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High body temperature early pregnancy symptom: Signs, Symptoms, and Ectopic Pregnancy


Unusual Early Signs of Pregnancy | Early Pregnancy

9 unusual early signs of pregnancy

What really early pregnancy symptoms could I experience that I wouldn’t expect?

Some women say they just know, and others may look to the more common early symptoms if they suspect they may be pregnant. Missed period, swollen and sore boobs, morning sickness and even food aversions are the obvious, but there are some odd symptoms that you might not expect to be an early sign of pregnancy.

Here’s some of the more unusual symptoms that could have you believing something else is going on. But don’t panic you’re not crazy.

1.Waking up hot

Feeling overheated for 2 weeks or more when you wake in the morning may be an early sign of pregnancy. Following ovulation, your body temperature can be higher than normal. If it doesn’t regulate over the next couple of weeks, this could be a sign of pregnancy.

2. Feeling lightheaded

It’s common for women in the early stages of pregnancy to suffer from bouts of feeling lightheaded and dizzy spells. This is due to pregnancy causing your blood pressure to drop and your blood vessels to dilate causing you to feel lightheaded.

3. Constipation

Another early symptom you could experience is constipation. Your pregnancy can slow down your digestive system. This is important to ensure your little one has time to absorb the nutrients he/she needs but it can result in you feeling bloated and unable to go to the toilet. Adding more fibre to your diet can help things naturally along. 

4. Diarrhoea

Early pregnancy hormones can just as easily speed up your digestive system too. Avoid spicy, high-fat and high-fibre foods and fizzy drinks and make sure you drink plenty of water.

5. Emotional rollercoaster

You may surprise yourself at how you react to things differently more than normal. Something that you’d usually shrug off without a second thought could see you in floods of tears or in a rage and you just can’t understand why. Again that’ll be those pregnancy hormones. 

6. Stuffy nose – and another cold!

You may just feel binged up because the blood supply around your body causes inflammation in the nasal passages. Also known as the Rhinitis of pregnancy. Also, whereas you may usually avoid picking up every cold or bug that is going around, early pregnancy can see you suffering with one thing after another. Pregnancy lowers your immunity leaving you more vulnerable to everything going round.

7. Vaginal discharge

White, milky, thick vaginal discharge around the time of your missed period is also a sign caused by the thickening of the vagina walls.

8. Mild cramping

It can be hard to know if cramping is down to your period or whether it’s a sign of implantation where the embryo that’s been fertilised is dividing and growing. Some spotting is also common and could be a result of implantation bleeding.

9. Needing to pee more often

Needing to pee more typically starts at about 6 weeks and going to the loo more often is more noticeable before a missed period.

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Early Signs of Pregnancy: Pregnancy Symptoms

Sometimes it’s hard to interpret the signals your body is sending you. If you suspect you might be experiencing the first signs of pregnancy, you’re probably eager to know for sure. Here we list some of the early signs of pregnancy, but keep in mind you may only notice some of them. If you’re in doubt about whether you’re pregnant, a home pregnancy test or your healthcare provider can confirm it.

First Signs of Pregnancy

Each pregnancy is unique, but you might even experience certain signs of pregnancy from even before a missed period. Take this “Am I Pregnant?” quiz and read up on some of the early pregnancy signs:

  • Missing a menstrual period. One of the very early signs of pregnancy is a missed period, though if you have an irregular menstrual cycle, this sign can be misleading.

  • Implantation bleeding. Spotting can actually be a very early sign of pregnancy, as it may be implantation bleeding, which happens when the fertilized egg attaches itself to the lining of the uterus.

  • Cramping. Some moms-to-be experience mild uterine cramps during the first trimester. To soothe your lower abdomen, place a hot water bottle, wrapped in a towel, on your belly or take a warm bath.

  • Feeling hot. Elevated pregnancy hormone levels and a metabolism that has sped up can both lead to an increase in your core body temperature, so you might be feeling a little warmer than usual. Your body compensates for this by sweating more to help cool you down.

  • Heart racing. Hormonal changes can also cause heart palpitations, but if they last more than a few seconds, or if they happen frequently, contact your healthcare provider for a checkup to make sure everything is OK.

  • Mood changes. Finding out you’re pregnant is a big milestone, and it’s natural to feel everything from joy and excitement to anxiety and confusion. It may help to speak to your loved ones about your feelings.

  • Bloating and constipation. As the digestive system slows, you may also feel bloated (similar to what it can feel like at the start of your period) and constipated. Eat high-fiber foods, drink lots of water, and – if you can – add some exercise to your day.

  • Heartburn. This happens because during pregnancy the muscles that keep digestive acids out of the esophagus tend to relax. Eat small, frequent meals and avoid fried foods, citrus fruits, chocolate, and spicy or fried foods to help prevent heartburn.

  • Acne. The overproduction of sebum (oil) in the skin can cause pimple outbreaks during pregnancy. Gently cleanse your skin each day, use non-greasy cosmetics, and consult your healthcare provider about anti-acne medications that are safe.

  • Dizziness. Low blood sugar levels, stress, and fatigue can make you feel dizzy or faint. Eat small, regular meals, and try to keep stress under control.

  • Weight gain. Some women gain between 1 to 4 pounds in the first few months of pregnancy, but your doctor will be able to advise you on healthy pregnancy weight gain that is right for you.

  • Stuffy nose. In early pregnancy, the mucous membranes in your nose swell, dry out, and bleed easily. To help relieve congestion, consider using a humidifier, or try saline drops or a saline rinse, and remember to stay hydrated.

  • Headaches. Headaches can be an early sign of pregnancy as estrogen levels rise. You may also experience tension headaches, which may be caused by stress or fatigue. Check with your healthcare provider about possible medications; for most pregnant women, acetaminophen (for example, Tylenol) is considered safe to treat the odd headache.

  • Frequent urination. If you need to pee more often than usual, it could be a sign of pregnancy as your kidneys are processing more fluid, which end up in your bladder. Don’t drink less water, though, as keeping hydrated is very important.

  • Tender, swollen breasts. Early on, your breasts may feel more tender and become larger, but as your body adjusts to the hormonal changes, the discomfort may decrease.

  • Morning sickness. This is a classic pregnancy symptom, and morning sickness often starts about a month after you become pregnant. For some women, morning sickness occurs at other times of the day, not just in the morning, while other women won’t experience it at all. Eat something before getting out of bed, and then have small, regular meals throughout the day to keep your blood sugar levels stable.

  • Food cravings or aversions and smell sensitivity. Signs of early pregnancy also include changes in taste, smell, and cravings. Keep up a balanced diet, and talk to your doctor if you crave non-food items (like chalk or dirt).

  • Tiredness. It’s natural to feel tired while pregnant, particularly early on. Your body is working hard to support your baby, so give yourself plenty of time to rest and relax.

  • Skin changes. You may notice skin pigmentation changes, such as the darkening of the skin around your nipples, dark patches on your face, or the appearance of a dark line from your navel to your pubic bone.

Do All Women Get Early Pregnancy Symptoms?

Each mom-to-be and each pregnancy is unique, so you may only notice some of these early signs of pregnancy. For example, you may notice some signs of pregnancy before you even miss a period; alternatively, missing a period may be your first clue that you are pregnant. What’s more, the symptoms you notice in a second pregnancy may be different from what you experienced the first time around.

If you think you may be pregnant, a home pregnancy test will confirm it. If you experience any of the symptoms of early pregnancy but the test comes out negative, there is still a chance you may be pregnant. Wait a week, and then take the test again. If the test is positive, make an appointment with your healthcare provider to confirm the pregnancy. You can also use our due date calculator to find out how far along you are in your pregnancy.

Once your pregnancy is confirmed, check out our go-to pregnancy guide, which includes all the most important things you’ll need to navigate your pregnancy, including infographics, checklists, trackers, and more!

What Else You Might Experience Throughout Pregnancy

Throughout your pregnancy, your body will do some weird and wonderful things. Some of these physical changes (like morning sickness) may subside, while others (like nasal congestion and heartburn) may continue over the course of your pregnancy. These are some of the changes you may experience during the second and third trimesters:

  • Discharge. A sticky, clear, or white vaginal discharge is normal during pregnancy, but contact your doctor if it becomes strong smelling or is accompanied by a sore, itchy vagina.

  • Cramps or pain in the lower abdomen. In later pregnancy, you may experience a cramping sensation, which may be a result of round ligament pain or Braxton-Hicks “practice”

  • Back Pain. Backaches can be caused by hormonal changes, weight gain, and changes in your posture due to your growing belly. Practicing good posture, sleeping on your side, and getting some physical activity in each day may help relieve the pain.

  • Frequent urination. Although the more frequent urination that you may have experienced early in pregnancy probably subsides in the second trimester, by the third trimester, it may return again. This is because your growing baby moves deeper into the pelvis, putting pressure on your bladder, so you may feel the urge to pee more often.

  • Itchy Skin. Wherever your skin stretches during pregnancy (for example, the abdomen and thighs), it could start to feel itchy. Avoid scratching, use a good moisturizer, and shower or bathe in lukewarm water, as hot water can dry out skin.

  • Breast changes.The tenderness and swelling you may be experiencing in the early stages are only one of the changes you might see in your breasts during your pregnancy. Others could include darker nipples, stretch marks and – especially in the third trimester – leaky breasts.

  • Stretch marks. As your skin stretches during pregnancy, you may notice stretch marks forming on areas like your belly, thighs, buttocks, and breasts. Gaining a healthy amount of weight slowly over the pregnancy may help minimize these streaks.

  • Shortness of breath. Your growing baby pushing against your lungs may cause that out-of-breath feeling. Good posture may give your lungs more room to expand.

  • Various aches and pains. You may feel different symptoms at different points throughout pregnancy, such as dental pain or sensitivity, varicose veins or hemorrhoids, and swollen feet or leg cramps. Read more about some of these aches and pains along with tips here.

Most of the time, these physical discomforts and changes are completely normal, but there are some signs you should not ignore, including severe headaches, changes in eyesight, or sudden swelling (edema). If you notice anything that just doesn’t seem right, consult your healthcare provider.

These daily signs of being pregnant can be pretty tiresome, but in no time at all, your due date will be here, and you’ll be taking your baby home. Putting up with all these pesky pregnancy symptoms will have been worth it! See our Pregnancy Calendar for a more detailed description of what happens during each week, month, and trimester. You’re embarking on an amazing journey – enjoy the ride.

Surprising Signs of Pregnancy You May Not Know About

  • Pregnancy isn’t always obvious, but there are some subtle signs and symptoms that can clue you in. 
  • Hot flashes, bloating, and swollen or painful breasts can be signs of pregnancy.
  • A few of the more subtle symptoms include increased saliva, bleeding gums, and a stuffy nose. 

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Morning sickness, a missed period, mood swings — these are all classic signs that you might be expecting a baby.

But anyone who’s ever been pregnant can tell you that these aren’t the only symptoms, even in the earliest stages of pregnancy. Sometimes, there are less noticeable symptoms and feelings that can indicate you’re pregnant.

Though these are not guaranteed signs, here are a few of the surprising hints you might be expecting:

Cramping outside of your period could be a sign of pregnancy

They can feel like period cramps.

