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Hives – Causes, Symptoms, Treatment, Diagnosis

The Facts

Hives, called urticaria by doctors, is one of the most common causes of skin inflammation. Up to 20% of the population will suffer from urticaria at least once in their lives.
Large, itchy red rashes called hives rise up and disappear quickly, sometimes to be replaced by others. A few people find that the condition recurs or lasts more than 6 weeks, which is considered chronic urticaria.


Hives appear as a reaction to an external irritant that is ingested or comes in contact with the skin. In response to the irritant, the body releases chemicals such as histamine that cause itching and inflammation. Irritants can include certain foods, medications, cosmetic products, insect stings, chemicals, infections, and certain medical problems, and even exposure to extreme heat or cold.

In a minority of people with hives, a clear allergic link can be proven. They develop rashes after eating certain foods, taking certain medications, or being stung by an insect. Foods that can be associated with hives include:

  • eggs
  • milk
  • soy
  • wheat
  • nuts
  • fish and shellfish
  • berries
  • chocolate
  • tomatoes

Coffee, alcohol, and tobacco are rarely identified as triggers of acute attacks of hives, but people who suffer from chronic hives often report that these substances make their symptoms worse.

Almost any medication can provoke hives. These are some of the most common culprits:

  • acetylsalicylic acid* (ASA) and other anti-inflammatory medications (e.g., ibuprofen, naproxen)
  • angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors (ACE inhibitors; e.g., ramipril, lisinopril, and enalapril)
  • antibiotics such as penicillins and sulfonamides
  • iodide
  • antiepileptic medications (e. g., carbamazepine, phenytoin)
  • anesthetics (e.g., lidocaine)
  • vancomycin
  • codeine and other narcotic painkillers

If you get a rash from medications or food, it may not be the primary ingredient that’s causing the problem. It could be a preservative or other additive. For example, if several different foods and medications seem to give you hives, you may be reacting to tartrazine, a colouring agent frequently used in pills and food.

Cosmetics, soaps, perfumes, and lotions can also cause reactions. Often, this will only occur when you switch to a new type. This may make it easier to identify the cause of your hives.

Other common irritants are nickel in jewellery and latex in gloves or condoms.

Allergic urticaria is the name given to hives caused by allergic reactions to food, insect bites, medications, or makeup. Other types are caused by physical irritation, such as sunlight, cold, or rubbing of the skin. While we don’t call these types allergic, the underlying process is much the same.

Hives brought on by sunlight (photosensitive urticaria) may not seem like an allergic condition at first sight, but the evidence suggests it is. People have become sensitive to light after receiving the blood product immunoglobulin from others with this rare condition.

The same is true of hives caused by cold temperatures. It seems likely that the blood of people with these conditions carries abnormal immune cells. These cells attack when confronted with chemicals that are normally released in the skin by cold, sunlight, or some other external circumstance.

Dozens of infections can cause hives, including throat, stomach, and genital or urinary (genitourinary) tract infections; fungal infections; mononucleosis; and hepatitis. The common cold often causes hives in children. Hives aren’t directly caused by the infectious organism, as in chickenpox or cellulitis. Rather, they’re caused by “friendly fire” from the human body’s own defences.

Other triggers frequently associated with hives include:

  • friction – about 5% of the population are prone to developing skin rashes after gentle rubbing or scratching of the skin; this condition is called dermatographism. Repetitive scratching of the hives may worsen the condition
  • swimming, which can cause fairly severe reactions, probably more due to the cold than to the water
  • exercise, stress, and hot showers, which cause a form of hives called cholinergic urticaria
  • pressure from belts, straps, and elastic, causing pressure urticaria
  • pregnancy – hives often appear late in pregnancy

Chronic or recurring hives might mean you’re being repeatedly exposed to a trigger, or it might be a sign of underlying disease. Lupus, rheumatoid arthritis, and thyroid disorders are diseases likely to cause hives to appear.

Symptoms and Complications

Hives are itchy, red welts on the skin. They may join together to form one big rash or may be spread out to form several smaller ones. They’re often large and slightly raised. The edge of the rash is often the most inflamed part, with the centre being paler in colour. There may be pain or burning instead of itching. Symptoms often seem more severe at night.

Acute hives usually last no more than 24 hours in a given location on the body; bouts of acute hives can last up to 6 weeks. Chronic hives can last for more than 6 weeks. Most cases however, last about a week.

Occasionally the rash is more than skin deep. If histamine and other inflammatory agents are released into the layers just under the skin, the swelling is more severe and itching is likely to be replaced by pain. This condition is called angioedema.

Angioedema can cause alarming swelling in the mucous membrane of the lips, mouth, gut, genitals, or throat. The swelling usually goes down within a day, but very rarely it interferes with breathing and requires emergency treatment. If you experience hives that are associated with dizziness, difficulty breathing, throat swelling, angioedema, fever or yellowing of the eyes or skin, get immediate medical attention.

Making the Diagnosis

Your doctor will try to identify the trigger by asking when the rash appeared and what you might have done that was different from usual in the days leading up to it. Blood tests generally reveal very little about hives. In many cases (at least half), the cause remains a mystery. It usually doesn’t matter, because hives are a brief, solitary event for most people.

Your doctor may ask you to keep a record of what you eat and your activities to try to pinpoint the cause.

If you have chronic hives, your doctor will probably examine you for signs of other medical problems that can cause hives to appear, such as lupus and rheumatoid arthritis. Your doctor may ask for routine tests for these conditions.

Treatment and Prevention

Prevention is the best treatment for hives. If you or your doctor can discover what’s causing the rash, you can avoid that trigger in the future. It may be something obvious, but it’s possible that you’ll never find out.

The itching of hives can usually be rapidly relieved with antihistamines like hydroxyzine* or diphenhydramine. These antihistamines tend to cause drowsiness. Other less sedating antihistamines (such as desloratadine, cetirizine, loratadine, or fexofenadine) may also be used for chronic hives or if acute hives last for more than 24 to 48 hours.

Severe hives or angioedema can be treated with adrenalin injections (sometimes called epinephrine). Adrenalin constricts blood vessels, which reduces swelling. Corticosteroids may be given orally (by mouth) or topically (onto the skin) in extreme cases, but never for very long.

These medications can treat the symptoms very effectively, but there’s no actual cure. Hives usually clear up within a week, but they can go on for 2 or more years. Even chronic hives usually clear up eventually.

All material copyright MediResource Inc. 1996 – 2021. Terms and conditions of use. The contents herein are for informational purposes only. Always seek the advice of your physician or other qualified health provider with any questions you may have regarding a medical condition. Source: www.medbroadcast.com/condition/getcondition/Hives

[Hypersensitivity to “Candida albicans” and other fungi in patients with chronic urticaria]

Considering the high incidence of chronic urticaria among female patients and the frequent difficulty in identifying the etiologic factor of factors the author decided to investigate the possible role of Candida albicans and other yeasts usually found as contaminants in certain foods and beverages or purposely cultivated for industrial products, as the sensitizing agents leading to the clinical picture of chronic urticaria. One hundred female patients with urticaria which had persisted for more than 6 weeks were selected and investigated, disregarding those with dermographism or cholinergic and cold urticaria. Aside from a careful history and laboratory tests to complement the physical examination that could rule out chronic bacterial infectious foci, intestinal parasitic infestation and thyroid disorders, intradermal skin tests with standard doses of Candida albicans and Saccharomyces cerevisiae and other common environmental and food allergens were done. The patients’ age ranged from 4 to 70 years. The skin tests sites were examined for Type I reactions at 15 and 20 minutes; for Type III reactions at 8 and 12 hours; and for Type IV reactions at 48 and 72 hours. When tested with Candida albicans antigen, 35% had Type I/III reactions and 60% presented Type IV reaction. When Saccharomyces cerevisiae antigen was used for testing, 29% had Type I/III reactions and none presented Type IV. Forty-nine of the sixty patients who presented Type IV reaction to Candida albicans had in the past significant vaginal discharge (or vaginal symptoms: burning, itching) that obliged the patients to consult a gynecologist, but only ten had stained smears and cultures from the vaginal secretions and four were told to have a monilia vaginal infection confirmed by the microbiological tests, although forty of them received Nistatin therapy at the time of the gynecological complaints. At the time the patients were seen by the allergist, complaining about urticaria, only four had symptoms and signs of monilia infection and were confirmed by culture: one presented oral moniliasis following broad-spectrum antibiotic, two had vaginal moniliasis developing right after their menstrual period; one had intestinal and cutaneous manifestations (perineal and crural) developing also after broad-spectrum antibiotic therapy. All the four patients had exacerbation of the urticaria while undergoing the monilia infection. After 1-2 weeks of elimination diet, each patient was challenged with yeasts-containing foods (bread, buns, sausages, beer, wines, grapes, cheese, vinegar, tomato catsup). Twenty-five patients (71%) of the group who positively reacted with a Type I/III reaction when tested with Candida antigen, showed a positive provocation test (reappearance of urticaria) and twenty patients (69%) of the group who reacted with Saccharomyces had a positive challenge test…

7 Surprising Triggers of Chronic Hives

1. Tooth decay and other infections

Here’s an additional reason to brush, floss, and see your dentist regularly: In a study published in April 2013 in the journal Advances in Dermatology and Allergology, researchers found that tooth decay and several other infections can play a significant role in the development of chronic hives. Bacterial infections (such as urinary tract infections and strep throat) and viral infections (such as hepatitis and norovirus, a common cause of stomach “flu”) were also found to be triggers of chronic hives.

Also, if you have chronic hives, you may want to ask your doctor about getting tested for the antigen Heliobacter pylori, which is associated with chronic hives. In a study published in February 2015 in the journal Advances in Dermatology and Allergology, a third of chronic hives patients were also infected with H. pylori. What’s more, about 92 percent of those with both hives and H. pylori experienced a reduction in hive-related symptoms after their infection was treated.

2. Working out

Could you be allergic to your own sweat? Yes, says Dr. Anand. Although the cause of hives triggered by exercise is sometimes thought to be an increase of body heat, what actually triggers hives when you work out is sweat. Does that mean you should skip exercise if you have chronic hives? Not necessarily. Talk to your doctor if you suspect this may be one of your triggers — he or she may recommend taking a dose of antihistamine just before you exercise to help prevent a flare-up.

3. Stress

Research shows that stress can play a major role in many physical and mental illnesses, including chronic idiopathic hives. “Stress can bring on and exacerbate chronic hives,” says Anand. “It’s not uncommon to see chronic idiopathic hives developing following a stressful period of time.” In several studies, people with chronic hives have been found to have higher levels of stress. Researchers have also found a link between post-traumatic stress disorder and hives. To lower stress, try relaxation techniques — for example, mindfulness meditation, which was found to lower the stress hormone cortisol in a study published in 2013 in the journal Health Psychology.

4. Artificial colors and preservatives

Hives can be triggered by some food additives, including artificial colors, flavoring agents, and preservatives, according to research published in June 2013 in the Indian Journal of Dermatology. However, food intolerances that trigger hives can’t be tested as easily as typical food allergies, since their underlying mechanism is different. If you suspect that your diet may be a trigger for your hives, your doctor may prescribe an elimination diet, which, over a period of several weeks, will test for a food intolerance.

