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How do doctors detect blood clots: The request could not be satisfied


How Blood Clots Are Diagnosed

The blood clotting mechanism is vitally important to life. When a blood vessel is damaged by injury, the normal clotting mechanism ensures that blood loss will be limited. Furthermore, the blood clot that forms at the site of injury provides the body’s first step toward healing.

However, if a blood clot forms when it should not, serious problems can result, because the clot can lead to significant damage to the organ supplied (or drained) by the blocked vessel.

This is why diagnosing a blood clot—which is possible with lab and imaging tests—is so important.

© Verywell, 2018

When to Diagnose a Blood Clot

Two types of blood clots that can lead to serious damage include thrombi and emboli. A thrombus is a blood clot that forms within a blood vessel, and an embolus is a blood clot that travels through a blood vessel and causes blockage at its destination.

Blood clots cause damage to the tissue because they can block blood flow through a vessel. When the tissue is deprived of the oxygen and nutrients that it should get from blood, serious damage can occur, such as with a stroke. Diagnosis often begins with symptoms of organ damage.

Common medical conditions that are very often due to either thrombus or embolus include the following.

  • Stroke is most often caused either by thrombosis of one of the arteries that supply the brain, or an embolus that travels to the brain (most often from the heart or carotid artery).
  • Heart attack is usually due to an atherosclerotic plaque, which causes a thrombus to form within a coronary (heart) artery.
  • Deep vein thrombosis (DVT) is a clot that forms in one of the major veins of the leg, thigh, or pelvis.
  • Pulmonary embolus is a blood clot that travels to the lungs, usually from a DVT.
  • Other conditions include thrombosis of the major vein that drains the liver (portal vein thrombosis), thrombosis of the vein that drains a kidney (renal vein thrombosis), and embolization of a clot to an arm or leg.  

Before effective treatment can be administered, it is important to determine whether a blood clot is actually causing the problem. Treatments for blood clots often include powerful blood thinners. While these medications can be effective for dissolving a clot or preventing it from growing—they can cause side effects, such as bleeding.

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Lab Tests

Lab tests for diagnosing a blood clot can measure abnormal activation of the blood clotting system and offer clues that will help your physician narrow down your diagnosis.

D-Dimer Blood Test

The D-dimer blood test detects whether there has recently been an abnormal level of clotting activity somewhere within the bloodstream. This test is the most useful in helping doctors pin down their suspicion that either DVT or pulmonary embolus has occurred.

Cardiac Biomarkers

Cardiac biomarkers are used to help diagnose a heart attack. These blood tests do not strictly diagnose blood clots; rather, they detect whether heart muscle damage has occurred—which is almost always caused by dislodging of a coronary artery plaque, along with subsequent thrombosis formation.

Imaging Tests

Your doctor will order the imaging tests they deem necessary for making a proper diagnosis. Some of these tests can identify a blood clot, some can detect damage due to a blood clot, and some can determine whether you are at risk of having a blood clot.

Ask your doctor what the test is intended to reveal, and ask any questions you have about the procedure.

Compression Ultrasound

The compression ultrasound test is a noninvasive test that can be performed at the bedside that is often very useful in diagnosing a DVT. 

V/Q Scan

A ventilation perfusion scan (V/Q scan) is a test using a radioactive dye to examine blood flow to the lungs in order to detect whether a pulmonary blood vessel has been blocked by a pulmonary embolus.

CT Scan

The computerized tomography (CT) scan is a computerized X-ray technique that can show anatomic detail. The CT scan may detect the brain damage of a stroke or the lung damage of a PE.

MRI Scan

MRI scans can be used to detect early organ damage due to a stroke, PE, portal vein thrombosis, or renal vein thrombosis. These tests take longer than CT scans, so when time is of the essence, CT scans may be used instead.

Angiography or Venography

These are catheterization techniques in which a dye is injected into a blood vessel where a clot is suspected and images of the blood vessel are taken.

Pulmonary angiography can be used to diagnose a pulmonary embolus, whereas venography is used to diagnose DVT. Cardiac angiography examines the coronary arteries, and carotid angiography can detect damage or a clot in the carotid artery—a blood vessel in the neck.


Echocardiograms are often used to assess the risk of an embolic stroke.

The echocardiogram can detect a thrombus that has formed in the heart (typically in the left atrium in a person with atrial fibrillation, or in the left ventricle in a person with severe dilated cardiomyopathy). The echocardiogram can also detect cardiac problems that can allow an embolus to traverse the heart, such as a patent foramen ovale.

Frequently Asked Questions

Can a blood test show a blood clot?

Yes, the D-dimer blood test can be used to help determine if a blood clot has occurred, such as a deep vein thrombosis (DVT) or pulmonary embolus (PE). Cardiac biomarkers can also help doctors see if damage to the heart muscle has occurred, which may hint that a blood clot has developed in the blood vessels of the heart.

Which tests can look for a blood clot in the leg?

Lab tests and imaging tests can provide clues to a blood clot in the leg or DVT elsewhere in the body.

Your doctor may order any of the following tests:

Which tests can look for a blood clot in the lungs?

To look for evidence of a blood clot that has affected the lungs (PE), doctors will usually order one or more of the following imaging tests:

  • V/Q scan
  • Pulmonary angiography
  • Computed tomography (CT) scan
  • Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scan

How can I tell if I have a blood clot?

While it’s possible to have a blood clot without symptoms, certain warning signs may occur:

  • Skin tenderness, redness, and warmth in an area of the body
  • Swelling (typically affecting one leg, but not the other)
  • Shortness of breath
  • Chest pain
  • Dizziness

Pulmonary embolism diagnosis | British Lung Foundation

On this page we explain the different tests you might have if you’re suspected to have a pulmonary embolism.