Daisy Daisy/Shutterstock

Several pregnancy symptoms are similar to the signs that your period is on its way.

But if you feel those familiar cramps come on, it might not be that time of the month. Instead, it might mean you’re pregnant.

“The cramping that occurs during early pregnancy comes from the increased blood flow to the uterus,” Dr. Michele Justice told The Bump. “The cramps before your period are due to increased prostaglandins that help the uterus prepare to shed its lining.”

Hot flashes and excessive sweating can indicate a baby’s on the way

Most people equate hot flashes with menopause, but if you notice you’re sweating more than usual — especially first thing in the morning — it could also mean you’re pregnant.

According to Healthline, ovulation makes your body temperature rise. If that hot feeling sticks around for longer than two weeks, an egg may have been fertilized.

Some pregnant people experience cold-like symptoms without actually being sick

For some women, pregnancy means perpetually feeling like you have a cold.

Trish Booth, author of “Pregnancy Q&A: Authoritative and Reassuring Answers to the Questions on Your Mind,” told Parenting that the extra hormones and blood production that come with pregnancy can also cause mucous membranes to swell, dry, and crack. 

New skin tags can also be subtle signs of pregnancy

It goes without saying that there’s a lot happening in your body while you’re pregnant, so don’t be too shocked if you notice a few new skin tags popping up in unexpected places.

Dermatologist Diane Berson told Parents in 2015 that they’re normal and harmless, and she explained they’re usually just caused by the hormone fluctuations that occur during pregnancy. 

Producing way more spit than usual can be a sign

If you notice that you have a lot more saliva, you might have a condition called ptyalism or hypersalivation that’s common in the first trimester.

According to Healthline, the increase in nausea and vomiting that usually occurs in the first trimester of pregnancy can lead to a watery mouth. 

Bleeding gums can point to an increased sensitivity to bacteria — which comes with pregnancy

For most of us, bloody gums usually mean a trip to the dentist, but in some cases, it can hint at a pregnancy.

According to Baby Center, hormonal changes can cause pregnancy gingivitis, a mild gum disease, causing the gums to become more sensitive to the bacteria in plaque. 

An increased heart rate can be a sign of pregnancy

Check with your doctor if your heart rate seems to be increasing.

VGstockstudio / Shutterstock

If you notice your heart is beating faster than usual, it could be because you’re pregnant.

According to Healthline, the body produces more blood during pregnancy to support the baby, which can make the heart can beat around “25% faster than usual.”

Increased urination is one of the better-known signs

Most people associate pregnancy with frequent trips to the bathroom in the second and third trimesters, but according to Healthline, increased urination is also one of the early warning signs.

Pregnancy can make you feel extra bloated

According to The Bump, pregnancy boosts progesterone and estrogen in the body, which can lead to bloating and abdominal pain. 

The hormones make your gut work slower so that the baby can get all the necessary nutrients from the food you’re eating. 

Swollen or painful breasts can be a hint that you’re expecting

It can also lead to itchy nipples.

Angel Valentin/Getty Images

According to American Pregnancy, painful breasts are one of the earliest signs of pregnancy.

They can occur as early as one to two weeks after conception, and they can also lead to itchy nipples.

If you’ve lost all interest in your favorite foods, it could be a sign

Along with pregnancy-related nausea, you can also start experiencing food aversions.

“Women have a heightened sense of smell and taste in pregnancy, and anything with a strong smell can make you feel nauseated,” Dr. Jennifer Wu told WebMD.

Early pregnancy symptom: blood flow

You may start noticing pregnancy symptoms or be able to detect pregnancy 7-10 days post ovulation.

Increased blood flow in early pregnancy

By about six weeks after a pregnant woman’s last period, the amount of blood flowing around her newly pregnant body has increased.

Pregnancy requires dramatic changes in blood flow, the most obvious being that which occurs in the uterus and the development of the placenta to make a baby grow.

Blood flow to the skin increases, making a newly pregnant woman feel warmer and perhaps sweat more, particularly from her hands and feet.

Studies show that non-pregnant women have about 100ml of blood per minute flowing through the uterine artery, but in early pregnancy, this increases to about 120 ml per minute. Once a woman is close to her due date, the blood flow has increased to about 350 ml per minute.

Other studies reveal the amount of blood in a pregnant woman’s body increases by 40 to 45 percent during her pregnancy, creating cardiovascular changes and increasing blood flow to various organs of the body.

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Other effects of increased blood flow

This extra blood flow boosts body metabolism by about 20 percent, creating more body heat and making pregnant women less likely to feel the cold.

A pregnant woman’s core body temperature will often rise to about 37.8°C, when it is normally 37°C.

The extra blood not only helps the body meet the metabolic needs of a growing foetus but also flows to other organs like the kidneys. The extra blood flow to the woman’s skin can also contribute to nose bleeds and bleeding gums.

It is not uncommon to feel a bit light-headed during pregnancy. This is perhaps due to the quick changes to the cardiovascular system, which now has more blood pumping through it. Your heart rate may increase and leave you feeling dizzy,

During normal pregnancy, most women experience a reduction in blood pressure during the early stages. This reaches its lowest point some time in the middle of pregnancy and then starts to rise till it reaches normal level at the end of pregnancy.

While the cardiovascular and the nervous system can handle these changes, at times it fails to do so and it can result in a feeling of dizzy and light-headed.

Extra blood flow and pregnancy skin

Perhaps the extra blood is also responsible for the “pregnancy glow” some women experience with their facial skin, which stretches to accommodate the larger body and blood volumes.

The greater volumes bring more blood to the vessels and increase oil gland secretion – which can also lead to acne.

Your skin may be more oily or dry during pregnancy, depending on your body’s individual response. This physical sign often varies from pregnancy to pregnancy in the same woman. Some women find their skin becomes quite oily during pregnancy giving them more pimples, especially if they are sensitive to the higher levels of progesterone hormone.

Biologi’s Dermal Specialist, Lucy Kuper says, “changes in oestrogen and progesterone levels (which are the female sex hormones), and testosterone and androgen (which are the male sex hormones) play a direct role in the production of pregnancy acne. In addition to this, changes in the amount of blood sugar and insulin can cause excessive oil production which clogs the pores and can then result in breakouts.”

Some women develop brownish or yellowish patches called chloasma, or the “mask of pregnancy,” on their faces. And some will notice a dark line on the midline of the lower abdomen, known as the linea nigra (or linea negra), as well as hyperpigmentation (darkening of the skin) of the nipples, external genitalia, and anal region.

These are the result of pregnancy hormones, which cause the body to produce more pigment. The body may not produce this increased pigment evenly, however, so the darkened skin may appear as splotches of colour.

Lucy says the best thing for hormonal acne is to just keep an eye on it and change up your skin routine as needed. “Try to be mindful of any chemicals or medication used to treat hormonal acne during and after pregnancy, especially if you are breastfeeding. If your acne is particularly bad or appearing in strange places, seek medical attention.”

Is A Fever A Sign Of Early Pregnancy? It Actually Can Be, Doctors Say

Women who are trying to get pregnancy to want to know as soon as possible whether they have a baby on board, and many reports experiencing a slight fever before they’ve even missed their period. Is a fever an early sign of pregnancy? The answer is more complex than a simple yes or no.

Temperature has long been used to track fertility, as Felice Gersh, M.D., OB-GYN, told Romper in an interview. Body temperature is related to hormones, which fluctuate through a woman’s menstrual cycle. It’s why basal body temperature can be used to track ovulation.

“Progesterone is produced after ovulation and results in a small temperature elevation, which is the foundation of the basal body temperature charting,” Dr. Gersh says. “Measuring one’s temperature first thing in the morning with a special basal body thermometer was commonly done for fertility evaluations prior to the development of ovulation kits, but still continues to be utilized by many women for natural fertility planning.”

The same hormone that makes it possible to track your cycle using temperature is what causes an increase in your overall body temp early on in pregnancy, Dr. Gersh adds. But it’s not to be mistaken for a true fever.

“Pregnancy results in a far greater production of progesterone and a small further increase in temperature, which can be perceived as a fever by the woman, but actually is only a normal small temperature rise,” she says.

So, while it’s not exactly a fever, a slight uptick in your body’s temperature may clue you in to the fact that your progesterone is higher than usual. But if you find yourself with symptoms of a fever, like body chills or aches and pains, be sure to visit your doctor.

“Becoming infected with a virus or bacterial agent during pregnancy can have very dire consequences, depending on the time of pregnancy and the infectious agent,” says Gersh. “It is a rarity these days due to vaccines, but infection with the virus called rubella was well known to cause serious birth defects. Parvovirus can wreak havoc in the body of the developing baby. Flu viruses as well can be very damaging.”

Continue Reading the full article at Romper By Katie McPherson

15 Early Signs of Pregnancy

When you’re trying to conceive, any slight new symptom can get your heart pounding. Waiting to see if two pink lines are in store for you this month can be agony, so it’s hard not to read into every twinge, cramp and extra trip to the bathroom. But what are the first signs of pregnancy you should really be on the lookout for? Will you really start craving strange food combinations? And what about morning sickness? Does every woman experience the same pregnancy symptoms?

Here, with the help of medical experts, we break down the most common early signs of pregnancy, why they happen and what you can do to ease any ensuing discomfort. (Because let’s be honest, the symptoms of pregnancy don’t always feel the greatest.)

When Do Pregnancy Symptoms Start?
There’s no hard and fast rule for when early pregnancy symptoms kick in. Some women may begin noticing the first early signs of pregnancy a week or two after conception, while others will start to feel symptoms closer to four or five weeks after, when your period is conspicuously late, or even farther into pregnancy. According to a study published in the Journal of Clinical Epidemiology, most women (59 percent) experienced an onset of pregnancy symptoms by their fifth or sixth week, while 71 percent reported symptoms by the end of week six and 89 percent by week eight.

Remember, each woman is on her own unique path to pregnancy, so symptoms and timing can vary. Whether you start to sense early symptoms of pregnancy immediately or later in pregnancy, don’t fret. “All women are different and don’t experience the same symptoms of early pregnancy,” says Michele Justice, MD, an ob-gyn at Inova Loudoun Hospital in Leesburg, Virginia. “Also, her second pregnancy can be different from her first.” And of course, just because you experience something that could be chalked up as a sign of pregnancy, it’s never a guarantee there’s a baby on board. If you think you might be pregnant, Justice says, your best bet is to take a pregnancy test.

Are your boobs killing you? Do they feel tender and swollen? If so, it’s possible you’ve conceived this cycle. Sore breasts are often among the first early symptoms of pregnancy that women experience, which means you can also expect sore nipples in early pregnancy. You may start noticing differences in the way your breasts look, and it’s not uncommon for them to feel heavy and swollen. This is an early sign that your body is gearing up to start making milk.

Unfortunately, a lot of women experience soreness as a normal part of their monthly menstrual cycle, so it can be hard to tell the difference between the typical breast tenderness before your period vs an early pregnancy sign. But there’s one key difference: In pregnancy, the tenderness doesn’t go away like it normally does with PMS, Justice says. Instead, the painful, tingly sensations tend to get worse as time passes, often leveling off around the end of the first trimester.

Why does it happen?