5. Daylight

If sunlight triggers your hives, you’ll probably know within just a few minutes of exposure to one of these three types of light: long-wavelength ultraviolet (UVA), short-wavelength ultraviolet (UVB), and sunlight that doesn’t contain ultraviolet rays, such as sunlight through a window covered with a protective film that blocks UVA and UVB light. Hives triggered by sunlight usually disappear within a day, but in the majority of cases, they recur. Fortunately, sunlight is a rare trigger, and it’s easier to test for than other potential triggers.

6. Cold temperatures

Winter is not exactly the most popular season, and with good reason for those who live with chronic hives: The cold can trigger a flare-up in some. Besides the weather, other cold-related triggers include chilly foods and swimming pools. For people who are allergic to the cold, full-body immersion in a swimming pool, in particular, can trigger a severe reaction that involves not just hives but allergic shock (anaphylaxis) and loss of consciousness.

Fortunately, it’s easy to find out whether cold is one of your triggers: Your doctor can administer a simple test that involves placing an ice cube on your skin for five minutes to see if a reaction occurs. If it turns out that cold is a trigger for you, your doctor will recommend that you protect your skin from the cold and take your medications as prescribed.

7. An autoimmune disease

According to the American Osteopathic College of Dermatology, about half the cases of chronic idiopathic hives are due to immune systems that attack the body’s own tissues (also known as autoimmunity). Thyroid disease is the most commonly reported autoimmune condition in people with chronic hives, followed by rheumatoid arthritis and type 1 diabetes. A study published in September 2013 in the European Journal of Dermatology found that celiac disease is also associated with chronic hives.

However, says Anand, “we don’t know if the disease causes urticaria or if the person’s propensity to have an autoimmune reaction causes it. But if we don’t find any triggers when we test for allergens, then we look for an underlying infection or autoimmune disease.” Anand adds that treatment for that condition can help clear the hives.

Discovering Your Triggers

Other potential triggers of chronic hives include heat and aggravating your skin by scratching it or putting pressure on it (for example, by wearing tight clothes or sitting on a hard surface). Keeping a diary in which you record when and where your symptoms developed or worsened can help you and your doctor find clues and pinpoint your triggers, says Anand. But if even that doesn’t help, don’t lose heart: For most people, even chronic hives whose cause is unknown gradually disappear on their own over time.

Vaginal Rash – 8 Common Causes, Symptoms, Treatments

No one necessarily wants to discover any kind of rash, bump, redness, itching, or swelling around their vagina—but if you do, it’s normal to feel concerned. I mean, it’s a sensitive area, to say the least, and dealing with discomfort down there isn’t fun.

But there’s no need to panic if your vagina and/or vulva is irritated. There are a ton of reasons this can happen, and plenty you can do to find relief. The one thing you don’t want to do is ignore the issue—and if you’re here, you’re already taking the first step to figure out what’s going on.

Here’s the deal: Sometimes, a rash on the vulva can be caused by something as simple as using a new detergent or chafing from your underwear, but in other cases, it can be a sign of a couple different kinds of infections, and in that case, you definitely want to talk to your health care provider to know for sure what’s up.

No matter the issue at hand, how it progresses is a key indicator of how serious it is, says Jessica Shepherd, MD, ob-gyn, national speaker for Poise, and Women’s Health advisory board member. If you’ve noticed a chance in the typical look or smell of your vulva area, monitor the progress of it—if it’s going away on its own, it’s probably nothing major, but if it’s causing you more irritation than when it started, it’s time to talk to your doc.

There are a few possible culprits of a rash or bumps near your vagina, experts say, and some may have more distinct symptoms. These are some of the most common potential causes for vaginal rashes, and how you can treat the irritation and avoid it in the future.

If you recently waxed or shaved, it’s likely contact dermatitis.

The most common cause of a rash on the vulva, Dr. Shepherd says, is contact dermatitis (and research has found that about 50 percent of rashes near the vagina are contact dermatitis-related). Typically, it’s waxing or shaving that can cause folliculitis (a form of irritation from ingrown hair follicles) that’s to blame for contact dermatitis.

Other cases of contact dermatitis may happen from friction from your underwear or clothing, especially if you’re working out frequently and not changing your underwear immediately afterward. It’s just as likely that the rash could be chemical irritation from using a different detergent on your laundry than normal, Dr. Shepherd adds.

During your period, wearing the wrong size pads or tampons, or leaving them in too long, could be a culprit of a rash or redness down there. It can also happen if you have bladder leakage, especially postpartum. “Urine that leaks between pads and underwear can irritate the vulva because it traps moisture,” Dr. Shepherd says. Keeping the skin around the vagina clean and dry can help you avoid contact dermatitis.

Contact dermatitis will be mild in many cases, and the rash can clear up on its own. If it’s severe and persistently painful, Dr. Shepherd suggests checking in with your ob-gyn to have it evaluated.

If you have irritation accompanied by odor or discharge, it may be a bacterial infection.

Infections like bacterial vaginosis (BV) usually aren’t associated with a full-on rash, but there might be pain and swelling involved that change the way things look in the area around the vagina. Another clue might be a thick discharge and abnormal odor. It occurs when there’s an overgrowth of normal bacteria in the vagina, Dr. Shepherd explains.

If you think you might have BV, it’s best to give your doctor a call to do some testing and rule out an STI or other infection, says Dr. Shepherd. Some BV infections are treated by antibiotics, but you need a prescription from a doctor to get them.

If there’s itchiness, redness, and burning, especially during sex, it could be a yeast infection.

Like bacteria, yeast is normally found in the vagina, but a pH imbalance can throw things off and cause an overgrowth of it. Yeast infection symptoms can include vaginal burning, swelling, and thick discharge.

Yeast infections don’t always cause a rash, but it’s possible they will, Dr. Shepherd says. You may experience intense itching, redness of the labia and skin around the vagina, and burning, either after peeing or after sex.

You may be able to treat it with an over-the-counter antifungal treatment, but it’s ideal to check in with your gyno before you do (especially if you’ve never had yeast infections in the past), so they can make sure you get a treatment with the right strength to nix the infection.

If you’ve recently had unprotected sex, there’s a chance it’s an STI.

Every STI is slightly different and has a different treatment plan. But if the rash you’re experiencing is new and causing quite a bit of irritation, it should be checked out, particularly if you’ve had unprotected sex with partners who might be STI-positive. And, if you see your ob-gyn, they can rule out other infections first before running the full panel of STI testing.

Here are the possible STI infections that might be causing that rash:
  • Herpes. The first time you experience a herpes rash, it can be very painful, even to sit down or to pee, Dr. Shepherd says. One symptom of genital herpes is tiny little blisters on the vulva or near the crease of your underwear.
  • Syphilis. This will cause lesions, but they are not typically painful like a herpes outbreak, explains Dr. Shepherd. Other syphilis symptoms might be rashes appearing on other parts of your body, too.
  • Scabies. A scabies infection will involve severe itching, but a smaller rash, Dr. Shepherd says. It won’t be as painful as herpes, mostly just uncomfortable.
  • Pubic lice. Just like head lice, pubic lice will cause extreme itching and irritation, Dr. Shepherd says, but higher up than the vagina, in the pubic hair.

    If the rash is very red and inflamed, it could be psoriasis.

    It’s definitely less common to see a rash near the vagina that can be attributed to psoriasis. But if you already have the condition, there’s at least a 30 percent chance you could develop a genital psoriasis rash, according to the National Psoriasis Foundation—and it will be very uncomfortable (think inflammation and redness to the max).

    You’ll likely have other breakouts of psoriasis elsewhere on your body, too. The rash will have lots of lesions, Dr. Shepherd says, and there are not many topical agents or salves that will help it to calm down.

    If you have a severe case of psoriasis, a doctor may prescribe you certain oral medications. But it’s best to see a dermatologist, particularly if you haven’t yet been diagnosed with psoriasis.

    There are some at-home remedies for a rash on the vulva.

    Minor rashes, especially from contact dermatitis, can be treated at home easily and might even dissipate on their own. Actually, the best form of treatment is leaving the area alone and keeping it dry, Dr. Shepherd notes. Although you might want to turn to creams or lotions to stop the itching, they actually might make the rash more irritated (especially if they contain fragrance).

    Keep moisture away, especially if you work out or swim often, by changing out of your sweaty clothes or bathing suit right away, Dr. Shepherd suggests. And at night, air things out by going commando, she adds. And while you have the rash, you might want to take a break from shaving or waxing (especially if you suspect that’s what caused it in the first place).

    When in doubt, don’t hesitate to check in with your doctor.

    If your vulva is consistently irritated, or the rash is getting more painful, give your ob-gyn’s office a call, Dr. Shepherd says. Most likely, your doctor will have you come in for an appointment.

    During the visit, your gyno will start by figuring out when the rash started appearing, and if it’s something you’ve ever experienced before. The checkup will continue with an exam of the perineum and any areas you wouldn’t be able to see on your own.

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    The doctor will examine the vagina through a speculum to check for discharge and inflammation, and may take vaginal swabs to test for infections. If there are visible lesions on the vulva, your doctor can take swab samples from those to test too, Dr. Shepherd says.

    Typically, Dr. Shepherd explains, your doc will be able to identify a BV or yeast infection right away. If they’re concerned about a possible STI, it’ll take two or three days to get your results back.

    Here are a few things to keep in mind to avoid rashes in the vagina region.

    Since so many rashes stem from irritation of the area, make sure you’re always wearing clean undies, especially after a workout. That’s especially important during your period—make a point to change tampons or pads frequently, and wear the appropriate size pad or tampon for your flow so that you’re not adding extra friction from moisture into the mix.

    Dr. Shepherd also advises being extra careful when shaving or waxing: Always use a sharp razor to avoid razor burn. If you get waxed, apply aloe to the area afterward to soothe the skin and decrease ingrown hairs.

    Diet can play a role in your vaginal health as well. “If you eat a lot of sugary foods and carbs, those can create environments that increase BV risk, for example,” Dr. Shepherd says, so cutting down on added sugar may be beneficial if you’re getting BV or yeast infections frequently.

    Above all, pay attention to your body’s normal state, Dr. Shepherd says; that way, you’ll be clued in if anything seems different than usual and can start treatment right away.

    Mara Santilli
    Mara is a freelance writer and editor specializing in culture, politics, wellness, and the intersection between them, whose print and digital work has appeared in Marie Claire, Women’s Health, Cosmopolitan, Airbnb Mag, Prevention, and more.

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    Itching – Healthily

    What is itching?

    Itching is an unpleasant sensation that compels a person to scratch the affected area. Mild to moderate itching is a common symptom but occasionally may be severe and frustrating. The medical name for itching is pruritus.

    Itching can affect any area of the body. It can either be:

    • generalised – where itching occurs over the whole body
    • localised – where itching only occurs in a particular area

    Sometimes, there is a rash or a spot where the itching occurs.

    Common causes of itching

    Itching can be caused by a number of different conditions. For example:

    • a skin condition, such as eczema
    • an allergy or skin reaction
    • a parasitic infestation, such as scabies
    • insect bites and stings
    • a fungal infection, such as athlete’s foot or thrush
    • a systemic condition (one that affects the whole body), such as liver or kidney problems or an overactive thyroid gland
    • hormonal changes during pregnancy or the menopause

    Read more detailed information about possible causes of itching.