If you’re suspected to have a pulmonary embolism (PE) you should have an assessment to confirm the diagnosis.

If you’re pregnant or have given birth within the past six weeks and have symptoms of a potential pulmonary embolism, you should be assessed quickly. Any symptoms of deep vein thrombosis (DVT) or PE in a pregnant or postnatal person should be taken seriously and investigated immediately.

It can be hard for doctors to decide if you have a pulmonary embolism because the symptoms are similar to many other conditions. It’s important to have an accurate diagnosis because treating a pulmonary embolism isn’t always easy and treatments can cause side effects.

If your doctor suspects a pulmonary embolism they will assess your clinical probability with a risk score. Your risk score will give your doctor an idea how likely it is you have an pulmonary embolism. Depending on the risk score, you may have a blood test to look for a protein called D-dimer. Your doctor will discuss your symptoms and test results with the duty senior clinicians, and you may have one of the following tests:

  • a computerised tomography pulmonary angiography (CTPA) to see the blood vessels in your lungs. This is when you are injected with a dye that helps to show your blood vessels. Then a scanner uses X-rays to build a detailed picture of the blood flow in your lungs.
  • a ventilation-perfusion scan, also called a V/Q scan or isotope lung scanning, to examine the flow of air and blood in your lungs. You will be asked to inhale a slightly radioactive gas and given an injection of slightly radioactive material. The radioactivity in this test is considered low risk to adults, however women who are, or might be, pregnant should tell the radiographer. If the scan shows parts of your lungs have air in them but no blood supply, this may be the result of a pulmonary embolism.

If there are clinical signs of a DVT then your doctor may instead (or in addition) request a leg vein ultrasound to look at your blood as it flows through the blood vessels in your legs, to see if there are any blockages to blood flow.

Read next: Treatment and recovery

 Download our pulmonary embolism information (PDF, 385 KB)

How To Check for DVT At Home

One of the most important things for you to understand about deep vein thrombosis, otherwise known as DVT for short, is that there are both superficial and deep veins in your arms and legs.

Worried You Have Deep Vein Thrombosis?

If a blood clot is allowed to form in the deep veins in particular, this could potentially bring life-threatening complications with it – meaning that this is one situation you want to get checked out as soon as you can. A blood clot itself is so dangerous in this context because if a piece of it were to separate and travel through the blood stream, it could become lodged in the heart or in your pulmonary arteries – thus forming a pulmonary embolism.

How to Check Yourself at Home

If you’re interested in giving yourself a self evaluation for DVT at home, you can use what is referred to as Homan’s sign test.

To start, actively extend the knee in the leg you want to check. Once your knee is in the position, you’ll want someone to help you raise your leg to 10 degrees. Then, have them passively and abruptly squeeze your calf with one hand while flexing your foot with the other.

If you experience any type of deep calf pain or tenderness during this process, you may have DVT and you should absolutely consult with a medical professional moving forward.

Symptoms to Look Out For

Generally speaking, some of the most important warning signs of a blood clot or symptoms of DVT in your leg include ones like:

  • Pain in the impacted area.
  • Swelling around the veins.
  • A feeling of warmth.
  • A tenderness to the touch.
  • Redness of the leg or arm.

The only way to diagnose the condition with 100% certainty is by way of a blood test, which will then be followed up with via ultrasound or some other types of imaging tests.

Can DVT Be Treated at Home?

You cannot treat DVT at home because you’ll need proper medical care and supervision to first address the underlying issue of any potential blood clots. Then, you’ll be prescribed what are know as anticoagulants, or blood thinners. These can help prevent any clots you may already have from growing, while stopping new ones from forming in the future. You can definitely take these medications at home and you are safe to do so, but there are no vein treatments or vein procedures for DVT that you can do entirely at home in a traditional sense.

You’ll also want to make any lifestyle changes recommended by your doctor to reduce the risk of developing additional blood clots in the future.

Precautions to Take During COVID When Scheduling an Appointment

When coming in for an appointment for your DVT or for any other reason, it’s important to take appropriate precautions given everything going on in the world right now with the COVID-19 pandemic. It is always recommended that patients wear a mask when arriving, for example. Likewise, hand sanitizer will be freely available for you to use in the office if you haven’t brought any of your own.

Beyond that, we want you to know that our CVR Center is cleaned frequently – allowing you to rest easy knowing that we’re doing everything in our power to help keep everyone safe.

Meet Dr. Ives in Anchorage, Alaska

DVT can certainly be a difficult condition to live with – but it’s important for you to know that this is one road you do not have to travel down alone. If you have any additional questions about DVT, or if you’d just like to speak to someone about your own situation in a bit more detail, please click here to schedule your appointment and meet Dr. Ives in Anchorage, AK. You can also click here to view our varicose vein treatment options and to find out more information about the innovative solutions that are available to you.

Vascular & Endovascular Surgery – Deep Vein Thrombosis

Deep vein thrombosis (throm-BO-sis), or DVT, is a blood clot that forms in a vein deep in the body. Blood clots occur when blood thickens and clumps together.

Most deep vein blood clots occur in the lower leg or thigh. They can also occur in other parts of the body.

A blood clot in a deep vein can break off and travel through the bloodstream. The loose clot is called an embolus (EM-bo-lus). It can travel to an artery in the lungs and block blood flow. This condition is called pulmonary embolism (PULL-mun-ary EM-bo-lizm), or PE.

PE is a very serious condition. It can damage the lungs and other organs in the body and cause death.

Blood clots in the thighs are more likely to break off and cause PE than blood clots in the lower legs or other parts of the body. Blood clots can also form in veins closer to the skin’s surface–however, these clots won’t break off and cause PE.