During early pregnancy, levels of estrogen and progesterone hormones spike, which causes increased blood flow to your breasts. These hormones are also why some women experience breast tenderness around the time of ovulation and as part of PMS—but in that case, the hormones begin to plummet as you get closer to the start of your period, and the breast pain subsides. If you’ve conceived, your hormone levels will rise rather than fall and your breasts will become increasingly tender.

Is it common?

Don’t worry, you’re not the only one dealing with tender breasts and sore nipples in early pregnancy—it’s one of the most common early symptoms of pregnancy. For many women it lasts just a week or so, but others experience some level of breast tenderness for their entire pregnancy. Take comfort in the fact that this pain and tenderness means your breasts are preparing to nourish baby after they’re born!

What should you do?

Get a supportive bra to ease the discomfort of this pregnancy symptom. Talk to a professional who can help you with a fitting, and be sure to leave a little extra room. Trust us, they’re going to keep growing. And don’t be afraid to use either warm or cold compresses if things get really uncomfortable—just use whichever feels right for you.

If you’re searching for early signs of pregnancy, you may want to take a look at your areolas—aka the area around your nipples. They can start to appear darker and larger as early as one or two weeks after conception, making this one of the more noticeable early signs of pregnancy. And that’s not all—look closely and you’ll see that the veins in your breasts are more visible as well. You might also notice little bumps popping up around the edges of your areolas. They’re called Montgomery tubercles, designed to help lubricate your nipples once baby is here and ready to nurse. If you haven’t realized it yet, your breasts will undergo lots of changes during pregnancy!

Why does it happen?

Like so many early signs of pregnancy, darkening areolas and veins are both a result of surging pregnancy hormones, namely human chorionic gonadotropin, or hCG. But while a dramatic increase in hCG is responsible for many of the initial pregnancy symptoms, it seems to affect your breasts earliest of all.

Is it common?

Darker areolas and veins will probably be one of the first signs of pregnancy you’ll notice, and they’re both extremely common. And it doesn’t stop there: Your areolas may continue to grow and deepen in color as your pregnancy progresses. Sometimes the changes are permanent, sometimes they’re not.

What should you do?

As with so many other pregnancy symptoms, this is one that requires a grin-and-bear-it approach. The deepening color shouldn’t be a cause for concern—it’s a harmless part of the pregnancy experience. Your nipples are probably much more tender now too, especially when you’re cold or something rubs against them. Applying warm compresses and wearing a lightweight, soft cotton bra can help.

Similar to sore breasts, cramping is among the early signs of pregnancy. The cramping shouldn’t be severe, though, so contact your doctor if you’re doubled over in pain, if you feel intense pain on only one side, or if you’re experiencing simultaneous bleeding and cramping (outside of your menstrual period, of course).

Why does it happen?

It can sometimes be difficult to distinguish between early pregnancy symptoms and signs that your period is on its way, especially when it comes to cramping. But even though they feel identical, cramps in pregnancy and period cramps are caused by different things. “The cramping that occurs during early pregnancy comes from the increased blood flow to the uterus,” Justice says. “The cramps before your period are due to increased prostaglandins that help the uterus prepare to shed its lining.”

Is it common?

Most women experience at least some cramping during their pregnancy. Just remember to contact your doctor if you’re worried or if it becomes severe.

What should you do?

If you’re having cramps, don’t panic. Many women immediately fear a miscarriage, but according to Kimberly Harney, MD, a clinical associate professor of obstetrics and gynecology and maternal fetal medicine at the California-based Lucile Packard Children’s Hospital Stanford, “mild cramping in the pelvis that’s symmetrical and generally in the center above the pubic bone could be normal in early pregnancy.”

Having some light pink or brown spotting about a week before your period is due? If you’re wondering “can bleeding be a sign of pregnancy?” the answer is actually yes. It could be what’s called implantation bleeding, one of the early signs of pregnancy.

Spotting happens six to 12 days after conception, when a fertilized egg burrows deep into the lining of your uterus, causing a bit of mild irritation. When it’s happening, it can easily be confused with the onset of your period, so it’s one of those pregnancy symptoms that’s often noticed only in hindsight. “You probably won’t know that the irregular bleeding you had was implantation bleeding until you get that positive pregnancy test and remember that you had some spotting,” Justice says.

Why does it happen?

It means you’ve got a baby on the way! A few days after conception, the fertilized egg travels down the fallopian tubes and settles in your uterus. There, the egg will attach to the wall of your uterus. Since your uterine lining is rich with blood, a little spotting can often occur and isn’t cause for concern.

Is it common?

Implantation spotting occurs in about 25 percent of women, according to Justice, so you may or may not encounter it. Remember, every woman is unique and will experience pregnancy symptoms differently.

What should you do?

Keep your fingers crossed—this could be a good sign! Be sure to take a pregnancy test if your period is late to arrive to determine if your spotting really is an early sign of pregnancy. If it turns out you haven’t conceived, note the date the spotting occurred and which cycle day you were on. Pay close attention to your next few cycles and see if you notice any spotting—mid-cycle bleeding can be a sign of a medical condition that would require a doctor’s diagnosis, so definitely visit your ob-gyn if you notice a pattern.

5. High Basal Body Temperature

If you’ve been charting your basal body temp, you may be privy to one of the subtle signs of pregnancy that many women won’t even notice: a higher than normal reading. When you’re charting, your basal (or waking) temperature peaks when you ovulate, then gradually decreases during the latter part of your cycle until your period begins. But if you get pregnant during the cycle, your basal temperature won’t plummet; instead, it’ll stay high.

Why does it happen?

Like so many pregnancy symptoms, those pesky pregnancy hormones are to blame yet again. If you don’t get pregnant, your levels of progesterone and estrogen will decrease, signaling your period to begin. But if an egg is fertilized, the opposite happens, and these hormones begin to rapidly rise. Your basal body temp will reflect that rise and you won’t see a dip after ovulation.

Is it common?

It’s not just common, it’s biology, baby! Progesterone and estrogen are the hormones that sustain a healthy pregnancy. When you’re pregnant, a sustained high basal body temperature is one of the pregnancy symptoms you’re guaranteed to see.

What should you do?

If you’ve been charting, just keep doing what you’re doing and enjoy seeing those high temps. If you haven’t been tracking it and are trying to conceive, consider starting a basal temperature chart to become more familiar with your cycle. The best time to start your chart is the day your period begins.

This can be one of the more difficult early signs of pregnancy to deal with. It’s not just a loss of energy we’re talking about here—it’s more of a can’t-keep-your-eyes-open-another-second total exhaustion that you’ll likely deal with throughout the first trimester. This mind-numbing fatigue sets in thanks to those pregnancy hormones and, more importantly, from your body’s efforts to nurture baby’s development.

Why does it happen?

Your body is working overtime to make sure baby has everything he needs to grow for the next nine months, and boy, will you feel it! Your body is producing more blood to carry nutrients to your growing baby, and your blood sugar levels and blood pressure are lower. These factors, combined with high levels of pregnancy hormones estrogen and progesterone, can all make you feel super sleepy.

Is it common?

Excessive fatigue is (unfortunately) among the common pregnancy symptoms during the first trimester and isn’t a cause for concern. The good news: You’ll probably enjoy a dramatic bump in energy as you round the corner of the second trimester.

What should you do?

Don’t be afraid to press snooze or take that early evening nap you’ve been daydreaming about. The better you feel, the better baby will too. There are also certain energy-boosting foods for pregnancy that can help you cope with first-trimester fatigue.

Peeing more than usual? It may not be one of the first early signs of pregnancy you notice, but having to urinate more frequently is definitely among the standard pregnancy symptoms and tends to kick in about two to three weeks after conception.

Why does it happen?

Once an egg has implanted in your uterus, the hCG hormone ramps up production and begins to rise dramatically. One of the side effects? It can make you feel like you’ve got to use the restroom every five minutes. If there’s a silver lining here, it’s that heightened hCG levels in your urine are used to detect pregnancy, which is how you’ll get a positive result on your home pregnancy test.

Is it common?

Every pregnant woman will have increased hCG levels, but not everyone will have that frequent urge to pee. If you do, there’s no cause for concern, since higher hCG levels are a good thing. As your pregnancy progresses, baby will get bigger and put more pressure on your bladder, so you might as well get used to making multiple trips to the bathroom.

What should you do?

If you’re slipping away to visit the ladies’ room all night and it’s not because of one too many margaritas, pick up a pregnancy test and call your doctor. It’s possible you have a baby on board!

If you’re hoping to start the journey to motherhood, your heart probably races every time you visit the bathroom around the time your period is due. So it’s only natural to feel pretty excited if you’re late, even by a day! A missed period is often one of the telltale symptoms of pregnancy. In fact, sometimes it’s the first signal that you may have conceived. While the accuracy of a pregnant test increases the longer you wait to take one, many pregnancy tests these days are able to detect hCG levels up to five days before your period is supposed to start.

Why does it happen?

Here’s a little refresher: You get your period every month when your egg isn’t fertilized. The egg breaks apart, causing hormone levels to drop and your body sheds the lining of your uterus. If you skip your period, it’s a good sign there’s a baby on board, busy nestling into your uterine wall.

Is it common?

A missed period is one of those pregnancy symptoms that all expectant women will have (does the phrase “I’m late” sound familiar?), but it isn’t uncommon to have a bit of spotting around the time your period would have arrived, which is related to the implantation of a fertilized egg (see above).

What should you do?

If your cycle is regular, missing your period is one of the first early signs of pregnancy, so try taking a pregnancy test (or calling your doctor) to confirm. If your periods are irregular, it’s possible you just skipped a month—or you could be pregnant. A pregnancy test will help tell.

Feeling queasy? The one-two punch of nausea and vomiting are pregnancy symptoms that strike some women very early on, but for most sufferers the fun begins around week six. Morning sickness is a bit of a misnomer—while you’re likely to feel more nauseous on an empty stomach (like in the morning before you’ve had breakfast), that queasiness can pop up at any time of day.

Why does it happen?

The dramatic rise in hCG after implantation results in early pregnancy symptoms like nausea and vomiting. Why do some pregnant women heave at the mere thought of food while others can put away a six-course meal? According to Harney, it has to do with their brain chemistry. “The nausea center in their brain is more sensitive. Women who suffer from extreme nausea during pregnancy are the people who get motion sickness more easily, vomit more easily with stomach flu, etc.” This may be only part of the story, though, since some women experience morning sickness with one pregnancy but not another.

Is it common?

Experts think anywhere from 50 to 90 percent of pregnant women suffer from some form of morning sickness, so if you’re one of them, you’re in good company. If that’s not enough reassurance, just remember that the nausea and vomiting will be over before long—these early pregnancy symptoms usually don’t extend past the first trimester.

What should you do?

In most cases the queasiness isn’t too overwhelming, so listen to your body and try to stay calm. Yvonne Bohn, MD, an LA-based ob-gyn and coauthor of The Mommy Docs’ Ultimate Guide to Pregnancy and Birth, suggests eating frequent small meals, nibbling on some crackers before getting out of bed, taking vitamin B6 or B12 or ginger tablets, and drinking tea or ginger ale. But if you’re losing significant weight or can’t keep anything down, you may be suffering from a more serious problem (like hyperemesis gravidarum), so talk to your doctor. Get more morning sickness tips to help minimize any nausea and vomiting.