    Things you can do

    In many cases, treating the underlying condition will ease the itching. However, there are things you can do to relieve itching, including:

    • using a cold compress, such as a flannel
    • applying calamine lotion to the affected area
    • using unperfumed personal hygiene products
    • bathing in cool water
    • not wearing clothes that irritate your skin, such as wool or man-made fabrics
    • keeping skin moist

    There are also medicines such as antihistamines and steroid creams that may help to relieve the symptoms of itching caused by certain skin conditions.

    Read more about treatments to relieve itching.

    When to see your doctor

    Many cases of itching will get better over a short period of time. However, it is important to visit your doctor if your itching is not improving or is affecting your quality of life.

    You should see your doctor if your itching is:

    • severe
    • lasts for a long time
    • keeps coming back
    • is associated with other symptoms, such as breathing problems, skin inflammation or jaundice

    Also visit your doctor as soon as possible if your entire body itches and there is no obvious cause. It could be a symptom of a more serious condition.

    Your doctor may carry out tests to determine the cause of the itching, such as:

    • a skin scraping – the affected area of skin is scraped to obtain a sample, which can be analysed to help diagnose a skin condition
    • a vaginal or penile swab if a yeast infection is suspected; a small plastic rod with a cotton ball on one end will be used to obtain the sample
    • a blood test to see if the cause is an underlying disease, such as diabetes, thyroid or kidney disease
    • a biopsy – the area is numbed and a tissue sample is removed for analysis

    Causes of itching

    There are many different possible causes of itching.

    For example, itching can be a symptom of:

    • a skin condition, such as eczema
    • an allergy – for example, to nickel (a metal often used to make costume jewellery)
    • insect bites or scabies
    • fungal infections, such as athlete’s foot](yourmd:/condition/athletes-foot) and [female thrush or male thrush
    • certain chronic (long-term) conditions, such as liver disease
    • hormonal changes in the body, such as during the menopause or pregnancy

    Each of these possible causes of itching is described in more detail below.

    Skin conditions

    Skin conditions that can cause itching include:

    • dry skin
    • eczema – a chronic (long-term) condition where the skin is dry, red, flaky and itchy
    • contact dermatitis – a condition where the skin becomes inflamed
    • urticaria – also known as hives, welts or nettle rash; urticaria is triggered by an allergen, such as food or latex, and causes a raised, red itchy rash to develop
    • lichen planus – an itchy, non-infectious rash of unknown cause
    • psoriasis – a non-infectious skin condition that causes red, flaky, crusty patches of skin and silvery scales
    • dandruff – a common, non-contagious skin condition that affects the scalp
    • folliculitis – a skin condition caused by inflamed hair follicles
    • prurigo – small blisters (fluid-filled swellings) that are very itchy

    Allergies and skin reactions

    Itching is sometimes caused by environmental factors, such as:

    • cosmetics
    • dyes or coatings on fabrics
    • contact with certain metals, such as nickel
    • contact with the juices of certain plants or stinging plants
    • an allergy to certain foods or types of medication (for example, aspirin and a group of medicines called opioids)
    • prickly heat – an itchy rash that appears in hot, humid weather conditions
    • sunburn – skin damage caused by exposure to ultraviolet (UV) rays

    Parasites and insects

    Itching can also be caused by the following pests:

    • the scabies mite, which burrows into the skin and causes a skin condition called scabies
    • head lice, pubic lice or body lice
    • insect bites and stings, such as bees, wasps, mosquitoes, fleas and bedbugs


    Itching may also be a symptom of an infection, such as:

    • chickenpox or another viral infection
    • a fungal infection, such as athlete’s foot](yourmd:/condition/athletes-foot), which causes itching in between the toes, jock itch which affects the groin, and [ringworm, a contagious condition that causes a ring-like red rash to develop on the body
    • a yeast infection, such as female thrush or male thrush, which can cause itching in and around the genitals

    Fungal and yeast infections tend to cause itching in a specific area of the body. However, in untreated cases, or cases that do not respond well to treatment, itching may become generalised.

    Systemic conditions

    Systemic conditions are conditions that affect the entire body. Sometimes, itching can be a symptom of systemic conditions, such as:

    • an overactive thyroid or underactive thyroid – the thyroid gland is found in the neck; it produces hormones to help control the body’s growth and metabolism (the process of turning food into energy)
    • liver-related conditions, such as primary biliary cirrhosis](yourmd:/condition/primary-biliary-cirrhosis), [liver cancer, pancreatic cancerand hepatitis
    • long standing kidney failure
    • leukaemia – cancer of the blood
    • some types of cancers, such as breast, lung and prostate cancer
    • Hodgkin’s lymphoma – cancer of the lymphatic system, which is a series of glands (or nodes) spread throughout your body that produce many of the specialised cells needed by your immune system

    Pregnancy and the menopause

    In women, itching can sometimes be caused by hormonal changes.


    Itching often affects pregnant women and usually disappears after the birth. A number of skin conditions can develop during pregnancy and cause itchy skin. They include:

    • pruritic urticarial papules and plaques of pregnancy (PUPPP) – a common skin condition during pregnancy that causes itchy, red, raised bumps that appear on the thighs and abdomen (tummy)
    • prurigo gestationis – a skin rash that appears as red, itchy dots and mainly affects the arms, legs and torso
    • obstetric cholestasis – a rare disorder that affects the liver during pregnancy and causes itching of the skin without a skin rash

    Read more information about itching and obstetric cholestasis in pregnancy.

    Pregnant women may also experience eczema and psoriasis.

    Seek advice from your midwife or doctor if you have itching or any unusual skin rashes during your pregnancy.


    Itching is also a common symptom of the menopause, which is where a woman’s periods stop, at around 52 years of age, as a result of hormonal changes. Changes in the levels of hormones, such as oestrogen, that occur during the menopause are thought to be responsible for the itching.

    Treatment for itching

    The type of treatment you receive for itching will depend on the cause.

    If you are referred for further investigations, there are things you can do to give yourself some relief.

    Using a cold compress such as damp flannel, or applying calamine lotion to the affected area may help relieve your itching.


    When bathing or showering you should:

    • use cool or lukewarm water (not hot)
    • avoid using perfumed soap, shower gel or deodorants; unperfumed lotions or aqueous cream are available from your pharmacist
    • use unperfumed moisturising lotions and emollients after bathing or showering to help prevent your skin becoming too dry

    Clothing and fabric

    Regarding clothing and bed linen, you should:

    • avoid wearing clothes that irritate your skin, such as wool and some man-made fabrics
    • wear cotton whenever possible
    • avoid tight-fitting clothes
    • use mild laundry detergent that will not irritate your skin
    • use cool, light, loose bedclothes


    With regard to medication, you can use:

    • an oily moisturiser or emollient if your skin is dry or flaky
    • mild steroid cream (for no longer than seven days) for localised, inflamed, itchy areas – hydrocortisone cream is available from pharmacies over the counter, or your doctor can prescribe a steroid cream for you
    • antihistamine tablets to help control allergic reactions and help break the itch-scratch cycle – consult your doctor before using these because they are not suitable for all cases of itching

    Antihistamine tablets may also make you feel drowsy, therefore it’s important you do not drive, use power tools or heavy machinery while taking them.

    Some antidepressants such as paroxetine or sertraline can help relieve itching (if your doctor prescribes these, it does not mean you are depressed).

    If you have itching in hairy areas, such as your scalp, lotions can be prescribed specifically for these areas, rather than using sticky creams.

    Side Effects of Diflucan (Fluconazole), Warnings, Uses


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    Treatment of candidiasis in Minsk | Biomedica

    Candidiasis (synonym – thrush) is a fungal disease of the genital mucosa, which is caused by excessive reproduction of yeast-like fungi of the genus Candida (Candida).

    Candida is a microorganism that is constantly present in small quantities in the body of a healthy person (on the skin, in the oral cavity, in the gastrointestinal tract, in the genitourinary system). However, the balance of microorganisms can be disturbed, leading to overgrowth of candida and, as a result, to candidiasis.

    The acute form of candidiasis (thrush), if left untreated, can lead to chronic. The chronic form is characterized by numerous relapses, the causes of which, in most cases, are secondary infection. As a rule, such patients are diagnosed with diseases of the gastrointestinal tract (dysbiosis) and various gynecological diseases that reduce local immunity.

    One of the main features of candidal infection is multifocality. Yeast-like fungi affect the genitourinary tract, and sometimes the internal genital organs.The microorganism is able to penetrate the cells of the stratified epithelium and form phagos, in which candida is able to exist and multiply for a long time, being protected from drug exposure. Due to its high adaptability, candidal infection penetrates into various organs, leading to a change in their functions.

    Quite often, thrush manifests itself in pregnant women, as a result of body restructuring, hormonal changes and a decrease in local immunity. In such cases, a woman should be more attentive to her body and not delay a visit to a specialist.

    Candida is a yeast-like fungus of the genus Candida that causes candidiasis (thrush).

    Favorable conditions for the growth of Candida fungus are considered to be a temperature of 21-37 ° C and a pH of 5.8-6.5. As a rule, these microorganisms coexist peacefully with other bacteria and fungi of the human body. However, this balance can be disturbed, resulting in overproduction of Candida. Vaginal candidiasis is the most common disease of the genitourinary tract in women, which can be chronic and cause relapses.

    The most common causative agent of the disease is Candida albicans. Strains of C. albicans, C. guillermondi, C. krusei, C. parakrusei, C. parapsilosis, C. pseudotropicalis, C. tropicalis are pathogenic for humans. Other strains are not pathogenic to humans. Opportunistic fungi are usually isolated on mucous membranes and skin.

    The most common thrush occurs in women, more than 50% of women face this disease throughout their lives, especially in hot countries.Exacerbations are usually triggered by the following reasons:

    • Pregnancy, altered hormonal status
    • Operational interventions
    • Endocrine diseases
    • Infectious diseases
    • Taking hormonal contraceptives
    • Taking antibiotics, corticosteroids, cytostatics.

    Candida can coexist with other sexually transmitted infections. Candidiasis can sometimes be the result of treatment for chlamydia, mycoplasmosis, trichomoniasis and other infectious diseases (due to the use of antibiotics).

    Risk factors for candidiasis (thrush):

    Women with weakened immunity most often suffer from thrush, who have a violation of hormonal levels and bacterial flora. Susceptibility to yeast-like fungi, as well as the body’s ability to activate defense mechanisms, are important in the development of candidiasis. The following factors play an important role in the development of candidiasis:

    • Pathogenicity of strain
    • Immune deficiency
    • Pregnancy
    • Diseases of the female genital organs
    • Metabolic disorders
    • Endocrine diseases
    • Chronic diseases
    • Mechanical or chemical injuries
    • Hypovitaminosis
    • High temperature, humidity
    • Taking antibiotics, cytostatics, corticosteroids
    • Taking antidiabetic drugs, oral contraceptives
    • Age

    Clinical picture of candidiasis

    In candidiasis (thrush), the following clinical forms are distinguished:

    • Acute
    • Chronic
    • Candidacy

    As a rule, acute candidiasis lasts no more than 2 months.The patient has hyperemia, edema, vesicle rash. If the disease lasts more than 2 months, then it becomes chronic. Secondary elements appear on the skin and mucous membranes – lichenization, infiltration, tissue atrophy.

