occupational hazards, and previous respiratory infections.

Treatment of emphysema is aimed at relieving symptoms, slowing the progression of the disease, and improving the quality of life of patients. Smokers are advised to stop smoking as it can significantly slow down the progression of emphysema. Drug treatment, physiotherapy, oxygen therapy and rehabilitation measures may also be prescribed.

Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA)

Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is a breathing disorder in which the airway temporarily stops or contracts during sleep. As a result of this, there is a short-term cessation of breathing or a deterioration in its flow.

OSA can cause a variety of symptoms such as snoring, frequent waking, confusion and daytime sleepiness. People suffering from this disorder may also experience headaches, bad mood, and memory impairment.

OSA is caused by partial or complete airway blockage during sleep. This can be due to a variety of factors such as being overweight, misaligned throat or tongue, polyps or tumors, and narrow or weak airways.

Diagnosis of OSA requires a complete sleep examination, including polysomnography and examination of breathing patterns. Treatment may include lifestyle changes such as weight loss and smoking cessation, the use of special devices to keep the airways open, and sometimes even surgery.

In general, obstructive sleep apnea is a serious disorder that can significantly affect a person’s quality of life. Therefore, it is important to see a doctor if you suspect you have this disorder in order to receive the necessary treatment and improve your health.

Congestive heart failure

Congestive heart failure is a condition in which the heart is unable to keep up with the oxygen and nutrients supplied to the body. This occurs due to disruption of the heart, which can be caused by various reasons, such as arteriosclerosis, hypertension, myocardial infarction and others.

One of the main symptoms of chronic heart failure is shortness of breath, a feeling of lack of air that can occur even with little exertion or at rest. This is due to the fact that the heart cannot provide the body with enough oxygen. Also, patients with chronic heart failure may experience fatigue, weakness, swelling of the legs, tingling in the heart, and redness of the face.

Diagnosis of chronic heart failure includes physical examination, history, blood tests, and imaging studies such as electrocardiography, echocardiography, and chest x-ray. Treatment for chronic heart failure may include medication, physical therapy, diet, and lifestyle changes.

Allergic reactions

Allergic reactions are the body’s response to allergen substances to which individual sensitivity is increased. Allergens can include pollen, food, insects, drugs, etc. When the body is exposed to an allergen, the body’s immune system begins to produce antibodies, which leads to various symptoms.

One of the most common symptoms of allergic reactions is stuffy or itchy nose . Inhalation of the allergen causes inflammation of the nasal mucosa, which leads to swelling and difficulty breathing through the nose. Often accompanied by sneezing and copious mucus.

Another common symptom is watery eyes and redness of the eyes . Under the influence of allergens, the mucous membrane of the eyes becomes inflamed, which causes irritation, itching and redness. In addition, some people may experience tingling in the eyes.

Allergic reactions may also cause skin symptoms including itching, redness, rashes and swelling of the skin. In case of contact with an allergen, for example, when touching plants or animals, rashes or diaper rash may occur on the skin. Some people develop allergic dermatitis, which is characterized by tingling, flaking, and inflammation of the skin.

In severe allergic reactions, such as anaphylaxis, urticaria may occur , which is characterized by the appearance of red, swollen and itchy blisters on the skin. This condition can be life threatening and requires immediate medical attention.

Viral infections

Viral infections are one of the causes of respiratory problems such as pain, shortness of breath and tingling in the heart. Viruses such as influenza viruses, respiratory syncytial virus (RSV), and coronavirus can attack the organs of the respiratory system, causing a variety of symptoms.

One of the most common symptoms of viral infections is a sore throat. It can be acute and aggravated by swallowing or prolonged conversation. Viruses can cause inflammation in the throat and throat, resulting in pain.

Another symptom of viral infections is shortness of breath. With a viral infection, the organs of the respiratory system can be affected, making it difficult to breathe normally. The person feels discomfort and may experience a feeling of suffocation or tightness in the chest.

In addition, viral infections can cause heart tingling. Viruses can damage the heart muscle or cause inflammation in the area of ​​the heart, which can lead to a feeling of tingling or pressure in the area of ​​the heart.

If these symptoms occur, a doctor should be consulted to diagnose and treat a viral infection. The doctor may prescribe antiviral medications and also recommend symptom-reducing measures such as rest, hot drinks, and steam inhalations. It is also important to practice good hand hygiene and avoid contact with people who are sick to prevent the spread of a viral infection.