10. Heightened Sense of Smell

If your favorite dish suddenly smells like dead fish, you may be experiencing one of the more bizarre early signs of pregnancy. Often associated with morning sickness and all the lovely things that come with it, having a super sniffer isn’t exactly a blessing. Most of the time, the strong smells will seem nauseating to the mom-to-be.

Why does it happen?

No one knows the exact reason why pregnant women have such a strong sense of smell, so, like most pregnancy symptoms, most physicians just chalk it up to the increase in pregnancy hormones.

Is it common?

It doesn’t happen to everyone, but if you’re able to smell your boss’ lunch from all the way down the hall, rest assured, you’re not alone. Even better news? While it can be among the more annoying early pregnancy symptoms, it tends to subside after the first trimester.

What should you do?

If it’s really bothering you, try to stay away from those strong-smelling odors. Consider taking the stairs instead of the elevator so you’re not overwhelmed by someone’s perfume. Change lanes if you find yourself stuck behind an exhaust-heavy truck. At home, wash your clothes often (since odors cling to fibers), and switch to unscented cleaners and toiletries in order to curb those unpleasant smells.

Pickles and ice cream, anyone? It’s not a myth! If you’re expecting, chances are you might experience strong (and possibly bizarre!) food cravings, especially in the first trimester. Some common yearnings you can chalk up as pregnancy symptoms? Sweet, spicy, salty and sour. If you’re starting to crave some unusual combinations, it could very well be a symptom of pregnancy.

Why does it happen?

Experts aren’t sure why, but some think cravings are just your body’s way of telling you what it needs. So if you’re ravenous for pickles, that could mean your body needs something salty. You can blame raging hormones (again!) for messing with your senses of taste and smell.

Is it common?

It’s one of the most common pregnancy symptoms: Around 90 percent of moms-to-be crave something, so if you’ve got the urge for Thai food one minute and pickle-flavored gummy bears the next, it’s totally normal.

What should you do?

Moderate indulgence is fine (and totally inevitable), but watch your intake of empty calories, especially if they start to replace important nutrients. There are easy (and healthy!) snacks that will give your body the nutrients it needs without downing three quarts of ice cream.

Ah, pregnancy—the only topic where it’s totally normal to discuss cravings and aversions in the same breath. One of the more unusual signs of pregnancy, aversions to or distaste for certain foods during early pregnancy and food cravings may be opposite pregnancy symptoms, but they can be equally as strong. Common aversions include meat, onions and eggs, although a pregnant woman can develop a distaste for just about any food.

Why does it happen?

“Food aversions are more likely to occur during early pregnancy because of the extreme levels of nausea that can occur, and that can make your brain develop a strong dislike for the food that triggered the nausea,” Justice says. “No one likes to feel bad, and our brains try to protect us from this.” It’s also widely believed that food aversions during pregnancy are an evolutionary warning alarm; your body instinctively knows when a certain food, like raw chicken, is potentially dangerous.

Is it common?

It’s totally normal to feel repelled by certain foods during early pregnancy. Like many other early pregnancy symptoms, food aversions should subside after the first trimester.

What should you do?

The best way to deal is simply to avoid whatever foods are triggering your aversions. If it’s chicken, try eggs or another source of protein. If it’s milk, get your calcium fix from yogurt or even supplements.

Is gas a sign of pregnancy? It can be! A boost in progesterone and estrogen is one of the common early pregnancy signs, causing many women to swell up early on, and with it often comes pregnancy gas. Abdominal pain or tightening, bloating, belching and passing gas all accompany pregnancy, sometimes for the entire nine months.

Why does it happen?

Progesterone (one of those pregnancy hormones) is relaxing smooth muscle tissues all over your body, including in your gastrointestinal tract. This makes your gut work slower, giving your body more time to snatch up nutrients from your food and take them to baby—and that translates into gas in early pregnancy (and beyond).

Is it common?

Consider this among those pregnancy symptoms that are par for the course, especially in early pregnancy. The March of Dimes reports that nearly every mom-to-be will feel bloated at some point during her pregnancy (even if she doesn’t feel it right at the beginning).

What should you do?

Not a fan of pregnancy symptoms like gas and bloating? Eat small, regular meals and stay away from gas-causing foods like fried foods, sweets, cabbage and beans. Eating and drinking slowly will keep you from swallowing excess air (you’ll later use this technique when feeding baby), and loose clothing will keep you comfy. Yoga classes can also help settle things down. If your pregnancy gas is really intense, talk to your doctor before taking medication.

Is constipation a symptom of pregnancy? It can be. It goes hand-in-hand with bloating, and occurs for all the same reasons. If you’re making more trips to the bathroom to pee but far fewer for the other, ahem, function, pregnancy could be the reason.

Why does it happen?

As increased levels of progesterone relax smooth muscle tissues, food begins to pass through your intestines more slowly, which can cause bowel movements to—you guessed it—move more slowly.

Is it common?

As with bloating and gas in early pregnancy, constipation is one of those pretty common pregnancy symptoms, although it’s not relegated to the first trimester—some women struggle with it during the entire nine months.

What should you do?

Eat as many fiber-rich foods as your queasy tummy will allow, and don’t forget to drink lots of water. If you’re really struggling, you might even consider adding a bit of white grape or pear juice to your diet. In addition, talk to your doctor about switching to a different prenatal vitamin, since there are some that tend to cause less constipation than others.

While the above are some of the most common first symptoms of pregnancy, there are a few other things you may notice in the early days or months of your pregnancy.

Mood Swings: You might start to experience mood swings similar to those you feel in the days leading up to your normal period. These uncontrollable shifts in your emotions occur due to changes in your hormones, especially in the first trimester when the levels of estrogen and progesterone change dramatically. Of course, mood swings can also be chalked up to the multitude of things on your mind these days. It’s normal to experience mounting anxiety in the early stages of your pregnancy—having a baby is a life-changing event!

Acne: Pimples and zits can be another one of those not-so-fun pregnancy symptoms. During pregnancy, your hormones are delivering more blood to your vessels, which can cause your oil glands to go into overdrive. In some women, this can show up as a “pregnancy glow,” giving your face a flushed appearance, but for others, it can lead to acne.

Heartburn: That burning sensation in your chest after eating can be another sign there’s a baby on board. Starting in the first trimester, those pregnancy hormones coursing through your body relax the valve between your stomach and esophagus, which can let stomach acid leak into your esophagus, causing heartburn.
Weight Gain: Weight gain is of course another early pregnancy symptom, usually kicking in closer to the end of your first trimester. Weight gain varies from woman to woman, but putting on zero to five pounds within those first three months is normal.

When it comes to your pregnancy, remember that no two women are the same. Your journey may be different from your best friend’s pregnancy or even your previous pregnancies. Be kind and patient with yourself, and don’t hesitate to contact your doctor if you are ever unsure about your symptoms or the severity of your symptoms.

Michele Justice, MD, is an ob-gyn at Inova Loudoun Hospital in Leesburg, Virginia. She earned her medical degree from University of Virginia in 2008 and specializes in minimally invasive gynecological surgery.

Kimberly Harney, MD, is a clinical associate professor of obstetrics and gynecology and maternal fetal medicine at the California-based Lucile Packard Children’s Hospital Stanford. She earned her medical degree from UC Irvine School of Medicine, Irvine, California, in 1981.

Yvonne Bohn, MD, is an ob-gyn with Los Angeles Obstetricians & Gynecologists and coauthor of The Mommy Docs’ Ultimate Guide to Pregnancy and Birth.

Please note: The Bump and the materials and information it contains are not intended to, and do not constitute, medical or other health advice or diagnosis and should not be used as such. You should always consult with a qualified physician or health professional about your specific circumstances.

Plus, more from The Bump:

Are hot flushes an early sign of pregnancy?

Hot flushes – or hot flashes – are indeed a pregnancy symptom. They affect more than 80% of mums-to-be at some stage in their pregnancy, and some women start having them in the very early weeks of pregnancy. 

Just how early can hot flushes start?

They can start straight away following conception, and some mums-to-be identify them as one of their earliest pregnancy symptoms.

But independent midwife Helen Taylor, of Midwife Care, warns that hot flushes are “not the most common symptom of early pregnancy by a long way and I wouldn’t describe them as a reliable sign of pregnancy” – especially if they’re you’re only symptom.

Look out for other early signs of pregnancy too, such as:

  • Sore breasts
  • Tiredness
  • Increased emotions
  • Metallic taste in mouth
  • Spotting and cramps
  • Nausea
  • Constipation
  • Increased vaginal discharge
  • More sensitive to smells
  • Craving new foods or going off foods

* Find out more about all the early signs of pregnancy

Forum poster Mummy_2be tested positive 3 days before her period was due, after experiencing symptoms including hot flashes, sore throat and enlarged breasts.

“Tested this morning and got very faint 2nd line. For those of you who can’t resist symptom spotting (sorry if TMI): enlarged bb and extremely sore big nipples from 1dpo [days post-ovulation], hot flashes/raised temperature, very emotional (just feel like crying all the time), had runny nose/sore throat, not sleeping well.”

One of our forum users, Miracles do Happen, found hot flashes were among the pregnancy symptoms she experienced early on, after trying to conceive for almost 4 years.

“Before I found out I was pregnant, my period was 5 days late and I had bad cramps as if my period was coming. I also had hot flashes, a headache, and I was sick every night.”

What does a hot flush feel and look like?

Intense heat spreads throughout the upper body for anywhere from thirty seconds to five minutes – typically starting in the neck and head.

But like so many pregnancy symptoms, they can feel different for different people. For example. they could start lower down in the body, and be shorter, or longer in time.

One mum-to-be myturnforabfp even experienced hot flashes in her legs. “Yesterday my hands were freezing and my legs were sweating.”

For SOP1 a red hot face was a telltale sign. “Last night my face started burning up from the neck upwards and it’s returned this morning.”

Sealeyb experienced her hot flushes at night. “I had lower back ache at night and also one night of hot sweats.”

How do you deal with hot flushes?

The best advice is to try to stay cool:

  • Wear loose clothing. Choose natural fibres if possible as these are more breathable than synthetic fibres
  • Keep your room cool – you could use an electric fan or keep a breeze coming through
  • Refresh your face and skin with cold water or a light water spray
  • Try to avoid hot, crowded rooms, trains or buses – although that’s easier said than done

What causes hot flushes?

Nobody’s quite sure why you get these flashes of feeling hot, but common triggers include spicy foods, hot drinks, alcohol, low blood sugar and stress.

Some research shows that fluctuating levels of oestrogen may be a cause. “In the first 12 weeks of pregnancy, pregnancy hormones surge to high levels,” explains midwife Helen. “They have the job of ‘maintaining’ the pregnancy until the placenta is developed, which is around 12 weeks. This surge of hormones is what is responsible for the ‘symptoms’ of pregnancy.”

Your body temperature (called Basal Body Temperature or BBT) rises by up to a degree when you ovulate. Scientists found that women’s temperature then tended to stay at that increased level until about the 5th month of pregnancy.