    Candidates are usually women, for a number of reasons:

    • Sexually transmitted infection
    • During childbirth, transmission of yeast-like fungi from mother to child is possible
    • Dissemination of infection from the vagina to other organs.

    There are no clinical manifestations with candidacy. Urogenital candidiasis can infect the sexual partners of the candidate carriers, a woman with such a diagnosis can infect newborns during childbirth. As a rule, analyzes of such people show the presence of pseudomycelium. The transition of the disease to other organs is possible. The use of antibiotics, damage to the skin and mucous membranes, surgery leads to a generalized form.

    Candidiasis symptoms (thrush):

    Urogenital candidiasis affects the vaginal and external genital area.With candidal vulvitis and candidal vulvovaginitis, the urinary tract is not affected.

    The main symptoms of candidiasis are:

    • Curdled leucorrhoea
    • Burning, itching in the external genital area
    • Hypersensitivity of the mucous membrane to water and urine
    • Pain after intercourse
    • Unpleasant smell.

    Candidal vulvitis – damage to the labia majora and labia minora, the vestibule of the vagina and the clitoris with yeast-like fungi.Patients complain of itching and burning, intensifying in the premenstrual period and decreasing in the postmenstrual period. The mucous membranes of the external genital organs become purple-cyanotic, a rash of small vesicles is possible. Between the labia minora there is a white curdled film. In patients with diabetes, myxedema, ovarian hypofunction, candidal vulvitis can spread to the inguinal-femoral folds of the skin and the perianal region.

    Candidal vaginitis – mycotic lesion of the mucous membranes of the vagina and the vaginal part of the cervix.With candidal vaginitis, creamy or crumbly discharge is characteristic. The vaginal mucosa becomes spotty red, extensive erosion of the vaginal part of the cervix is ​​possible.

    Candidal endocervicitis is a disease in which yeast-like fungi penetrate into the opening of the cervix and into the canal. In the depths of the cervical canal, tiny lumps or mucous plug are formed. As a rule, this disease occurs along with candidal vaginitis and is observed in women with defective ovarian function.

    Candidal urethritis and cystitis are rare in women. The lips of the urethra acquire a red tint and swell, the outer opening is covered with curdled crumbly lumps. Patients complain of frequent urge, as well as cramps and burning when urinating.

    Candidal balanoposthitis is manifested by burning and itching of the glans penis. Balanoposthitis can occur in erosive, membranous and erythemal-pustular forms. Most often it affects men with narrow and long foreskin and those who do not follow the rules of hygiene.

    Treatment of bees in spring and treatment for prevention

    No beekeeper is immune from the spring diseases of bees. Even creating all the necessary conditions for them, ticks, foulbrood or infections can appear in the hive. To minimize possible damage from diseases and pests, every beekeeper should regularly carry out prophylaxis and treatment, as well as know everything about the treatment of bees in the spring.

    What diseases can be encountered in the apiary

    If insects die in spring after a not very cold winter, then this is most likely due to improper care and care of insects.To prevent death, it is necessary to properly prepare the bees for winter in the fall and provide them with the necessary food supply. This also includes preventive measures for various diseases, because it is always easier to prevent a disease than to fight it later. What can threaten bees in spring:

    1. Ticks – very often in the spring, when insects are most weakened after winter, they are attacked by ticks. The most common tick-borne diseases are varroatosis (bees weaken, the brood lags behind in development, there are individuals with damaged wings or without them at all), euvarroosis (more often drone brood is exposed) and acarapidosis (bees have difficulty breathing).

    Acarapidosis – thoracic trachea of ​​bees

    1. Infectious diseases – with the onset of spring, bees are exposed to all kinds of infections due to general weakness, high humidity, low temperature, poor hygiene or insufficient feed. The most common are nosematosis and amebiasis. The main symptom of an infectious disease is insect diarrhea.


    1. Non-communicable diseases – often associated with improper care and nutrition of insects.For example, if there are many dead bees near the hive, then this is most likely due to a lack of carbohydrate feeding. With poor ventilation and lack of liquid, bees can leave the hives and die in early spring due to low temperatures.

    In case of detection of diseases of bees in the spring, it is necessary not to wait for the mass death of insects, but to immediately begin to treat. Treatment is carried out with purchased medicinal preparations or medicinal dressings, depending on the disease. Also, the treatment of bees in the spring from a tick with folk remedies shows a positive result.

    For a speedy recovery and prevention of spread, all viral and tick-borne diseases are best treated using special veterinary drugs for the treatment of bees.

    When in doubt about the presence of a tick, it is best to collect a sample and send it to the laboratory. To do this, first clean the hive, after 2-3 days it is again inspected and the corpses are collected in a paper bag.

    The submarine must be fresh and cannot be folded into polyethylene – here they begin to rot within a few hours.

    Further, based on the results of the examination, a decision is made on the choice of the treatment method and drugs (see below).

    VIDEO: Diseases of bees and their signs – all beekeepers need to know

    Top dressing for the prevention and control of diseases

    In the spring, special prophylactic feeding can be used for the prevention and treatment of insects. In sugar syrup or candy, according to the instructions, special medicines are mixed as needed.Thanks to this, the strength of the bee colonies increases and many diseases are treated. For example, all beekeepers know the name of the drug “Nosemat”, which can be purchased at any veterinary pharmacy when signs of nosematosis in insects are manifested and added to the top dressing, according to the required dosage indicated on the package. And for the prevention of various diseases, you can add antibiotics to the top dressing, after stirring them in water.

    Medicines, antibiotics or vitamins can be added to the drinker

    In addition to medicines, vitamins must be added to kandy.

    In order to prevent various diseases and for the general strengthening of the bees’ immunity, protein supplementation is used in the spring. For example, a milk-yeast mixture is added to sugar syrup or honey feed.

    Read with this article: Syrup for bees – proportions and cooking technology for sweet mixture

    Veterinary drugs

    Spring treatment of bees from diseases can be carried out with different medicines and in different ways.They can be purchased as aerosols, tablets, and strips. There are instant medications for long-term installation in hives.


    This is a fairly effective way to combat ticks. It is carried out using the smoke of a cannon (smoker), where the selected drug is added and the hive is fumigated in this way.

    Medicated smoker for fumigating evidence

    For example, for varroatosis, phenothiazine, fumisan or amapol can be used.The order is as follows – pieces of thick cardboard are placed in a liquid solution, then, after allowing them to drain, they are laid in a smoker and set on fire. All hives in the apiary are processed. For prophylaxis, it is recommended to hang out tablets (“CP K-15” and others).

    For tracheal mites and Varroa, it will be effective to use thermal strips, which are set on fire and placed in the house. Tablets “Varroazin”, “Varrostan” or “Galekron” are also set on fire and placed smoldering in early spring.


    To achieve the best effect, spraying with drugs is used.However, it is not always possible to carry out it. With the onset of spring, this method is combined when it is necessary to expand the nests of insects. To get rid of the disease, two treatments are usually sufficient.

    For spraying, the drugs Nosematol or Varroatin are chosen, which are poured into a spray bottle and treated with frames with bees, walls, as well as all equipment used for work in the apiary.

    Spraying is carried out at a temperature not lower than 14-16 ° C, at this time optimal evaporation of the active substance is achieved.If you need to heal the hive, but it’s cold outside, you can artificially heat it up.

    A significant disadvantage of local drugs is their use in families with sowing, because parasites and ticks will die only on bees. The greatest effect is achieved when applied in autumn, when there is no more sowing, but it is also used in spring and summer as prevention of diseases. The advantages include a minimal impact on the quality of the beekeeping product.

    VIDEO: Spring work in the apiary Prevention of nosematosis after a hard winter

    Local funds

    For long-term installation, plates are used, on which an insecticide is applied in a dose destructive to parasites, but harmless to bees.Plates are hung in the hives, insects rub against the plates and carry the preparation throughout the entire bee colony. Treatment of bees in the spring with the use of plates is ineffective, since at temperatures below + 10 ° C insects become inactive. Preparations for long-term installation cannot be used during the honey collection period, since the poison from the plates contaminates the honey.

    Carrying out the fight against ticks and parasites using plates, in order to achieve the best effect, it is worth changing the drug every time, since very often the parasites get used to the insecticide and the treatment does not give results.

    Traditional methods of treatment

    Beekeeping is one of the oldest human occupations. Many years ago, beekeepers did not know about special medicines for bees, but they successfully used folk methods. As can be seen in practice, the treatment of bees in the spring from ticks with folk remedies is still widely used and gives positive results.

    How to treat bees in the spring? There are many recipes using herbal preparations for the prevention and treatment of various diseases in bees with the onset of spring, for example:

    • thyme (thyme) – a plant that contains thymol in its composition, it can be given for varroatosis in insects;
    • to get rid of ticks, you can spray a solution of 2% oxalic acid at the rate of 100 ml of the drug per colony, but you should not use it for ascospherosis;
    • if ascopherosis is detected, it is necessary to prepare a garlic paste and place it in fabric bags on frames above the brood;
    • for nosematosis, varroatosis and foulbrood use celandine infusion.

    In addition to herbal preparations, chemical agents can also be used. Oxalic acid and formic acid are great for combating varroatosis, naphthalene smoke is also great for dealing with pests, only before fumigation it is necessary to isolate all the bees. By sprinkling ashes on frames and insects, you can overcome nosematosis and foulbrood, and a solution of hydrogen peroxide and potassium permanganate is suitable for disinfecting equipment and honeycombs.

    Preventive measures

    These are mandatory activities that will help neutralize diseases at the very beginning of their development.Even if the disease is found in only one house, they are all treated – some diseases, or rather pests (tracheal mite or Varroa) can spread over several hundred minke whales in just a few hours, especially if common drinkers are practiced in the apiary.

    At risk are uterus, which in any critical situation reduce egg production, which leads to the natural death of the family.

    Particular attention is paid to the treatment and prevention of the queen bee – there is always a risk that she will reduce egg-laying

    In spring, special attention should be paid to brood and toilers.Prevention is not only about fumigating, spraying or placing smoldering stripes, but also:

    • installation of frames with pollen, which can increase the immunity of workers;
    • regular cleaning of the hives, as a result of which all the podmore is cleaned out;
    • examination for damage to bees and, if there is suspicion, sending samples to the laboratory, etc.

    Diseases in the apiary are transmitted at a very high speed.To avoid an epidemic, not only treatment, but also the prevention of bees plays an important role. To prevent possible outbreaks of diseases in the spring and not to resort to the use of drugs, it is necessary to add various protein feeds to the insects’ diet to increase immunity and promptly process the hive, clean them and disinfect all equipment.