Other Names for Deep Vein Thrombosis

  • Blood clot in the leg.
  • Thrombophlebitis.
  • Venous thrombosis.
  • Venous thromboembolism (VTE). This term is used for both deep vein thrombosis and pulmonary embolism.


Blood clots can form in your body’s deep veins if:

  • A vein’s inner lining is damaged. Injuries caused by physical, chemical, or biological factors can damage the veins. Such factors include surgery, serious injuries, inflammation, and immune responses.
  • Blood flow is sluggish or slow. Lack of motion can cause sluggish or slow blood flow. This may occur after surgery, if you’re ill and in bed for a long time, or if you’re traveling for a long time.
  • Your blood is thicker or more likely to clot than normal. Some inherited conditions (such as factor V Leiden) increase the risk of blood clotting. Hormone therapy or birth control pills also can increase the risk of clotting.

Risk Factors

The risk factors for deep vein thrombosis (DVT) include:

  • A history of DVT.
  • Conditions or factors that make your blood thicker or more likely to clot than normal. Some inherited blood disorders (such as factor V Leiden) will do this. Hormone therapy or birth control pills also increase the risk of clotting.
  • Injury to a deep vein from surgery, a broken bone, or other trauma.
  • Slow blood flow in a deep vein due to lack of movement. This may occur after surgery, if you’re ill and in bed for a long time, or if you’re traveling for a long time.
  • Pregnancy and the first 6 weeks after giving birth.
  • Recent or ongoing treatment for cancer.
  • A central venous catheter. This is a tube placed in a vein to allow easy access to the bloodstream for medical treatment.
  • Older age. Being older than 60 is a risk factor for DVT, although DVT can occur at any age.
  • Overweight or obesity.
  • Smoking.

Your risk for DVT increases if you have more than one of the risk factors listed above.

Signs and Symptoms

The signs and symptoms of deep vein thrombosis (DVT) might be related to DVT itself or pulmonary embolism (PE). See your doctor right away if you have signs or symptoms of either condition. Both DVT and PE can cause serious, possibly life-threatening problems if not treated.

Deep Vein Thrombosis

Only about half of the people who have DVT have signs and symptoms. These signs and symptoms occur in the leg affected by the deep vein clot. They include:

  • Swelling of the leg, or along a vein in the leg
  • Pain or tenderness in the leg, which you may feel only when standing or walking
  • Increased warmth in the area of the leg that’s swollen or painful
  • Red or discolored skin on the leg

Pulmonary Embolism

Some people aren’t aware of a deep vein clot until they have signs and symptoms of PE. Signs and symptoms of PE include:

  • Unexplained shortness of breath
  • Pain with deep breathing
  • Coughing up blood

Rapid breathing and a fast heart rate also may be signs of PE.


Your doctor will diagnose deep vein thrombosis (DVT) based on your medical history, a physical exam, and test results. He or she will identify your risk factors and rule out other causes of your symptoms.

For some people, DVT might not be diagnosed until after they receive emergency treatment for pulmonary embolism (PE).

Medical History

To learn about your medical history, your doctor may ask about:

  • Your overall health
  • Any prescription medicines you’re taking
  • Any recent surgeries or injuries you’ve had
  • Whether you’ve been treated for cancer

Physical Exam

Your doctor will check your legs for signs of DVT, such as swelling or redness. He or she also will check your blood pressure and your heart and lungs.

Diagnostic Tests

Your doctor may recommend tests to find out whether you have DVT.

Common Tests

The most common test for diagnosing deep vein blood clots is ultrasound. This test uses sound waves to create pictures of blood flowing through the arteries and veins in the affected leg.

Your doctor also may recommend a D-dimer test or venography (ve-NOG-rah-fee).

A D-dimer test measures a substance in the blood that’s released when a blood clot dissolves. If the test shows high levels of the substance, you may have a deep vein blood clot. If your test results are normal and you have few risk factors, DVT isn’t likely.

Your doctor may suggest venography if an ultrasound doesn’t provide a clear diagnosis. For venography, dye is injected into a vein in the affected leg, which makes the vein visible on an x-ray image. The x-ray will show whether blood flow is slow in the vein, which may suggest a blood clot.

Other Tests

Other tests used to diagnose DVT include magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and computed tomography (to-MOG-rah-fee), or CT scanning. These tests create pictures of your organs and tissues.

You may need blood tests to check whether you have an inherited blood clotting disorder that can cause DVT. This may be the case if you have repeated blood clots that are not related to another cause. Blood clots in an unusual location (such as the liver, kidney, or brain) also may suggest an inherited clotting disorder.

If your doctor thinks that you have PE, he or she may recommend more tests, such as a lung ventilation perfusion scan (VQ scan). A lung VQ scan shows how well oxygen and blood are flowing to all areas of the lungs.

For more information about diagnosing PE, go to the Health Topics Pulmonary Embolism article.


Doctors treat deep vein thrombosis (DVT) with medicines and other devices and therapies. The main goals of treating DVT are to:

  • Stop the blood clot from getting bigger
  • Prevent the blood clot from breaking off and moving to your lungs
  • Reduce your chance of having another blood clot


Your doctor may prescribe medicines to prevent or treat DVT.


Anticoagulants (AN-te-ko-AG-u-lants) are the most common medicines for treating DVT. They’re also known as blood thinners.

These medicines decrease your blood’s ability to clot. They also stop existing blood clots from getting bigger. However, blood thinners can’t break up blood clots that have already formed. (The body dissolves most blood clots with time.)

Blood thinners can be taken as a pill, an injection under the skin, or through a needle or tube inserted into a vein (called intravenous, or IV, injection).