Did you know you also have more blood flowing round your body and at a faster rate when you’re pregnant? This boosts metabolism, which can raise body temperature.

Do hot flushes affect your baby?

Rest assured, despite the strange sensation of extreme heat coursing through your body for a few seconds or minutes, hot flashes do not affect your unborn baby.

“Hot flushes will not harm your baby at all,” reassures midwife Helen.

When will the hot flushes stop?

This is a tricky one – as they can last anything from a few weeks to right through the whole pregnancy, and even after your baby is born! Joy!

“For some women the first 12 weeks can be very challenging on a day to day level, whereas others can breeze through it,” says Helen. “Once the placenta is fully formed, it takes over maintenance of the pregnancy, and so the hormones settle down.

“For most women (but be warned, unfortunately not all!) you’ll return to feeling normal around the start of your second trimester.”

Not so for EmmaandAoifeBelle, who was still experiencing hot flushes at 33 weeks pregnant: “I’m feeling very sicky, dizzy and having hot flashes.”

Even more of a hot flush veteran, lulu1885 was 1.5cm dilated and having contractions at 37 weeks, along with hot flushes: “Hot flashes really bad. There’s just so much going on.”

And in her third trimester, hot flushes became particularly noticeable for TulipRose: “They come out of nowhere and my whole face goes almost purple and I feel a bit funny and have to sit down.”

Celebrity hot flushers!

Pregnant celebrities also suffer, as Celine Dion found out when pregnant for the second time: “The first two months I really felt the symptoms, the morning sickness, hot flushes, nausea,” the 42-year-old told French magazine Paris Match in 2010.

Singer Lily Allen also experienced hot flushes when pregnant in 2011, tweeting “Does not feel like July at all, but that’s good cause I’m preggers and hating the heat.”

Are you more likely to get hot flushes in the summer than in the winter?

While summer heat can make you feel a lot more overheated, our mums found those hot flushes could be equally troublesome in winter.

Fellow MFMer Simonealso struggled when pregnant with her daughter: “I was sooooo hot I had the windows open and the fan on at night time! Even the week before she was due, when the weather was colder, I was boiling!”

But we think one mum-to-be’s experience trumps everything, when her pregnancy transported her to a tropical island…

“Every night I’m so hot it feels like I’m in the Bahamas!” says Helen. “Last night it was -4C and I was sweating so much I had to take a cold shower!”

Read more…

Temperature during pregnancy

Women in position always monitor their health very closely, because the health of the unborn child also depends on it. The emerging changes in the female body that are taking place during this period raise a lot of questions.

Should you be afraid of high temperature when you are in position? Let’s figure it out.

Increased body temperature as a characteristic of an interesting position

In early pregnancy, women are anxious if their body temperature rises.As a rule, an elevated temperature indicates some kind of inflammatory process in the body.

However, if the body temperature does not rise above 37 degrees, then this is considered an adequate response of the body. It’s all about changing the hormonal background, as a result of this, various processes occur a little differently. It is for this reason that a slight increase in temperature is possible during the first months of pregnancy.

It is worth knowing that a temperature rise of up to 37 degrees is considered a normal reaction only in the first months of pregnancy.From the fourth month of pregnancy, fever is an unfavorable symptom. Be sure to inform the doctor who monitors your pregnancy. The specialist will understand this issue and establish the reasons for the increased temperature.

Colds during pregnancy

It is imperative to call a doctor if, in addition to a slightly elevated temperature, you feel certain symptoms of a cold. Girls in position are susceptible to changes in air temperature, are unprotected from various pathogenic bacteria, because their immunity is weakened.

Expectant mothers need to carefully monitor their well-being, avoiding both cold and heat. You can protect a vulnerable organism from various ailments by following simple rules:

  • You must always remember about personal hygiene
  • Be sure to disinfect your hands after being out of the house
  • Do not visit places where large groups of people are
  • Timely do wet cleaning in the apartment

What is the danger of an increased temperature

There is no danger to the fetus if an increased temperature is detected in the early stages of pregnancy.However, if the temperature rises due to infection, then this can disrupt the transfer of necessary elements through the placenta to the embryo and disrupt the formation of the central nervous system.

A temperature that rises above 37 degrees in late stages poses a threat even to pregnancy itself and can provoke an involuntary miscarriage.

Pregnant women need to take very sensitive care of themselves and their health. If there is a slight increase in temperature or alarming symptoms, you should immediately consult a doctor.

90,000 Signs of pregnancy

Pregnancy is a long-awaited and important period in a woman’s life. With its onset, not only family life and plans change, but also the well-being of the expectant mother. From the very first days of conception, minor signs of an interesting situation appear. And after a week, female hormones reach such a level that pregnancy symptoms become noticeable.

The first signs of pregnancy

In order to avoid any problems and complications, you should immediately consult a doctor.But before visiting the hospital, you can diagnose yourself “ pregnancy ” by several characteristic signs.

– Delayed menstruation.
The most obvious and noticeable symptom of the onset of pregnancy. Some women may experience bleeding or brown discharge instead of menstruation. Do not be afraid of this. This is an absolutely natural process, indicating the attachment of the embryo to the wall of the uterus. But for your own peace of mind, it is better to visit a doctor.Such manifestations can cause various diseases.

– Temperature rise.
In a pregnant woman, low-grade fever is considered normal. But it may not be upgraded. But the basal temperature will be above 37 ° in any case – this is the most reliable sign that appears even before the delay. It is important to measure basal temperature correctly. You only need to do this sutra, without getting out of bed.

– Nausea.
Not every woman experiences this symptom, but many still cannot avoid early toxicosis.Often its presence or absence is genetically determined. Nausea can appear at any time of the day, but more often it occurs in the morning. A woman involuntarily changes her tastes, refuses some products. There may be an aversion to food in general or an exorbitant appetite. Toxicosis occurs due to serious changes in metabolism due to the new state of the female body. After adaptation, all symptoms disappear, this happens towards the end of the first trimester.

– Painful sensations.
The process of conception may be accompanied by minor pain in the lower abdomen. They are very similar to menstrual periods. If the pain is mild and passing, this is a sign of pregnancy. In case of severe and persistent pain, an urgent need to consult a doctor. Cramps are a sign of the tone of the uterus, which is preparing to carry the fetus. Also, an early sign of pregnancy is soreness and swelling of the breasts. They become sensitive, so any touch is unpleasant.Some expectant mothers may have yellowish nipple discharge. This is normal and prepares the woman’s body for feeding the baby.

– Changes in the condition of the skin, hair, nails.
The onset of pregnancy in many women is accompanied by a sharp improvement in the condition of the skin and hair. This is due to an overabundance of the hormone estrogen. But after childbirth, its content returns to normal, which leads to a deterioration in the condition of the teeth and hair loss. Some expectant mothers may develop acne on the face, the skin becomes oily, pigmented.Don’t worry, everything will go away right after the birth.

– General malaise.
Immediately after conception, the female body experiences tremendous stress, everything changes, rebuilds. A lot of effort is spent on this. Therefore, a woman feels weak, tired and sleepy. In addition, due to the surge of hormones, mood deteriorates, tearfulness and anxiety appear. During this period, a woman needs special care and attention.

Each organism is individual and pregnancy manifests itself in completely different ways.At the first symptoms, you need to see a doctor, then bearing the long-awaited child will become a happy and pleasant period in life.

90,000 Temperature during early pregnancy

Ivanova L.V .: Pregnancy. Childbirth. First year of life. Questions and answers. – SPb .: Neva 2007 .– 400 p.

Fever during pregnancy can disturb any woman who is carrying a baby. The health of the expectant mother is an important factor that allows you to give birth to a baby without deviations.Let’s figure out what to do when pregnant women have a high body temperature, and what its indicators are considered standard.

Fever during pregnancy: reasons for the increase

Sometimes it is difficult to avoid harmful microbes and viruses. Many naively believe that the optimal temperature for pregnant women should be no higher than 36.6 ° C. In reality, the measurement of indicators in a healthy person ranges from 35.2−37.2 ° C.

From the 1st to the 13th week of gestation, the temperature in pregnant women sometimes exceeds the permissible threshold.A similar process is associated with an increased production of progesterone, a hormone that is responsible for the stable bearing of the fetus.

Read also

Cough during pregnancy: how to treat

The main reasons for the temperature jump:

  • colds;
  • inflammation;
  • intestinal infections;
  • allergy;
  • individual disorders in the body;
  • problems with the respiratory system;
  • malfunctions in the functioning of the thyroid gland; 90 026 90 025 stress;
  • excessive physical activity;
  • Ectopic pregnancy.

The temperature during pregnancy, which indicates a possible danger to the mother and baby, is 37.4 ° C. Especially if it does not subside for several days. During gestation, female immunity is weakened, the expectant mother can easily catch a cold or catch the flu. In such situations, a temperature of 38 during pregnancy is not the maximum indicator. It can even reach 40 ° C.

Laurent O.B., Sinyakova L.A., Mitrokhin A.A., Plesovsky A.M., Steinberg M. L., Vinarova N. A.: “Modern view of the problem of interstitial cystitis” / Medical Council. – 2011.

Personally, at work, I often meet cystitis in pregnant women. With inflammatory processes of this nature, the indicator can range from 37.5 ° C to 38 ° C. Many doctors say that there are times when pain during urination is a signal of inflammation of the kidneys.

Read also

Low body temperature: reasons how to raise

With pyelonephritis, the temperature index rises up to 39-40 ° C.My colleagues A.T. Toksanbaev, R.V. Kadyrbaev and other specialists have studied the features of the course of this disease in pregnant women. Check out the results in an article by experts from the Kazakh National Medical University.

At the first manifestations of fever and other symptoms such as sore throat, runny nose, gag reflexes, drowsiness, body aches, you should immediately visit a medical specialist. Only a doctor will be able to establish the correct diagnosis and provide appropriate treatment.

Temperature during pregnancy: what is dangerous?

After conception, a global restructuring of the body begins within a woman. The level of progesterone increases, which protects the fetus and helps it develop. All organs and systems of the body of the expectant mother adapt to the new position.

Read also

Basal temperature during pregnancy: values, how to measure

As a result of hormonal changes, heat transfer slows down.This is the reason why the temperature rise during pregnancy can reach 37.1 ° C. Such an indicator is the norm and should not provoke panic, only if there are no other signs of the disease.

A jump in body temperature above 37.5 ° C in the period of 4-14 weeks is especially dangerous for the health of a pregnant woman and an unborn child. With similar symptoms in the first month of pregnancy, it is recommended to immediately call the emergency services. It is not recommended to go to the doctor unaccompanied, as the pregnant woman may lose consciousness.

Mantha V.R.R., Vallejo M.C., Ramesh V., Phelps A.L., Ramanathan S.: Hyperthermia in parturient women with bolus and constant epidural analgesia, 2008. – pp. 27-35.

Scientists from the University of Pittsburgh School of Medicine conducted a study that showed that fever during pregnancy can negatively affect the health of the unborn child, so in such a situation, one cannot do without consulting a doctor. You can see the results in a scientific article.

Read also

18 week of pregnancy: development and size of the fetus, what happens in a woman’s body

In my practice, there were many cases when expectant mothers neglected their health and triggered their condition.Naturally, such an attitude led to serious consequences for both the woman herself and the child. Listen to seasoned experts with degrees and experience to help protect yourself and your baby from problems. Visit specialists on time, take the necessary tests and do not wait until the last moment.