    VIDEO: Cure for all brood diseases

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    nail fungus ointment folk remedies Propolis from toenail fungus. Onychomycosis or nail fungus is a disease that affects the nail plate. It occurs when a person does not comply with hygiene or use someone else’s shoes.Propolis for nail fungus – medicinal properties. Propolis (bee glue, bee balm) is a resinous substance of dark green or brown color, with a burning bitter taste. Fresh, the substance is plastic. Fungus treatment takes a long time. It may take 1 to 3 months to heal onychomycosis on the hands, and up to 6 months on the legs. Second way. Pure propolis is used for treatment. Steamed nails are treated with thoroughly mashed propolis for 30 minutes.Onychomycosis (fungal infection of the nails) is an insidious disease that requires not only complex, but also long-term therapy. Propolis treatment of nail fungus enhances the effect of medications in advanced stages. At the beginning. The manifestation of stratification and yellowness of the nail is usually associated with a fungal infection. The disease takes a long time to heal. Propolis for nail fungus is a common folk remedy that helps to get rid of the cause, symptoms of the lesion. For this, use infusion.Propolis for nail fungus. Propolis is the bee glue that bees use to build their hive. It resembles a brown or greenish resin in appearance, while it contains a sticky substance that a group of worker bees carries from the buds of bushes, trees and other plants. The basis of propolis is uza. Propolis allows you to quickly get rid of foot fungus at home. Tincture of propolis for toenail fungus. Mycosis is a disease that has worried people for more than a dozen years. It is possible to buy propolis with alcohol from nail fungus at the pharmacy or prepare it yourself.Propolis consists of 50-60% of wood resins, 30% of wax, but not all substances contained in it are soluble in water. treatment and prevention of nail fungus nail fungus pinky ointment for fungus on the face in adults

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    I recommend Mycenil because it is highly effective and inexpensive.It helps even with the advanced form of the fungus, the involvement of most of the nail and adjacent skin in the pathological process. Undergo a comprehensive treatment, treating the affected lesions 2 times a day. More than a year ago I learned from the doctor that I have a fungus on my heels, it is just it that forms a white bloom and makes the skin rough. I used popular brands, it helped only for a while. In a conversation with a friend, I found out about Mycenil cream, bought it from the link on the official website. The cream is easy to apply and quickly absorbed, after two uses the fungus disappeared.But to consolidate the effect, it is better to miss the course. Ribok releases toxic waste products, provokes an increase in sensitivity to allergens, poisons the body, affects nails, skin and mucous membranes of internal organs. In advanced cases, the nail plate is destroyed. Soft tissues become inflamed. Inexpensive but effective medications for the treatment of fungus between the toes. The combination of these substances negatively affects the interdigital fungus, stopping its reproduction. After 3 weeks of using Ekodax in humans.Apart from medications, fungus between the toes is successful. If you do not start timely treatment, then the fungus from the interdigital region can spread to the feet and nails. Treatment in advanced cases will be required. In contact with. Facebook. Twitter. Google+. Classmates. Mycosis is a common fungal disease that most often affects the skin of the feet. Fungus is the itching and soreness of the skin between the toes. Fungal spores penetrate those areas of the foot where the skin is tender. Systemic medicine for fungus between the toes.The treatment of interdigital fungus on the feet includes systemic drugs taken by mouth. Causes of interdigital fungus. Penetration of the fungus into the epidermis. Often, drugs to fight the fungus are produced in two forms, both as an ointment and as a cream. Dermatologists recommend an ointment for use at night. Causes of the interdigital fungus. The penetration of the fungus into the epidermis becomes the main cause of the development of the disease. But even in a healthy person. Systemic medications are included in the treatment of interdigital fungus on the feet.Preparations that allow you to eliminate the fungus on the legs between the toes, it is possible to buy in the online store by ordering in the catalog, or. Fungus is the itching and soreness of the skin between the toes. Fungal spores penetrate those areas of the foot where the skin is tender. Influenced by the activity of the parasite. Why does the fungus appear between the fingers. Interdigital fungus is a special clinical form of mycosis of the feet. Doctors call it intertriginous.

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    Mycenil is a revolutionary remedy designed to combat such a dangerous disease as foot and nail fungus.From the first days of use, the natural cream relieves painful symptoms, kills infection, has a healing and restorative effect, and most importantly, prevents the possible consequences of mycosis. Having made a choice in favor of Mycenil cream, you can quickly and effectively cope with the fungus. Today it is recommended not only by leading domestic experts in the field of dermatology, but also by buyers who have already managed to get rid of an unpleasant problem. If yeast is found in women, treatment must be started on time.Treatment of yeast in women should be started immediately, so it is worth it. Is it possible to warm the nose with sinusitis at home. Do you trust modern medicine? Vrachmedik.ru. Causes of the appearance of yeast in women and methods of its treatment. Yeast fungus is an infection that most often occurs in the weaker sex. If you diagnose this problem in the early stages. Peculiarities. The effectiveness of home remedies varies depending on the individual characteristics of the human body.It also depends on the severity of your thrush, as well as the quality of the remedy used and the type of treatment. The most common. How to treat yeast in women. The presence of excess weight is one of the factors provoking the development of yeast fungus. Mycotic infection is caused by pathogenic yeast. Treatment of yeast in women. Yeast fungus in women is difficult to confuse with another disease. Urogenital candidiasis, or thrush, causes distress in the external genital area and makes a woman infectious to a sexual partner if sex life is conducted without.Local treatment of yeast in women is carried out by prescribing vaginal creams, tablets and suppositories. At home, baths are made – for nails, applications – for the skin, douching – with. Treatment of yeast in women at home. Yeast Infection in Women – Treatment and Symptoms of a Yeast Infection. Do you know what a yeast infection is and how is it treated? Content. 1 Causes and provoking factors. 2 Yeast in a smear in women treatment with folk remedies – All about the fungus.3 Localization of the fungus. 3.1 Genitourinary organs. 3.2 Oral cavity. 3.3 Internal organs. propolis from foot fungus . pinky toenail fungus. Reviews, instructions for use, composition and properties. Fungus of the nail plate is one of the most common diseases. For its successful treatment, it is necessary to contact a medical institution as soon as possible. Detection of nail fungus. The difficulty of identifying the disease is its main problem. Precisely because of the omission. Then the doctors will consult and tell you which doctor the patient should go to next with the established nail fungus.Most likely it will be a mycologist. Help from other professionals. It is correct to contact a specialist with nail fungus at the first suspicion of an infection, since the condition of the skin, hair and nails indicates the general state of the body’s systems. Which doctor should I go to for toenail fungus in an adult? A suspicion of the presence of a fungal infection can be formed by carefully examining the nails: they lose their natural color, turn yellow, the plate thickens. In advanced stages, the nail begins to crumble.Nail fungus is an infectious disease that develops as a result of the active multiplication of certain types of mycotic microorganisms. Onychomycosis is curable, the main thing is to apply. Dermatologist or Mycologist? If you do not know which doctor to go to if symptoms of nail fungus are found, then you can safely contact a dermatologist or mycologist. In fact, these two specialists are doing the same thing. Content. Which doctor should I contact for nail fungus? Where to go. Features of diagnostics.Medical therapy. Algorithm of actions of the doctor. Prevention. How to choose a specialist? How is the appointment with a specialist going? How much does a consultation cost? You don’t need to self-medicate to deal with toenail fungus. In the fight against fungal infection and its consequences, such help. 2.6 Podiatrist. 3 Normotrophic fungus. 4 Which doctor should I contact for nail fungus? 5 Hypertrophic fungus. 6 Methods of therapy. Doctors will help you to cure nail fungus DocDoc.ru – here you will find all doctors specializing in nail fungus treatment in Moscow.Here you can choose a doctor who treats nail fungus. If you are unsure of the diagnosis, make an appointment with your GP or GP for clarification.

    Biocidal paint “Ecopchelit” for the prevention of infectious and invasive diseases of bees with a prolonged antimicrobial and acaricidal effect

    The invention relates to the beekeeping industry, in particular to a technology for producing paints and varnishes intended for painting the inner walls of a bee hive and / or a dividing board in a hive in order to reduce microbial and fungal contamination in a bee hive, reduce the level of damage to bees by causative agents of varroatosis, ascospherosis, nosematosis , foulbrood diseases of bee brood, etc.

    The greatest damage to beekeeping continues to be caused by infectious diseases of bees of a bacterial, viral, fungal nature and invasive diseases, which include varroatosis, nosematosis, microsporidosis, amoebiosis, arachnosia and many others. in early spring and until late autumn, he is forced to repeatedly grossly disrupt the normal rhythm of the bee colony’s life, perform various mechanical operations and exert various chemical effects on bees with disinfectants, acaricides, antibiotics, sulfanilamide preparations approved for use in beekeeping.Until now, it is not fully understood how beneficial or harmful to beekeeping are various treatments of the bee colony with numerous therapeutic and prophylactic feeds, powders, liquids, aerosols in shock concentrations for pathogens and parasitic organisms and insects.

    In this regard, it is very important and urgent to create a new generation of universal therapeutic and prophylactic drugs with a combined effect on pathogens of infectious diseases and organisms parasitizing on bees, with a prolonged effect from 3 months to a year, primarily safe for bees and bee products.

    Known drug “BIPIN-T” for combating varroatosis of bees (patent RU 2145476, IPC 51/00), including 2-isopropyl-5 methylphenyl (thymol) and amitraz.

    The disadvantage of the proposed composition is the lack of antimicrobial activity against bacterial and fungal pathogens of infections of bees, as well as insufficiently high acaricidal activity against pathogens of invasive diseases of bees. The disadvantages of the drug “BIPIN-T” also include the presence of the danger of contamination of bee products by the components of the drug during its repeated use for the treatment of a bee colony.

    Known biocidal paint “BIOCRAPAG” (patent RU 2131897 C1 C09D 5/14), including a biocidal additive containing an inorganic or organic salt of polyhexamethylene guanidine, or a base of polyhexamethylene guanidine, or a mixture of a salt or base of chlorohexamethylene guanidine film-forming dylamethyl material from linseed oil and varnish, or from an aqueous dispersion of polymers, or from water glass.

    The disadvantage of the proposed composition is the narrow spectrum of antimicrobial activity of the biocidal paint against bacterial and fungal pathogens of infections in bees, and the complete absence of acaricidal effect against pathogens of invasive diseases of bees.The disadvantages of the biocidal paint “BIOCRAPAG” also include the presence in the film-forming component of linseed oil and drying oil, aqueous dispersion of polymers or liquid glass, causing the death of bees and contamination of bee products.

    The closest in composition is “Biocidal paint and varnish composition” (patent RU 2309172 C1 C09D 5/14), containing a film-forming substance in the form of a paint and varnish material, consisting of natural or synthetic oligomers or polymers in an organic solvent, or of chlorine-containing polymers, or from alkyd varnish, or from linseed oil, or drying oil, and a biocidal additive consisting of a hydrophobic organic soluble salt of polyhexamethylene guanidine or poly- (4,9-dioxadodecanguanidine), mass.%:

    film-forming component in the form of paint and varnish material – 92.5-98.5;

    biocidal additive – 1.5-7.0

    The disadvantages of the prototype technical solution include the fact that the agent “Biocidal paint and varnish composition” has a rather narrow spectrum of antimicrobial activity and does not have acaricidal activity against pathogens of invasive diseases of bees, to which include varroatosis, ascospherosis, nosematosis, microsporidosis, amebiosis, arachnosis. Other disadvantages of the prototype include the high toxicity of the paint and varnish material for the life of bees and bee products.

    The main technical conditions for the creation of biocidal paint for the prevention of infectious diseases of bacterial, viral, fungal nature and invasive diseases of bees are:

    – the presence of broad antimicrobial activity against gram-negative and gram-positive bacteria, viruses, fungi and protozoa with short periods of exposure;

    – the presence of acaricidal activity against causative agents of invasive diseases of bees;

    – high stability of biocidal paint;

    – no toxicity for bees and bee products;

    – reduction of multiple prophylactic treatments of bees with antibacterial and acaricidal preparations to 1-2 treatments of a bee colony per year;

    Thus, the biocidal paint and varnish composition – the prototype does not meet the technical conditions and requirements for biocidal paints intended for the prevention of infectious diseases of bacterial, viral, fungal nature and invasive diseases of bees.