Warfarin and heparin are two blood thinners used to treat DVT. Warfarin is given in pill form. (Coumadin® is a common brand name for warfarin.) Heparin is given as an injection or through an IV tube. There are different types of heparin; your doctor will discuss the options with you.

Your doctor may treat you with both heparin and warfarin at the same time. Heparin acts quickly, while warfarin takes 2 to 3 days before it starts to work. Once the warfarin starts to work, the heparin is stopped.

Pregnant women are usually treated with just heparin, because warfarin is dangerous during pregnancy.

Treatment for DVT using blood thinners usually lasts for 6 months. The following situations may change the length of treatment:

  • If your blood clot occurred after a short-term risk (for example, surgery), your treatment time may be shorter.
  • If you’ve had blood clots before, your treatment time may be longer.
  • If you have certain other illnesses, such as cancer, you may need to take blood thinners for as long as you have the illness.

The most common side effect of blood thinners is bleeding. Bleeding can happen if the medicine thins your blood too much. This side effect can be life threatening.

Sometimes the bleeding is internal (inside your body). People treated with blood thinners usually have regular blood tests to measure their blood’s ability to clot. These tests are called PT and PTT tests.

These tests also help your doctor make sure you’re taking the right amount of medicine. Call your doctor right away if you have easy bruising or bleeding. These may be signs that your medicines have thinned your blood too much.

Thrombin Inhibitors

These medicines interfere with the blood clotting process. They’re used to treat blood clots in patients who can’t take heparin.


Doctors prescribe these medicines to quickly dissolve large blood clots that cause severe symptoms. Because thrombolytics can cause sudden bleeding, they’re used only in life-threatening situations.

Other Types of Treatment

Vena Cava Filter

If you can’t take blood thinners or they’re not working well, your doctor may recommend a vena cava filter.

The filter is inserted inside a large vein called the vena cava. The filter catches blood clots before they travel to the lungs, which prevents pulmonary embolism. However, the filter doesn’t stop new blood clots from forming.

Graduated Compression Stockings

Graduated compression stockings can reduce leg swelling caused by a blood clot. These stockings are worn on the legs from the arch of the foot to just above or below the knee.

Compression stockings are tight at the ankle and become looser as they go up the leg. This creates gentle pressure up the leg. The pressure keeps blood from pooling and clotting.

There are three types of compression stockings. One type is support pantyhose, which offer the least amount of pressure.

The second type is over-the-counter compression hose. These stockings give a little more pressure than support pantyhose. Over-the-counter compression hose are sold in medical supply stores and pharmacies.

Prescription-strength compression hose offer the greatest amount of pressure. They also are sold in medical supply stores and pharmacies–however, a specially trained person needs to fit you for these stockings.

Talk with your doctor about how long you should wear compression stockings.


You can take steps to prevent deep vein thrombosis (DVT) and pulmonary embolism (PE). If you’re at risk for these conditions:

  • See your doctor for regular checkups.
  • Take all medicines as your doctor prescribes.
  • Get out of bed and move around as soon as possible after surgery or illness (as your doctor recommends). Moving around lowers your chance of developing a blood clot.
  • Exercise your lower leg muscles during long trips. This helps prevent blood clots from forming.

If you’ve had DVT or PE before, you can help prevent future blood clots. Follow the steps above and:

  • Take all medicines that your doctor prescribes to prevent or treat blood clots.
  • Follow up with your doctor for tests and treatment.
  • Use compression stockings as your doctor directs to prevent leg swelling.

Contact your doctor at once if you have any signs or symptoms of DVT or PE. For more information, go to “What Are the Signs and Symptoms of Deep Vein Thrombosis?”

Travel Tips

The risk of developing DVT while traveling is low. The risk increases if the travel time is longer than 4 hours, or if you have other DVT risk factors.

During long trips, it may help to:

  • Walk up and down the aisles of the bus, train, or airplane. If traveling by car, stop about every hour and walk around.
  • Move your legs and flex and stretch your feet to improve blood flow in your calves.
  • Wear loose and comfortable clothing.
  • Drink plenty of fluids and avoid alcohol.

If you have risk factors for DVT, your doctor may advise you to wear compression stockings while traveling, or he or she may suggest that you take a blood-thinning medicine before traveling.

Living With Deep Vein Thrombosis

NHLBI Resources

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Clinical Trials

Links to Other Information About Deep Vein Thrombosis

NHLBI Resources

Non-NHLBI Resources

Clinical Trials

CT Scans to Find a Blood Clot in the Lungs: When you need one and when you don’t

CT Scans to Find a Blood Clot in the Lungs: When you need one and when you don’t

A pulmonary embolism (PE) is a blood clot in the lungs that has traveled from the deep veins of the leg or pelvis and causes a blockage in blood flow. A PE can be life threatening if not diagnosed and treated. Luckily, health care providers have many good methods available to test for PE. A commonly used test to diagnose PE is a CT pulmonary angiogram (CTPA). But a CTPA is not always necessary. Here’s why:

CT scans are not risk-free.

A CT (computerized tomography) scan is a machine that uses many X-rays to take pictures of bone, organs or soft tissues. CT scans usually result in exposure to large doses of radiation, which can increase the risk of cancer over your lifetime. CT scans looking for blood clots also use dye that can damage the kidneys or cause an allergic reaction.

For these reasons, if your risk of having a PE is low then the potential risks of a CT scan can outweigh the benefits. Your health care provider will use a CT scan only when necessary. In addition, there are other tests that can be used to search for a PE, such as a ventilation/perfusion lung scan (“VQ scan”).

How do health care providers know when a CT scan is necessary?