My colleagues from KazNMU E.U. Kuandykov, R.T. Dzhumasheva, S.K. Almukhambetova and M.Zh. Zhumagul write in a scientific article about the serious risk to mother and child at high temperatures at the beginning of pregnancy.Ignoring the recommendations of specialists and neglecting therapy can provoke a miscarriage or severe fetal pathologies. In case of a violation of protein production in the unborn baby, the following consequences may occur:

Read also

Can the test fail to show pregnancy if it is

  • problems with the central nervous system and heart;
  • failures in the development of the eyeballs and jaw;
  • pathology in the formation of fingers on the upper and lower extremities;
  • Abnormal development of the abdominal region.

High fever threatens both mother and baby. For example, a circulatory failure may occur in the placenta, which leads to the appearance of thrombosis and fetal hypoxia. Additionally, in a pregnant woman, the contractility of the uterine muscles may increase, which often becomes the cause of embryo rejection.

Temperature during pregnancy: how to bring it down?

Fever is a dangerous signal for both pregnant women and ordinary people, which indicates health problems.In addition to an adverse reaction to microorganisms, a woman experiences exacerbations of chronic ailments. The main factors that provoke a jump in temperature at the initial stages of pregnancy include:

Read also

What not to eat during pregnancy

  • prolonged exposure to the sun or unfavorable microclimatic conditions in the room;
  • ARVI, pneumonia; 90 026 90 025 penetration of viral agents;
  • occurrence of measles or rubella;
  • inflammation in the urinary system;
  • Regular stay in stressful situations, excessive physical exertion.

If you have a high fever and other manifestations of any disease, be sure to visit your doctor. Do not under any circumstances self-medicate. Such events can harm not only the expectant mother, but also the child.

V.K. Tatochenko, M.D. Bakradze: Antipyretic drugs. – M .: Scientific Center of Children’s Health, Russian Academy of Medical Sciences, 2011.

Some pregnant women do not know safe ways to help bring down the temperature before the arrival of doctors. For a positive effect, follow these tips:

  • open windows to ventilate the room;
  • Use a humidifier or hang damp towels around the room;
  • Take a horizontal position, but do not cover yourself with a blanket;
  • Change into cotton clothes so that the body can give off excessive heat;
  • Drink warm tea;
  • put a compress on your forehead;
  • Wipe your entire body with a damp towel.

Read also

How to prepare for childbirth physically and mentally

You can bring down the temperature before the ambulance arrives with the following folk recipes:

  1. Brew green tea with lemon and raspberries, which are a natural antipyretic agent.
  2. Make a tincture of 2 tbsp. l. linden leaves. Pour 500 ml of boiling water over them and leave for 30 minutes. Strain the broth through a sieve and consume throughout the day.
  3. Dissolve in a glass of warm milk of any fat content 1 tbsp.l. honey. Please note that the drink is not worth drinking if you are allergic to the ingredients used.
  4. Prepare chicken stock.
  5. Brew 1 tsp. chopped white willow bark with a glass of boiling water. Insist for about 60 minutes in a cool place. Strain the drink with cheesecloth and drink 1 tbsp before eating. l. during the day.

Read also

Preparing for pregnancy: where to start

Fruits and fruit drinks made from fresh cranberries or cherries will help reduce the temperature.This opinion is shared by specialists from the Kazakh National Medical University. Such techniques are absolutely harmless for both the child and the mother.

I was a witness when following the recommendations helped a woman to bear a completely healthy baby. My patient has a fever. Pregnancy then proceeded easily and calmly, despite the early term. She immediately asked for help.

In my expert opinion, she caught the virus, which triggered the jump.I immediately wrote her directions for tests to make sure of the reliability of my assumptions. The tests confirmed my theory and I approved the appropriate course of treatment for her. In the shortest possible time, the girl went on the mend and for the remaining time of gestation she never faced a similar problem.

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Swelling during pregnancy: what to do

To avoid fever during pregnancy, eat right, rest and tune in to a positive mood.

Attention! The material is for informational purposes only. You should not resort to the treatments described in it without first consulting your doctor.


  1. E.U. Kuandykov, R.T. Dzhumashev, S.K. Almukhambetova, M.Zh. Zhumagul. Pregnancy and medicines // Bulletin of the Kazakh National Medical University. Medicine and healthcare. – 2018. – P. 462-467.
  2. G.M. Saveliev, V.I. Kulakov. Obstetrics. – M.: Medicine, 2000 .– 816 p.
  3. A.T. Toksanbaev, R.V. Kadyrbaev, A.S. Tashenov, A.E. Nartaeva, R.U. Tanekeev, G.K. Amirov, T.I. Khurov, B. Zh. Esenkulov. Peculiarities of the course, diagnosis and treatment of pyelonephritis in pregnant women in the GKP on the PHV “GBSNP” // Bulletin of the Kazakh National Medical University. Clinical medicine. – 2013. – S. 1-4.
  4. Mantha V.R.R., Vallejo M.C., Ramesh V., Phelps A.L., Ramanathan S. Hyperthermia in parturient women with bolus and persistent epidural analgesia // Magee-Womens Hospital, University of Pittsburgh School of Medicine, Pittsburgh, A.J. Palumbo School of Business Administration, Duquesne University, Pittsburgh, PA, USA. – 2008. – S. 27-35.

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How to take care of yourself during pregnancy

Author: Candidate of Medical Sciences Anna Ivanovna Tikhomirova

Reviewer: Candidate of Medical Sciences, Professor Ivan Georgievich Maksakov

Original article: https: //www.nur.kz / family / beauty / 1778484-temperatura-pri-beremennosti-na-rannih-srokah /

Temperature during pregnancy

Pregnancy is a special time for every woman. I wish so that during these nine months there were no troubles. And I certainly want a pregnant woman to bypass all diseases. Indeed, both the diseases themselves and the use of medicines can adversely affect the health of the mother and child.

How to bring down the temperature in early pregnancy?
What to do if a woman has a fever during pregnancy? What body temperature is generally considered the norm during pregnancy and how to bring down this temperature?

Causes of temperature in early pregnancy
So, what to do if the temperature rises in the early stages of pregnancy? First, don’t panic. Second, arm yourself with information. It is important to know that the causes of temperature in early pregnancy may not be infectious at all.

This means that the rise in temperature may not be caused by an infection, but by a hormone. Throughout pregnancy, a woman experiences dramatic hormonal changes. But they are especially noticeable in the early stages. During this time, the body produces the hormone progesterone, and in very large quantities. This hormone makes all the necessary physical changes for a woman to successfully carry a child.

But this same hormone has, so to speak, a side effect. It controls the body’s temperature regime.In particular, it significantly reduces heat transfer. This means that the vessels of the skin remain constricted, and the body gives off heat less efficiently and quickly than before pregnancy.

As you can see, it is this factor that leads to an increase in temperature in the early stages of pregnancy. This process is natural, it is not dangerous for either the woman or the fetus. After all, the rise in temperature is not caused by inflammation or infection in the woman’s body.

And in the early stages of pregnancy, a woman is not at all afraid of the temperature rise itself.An infection that enters the body is terrible. Indeed, in the first trimester, the placenta has not yet formed and cannot protect the embryo from the harmful effects of infections.

Normally, this natural temperature rise should not exceed 37.5. At the same time, a woman should not experience any discomfort. Namely, chills, aches and other accompanying symptoms of infectious diseases.

If the causes of fever in the early stages of pregnancy are hormonal, then do not worry.There are reasons for excitement only if a woman “picks up” an infection in the early stages of pregnancy.

Treatment of fever in early pregnancy
If the increase in temperature in the early stages of pregnancy is due to hormonal surges, then it does not need to be treated. Treatment of fever in early pregnancy is only necessary in some cases.

For example, if the temperature rises above 38.5. In this case, whatever the reason for the temperature, it must be brought down.If the temperature is kept within 37-37.5, then there is no need to treat or bring down such a temperature.

Over time, the increase in temperature will go away on its own, when the level of progesterone returns to normal and heat transfer returns to normal. In any case, it is highly discouraged to use pills or other medications to lower the temperature unnecessarily.

Even if a woman has an infectious disease, then you should not bring down the temperature below 38.5. This temperature is not harmful to health, and it helps the body fight infection.

How to bring down the temperature in early pregnancy?
If you need to bring down the temperature during pregnancy, you first need to understand what caused this increase in temperature. In addition, there is one simple rule: do not knock down the temperature below 38.5.

How to bring down the temperature in early pregnancy? Better to try to do without medication. There are many “popular” ways that you can bring down the temperature effectively and safely.

First, you need to protect the body from dehydration, which easily occurs at high temperatures.This can be done as follows: thoroughly ventilate and humidify the room where the pregnant woman is. Air humidity should not be lower than 60 percent. In such an atmosphere, the body will not consume moisture when breathing.

After all, if the air is dry, upon exiting the body spends its moisture to moisturize it. In addition, the optimum room temperature is 18-20 degrees Celsius. When cool air is inhaled, the body heats it up to body temperature. This contributes to a rapid and natural drop in temperature.

Of course, the outside temperature must be taken into account. If it is summer outside, then the difference between outdoor and room temperatures should not exceed 5-7 degrees. A sharp temperature drop can have a very negative effect on the body of a pregnant woman. Therefore, you need to use the air conditioner wisely.

In addition, to bring down the temperature in the early stages of pregnancy, you need to drink a lot. It is best to drink plain clean water or compotes. Compote will saturate the body not only with moisture, but also with vitamins.You can put raisins, lemon or ginger root in it. They are very helpful for colds.

Don’t drink a lot of tea, let alone coffee. After all, these drinks raise blood pressure, which is undesirable during pregnancy. You should also avoid drinking a lot of carbonated drinks. First, they can cause flatulence. Secondly, they contain a lot of chemicals and harmful substances that are best excluded from the diet of a pregnant woman, especially in the early stages.

You should also not get carried away with different decoctions of medicinal herbs.Many herbs, while beneficial for infections, can negatively affect pregnancy. Some of them stimulate muscle activity and can lead to hypertonicity of the muscles of the uterus and lower abdomen.

If you cannot bring down the temperature without medication, then only two drugs can be used without a doctor’s prescription. These are paracetamol and ibuprofen. These drugs are best taken in tablets rather than syrups. Various accompanying substances are added to syrups. For example, colorants or sweeteners, and flavorings.All this is chemistry, and it is better to refuse it.

In no case should you use even these seemingly harmless medicines constantly or often. You need to try to bring down the temperature with folk remedies and take pharmacological drugs only once.

In any case, if the temperature rises in the early stages of pregnancy, you should consult a doctor.
Only a correct diagnosis will allow finding an effective and safe treatment.