Influenza is an infectious disease caused by influenza viruses. It is transmitted by airborne droplets, most often through coughs or sneezes of an infected person. Influenza is one of the most common and dangerous diseases of the respiratory system, which can lead to complications and even death.

The main symptoms of influenza are high fever, general weakness, severe headache, nasal congestion, sore throat and cough. In the future, symptoms associated with the defeat of the respiratory system, such as breathing problems, chest pain, tingling in the heart and muscle pain, may appear.

Complications of influenza can be very severe and even fatal. It can be pneumonia, stroke, asthma, inflammation of the heart and other serious diseases. Therefore, at the first sign of influenza, you should consult a doctor and start treatment in order to avoid possible complications.

Influenza vaccination is one of the most effective ways to prevent or make it easier to get sick. Vaccination is recommended for all categories of the population and is carried out every year.

In order to prevent influenza, it is necessary to follow hygiene measures such as regular hand washing, use of masks in public places, ventilation of premises and avoiding contact with sick people.

If symptoms of flu occur, bed rest, fluids should be taken, and antipyretics and antivirals should be taken as directed by a doctor.

Kidney failure

Kidney failure is a condition in which the kidneys do not perform their functions completely or at all. This is a serious disease that requires immediate treatment.

Major causes of kidney failure may include:

  • Long-term increase in blood pressure;
  • Diabetes mellitus;
  • Chronic urinary tract infections;
  • Inflammatory diseases of the kidneys;
  • Various metabolic disorders;
  • Effects of certain drugs.

Symptoms of kidney failure may vary depending on the extent and causes of the disease. However, some common signs that may indicate kidney failure include:

  1. Frequent urination;
  2. Edema of the face, arms, legs;
  3. Fatigue and weakness;
  4. Increased thirst;
  5. Insufficient amount of urine;
  6. Tingling or numbness in legs and arms;
  7. Pain in the lumbar region;
  8. Darkening of the urine.

If these symptoms appear, you should consult a doctor for an accurate diagnosis and early treatment. Treatment may be with medications, changes in diet and diet, and in some cases, dialysis or kidney transplantation may be required.


A tumor is an abnormal growth of cells that results in a neoplasm in the body. Tumors can be either benign or malignant. They can occur in various organs and systems of the body, including the respiratory system. The causes of tumors are not fully understood, but some risk factors have been identified, such as genetic predisposition, exposure to radiation, chemicals, and tobacco smoke.

A tumor in the respiratory system can cause various symptoms. If there is a tumor in the lungs, chest pain may occur, which may worsen when you take a deep breath or cough. There may also be hemoptysis, cough, shortness of breath and tingling in the region of the heart. However, symptoms can vary depending on the type and location of the tumor, as well as the stage of development of the disease.

Different methods are used to diagnose a tumor in the respiratory system. The doctor may do a chest x-ray, computed tomography, magnetic resonance imaging, bronchoscopy, puncture, or biopsy of the tumor. Once a tumor is diagnosed, it is important to choose the best treatment for the patient, which may include surgical removal of the tumor, radiation therapy, and chemotherapy.


Tuberculosis is an infectious disease caused by the bacterium Mycobacterium tuberculosis. It affects the lungs but can also affect other organs such as the kidneys, lymph nodes, and bones.

The main symptom of TB is a cough that lasts more than 3 weeks and is accompanied by sputum that contains blood or pus. As the disease progresses, the cough becomes painful, and the patient may experience weakness, loss of appetite, and unexplained weight loss.

Other common symptoms of tuberculosis are hot flashes, night sweats and fatigue. In the presence of lung damage, patients experience shortness of breath, a feeling of tightness in the chest, and tingling in the heart.

Diagnosis of tuberculosis is done by chest X-ray, sputum examination for bacteria, and blood test for antibodies to Mycobacterium tuberculosis. TB treatment involves taking antibiotics in combination with immune-boosting drugs and lasts from several months to a year, depending on the form and stage of the disease.

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What are breathing problems?

Respiratory problems are symptoms or diseases associated with impaired lung function and airways. These may include pain, shortness of breath, tingling in the heart, and other discomforts.

What causes respiratory problems?

Breathing problems can be caused by a variety of things. This can be allergies, infectious diseases, respiratory tract damage due to exposure to various irritants (tobacco smoke, environmental pollution), respiratory diseases (asthma, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease) and other factors.