Health care providers use guidelines based on research in patients just like you to decide what a patient’s risk is for a PE, and which patients need further testing. If your health care provider thinks you might have a PE, the following testing is recommended:

  • For very low risk patients, a list of questions called the Pulmonary Embolism Rule-out Criteria (PERC) can safely rule out a PE without additional testing.
  • For low and medium risk patients, a blood test called the D-dimer in conjunction with clinical decision rules can safely rule out a PE if the test is normal.
  • For high risk patients and/or for those with an abnormal D-dimer blood test, imaging tests such as a CT scan or VQ scan are recommended to rule out a blood clot.

What should I do after my visit with a health care provider?

You can continue your usual activities without over-exerting yourself. You can use medications as instructed by your health care provider. Monitor your symptoms for the next several days. If they are persisting or changing you should see your family health care provider.

If your symptoms get worse, or you develop more shortness of breath, chest pain, fainting, cough up blood or feel very unwell, you should come back to the Emergency Department to be assessed again. You may require further testing if your symptoms are getting worse.

Acknowledgement: This patient pamphlet was created in collaboration with Consumer Reports, Choosing Wisely Alberta and Alberta’s Emergency Strategic Clinical Network.

Clotting Problems | Cancer.Net

A blood clot is a serious condition that needs treatment right away. People with cancer and those receiving cancer treatment have an increased risk for blood clots.

Normal blood clotting, called coagulation, is a complex process. It involves specialized blood cells, called platelets, and different proteins in the blood, called clotting or coagulation factors. These platelets and coagulation factors clump together to heal broken blood vessels and control bleeding. Coagulation factors that promote bleeding and those that promote clotting must be balanced.

Blood clotting disorders occur when some clotting factors are missing or damaged. This causes clots to form inside the body that block normal blood flow and cause serious problems.

Blood clots can occur in and travel to different parts of the body, including:

  • Veins, called a venous thromboembolism (VTE). If the vein is in the leg, thigh, or pelvis, it is called deep venous thrombosis (DVT).

  • The lungs, called a pulmonary embolism (PE).

  • An artery. This is less common but also very serious.

Signs and symptoms of clotting problems

People with clotting problems may experience:

  • Arm or leg swelling on 1 side of the body

  • Pain in the arm or leg where a blood clot is located

  • Trouble breathing or chest pain when breathing

  • Rapid heart beat

  • Low oxygen levels

Relieving side effects is an important part of cancer care and treatment. This is called palliative care or supportive care. Tell your health care team about any of these symptoms immediately. Even people with low levels of platelets can develop a blood clot. Sometimes people do not know they have a blood clot until it is diagnosed during a test.

Causes of clotting problems

People with cancer have a higher risk of blood clots and clotting disorders. This may be caused by the cancer or its treatment. Such risk factors include:

  • Cancers of the lung, kidney, brain, digestive system, female reproductive system such as uterine cancer, and blood such as leukemia and lymphoma

  • Metastatic cancer, which is cancer that has spread to other parts of the body from where it started

  • Cancer treatment, including surgery lasting longer than 1 hour, chemotherapy, radiation therapy, and hormone therapy. Drugs called anti-angiogenic drugs that block the formation of new blood vessels such as thalidomide (Synovir, Thalomid) and lenalidomide (Revlimid) may also raise the risk of blood clots.

  • Treatment with drugs called erythropoiesis stimulating agents that help the body make more red blood cells, such as epoetin (Epogen, Eprex, Procrit) and darbepoetin (Aranesp)

  • Long-term use of an intravenous catheter or port

Blood clots can also be caused by reasons other than cancer and its treatment, such as:

  • Long periods of inactivity, such as a long plane or car ride. This may also include being in the hospital, because most people in the hospital cannot be physically active and need to stay in bed or are unable to get out of bed.

  • Having other diseases or conditions in addition to cancer, such as obesity, infection, kidney disease, lung disease, or a blood clot in a blood vessel called an artery that carries blood away from the heart.

  • Older age.

  • Race/ethnicity. The risk is higher for black people and lower for white and Asian people.

  • A condition that is inherited, meaning it is passed down from parent to child in a family. This includes a factor V Leiden mutation, which is a condition that causes too much blood clotting.

Diagnosing clotting problems

Your doctor may use one or more ways to find a blood clot, including:

  • A Doppler ultrasound. An ultrasound uses sound waves to look at the flow of blood in veins in the arms or legs. It can detect decreased blood flow from a blood clot.

  • A computed tomography (CT) scan. A CT scan takes pictures of the inside of the body using x-rays taken from different angles. A special dye called a contrast medium is injected into a patient’s vein or given as a pill or liquid to swallow before the scan to provide better detail on the image. Doctors commonly use CT scans to diagnose a blood clot in the lungs or a PE.

  • A lung ventilation/perfusion (VQ). This test that can diagnose a PE is made up of 2 different parts:

  • An angiogram. This test can detect a blood clot in an artery. During an angiogram, a dye is injected into the artery. And then the artery is examined with a special x-ray device called a fluoroscope.

Preventing and treating clotting problems

Blood clots can be prevented and treated with drugs. Anticoagulants are drugs that stop clots from happening or stop existing clots from getting worse. These drugs may increase a person’s risk of bleeding, but they are safe for most people. Typical anticoagulants include:

Some of these drugs are taken by mouth. Others are given as an injection under the skin, called a subcutaneous injection.

The American Society of Clinical Oncology (ASCO) recommends the following to help prevent blood clots in people with cancer:

  • Some people staying in the hospital may need to take medicine to prevent blood clots. This type of medicine is called an anticoagulant. Whether someone needs to take an anticoagulant may depend on how long their hospital stay is and whether they are at a high risk of blood clots.

  • People with multiple myeloma who are taking an anti-angiogenic along with chemotherapy and/or dexamethasone (multiple brand names) should take heparin or low doses of aspirin.