Good afternoon, dear reader! Today we will talk about what ARVI is at different stages of pregnancy and how it is dangerous for expectant mothers and their children.Pregnant women have very low immunity, which means that they are very vulnerable to any diseases. ARVI especially often prevails over expectant mothers. If it is not treated or self-medicated, then very dangerous health problems can arise not only in a pregnant woman, but also in a child inside the womb. Most often, acute respiratory viral infection (ARVI) begins to actively manifest itself in transitional climatic periods, when there is a sharp change in temperature. During this period, in all people, the body’s resistance to various diseases drops sharply, to say nothing of expectant mothers, whose immunity decreases sharply at the earliest stages of gestation.If you are in a position, then listen to yourself carefully. If you notice the symptoms of SARS, immediately consult a doctor. The following changes in health will indicate to you that you have a suspicion of ARVI: ▪ the body temperature has risen sharply, and against this background a runny nose has developed; ▪ nasal congestion and active lacrimation began; ▪ the throat began to hurt severely, a cough appeared; ▪ some, against the background of an actively developing infection, lose their voice and enlarge their lymph nodes; ▪ You feel weak and lethargic.Seemingly harmless symptoms that you have repeatedly encountered, but this can only be said if you are not pregnant. For women in an interesting position, ARVI is a direct threat at all times. So how can you protect yourself and your child from such a dangerous virus? It is best to immediately seek help from a specialist who, in turn, will prescribe a course of treatment, taking into account the individual characteristics of your pregnancy. In the early stages of pregnancy, the expectant mother may be prescribed some medications: immunomodulators, nose drops, throat sprays.In the middle of pregnancy, medications are mainly used, which we described in the treatment of acute respiratory viral infections in the early stages. However, a few more can be added to this list of treatment methods: vasoconstrictor nasal drops, mouthwash, antipyretic drugs. The 3rd trimester is the safest for both mother and child. If a woman in a position gets sick with a cold, then she will not have to worry about the consequences, because at this time the baby is fully formed. All viruses from the body of the expectant mother, with effective and proper treatment, disappear by themselves, without exerting any negative effect on the fetus.However, nevertheless, according to experts, ARVI can negatively affect a woman’s body in the last weeks of pregnancy. The expectant mother needs to prepare for childbirth, gain strength, and ARVI will only take away these forces, creating a great burden on the pregnant woman’s body. In addition, if childbirth occurs at a time when the infection is especially rampant, the baby can also pick it up, and for the newborn this is a direct threat to life. Recommendations for the treatment of ARVI in pregnant women in the 3rd trimester are generally the same as in the 2nd trimester, but you should never forget that the treatment procedure should always have an individual approach.Like any other ailment, ARVI is easier to prevent than to treat during pregnancy. Prevention will bring overall health benefits to the woman and prevent colds. Now you know how dangerous ARVI is during pregnancy. Try to protect yourself from infection by following simple preventive measures and leading a healthy lifestyle. If, for some reason, a cold could not be avoided, then immediately consult a doctor in order to quickly and effectively cure an acute respiratory virus. Good luck!

90,000 Temperature 37 During pregnancy! – 12 responses to Babyblog

Many women during pregnancy note that the body temperature in the early stages often stops at 37.And since we are accustomed to the fact that such a temperature is characteristic of the development of any disease, it is not surprising that many expectant mothers simply panic when they detect an increase in temperature. However, an increase in body temperature during pregnancy is not always a cause for concern. What body temperature is normal for pregnant women and is it worth worrying if your body temperature has slightly increased – we will consider in today’s article.

The main reasons for an increase in body temperature during pregnancy

Let’s start with the fact that a low body temperature during pregnancy, especially in the early stages, is the norm, so you shouldn’t worry and worry in advance.This “anomaly” is due to the fact that the body of a pregnant woman, restructuring hormonally, reacts with a slower heat transfer from the body, and, as a result, the body temperature rises slightly. Therefore, if in the first weeks of pregnancy your body temperature is 37-37.1 degrees, while there are no other symptoms of the disease, then this temperature is considered normal for your “interesting” position.

In addition, the medical explanation for the increase in temperature in the body of a pregnant woman is due to the production of huge amounts of progesterone – one of the most important and important hormones of pregnancy.

Also, an increase in temperature in a pregnant woman may be associated with overheating in the sun or due to insufficient fresh air in the room where she is currently located.

All these factors are not a serious cause for concern – this is a normal reaction of a pregnant body!

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It’s another matter if your body temperature during pregnancy reaches a level of 37.5 or higher – this indicates the presence of an infection in the body, and in this case, you should pay special attention to the situation.After all, it’s not a secret for anyone that any infection in the body of a pregnant woman threatens with big troubles for the development of the fetus. Especially dangerous is an increased temperature (more than 37.5) in the first two weeks, which leads to spontaneous miscarriage. And during the formation of the organs of the embryo, in the first trimester of pregnancy, an increase in temperature up to 38 degrees can lead to the development of fetal pathologies. In the last stages of pregnancy (from 30 weeks), an increased temperature can lead to placental abruption.

Do I need to bring down the temperature during pregnancy?

Low temperature (up to 37.5 degrees) during early pregnancy is not brought down, even if it is the result of a cold. Doctors explain this by the fact that such a temperature, even during a cold, is a protective reaction of the body to the development of infection and perfectly fights viruses on its own.

If the temperature of a pregnant woman reaches 37.5 – 38.5, then it is best to bring it down using folk methods: tea with lemon, compresses on the forehead, rubbing.A higher temperature, before the doctor appears, can be brought down with paracetamol. However, remember that high fever is a huge risk for your unborn baby, so call your doctor immediately in this case!

In conclusion, we recall that a temperature of 37 in early pregnancy is the norm. Therefore, do not worry in vain, but take time for yourself and your future baby. Buy fruit, take a walk in the park, relax on the couch with your favorite book and do not think about the bad, because pregnancy is such a happiness!

Good luck and good health!

Svetlana Zhukovskaya: Pregnancy and COVID-19: the results of the latest scientific research

The world has been living with COVID-19 for over a year.During this period, enough data has accumulated on the features of the course of the new coronavirus infection in pregnant women, the risks and impact on the unborn child. Svetlana Zhukovskaya, assistant of the Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology of the Belarusian State Medical University, told BelTA about the latest scientific research on this topic, and also expressed an opinion whether it is worth postponing the planned pregnancy until a later period.

– In the early stages of pregnancy, a slight fever, shortness of breath, and a slight runny nose are possible.A woman’s well-being may be similar to that of a mild cold, which should not be a cause for concern. In what cases, taking into account the epidemic situation, is it worth consulting a doctor? What symptoms should alert you?

– The main symptoms for mild COVID-19 are nonspecific, with the exception of anosmia (impaired sense of smell) and changes in taste, but these symptoms are observed on average in only 21% of pregnant women with COVID-19.

In general, COVID-19 does not have “branded” symptoms, so you should not focus on the appearance of any one of them, but assess the situation comprehensively.If a pregnant woman suspects that she may be sick with a coronavirus infection, she should contact a doctor – each situation will be assessed individually.

You should consult a doctor if the body temperature is above 37.5, other signs of the disease appear: cough, chest pain, muscle and joint pain, headache.

I would like to note that shortness of breath / shortness of breath is not typical for early pregnancy and occurs mainly in the third trimester as a result of the growing uterus reducing the mobility of the diaphragm and the ability to breathe “deeply”.Therefore, the appearance of shortness of breath in the early stages of pregnancy is an unconditional reason to see a doctor. And, in my opinion, with the appearance of any severe shortness of breath and probable symptoms of hypoxia (dizziness, weakness, lightheadedness), it is necessary to assess saturation using a pulse oximeter, which, fortunately, is now available.

Of course, it is also important to assess the history and contact with people with COVID-19.

– Can we say that pregnant women whose immunity decreases during this period are more susceptible to the virus? Is this true for the postpartum period?

– There is currently no statistical evidence that pregnant women are more susceptible to the SARS-CoV-2 virus and are more likely to develop COVID-19 than non-pregnant women in the same age group.The issue of reducing immunity during pregnancy is rather complicated – rather, it is worth talking about a specific restructuring in the work of the immune system.

Also, at this stage, there is no reason to assert that postpartum women are more likely to develop COVID-19, but the severity of the course of the disease may be more pronounced due to a number of features – for example, due to a higher tendency to thrombosis.

– What symptoms are most common in pregnant women with COVID-19? Are asymptomatic carriers of coronavirus common among pregnant women?

– According to statistics from the US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), 54.5-75% of pregnant women may experience asymptomatic COVID-19.

The clinical picture of a mild course of COVID-19 in pregnant women can be “blurred” and completely nonspecific: among the most common symptoms are weakness (54.5%), cough (50.3%), headache (42.7%) … An increase in temperature is observed infrequently – in 27.6% of cases, shortness of breath – in 25.9% of pregnant women with coronavirus infection.

– Is it true that pregnant women are more susceptible to a severe course of coronavirus infection, more often need oxygen support? Is the mortality higher?

– Unfortunately, pregnant women do indeed belong to the risk group for the more severe course of COVID-19.

According to the US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), pregnant women with COVID-19 are significantly more likely to need treatment in intensive care and resuscitation, mechanical ventilation and ECMO (extracorporeal membrane oxygenation) compared to non-pregnant women of fertile age , the risk of death is also higher.

It has been noted that pregnant women with COVID-19 may suddenly develop a critical condition against the background of a stable course of the disease.

– What factors influence the likelihood of developing severe complications from COVID-19? Does the woman’s age play a role here?

– It is not so much age that matters as the state of health of the pregnant woman. The risk of a severe course of COVID-19 increases significantly in the presence of factors such as diabetes mellitus, diseases of the cardiovascular system (arterial hypertension, heart failure), respiratory diseases (bronchial asthma), autoimmune diseases.

Pregnant women with hereditary thrombophilia of high thrombogenic risk and with antiphospholipid syndrome deserve special attention, since, in combination with COVID-19, these conditions significantly increase the risk of thromboembolic complications. And it is worth noting that smoking is a very powerful “provocateur” of thrombosis, especially in combination with pregnancy and COVID-19.

According to the data announced at the XV International Congress of Reproductive Medicine, 20% of all cases of deaths in COVID-19 in pregnant women and postpartum women are caused by thromboembolic complications.

Obesity and metabolic syndrome should also be classified as risk factors for severe COVID-19 in pregnant women.

– Is the treatment of a pregnant woman with COVID-19 different? Many drugs are contraindicated during this period.

– Of course, the treatment of pregnant women with COVID-19 is complicated by the fact that many drugs are contraindicated due to the negative effect on the fetus.

It is also a little more difficult to provide the prone position (prone position), especially in the third trimester, however, pregnancy at any time is not a contraindication to the prone position: it is successfully applied if necessary.

It is also important to take into account the fact that pregnancy itself causes a tendency to thrombosis due to restructuring of the hemostatic system, which, in combination with COVID-19, is an extremely significant risk factor for thromboembolic complications, therefore, thromboprophylaxis (mainly low molecular weight heparins) is required.

– Pregnant women put a lot of stress on the heart and lungs. Can we say that in the event of COVID-19 disease, they risk getting much more serious consequences?

– Yes, it really is.Based on a large sample in the United States, pregnant women with severe COVID-19 are more likely to require mechanical ventilation and extracorporeal membrane oxygenation than non-pregnant women of fertile age.

It is important to remember about the negative impact of the SARS-CoV-2 virus on the cardiovascular system: COVID-19 can lead to myocarditis, cardiomyopathy, overload of the right heart and other extremely adverse consequences.