    The technical result of the invention is the creation of a biocidal paint with optimally low and effective concentrations of components, which has high disinfection and disinfection activity against pathogens of infectious diseases of bacterial, viral, fungal nature and invasive diseases of bees.

    The technical result is achieved by the fact that the proposed biocidal paint “EKOPCHELIT” for the prevention of infectious and invasive diseases of bees with a prolonged antimicrobial and acaricidal effect, including a film-forming agent in the form of a paint and varnish material and a biocidal additive, and the film-forming base of the paint and varnish material consists of organic beeswax hexane, and as a biocidal additive contains an antimicrobial composite substance VPK-402 (poly- (dimethyl-diallylammonium) chloride) and thymol with the following content of components, wt.%:

    film-forming composition in the form of paint and varnish material – 96.7-97.3;

    Timol (2-isopropyl-5 methylphenyl) – 2.0 ± 0.2;

    Antimicrobial composite substance VPK-402 (poly- (dimethyl-diallylammonium) chloride) – 1.0 ± 0.1;

    The components for the biocidal additive are selected experimentally, and as a base or substrate for uniform distribution of biocidal substances on the inner surfaces of the bee hive, a film-forming agent is used in the form of a paint and varnish material made of beeswax dissolved in an organic solvent, beeswax mass.%: – 1.0-1.5, hexane up to 100%., The biocidal additive is represented by the antimicrobial composite substance VPK-402 (poly- (dimethyldiallylammonium) chloride) – 1.0 ± 0.1 and thymol – 2.0 ± 0 , 2. The components of the supplement are approved for use in our country and abroad. The drug is in liquid form.

    Biocidal paint “EKOPCHELIT” is easily applied with a brush to smooth and uneven surfaces of the inner walls and the bottom of the hive and / or the dividing board of the hive, and after rapid evaporation of hexane turns into a strong film with a thickness of 50 to 500 microns.Then bees are launched into the hives.

    The film of biocidal paint “EKOPCHELIT” retains antimicrobial and acaricidal activity for a long time in hives for 12 months. Bees are tolerant to the film of biocidal paint “EKOPCHELIT” and do not damage it.

    The proposed biocidal paint “EKOPCHELIT” differs from the prototype in low and effective concentrations of antimicrobial substances. Biocidal paint “EKOPCHELIT” in comparison with the prototype has disinvasive properties against the causative agents of varroatosis, ascospherosis, nosematosis, arachnoses.

    The proposed biocidal paint also differs from the prototype in that the film-forming composition is made from an environmentally friendly natural bee product that does not cause concern, poisoning or death of bees.

    The incoming biocidal substances in the dense structure of the EKOPCHELIT biocidal paint film retain their antimicrobial and acaricidal properties for 12 months.

    Example 1. To determine the antibacterial effect of the biocidal paint “EKOPCHELIT” used a biocidal paint of the following composition, wt.%:

    film-forming composition in the form of paint and varnish material – 96.7;

    biocidal additive – 3.3 (thymol – 2.2; antimicrobial substance VPK-402 – 1.1)

    Gram-negative bacteria were used to perform the tests. Daily cultures of E. coli bacteria Esherichia coli pcs. K-12 and the causative agent of salmonellosis Salmonella enteridis pcs. 237, grown on meat-peptone agar for 24 hours at 37 ° C.

    To obtain a bacterial suspension, the culture of bacteria was washed off with sterile saline solution (pH 6.2), then the resulting suspension of microbes was filtered through a sterile cotton-gauze filter and diluted to a concentration corresponding to the standard of two billion microbial bodies in 1 ml.

    On test surfaces made of unpainted wood, imitating the inner surfaces of a bee hive (100 × 100 mm), a biocidal paint was applied with a brush and dried until completely dry.

    Test surfaces coated with biocidal paint (experiment) and test surfaces not coated with paint (control) were contaminated with test microorganisms at a concentration of 2.0 × 10 3 CFU / cm 2 . And then each test surface was placed in a separate sterile Petri dish and incubated at 37 ° C for 1.2 and 3 days.

    After the incubation period, washes were taken from the test surfaces to determine the effectiveness of disinfection and plated on Petri dishes with MPA and kept at 37 ° C for 72 hours. some bacteria are inactivated (table 1).

    The results presented in table 1 show that the proposed biocidal paint “EKOPCHELIT” effectively inactivates gram-negative bacteria of pathogens of intestinal infections by contact.

    Example 2. To determine the bactericidal effect of the proposed biocidal paint used biocidal paint “EKOPCHELIT” of the following composition of the mass. %:

    film-forming composition in the form of paint and varnish material – 97.3;

    biocidal additive – 2.7 (thymol – 1.8; antimicrobial substance VPK-402 – 0.9)

    Liquid of biocidal paint “EKOPCHELIT” for the prevention of infectious and invasive diseases of bees with a prolonged antimicrobial and acaricidal effect was applied with a brush in a thin layer on a test surface made of unpainted wood (100 × 100 mm) and air dried.To perform the tests, gram-positive bacteria of Staphylococcus aureus were used, grown on meat-peptone agar for 24 hours at a temperature of 37 ° C.

    Test surfaces painted with biocidal paint and control test surfaces not painted with biocidal paint were contaminated with test microorganisms at a concentration of 2.0 × 10 3 CFU / cm 2 . The test surfaces were placed in a thermostat at 37 ° C for 1.2 and 3 days.

    After the expiration of the incubation period, washings were taken from the test surfaces to determine the effectiveness of disinfection and plated on Petri dishes with MPA and kept at 37 ° C for 72 h.

    It was found that upon contact with live bacteria St. aureusurr. 906 with a thin layer of biocidal paint, a significant number of viable bacteria are inactivated (table 2).

    The results presented in table 2 show that the proposed biocidal paint “EKOPCHELIT” inactivates gram-positive bacteria.

    Example 3. To determine the fungicidal effect of the proposed biocidal paint used biocidal paint “EKOPCHELIT” of the following composition (wt.%):

    film-forming composition in the form of paint and varnish material – 97.0;

    biocidal additive – 3.0 (thymol – 2.0; antimicrobial substance VPK-402 – 1.0)

    Liquid of biocidal paint “EKOPCHELIT” was applied with a brush in a thin layer on a test surface made of unpainted wood (100 × 100 mm) and air dried. To carry out the tests, pathogenic fungi of the causative agents of candidiasis (Candida albicans) were used.

    Working cultures of fungi were grown on Sabouraud agar for 48 hours at a temperature of 27 ° C.

    Test surfaces were contaminated with test microorganisms at a concentration of 2.0 × 10 3 CFU / cm 2 , and then incubated at 37 ° C for 1-3 days.

    To determine the effectiveness of disinfection, washings were taken from the test surfaces and plated on Petri dishes with Sabouraud agar and kept at 24 ° C for 72 hours. some of the microbes are inactivated (table 3).

    The results presented in table 3 show that the proposed biocidal paint “EKOPCHELIT” effectively inactivates pathogenic fungi C. albicans by contact.

    Example 4. To determine the fungicidal effect of the proposed biocidal paint used biocidal paint “EKOPCHELIT” of the following composition, wt. %: film-forming composition in the form of paint and varnish material – 97.0;

    biocidal additive – 3.0 (thymol – 2.0; antimicrobial substance VPK-402 – 1.0)

    Biocidal paint liquid was applied with a brush in a thin layer on a test surface made of unpainted wood (100 × 100 mm) and dried on air.Aspergillus niger molds were used to carry out the tests.

    Working cultures of molds were grown on Sabouraud agar for 48 hours at a temperature of 27 ° C.

    Test surfaces made of unpainted wood, imitating the surfaces of a bee hive, were covered with a brush with a thin layer of EKOPCHELIT biocidal paint. The test surfaces were contaminated with test microorganisms at a concentration of 2.0 × 10 3 CFU / cm 2 , and then incubated at 37 ° C for 3 and 5 days.

    After the incubation period, washes were taken from the test surfaces to determine the effectiveness of disinfection and plated on Petri dishes with Sabouraud agar and kept at 28 ° C for 72 hours. all microbes are inactivated by a layer of biocidal paint (table 4).

    The results presented in table 4 show that the proposed biocidal paint “EKOPCHELIT” effectively inactivates molds Asp.niger by contact method.

    Example 5. On an apiary conducted experimental field tests using the proposed biocidal paint “EKOPCHELIT” with a prolonged antimicrobial and acaricidal effect of the following composition, wt. %:

    film-forming composition in the form of paint and varnish material – 97.0;

    biocidal additive – 3.0 (thymol – 2.0; antimicrobial substance VPK-402 – 1.0)

    Liquid of biocidal paint “EKOPCHELIT” was applied with a brush in a thin layer on the bottom and walls of the hives.Colonies of bees were transplanted into experimental hives immediately after treatment. A family of bees in a hive served as a control, the walls and bottom of which were treated with one of the well-known acaricidal preparations (“BIPIN-T”). The initial infestation of bee colonies by the varroa mite was 7-8%.

    Families were monitored throughout the year. In winter, the deaths of bees and ticks were counted. At the end of wintering, washes were made from the surface of the walls, bottom, bars, empty cells of combs in order to determine the microbial contamination in the bee hive.In the spring, combs with brood were selected in one of the experimental colonies and the number of remaining ticks in the printed and open brood was counted. The observation of the vital activity of bees in the experimental and control hives was carried out in the summer as well.

    Laboratory research and field trials of the biocidal paint “EKOPCHELIT” for the prevention of infectious and invasive diseases of bees with a prolonged antimicrobial and acaricidal effect on bee colonies made it possible to obtain the following results.

    In the hives treated with the biocidal paint “EKOPCHELIT”, there was a good survival rate of bees during wintering. The death of bees was: in the experiment – 3513 individuals, in the control – 3820 individuals. The deaths of varroa ticks in these colonies amounted to 358 and 34 individuals, respectively. In the hives treated with the biocidal paint “EKOPCHELIT”, no growth of mold was observed in the corners, on the bottom and on the frames.

    Laboratory microbiological studies indicate a very low contamination with microflora: 30 times less than in the control.Thus, the biocidal paint “EKOPCHELIT” for the prevention of infectious and invasive diseases of bees with a prolonged antimicrobial and acaricidal effect does not have a negative effect on the wintering of bee colonies, has an acaricidal effect on varroa mites, and reduces microbial contamination of bee dwellings.

    It was also found that when the brood was opened in an experimental colony, 4 female varroa mites were found in 24 cells of the printed brood. These were the founding females, which were in the brood at the exit, on the formed bees.However, no offspring of these females was found. Varroa was not found in brood after sealing of female mites. This indicates that the proposed biocidal paint has acaricidal properties, has a detrimental effect on female varroa, negatively affects their reproductive function. The effectiveness of the biocidal paint “EKOPCHELIT” for the prevention of infectious and invasive diseases of bees with a prolonged antimicrobial and acaricidal effect in this experiment after wintering was 85.5%.