  • People who will be having a major cancer surgery should receive treatment to prevent blood clots after surgery. Treatment should continue for at least 7 to 10 days or up to 4 weeks, depending on the type of surgery and your risk of blood clots.

  • People who have a high risk of blood clots but are not staying in the hospital may receive apixaban, rivaroxaban, or some form of heparin

Your doctor may also recommend the following methods in addition to taking medicine to prevent blood clots:

  • Graduated compression stockings, which are a type of support hose

  • Intermittent pneumatic compression, which squeezes the legs through a sleeve connected to a machine

  • Mechanical foot pumps

Learn more about these recommendations on a separate ASCO website.

A person with a blood clot needs treatment right away. The most common treatment is an anticoagulant that can be injected under the skin or into a vein. But some people may take a pill that is swallowed. Once the blood is considered thin enough, there is a lower risk of clotting.

People who are receiving blood thinners must be regularly monitored for any increased bleeding. Some people are unable to receive blood thinners because they have low platelet levels or a high risk of bleeding. For these people, a special type of filter can be placed in the body to prevent a blood clot from traveling to the lungs, a condition that can be very dangerous.

Questions to ask the health care team

Talk with your health care team to learn more about your risk of developing a blood clot, how blood clot prevention will be included in your overall treatment plan, and what treatments are available if you develop a blood clot.

Consider asking the following questions:

  • Do I have a higher risk of a blood clot?

  • What can be done to prevent a blood clot before it starts?

  • What are the signs and symptoms of a blood clot?

  • If I have a blood clot or have had them before, what treatment do you recommend?

  • How long will I need this treatment?

  • What is my risk of bleeding with such treatment? Are there other side effects?

  • What health conditions or medications may interfere with the treatment for blood clots?

  • Who should I call if I have concerns about a symptom?

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Blood Clots | Aurora Health Care 

We understand it can be unsettling to learn you have a blood clot or clotting disorder. Your care team at Aurora is here to support you through every step of your testing and treatment.

We’ll do whatever we can to arrange your appointments on the same day to save you time. And by participating in research and clinical trials, we always have the newest, most effective treatment options for you.

What are blood clots?

Blood clotting is a natural process that helps your body stop bleeding after you’ve been cut or injured. Once you start healing, your body automatically breaks down and dissolves the blood clots, which are thickened clumps of blood.

However, not all blood clots play a helpful role. If your body forms clots too easily or doesn’t allow them to dissolve properly, the clots can threaten your life. They can block or restrict blood flow inside your veins and arteries, which can seriously damage your tissues and organs.

If you have blood clot symptoms, it’s important to seek treatment right away. Depending on where they’re located, clots can turn into embolisms, such as a pulmonary embolism. Embolisms are clots that break loose and travel through a vein or artery, blocking blood flow and possibly damaging your brain, heart, lungs or limbs.

Blood clot symptoms

Call 911 immediately if you or someone you know has any of these symptoms:

  • Unexplained, sudden high blood pressure
  • Leg pain, swelling, redness and warmth, which may be signs of deep vein thrombosis, often caused by a blood clot in the leg
  • Problems speaking or understanding speech, intense headache, paralysis or dizziness, which may be signs of a blood clot in your brain’s carotid artery that may be causing a stroke
  • Shortness of breath or pain in your chest, arm, shoulder or jaw, which are possible signs of a clot causing a heart attack or pulmonary embolism

Blood clot causes

There are many reasons a blood clot can develop, including certain risk factors. You may:

  • Have a genetic health condition related to developing clots
  • Have diabetes or metabolic syndrome, conditions that can encourage clot formation
  • Be overweight or a smoker
  • Be pregnant
  • Have been inactive for long periods of time due to travel, illness or surgery

Blood clot testing & diagnosis

If you have blood clot symptoms or risk factors related to a clotting disorder, your doctor will ask you about your personal and family medical histories. They may also order some tests, such as:

  • Blood work: We may recommend lab tests or refer you to a hematologist, a doctor who specializes in blood disorders.
  • CT scan, MRI or other imaging tests: In some cases, we may need images of your veins, abdomen, chest, brain or other location a clot may have formed.
  • Echocardiogram: This imaging method uses sound waves to create pictures of your body’s organs and blood vessels.

Find out more about our heart and vascular testing and diagnosis.

Blood clot treatment

Your doctor will thoroughly discuss with you the treatment options for your specific situation. Options can vary and depend on how serious the blood clot or clotting disorder has become. Your doctor may recommend:

  • Medication: If the clot doesn’t pose an emergency, we may treat it with anticoagulants, or blood thinners. We’ll carefully monitor your blood to make sure the medication doesn’t cause additional bleeding. At our special anticoagulation clinics, we provide blood testing, dosing instructions and education – all to minimize any problems with blood thinners and bring you peace of mind.
  • Emergency blood clot treatment: If a clot causes a stroke, heart attack, pulmonary embolism or other serious condition, you’ll need immediate, emergency treatment such as:
    • Catheter-directed thrombolysis: This cardiac catheterization procedure uses a thin tube called a catheter to direct medication into the blood clot to dissolve it.
    • Vena cava filter replacement: Your surgeon inserts a metal filter into an abdominal vein to stop blood clots from moving to your lungs or heart.
  • Lifestyle changes: If you have underlying health conditions that increase your risk of developing blood clots, your doctor may recommend making some lifestyle changes, such as quitting smoking, getting more regular exercise and eating a healthy diet.

Are you at risk for heart disease?

Knowing your risk factors of heart disease – the leading cause of death in the U.S. – can help you lower your chances of developing it. Our heart health quiz estimates your risk, determines which of your risk factors are controllable and gives you an idea what to do next based on your results.