It is very important to consult a doctor in a timely manner if a pregnant woman has shortness of breath, pain in the region of the heart, or irregularities in the heart rhythm.

– What long-term complications are possible after a previous illness?

– Researchers describe the so-called post-COVID syndrome, which is characterized by weakness and fatigue, muscle and joint pain, shortness of breath, headache, decreased concentration and performance, anxiety and depression, and sleep disturbances.

For pregnant women, the most dangerous consequences of COVID-19 are hypercoagulability and a tendency to thrombosis. It is important to remember that pathological changes can persist for several months after an illness.

– How can the presence of the virus in a woman affect the course of pregnancy? Is the likelihood of premature birth, spontaneous miscarriage, and missed pregnancies increasing in pregnant women with COVID-19? At what stage of pregnancy can there be the most adverse consequences?

– There is no convincing evidence that the SARS-CoV-2 virus increases the rate of abortion (spontaneous abortion, missed pregnancy), but the rate of premature birth (at 22-37 weeks of gestation) increases to 12.9-28.6 %.

The adverse effect of COVID-19 on the course of pregnancy is most pronounced, mainly in the third trimester, when there is a maximum load on the woman’s respiratory and cardiovascular systems. By the way, the closer the delivery time, the more pronounced the shift of hemostasis towards hypercoagulation in a pregnant woman – pregnancy itself is a risk factor for thrombotic complications.

The literature also describes cases when COVID-19 led to the development of a complex of symptoms in a pregnant woman resembling preeclampsia: increased blood pressure, the presence of protein in the urine, impaired renal function, increased liver enzymes, and a decrease in platelet count.

– How will the mother’s illness affect the unborn child? What are the risks to the fetus? Can it be argued that infection in the early stages, when fetal organs are being laid, is more dangerous?

– At the moment, the teratogenicity of the virus, i.e. the ability to cause congenital malformations has not been proven. That is why there is no reason to talk about the need for an abortion if a woman contracted COVID-19 in the first trimester of pregnancy.

Pregnancy should be terminated only if the woman is in a serious / critical condition or if the continuation of the pregnancy poses a danger to her health and / or life.

According to the UK, there is an increase in the frequency of intrauterine fetal death: 11.5 versus 4.1 per 1,000 births. In the United States, the rate of stillbirth among hospitalized women with COVID-19 reaches 3%, but in some cases this can be caused by a decrease in the availability of qualified medical care, a change in the frequency of doctor visits during pregnancy, and an increase in the frequency of out-of-hospital births.

An article in Scientific Reports noted that the frequency of small births by gestational age reaches 17.4%, antenatal fetal death – 2.4%, neonatal death – 0.4%.

– Is the virus transmitted to the fetus from the mother during pregnancy (vertical transmission)?

– Vertical transmission is the transmission of the virus not only from mother to fetus during pregnancy, but also intrapartum transmission (during childbirth), as well as postnatal transmission during breastfeeding.

In a large systematic review describing the results of delivery of 936 women with confirmed COVID-19 disease, it was noted that RNA of the virus was found in 2.9% of newborns in nasopharyngeal swabs taken immediately after birth and during the first 48 hours of life; in 1 out of 34 cord blood samples; in 2 of 26 samples of tissue of the placenta, and in 3 of 82 (3.66%) newborns, immunoglobulins of class M to SARS-CoV-2 were detected.

According to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (USA), 2.6% of 610 children born to women with confirmed COVID-19 also had the SARS-CoV-2 virus – primarily newborns from mothers with active infection directly during childbirth.

The virus was also detected in the placenta: visualization of the SARS-CoV-2 virion in the placenta was first described on May 8, 2020 by G. Algarroba et al. in the American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology, after which a number of articles appeared describing a whole range of pathological changes in the placenta in women who have undergone COVID-19 – primarily inflammatory changes and thrombosis.

The US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC, 2020) also notes that mother-to-child transmission of coronavirus during pregnancy is unlikely, but after birth, the newborn may be exposed to infection due to contact with a COVID-positive person. However, a systematic review, which included 100 thousand pregnant women, showed the possibility of vertical transmission in 5.3% of cases, the frequency of births of newborns with a positive test for COVID-19 was 8%.

– Is the virus transmitted through breast milk? Should women with COVID-19 (at the time of delivery) avoid breastfeeding? How to breastfeed if a woman is infected with COVID-19?

– On May 30, 2020, Clinical Infectious Diseases described the first case of SARS-CoV-2 virus RNA detection in the breast milk of a lactating woman with laboratory-confirmed COVID-19.

However, according to scientists, the detection of RNA in breast milk does not confirm the possibility of transmission of the COVID-19 disease during breastfeeding, since there is no evidence of the virulence of the virus found in milk.

All the world’s leading medical organizations, including the World Health Organization, say that the importance and value of breastfeeding significantly outweighs the risk of infection of a newborn in cases where a woman does not have pronounced symptoms of the disease (high fever, severe coughing and sneezing).According to the instructions of the Ministry of Health of Belarus “On the organization of medical care for pregnant women, women in labor and postpartum women with probable or confirmed COVID-19” dated April 6, 2020, breastfeeding with COVID-19 should be refrained only if the mother has symptoms of respiratory infection (fever, cough, sneezing). However, expressed breast milk can be used for feeding.

The asymptomatic and mild course of COVID-19 is not a reason to refuse breastfeeding.

It is extremely important to comply with a number of requirements for breastfeeding: wearing a surgical (namely, surgical!) Mask, observance of respiratory hygiene, careful handling of hands and all objects that can infect a newborn. It is believed that the main danger of transmission of the virus to the newborn does not come from breast milk, but from the aerosol route of transmission during coughing / sneezing, from the mother’s skin and from household items.

– How long can antibodies to coronavirus, transmitted from the mother, remain in the infant’s body? What role can they play in protecting the child? Is it true that antibodies to the virus are destroyed as soon as the mother stops breastfeeding the baby?

– The role of immunity in protection against COVID-19 at the moment raises quite a few questions: little is known about the reliability of immunity, even in people who have already had COVID-19.

An even more complex topic is innate immunity in children born to mothers with this disease. Unfortunately, at this stage, there is no reason to say that the disease transferred during pregnancy can give the child any long-term effective protection against COVID-19.

If we draw parallels with immunity in adults, then it is known that there is no persistent immunity: there have been numerous cases of COVID-19 re-disease after a few months.

However, it is important to remember that the coronavirus pandemic has taught us to be careful about unambiguous statements: it cannot be said that COVID-19 has already been fully studied.

– Can women be vaccinated against coronavirus during pregnancy and breastfeeding? How long after vaccination should a pregnancy be planned?

– The issue of vaccination is now very acute, but it should be remembered that clinical trials of vaccines on pregnant women have not been carried out, so there is no absolute guarantee of their safety at this stage.

It is also important to take into account the peculiarities of various vaccines: for example, the official instructions for the use of Gam-COVID-Vak (“Sputnik V”) clearly state that pregnancy and lactation are a contraindication to the use of this drug.

The situation is different with the Pfizer-BioNTech COVID-19 Vaccine and COVID-19 Vaccine AstraZeneca vaccines: vaccines used in the US and UK are not contraindicated for use during pregnancy and lactation. So, as a result of preclinical tests of the Pfizer-BioNTech vaccine, its adverse effect was not revealed when used in pregnant women. The use of Pfizer-BioNTech is permissible in accordance with the recommendations of the WHO, the FDA (UK), leading medical organizations in the USA, Canada and Europe.However, vaccination of pregnant women is recommended only if the pregnant woman belongs to high-risk groups for infection and / or severe course of COVID-19.

In my opinion, the issue of vaccination of pregnant women is very difficult due to the lack of knowledge about the potential risks. Probably, in such a situation, it is worth carefully weighing all the risks and possible benefits.

– Is it worth postponing a planned pregnancy until a later date when the incidence of COVID-19 decreases?

– Unfortunately, in some cases, postponing pregnancy to a later date may be unsafe, especially for women of an older reproductive age (35 years and more), since both the risk of infertility and the frequency of miscarriage increase significantly with age.

During the first wave of COVID-19 in Europe, the USA and Russia, the work of centers for assisted reproductive technologies (IVF, insemination) was suspended, however, according to scientists, expressed at the XV International Congress of Reproductive Medicine, this was too hasty a decision pronounced negative impact on the demographic situation.

The issue of pregnancy planning should be approached individually: if a woman has risk factors for a severe course of COVID-19, it would be advisable to postpone pregnancy planning until the period when the incidence declines.It is also important to assess how high the risk of infection at work, etc.

– Is there a link between postponed COVID-19 and infertility? What advice can you give to women awaiting IVF?

– At this stage, there is no reliable confirmation of the direct effect of COVID-19 on female fertility, but an indirect effect is certainly not excluded: any infection, especially one that occurs against a background of high temperature, can adversely affect the menstrual cycle, causing ovulation disorders, delay menstruation, profuse bleeding.It is known that the SARS-CoV-2 virus can penetrate the blood-brain barrier – therefore, this can cause dysfunctions of the hypothalamic-pituitary link in the regulation of the menstrual cycle.

The impact of COVID-19 on male fertility has been studied in more depth: the literature describes that the SARS-CoV-2 virus can have a direct damaging effect on the testicular and epididymis tissue, lead to impaired spermatogenesis, a sharp decrease in the number or complete absence of spermatozoa in the seminiferous tubules …The “cytokine storm” developing in severe forms of COVID-19 is capable of suppressing the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis and disrupting the integrity of the blood-testicular barrier. Febrile temperature, often seen in patients with COVID-19, also leads to inhibition of spermatogenesis and an increased risk of aneuploidy.

Preparation for the in vitro fertilization procedure in the context of the COVID-19 pandemic should be more thorough: the woman’s health status and the risks of complications should be assessed, especially if the woman has had a COVID-19 disease.Particular attention should be paid to the state of the cardiovascular system and the hemostatic system in order to minimize the risk of complications.

It is also important to note that in many cases it is advisable to postpone the transfer of embryos into the uterine cavity and carry out the so-called fragmented IVF cycle: to carry out hormonal stimulation, obtain eggs, fertilize them and cryopreserve (freeze) the resulting embryos. Then transfer the embryos in one of the subsequent menstrual cycles, already without hormonal stimulation.This technique reduces the risk of complications.

– Does cord blood contain COVID-19? Does the presence of COVID-19 in a woman in labor affect the procedure for collecting cord blood?

– Cases of detection of SARS-CoV-2 virus RNA or antibodies to it in cord blood have been described in the scientific literature, but there is no evidence that the virus is transmitted by the hematogenous route.

All cord blood samples undergo thorough bacteriological and virological control. The blood group and Rh factor, sterility, absence of infections are determined, the total number of cells and the number of stem cells, their viability are determined.An absolute contraindication for long-term storage of cord blood stem cells are positive test results for HIV, hepatitis B and C, syphilis, as well as bacterial or fungal infection of the cord blood.

The final decision on the possibility of storing umbilical cord blood stem cells is made in the bone marrow separation and freezing laboratory (stem cell bank) at the Minsk Scientific and Practical Center for Surgery, Transplantology and Hematology.