    Example 6. In experimental field tests to determine the acaricidal effect used the proposed biocidal paint “EKOPCHELIT” of the following composition, wt. %:

    film-forming composition in the form of paint and varnish material – 97.3;

    biocidal additive – 2.7 (thymol – 1.8; antimicrobial substance VPK-402 – 0.9)

    It was found that when planting a layering of bees with a strong degree of ascopherosis and varroatosis in a hive treated with the proposed biocidal paint, there is a decrease in the contamination of bee larvae with ascopherosis and varroatosis.In an experimental hive treated with the biocidal paint “EKOPCHELIT”, 17 varroa mites were found on the bees. Whereas in the control, in the hives treated with the known acaricidal agent “BIOPIN-T”, the talus was 278 varroa mites. The results obtained confirm the pronounced acaricidal activity of the proposed biocidal paint “EKOPCHELIT”.

    Example 7. Chemical-analytical studies of samples of bee products from bee hives, treated with biocidal paint “EKOPCHELIT”, showed that residual amounts or traces of drug components in the samples of sealed and open honey are not detected.

    Thus, laboratory and field tests have shown that the proposed biocidal paint “EKOPCHELIT” for painting the inner walls of the bee hive and / or dividing board in the hive effectively reduces microbial contamination in the bee hive, significantly reduces the level of infestation of bees by causative agents of varroatosis, ascospherosis , nosematosis. It was found that biocidal paint “EKOPCHELIT” applied to the inner walls of the bee hive and / or dividing board in the hive has a prolonged antimicrobial and acaricidal effect for at least 12 months.The bees are tolerant to the biocidal paint film and do not damage it. It was found that painting the inner walls of the bee hive and / or the dividing board in the hive creates favorable conditions for the life and wintering of bees, due to a noticeable decrease in the level of microbial contamination of the bee dwelling, as well as due to the presence in the structure of a biocidal film on the walls of the hive with acaricidal and anti-nosema activity with a prolonged effect, which reduces the number of varroa mites and nosematosis larvae to a minimum level or to zero.It was also found that biocidal paint “EKOPCHELIT” applied to the inner walls of the bee hive and / or dividing board in the hive does not contaminate beekeeping products (honey, bee bread, propolis, wax).

    The use of biocidal paint “EKOPCHELIT” to protect the bee hive, bee families and each individual bee from microbial contamination (bacteria, viruses, fungi, protozoa), from invasive diseases, which include varroatosis, ascospherosis, nosematosis, arachnoses, etc. for the first time. will allow beekeepers to reduce the number of planned and unscheduled work on the prevention of the above bee diseases to 1-2 treatments per year instead of repeated rough interventions (from 5 or more times in the spring-autumn period) into the normal rhythm of the bee colony’s life, accompanied by various rough mechanical operations and various chemical influences on bees with disinfectants, acaricides, antibiotics, sulfanilamide preparations, weema dangerous for bees and bee products.

    90,000 How to treat swelling from insect bites?

    Most cases of insect bite swelling are mild and will go away on their own within weeks, if not days, but there are also many simple procedures that can speed up the process. Washing the area quickly after the bite is usually effective in speeding up the healing process, so the swelling diminishes as soon as possible. Ice packs or any kind of cold almost universally will help reduce swelling, and homemade baking soda paste can also be applied on the bite to reduce symptoms.If swelling doesn’t respond to these home remedies, use over-the-counter antihistamines or anti-inflammatory medications.Severe swelling, which can be caused by an allergic reaction, tends to be much less common, but this usually requires medical attention.

    Cleaning the insect bite as soon as possible will help protect the area from infection. Soap and water will often be sufficient. Wipe the area dry with a towel to reduce the chance of paper debris clogging up when bitten. If you develop an infection, antibiotics may be needed.

    Any type of ice pack is often the easiest and fastest way to reduce swelling from insect bites.This may include cold compresses, tissue filled with ice, or anything that will lower the temperature of the area and cause the blood vessels to constrict. Do not let ice come into contact with skin for more than ten minutes.

    You can make a paste of baking soda to apply to the bite area. Aim for a three-to-one ratio of baking soda to water. As it dries, the paste will relieve puffiness and other insect bite symptoms such as itching, and you can reapply it several times a day. This treatment is gentle and safe for children or people with sensitive skin.

    Over-the-counter medicines can also help reduce swelling. Anti-inflammatory drugs like ibuprofen are usually enough to help, but in the worst cases, take antihistamines.

    Severe swelling due to an allergic reaction is much less common, but usually requires immediate medical attention when it occurs Excessive swelling can occur either in the general area of ​​the bite, such as the arm, or on the face, lips or tongue.This usually accompanies other symptoms such as feeling lightheaded or bursting hives.


    Mycoses and protozoses

    1. Ascospherosis (continued)

    2. Aspergillosis

    3. Candidomycosis

    3. Candidomycosis

    . Amoebiasis

    1. Control measures. I am removing the combs with the affected brood! and melt them into wax, honey is used only for food purposes. Affected bee colonies of 10-50 or more affected larvae per brood frame, taking into account diseased larvae at the bottom of the hive, are destroyed or transferred to new combs and foundation in clean hives. Disinfection of hives, combs, inventory is carried out.

    Bee colonies with up to 10 larvae infestation are transferred with frames to clean, dry hives.

    Recommended files

    Weak families unite and strengthen.Sor – burned. They create a fruitless period. The queens are replaced. They are fed with syrup.

    Differentiate from aspergillosis and deterioration of bee bread.


    1. Ascocin is used in 0.006% concentration on water or liquid syrup (1: 5) 2-3 times with an interval of 3-5 days until recovery, sprinkling honeycombs and bees with medicinal syrup at a rate of 10— 15 ml per frame. The drug is good because it also prevents nosematosis.

    2. Iodine monochloride 5-10% solution (used for trichophytosis and microsporia) is poured into polyethylene lids, covered with a card and placed in hives.The drug evaporates and acts bacteriostatically.

    3. Askool (not sold with us) apply 1 ml per 500 ml of boiled water, irrigate honeycombs and bees with 10-12 ml of solution per frame.

    4. Ascostatin 0.02% solution in sugar syrup (1: 1) 3-5 times in 5-7 days 100 ml per frame. Not very good.

    5. Dikobin 2-3 times with an interval of 7 days with syrup 1: 5, irrigating honeycombs and bees with 10-15 ml of solution (1: 250) per frame, for prophylaxis 2 times.

    6. Nitrofungin use an 8-10% solution in syrup (1: 5), the scheme is the same.

    7. Ascomizole – irrigate combs and bees at the rate of 1 ml of the drug per 200 ml of syrup (1: 5) with an interval of 21 days until recovery. Does not overload neither the beekeeper nor the veterinarian.

    8. Askomolin is used only for prophylactic purposes. It is placed on top of the frames on a canvas under an insulating cushion at the rate of 10-15 g per street for a period of 1.5-2 months. Protects against ascospherosis and wax moth.

    9. Nystatin (antifungal antibiotic) is used at 100 thousand units per frame, 3 times every 3-5 days with syrup (1: 5) by irrigation. It is not very effective. It is produced in tablets that need to be grinded in a mortar, diluted in boiled water and then in syrup.

    10. PAGP – for the simultaneous treatment of ascospherosis and foulbrood.

    11. Unisan is used in the absence of commercial honey collection, irrigating honeycombs and bees with an interval of 6 days until the family recovers at the rate of 10-12 ml of solution per frame (1: 600).

    12. Garlic: crush the head and put under the canvas on the hive frames. When dry, replace. But the smell is sometimes very irritating to the bees.

    13. Ascostat – nystatin oil concentrate.

    14. Fungizol – consists of birch ash plus peat oxyhumate, obtained a year ago. Effectiveness – up to 92%. Apply according to the instructions.

    15. Ascozol is used in spring with 1: 1 syrup in 250 ml feeders for 1-2 weeks.

    16. Larvosan and Mycosan – iodine-based fungicides. Apply in 3-5% concentration.

    17. Endoglukin (used for saccular brood) is good to use together with ascocin and bipin (for the treatment of varroosis).

    18. Apiask is a new drug in Russia.

    2. ASPERGILLOSIS (stone brood) is an infectious disease of adult bees and brood, causing their death and desiccation.

    Pathogens: Aspergillus flavus, Aspergillus niger, Aspergillus fumigatus.

    Morphology of the pathogen. Fungi of the genus Aspergillus are higher fungi that form septate mycelium and fruiting bodies. Grows well at room temperature on special nutrient media for mushrooms. Spores are round, with a smooth or prickly surface.

    In the external environment, fungal spores are highly resistant, they are unstable to high temperatures.

    Aspergillus are widespread in nature. Spores are carried into hives with nectar, pollen and wind. In the presence of high humidity in the hive, spores germinate, form mycelium on the honeycomb, in the bee bread, on the corpses of larvae, pupae and adults. Dampness in the hives disposes to disease.

    Clinical signs. The first changes in the brood are noted within a few days: diseased larvae barely move, then their rapid death sets in. However, in general, the disease is recorded by beekeepers on the basis of its characteristic features.

    Penetration of the mycelium through the outer integument occurs within 1-2 days in the head area or between the segments. The surface of the body becomes leathery, wrinkled, and its segmentation disappears. The affected brood is covered with white, gray, yellowish-green and black bloom. Mummified larvae are often difficult to remove from the cells, as the mycelium attaches to the walls. Sometimes the mycelium covers the brood surface with a thick yellow-green mycelium that mimics pollen. This is the main differentiating feature from ascospherosis.

    Sick adults do not differ in appearance from healthy ones, but over time it becomes hard; when opened, the intestines and other tissues are difficult to separate and destroyed.

    Gradually, the mycelium affects large areas with brood, but bees are not able to remove dead brood and the disease progresses.

    Diagnosis is complex, taking into account mycological analysis. A honeycomb or sample is sent to the laboratory. An examination is carried out there, determining the degree of damage and microscopy.Preparations of the “crushed drop” type are prepared: scrapings are made on the slides from the surface of the dead individuals, a drop of liquid is added (a mixture of alcohol, glycerin, water equally), a cover glass is placed on the drop and, microscopically, they reveal elements characteristic of Aspergillus, fragments of the fungus.

    In doubtful cases, inoculation and microscopy of fungal cultures grown on nutrient media are carried out.

    Differential diagnosis: exclude ascospherosis.

    Control measures. Complex. Severely affected colonies are destroyed, and the frames with cells and dead bees are burned. After thorough mechanical cleaning , the hives and equipment are burned with blowtorch fire until slightly browned or treated with 5% formaldehyde solution. My parking lot is dug to a depth of 10-15 cm or treated with a 4% formaldehyde solution out of at the rate of 10 l / m 2 . The canvases and frames are burned. Work should be done with a respirator or gauze bandage and goggles; after work, wash your hands and face with soap.

    The apiary is declared safe one month after the elimination of of the disease and the final disinfection.

    Treatment: see “Ascospherosis”.

    3. CANDYAMICOSIS is an infectious disease of bees, characterized by damage to the anterior thoracic trachea, degeneration of the pectoral muscles. Table.

    Candida – microorganisms of a round, oval shape, 2-5 microns in diameter, have a double-circuit membrane, nucleus, cytoplasm with vacuoles.Old cells are round, elongated, form chains of of cells and bunches of 5-6 cells with intensive reproduction by budding. At the ends of the chains, under unfavorable conditions, large chlamydospores – 40 microns – can form.