Take the heart health quiz

90,000 Do thrombosis have a woman’s face? How to “catch and neutralize” this dangerous disease | Healthy life | Health

Everyone is afraid of plane crashes, but few people know that after a safe landing, you can collapse dead right at the plane’s ladder – due to the separation of a blood clot formed in the veins during the flight.

Doctors believe that blood clots form in one of the passengers on each flight. Fortunately, not every case ends in tragedy. According to statistics, 70% of people experience thrombosis.Why do blood clots occur? Can a hazard be identified? And how to protect yourself from the threat?

Doctors of the Krasnodar Regional Cardiology Center saved a hopeless patient by removing a 35-centimeter thrombus from the heart and lungs. This became a sensation – such cases were previously considered inoperable. But the 38-year-old patient not only survived – she returned to work a year later.

“This case debunked the myth that thrombosis is a sentence,” says Anatoly Zavrazhnov, MD., deputy. chief physician of the Krasnodar Regional Clinical Hospital No. 1 . – With early detection and proper treatment, even the largest blood clots can be rendered harmless.

What kind of attack?

Blood clots are blood clots. In principle, they are a natural reaction of the body, protecting it from blood loss in case of injury. Problems begin when blood clots, attaching to the walls of blood vessels, form a plug, which at any time can come off, go swimming through the veins and arteries and, once in a narrow place, completely block the blood flow.And the person suddenly dies. There are two types of thrombosis – venous and arterial. Venous is more common. It is dangerous for its complications, the most difficult of which is thromboembolism (blockage of the branches) of the pulmonary artery. Surgeons claim that this diagnosis accounts for a third of sudden deaths. More than half of patients die within the first 2 hours after the onset of embolism. Arterial blood clots are less common, but they are more insidious. Being in a fast blood flow, they often break off, causing first a violation of the blood supply to the organ that the artery supplies with blood, and then its death.So, thrombosis of coronary arteries leads to myocardial infarction, cerebral arteries – to stroke.

– For the formation of blood clots, a combination of three factors is necessary, – says Anatoly Zavrazhnov, – damage to the inner surface of blood vessels (occurs after traumatic, tumor or inflammatory diseases), slowing blood flow (occurs with heart failure, prolonged bed rest and varicose veins), increased coagulation blood (observed in trauma, inflammation, surgery and dehydration).

Everyone is at risk!

“Venous thrombosis has a woman’s face,” says Ivan Kolotovkin, head of the department of Krasnodar Clinical Hospital No. 1 . – In women, varicose veins are more common, in which blood stagnation occurs in the legs. The more pronounced varicose veins, the higher the threat of thrombosis. At risk are everyone who has undergone surgery and injuries (especially of the lower extremities). According to statistics, thrombosis of the venous system is detected in 70% of patients after orthopedic surgery.Blood clots are more common in older people.

– The hypodynamia accompanying a sedentary lifestyle provokes blood stagnation – one of the main risk factors for the disease, – says Ivan Kolotovkin.

The most common cause of arterial thrombosis is atherosclerosis. Atherosclerotic plaques cause the arteries to narrow. The blood flow swirls, and favorable conditions for the formation of thrombosis arise.

The relationship between smoking and the formation of atherosclerosis, and hence the occurrence of blood clots, has been proven.

Is summer a little death?

Blood clots are more likely to form in summer. There are several reasons for this. The main one is travel, or rather, the accompanying air travel. Air passengers sit in uncomfortable positions for a long time, the veins are pinched, and the low pressure and extremely dry air in the aircraft cabins contribute to blood stagnation and rapid dehydration. To avoid blood clots, before the flight, you need to pull on compression hosiery (it improves blood flow in the legs), take an aspirin tablet (it will reduce blood viscosity), and stretch your legs more often during the flight.The second reason is the summer desire to lose weight. Blood clots are more often formed in women who are on diets (the withdrawal of excess fluid from the body is the basis of diets, and with this dehydration of the body begins) or taking birth control pills (they increase blood clotting).

Can you sense the lurking danger?

– Symptoms of venous thrombosis – heaviness in the muscles, edema, induration along the veins, cyanosis of the skin, pain, – explains Anatoly Zavrazhnov. – Signs of arterial thrombosis depend on where the blood clot is.With arterial thrombi of the legs, patients complain of sharp pain, cold snap and a drop in sensitivity. Blood clots in the arteries of the abdomen cause vomiting, diarrhea, and abdominal pain. The symptoms of pulmonary artery thrombosis are chest pain, shortness of breath, cough, heart rhythm disturbances. Chronic disorders of cerebral circulation (dizziness, visual disturbances, difficulty speaking) are signs of cerebral artery thrombosis. Blood clots in the coronary arteries make themselves felt with angina pectoris – pain in the heart during exercise.

“However, 30% of venous thrombosis is asymptomatic,” says Ivan Kolotovkin. – They are the most dangerous. To find them, you need to undergo examinations. Planned thrombi are not removed, but are dissolved with special preparations.

How to protect yourself from blood clots

1. Lead an active lifestyle – physical activity improves blood circulation, prevents blood stagnation, improves metabolic processes in the body.

2. Eat right – the basis of the diet should be plant foods that do not contain cholesterol.

3. Avoid dehydration – lack of fluid increases blood viscosity.

4. Take care of yourself – injuries, operations, infectious diseases – a risk factor for blood clots.

5. Get scheduled examinations.

How to recognize blood clots?

Emergency diagnostics:

1. Duplex ultrasound scanning of veins, during which the diameter of the vein is measured, the blood flow velocity is determined. Often the blood clot itself can be seen on ultrasound.

2. Phlebography – a contrast agent is injected into the vein, which allows you to see the structure of the vein on an X-ray image and determine the presence of a thrombus in it.