    Candida is widespread in nature, but more of them where there are carbohydrates. are introduced into the hive by bees with feed and water. It is believed that candida is always present in hives, but the disease occurs when humidity is high.Candida and yeast can cover all honey frames, causing damage to the brood and poisoning of the bees.

    Stability. Candida persists in bee bread in winter – 4-6 months. When boiled, they die in 10-15 minutes.

    Diagnosis is made taking into account mycological analysis.

    Sick or fresh corpses of bees (preferably frozen), samples of combs with bee bread and honey with white bloom are sent to the laboratory.

    Microscopic examination with a dark field condenser in order to equip blastospores and pseudomycelium characteristic of candida.

    Cultivation of is carried out on media intended for mushrooms, Sabouraud, wort agar, etc., as well as on potato, corn agars.

    On solid nutrient media, candida grow in the form of colonies of smooth and rough (R and S-forms), creamy consistency,

    Signs of the disease. During the wintering period, due to honey spoilage, bee colonies greatly weaken and die, and the brood of overwintered ones perishes. When examining the trachea of ​​the dead and sick, lesions in the form of spots (acarapidosis) are found, and with a strong lesion in the trachea, a brownish vesicular mass flowing out when pressed.

    Treatment – iodine preparations: potassium iodide, Lugol’s solution, 1% solution of iodine monochloride; 2% formaldehyde solution, antifungal antibiotics.

    4. NOSEMATOSIS is a disease of adult bees, characterized by damage to the midgut, diarrhea and death. This is a thunderstorm in apiaries, as it often leads to the death of almost all bee colonies in the apiary.

    The disease is widespread in apiaries of the Republic of Belarus. It is more often recorded in the spring, less often in the fall.The source of infection is sick bees, queens. The spores of the parasite are released into the external environment with feces. The spread of nozem occurs as a result of rearrangement of infected combs, including brood, feed; replanting a sick uterus, as well as with bee theft. Predisposing factors: poor quality feed, high humidity in the hive, bad weather in spring and summer, poisoning, the presence of honeydew honey, especially in winter, feeding with caramelized sugar syrup for the winter.

    Pathogen — Nosema apis, microsporidia.Intracellular parasite of the epithelial cells of the midgut of bees. In the external environment, it exists in the form of a dispute. Spores of the nozem are oval, ovoid, 5-7 microns in size (human erythrocytes), transparent, slightly whitish.

    Once in the bee’s intestines, the spore penetrates through the peritrophic membrane, penetrates into the mucous membrane and goes through a number of stages (you do not need to know them). In this case, the mucous membrane turns from reddish brown to whitish.

    Resistance of spores 2-5 years or more.

    Signs of illness. Distinguish between the latent form of the disease – when spores are detected only by microscopy and the explicit – clinical.

    In case of illness in winter, invasive bees eat honey and bee bread in large quantities due to perversion of appetite, overloading the hind gut with poorly digested food, which leads to a premature (before the spring flight) act of defecation on the combs, food, and walls of the hive. The bees worry, make a continuous noise, fly out of the hive and die.An unpleasant putrid smell emanates from the taphole. If the bees did not die during the winter, they give all their strength to the spring flight and, as a rule, die after it.

    With a weak and medium degree of damage, bees fly around, but when they are greatly weakened, they develop poorly.

    Often nosematosis occurs in association with other diseases.

    Diagnosis. Sick live bees with an enlarged abdomen and dead bees are sent to the laboratory during the active period. In the laboratory, the last segment of the abdomen is grasped with tweezers and the intestines (posterior and middle) are taken out, placed on a glass, a suspension is created, a cover glass is applied and microscoped with the condenser lowered, objective X 40.They find spores in the form of rice grains, oval, shiny, colorless.

    In winter, samples are taken for nosematosis in the 2nd half of wintering, with a wire loop through the lower entrance, removing corpses from the middle of the podmore (at least 50 bees), placed in a jar, put the number of the hive and in the laboratory.

    Investigate by a group method, take the abdomens from 30 bees, add 30 mo of water (preferably 5-10 ml), rub thoroughly with a pestle in a mortar, then the pestle is raised and the drop remaining on is , is applied to a glass slide, applied coverslip, microscopic.Objective x 40, eyepiece x 10-15.

    Weak degree of damage – in the field of view up to 100 spores, medium – up to 1000, strong – over 1000.

    In addition to spores, cysts of amoebae are often found (it is necessary to differentiate) – these are spherical formations in which in the center there are inclusions, according to being in the environment, the membrane of the amoeba cyst thickens.

    Amoebas affect the Malpighian vessels. These 2 diseases occur together in more than 50% of cases.

    Therefore, regardless of the presence of characteristic clinical signs, conduct microscopy.

    Differentiate from honeydew toxicosis in winter and other diseases.

    Control measures. When bees are affected by nosematosis, an early exhibition is carried out for a cleaning flight. Families are transferred to clean hives, dirty combs are removed, the hives are insulated and fed.


    Fumagillin DCG is obtained from cultivation of A. fumigatus. See how much active substance is in the bottle, since there are many fillers, the dose for ADV is 40-60 mg per 1 liter of syrup, given in feeders or in honeycombs of 0.25 liters per family daily for 21 days or 4-5 days after 3-4 times.The disadvantage is expensive.

    Nosemat (concentrate of antibiotics, vitamins, carbohydrates) is used to treat Nosematosis, bacterial and mixed infections of the digestive tract. It is a powder that disperses well in water. Dose per 1 hive for 1 treatment – 0.25 g. Treat 2 times.

    Nosedine is used as a solution. 2-3 times with an interval of 3-5 days. The drug is produced in packs of 0.5 g for a single treatment of 5 bee colonies.

    Nitekabin, Ascocin, Nosematol (aerosol), Furazolidone

    5. AMEBIAZ is a disease of adult bees, accompanied by damage to the Malpighian vessels. The disease is widespread in the Republic of Belarus.

    The causative agent is Malpighamoeba mellificae Maassen.

    Together with this lecture, read “14 Dynamics of ATT”.

    stability . In the form of a cyst, an amoeba can persist for a long time even under adverse external conditions.Cysts tolerate drying especially well. On honeycomb in dry spots of bee feces, cysts remain viable for 5-6 months.

    Signs of the disease: The main one is the gradual decrease in the number of bees in the colony, which is typical for many diseases. Usually bees die outside the hive, therefore, the weakening of the bee colonies is noted. Crawling, unable to fly, with an enlarged abdomen of bees are also found; on the walls of the hive and on the honeycomb frames, there are faecal stains.With the disease with nosematosis and amebiosis, the death of bees in the family increases, since the adult insects weaken faster, lose their working capacity earlier and sooner die.

    Malpighian vessels, examined at opening, are enlarged, vitreous. Through the wall or in with their contents during microscopy, degenerated epithelial cells, spherical-rounded cysts can be seen.

    Diagnosis is made on the basis of microscopic examinations, the main of which is microscopy of smears prepared from Malpighian vessels

    Prevention and control measures are the same as for nosematosis

    Home remedies for urticaria

    Almost anything can give you hives: foods like peanuts or strawberries, medications like penicillin or aspirin, vitamin supplements, heat, cold, sunlight, exercise, fever, stress, and even scratching or chafing are some of the them.opportunities.

    Some substances do cause an allergic reaction that leads to hives, while others have absolutely nothing to do with allergies. Strawberries, for example, contain a chemical that can cause your body’s cells to release histamine, a chemical also produced in allergies that allows blood plasma to seep into the skin and form hives. In this article, we will touch the surface and talk about methods for relieving and preventing hives.

    Sometimes it only takes a tiny amount of the culprit to trigger a reaction. For example, you may have a sensitivity to seafood, but it may appear after eating a steak – simply because the steak was cooked in a pan that was previously used to fry fish.

    Do not confuse urticaria with other skin rashes. Hives (or hives as doctors call them) occurs when blood plasma seeps into the skin, causing “blisters” or swollen areas.They can be as small as a pencil eraser or as large as a dinner plate and usually last only a few hours. But new blisters can form all the time. And as they form, they often itch.

    An attack of urticaria usually does not last long, often only a few days. However, some people may be concerned about recurring outbreaks. They may want to do detective work to find the cause. And in some people, chronic urticaria is a hives that can persist for years.

    These irritating allergens

    Since urticaria is an allergic reaction, the best way to prevent future flare-ups is to find the source of the problem. You will need to do a bit of detective work to find out what caused the itchy bumps. But if you cannot identify the culprit, then you are not alone: ​​in about 50% of cases, the trigger is undefined. To aid your investigation, here are the top causes of hives. You might be lucky to find the source of your itchy bumps below:

    Food. Certain foods are more likely to cause hives. Strawberries are a problem for many people as they contribute to the production of histamine in the body. Other well-known hive producers are nuts, chocolate, fish, tomatoes, eggs, fresh berries and milk. If you have an itchy reaction to food, it will likely happen within 30 minutes of eating.

    Food additives. Food colors, flavors, preservatives and emulsifiers or stabilizers in some foods can cause hives to flare up.If you think your skin is so red it could be food additives, look for ingredients such as salicylates, sulfites, and polysorbate on the labels of any processed foods you ate.

    Medicines. Penicillin and aspirin are the two most common drug offenders. Penicillin and other antibiotics are the number one cause of drug-related hives.

    High temperature. Too hot, spending too much time outside on a summer day, or playing sports are two causes of heat-induced hives.These heat-related hives, sometimes called “prickly heat,” calm down when your body temperature returns to normal.

    Cold. Contact with ice water may cause hives. These hives occur when you are exposed to cold objects or water, or even when you go outside on a cold, windy day. As with heat-related hives, your huge chills will disappear when your body temperature returns to normal.

    Insect bites or bites. Components of insect venom are allergenic. Some people have a systemic reaction to these ingredients, causing hives.

    Infections. Bacterial, viral, and yeast infections can cause an outbreak of urticaria. Fever is also associated with the production of hives.

    Household items. Sometimes hives are caused simply by pressure on the skin; from contact with everyday objects such as furniture, towels, watchbands or sheets; or wear too tight clothing.

    Stress. Many people believe that stress triggers an attack of urticaria.

    Diseases. Hives can be a symptom of thyroid disease, hepatitis, lupus, and even some cancers. This is why you shouldn’t ignore long-standing cases of hives.

    What are your chances of getting infected with hives?

    If you have never had an itchy inflammation, you have a 20 percent chance that you will encounter it sometime in your life.Hives are most common in young people. Children and adults are at the same risk of getting red itchy patches, but from different sources. In children, hives appear to be caused by food allergies or infections, while in adults, hives are caused by medication.

    Whether or not you can locate the source of the hives, there are some items in your kitchen that can help relieve symptoms while you research.In the next section, we’ll take a look at various home remedies that will bring you much-needed relief if you’re suffering from annoying hives.

    For more information on avoiding allergens and dealing with allergic reactions, visit the following links:

    This information is for informational purposes only. NOT INTENDED TO PROVIDE MEDICAL ADVICE. Neither the editors of Consumer Guide (R) nor Publications International, Ltd., neither the author nor the publisher is responsible for any possible consequences of any treatment, procedure, exercise, dietary change, action or medication as a result of reading or following the information. contained in this information. The posting of this information is not medical practice and this information does not replace the advice of your doctor or other health care provider.