3. Angiography – recommended for the diagnosis of blood clots in the vessels of the brain.

Routine diagnostics:

1. Blood test for cholesterol.

2. Coagulogram (blood clotting test).

3. Biochemical blood test (high level of D-dimers is a key indicator of deep vein thrombosis and pulmonary embolism).

Thrombosis is a common problem for office workers. Read about what other diseases are inherent in people of sedentary professions here >>>

Do not bring the veins to a blood clot

The chief vascular surgeon of the Primorsky Territory, Doctor of Medical Sciences, Professor Viktor Rapovka tells about the causes of thrombosis, how to prevent their development, how they are treated and how not to miss the moment for urgent medical attention.

Blood flowing from a damaged vessel has a unique ability to clot. But sometimes it begins to roll up right in the vessels, and then blood clots form in their lumens. A torn off blood clot enters the blood vessels supplying the lungs with blood flow and clogs them. A serious condition develops – pulmonary embolism, the consequences of which are often fatal.

Who is at risk?

Blood clots in the veins of the legs occur for various reasons.But in 90% of cases of pulmonary embolism (PE), it is caused by varicose veins. It increases the risk of deep vein thrombosis and therefore needs to be treated.

Dilated blood vessels on the legs are not necessarily a sign of a disease, it may just be a cosmetic defect. But, to make sure that you have nothing terrible, you need to contact not a beauty salon, but a vascular surgeon or phlebologist. If necessary, an ultrasound examination will be prescribed to determine the patency of deep and superficial veins, as well as to detect blood clots in the affected veins and the degree of their danger.

If blood clots appear in deep veins, they may or may not be present. In the first case, there are pronounced pain sensations along the vein, the leg swells – and the person is forced to consult a doctor. It is worse when the thrombosis is asymptomatic.

Today, thromboembolic complications are among the first in the number of deaths. Autopsy reveals changes in lung tissue caused by asymptomatic thromboembolic complications in half of those who died from various diseases.That is, people who have suffered venous thrombosis did not even know that they had this disease.

In addition to those suffering from varicose veins, those who move little are at risk. Sedentary or standing work, long air travel and travel in a car – all these situations inevitably entail a slowdown in blood circulation. Blood stagnates in deep veins. Because of this, the blood cells stick together, forming a clot, which is called a thrombus.

There is a high risk of thrombosis and thromboembolism of the pulmonary artery and during major surgical interventions (prosthetics of the hip and knee joints, pelvic surgery, oncological surgery, etc.)when the patient is forced to comply with bed rest. And also in the case of immobilization (immobilization) of the lower limbs in case of fractures or after surgery.

According to statistics, after replacement of the hip joint, deep vein thrombosis develops in 60% of cases, even with healthy unchanged veins. Therefore, it is recommended to lift the patient out of bed as early as possible (on the second or third day). The earlier a person begins to walk, the lower the risk of developing deep vein thrombosis. Also, hospital jersey (elastic stockings) or bandaging of limbs and anticoagulant therapy are used as preventive measures.Reception of anticoagulants is also indicated for fractures, when the leg is in a cast.

Thrombus thrombus discord

The main danger of thrombosis is that it develops suddenly and progresses very quickly – in just a few hours. Therefore, it is important to seek medical help as soon as possible and urgently do an ultrasound scan.

If a thrombus is found in the veins of the legs, the doctor determines what kind of thrombus it is. If the thrombus is tightly fixed to the vein wall, the patient is prescribed blood thinners and compression hosiery.

If a thrombus has flotation – a fragment freely floating in the bloodstream, more serious treatment is required. It is the floating blood clots that are the most dangerous – the section of the blood clot that is not attached to the venous wall can break off at any time and float to the pulmonary artery with the blood flow. In this case, for the prevention of pulmonary embolism, it may be necessary to install a special device in the vein – a cava filter, which catches a thrombus and prevents it from moving up the venous bed and entering the pulmonary artery.

Blood clot trap

Kava filters come in various modifications, for example, in the form of an umbrella. When folded, such an “umbrella” is passed through a tiny incision or a puncture of a vein in the neck with the help of a catheter into the inferior vena cava (somewhere in the middle of the body) and opens there, fixing itself with its “spokes” on the walls of the vessel.

The operation is a minimally invasive technique and is performed under local anesthesia. Such operations are performed in the Department of Vascular Surgery of the Primorsk Regional Clinical Hospital No. 1.Operations are performed under a compulsory health insurance policy and are free of charge for patients.

But the installation of the filter is only an auxiliary measure. It prevents the development of complications, but does not solve the main problem – the blood clot continues to be in the vein. To dissolve this blood clot, anticoagulant therapy is prescribed. During this time, inflammation of the veins is removed, we eliminate the phenomenon of thrombosis and the threat of thromboembolic complications. And after 2-3 weeks, when the process subsides, the device will need to be removed from the vessel.

Seize the moment

In most cases, the cava filter is effective and allows you to get rid of the blood clot without the risk of embolism. But the restoration of blood flow occurs only if the patient is admitted to the hospital within 2-3 days after the onset of thrombosis. But, unfortunately, patients usually come later. While a person is thinking: whether or not to go to the doctor, the blood clot grows, rises along with the bloodstream, and it will not be possible to simply remove (dissolve) it.That is, the blood clot remains. And even if the inflammation of the vessels is removed, their deformation still occurs and post-thrombotic syndrome develops, characterized by swelling of the lower limb, a change in its color, trophic ulcers.

Against the background of varicose veins of the lower extremities, a complication such as saphenous vein thrombosis may occur. It manifests itself in the form of severe redness and the appearance of a dense painful cord. This means that you urgently need to go to the doctor. If the leg vein is inflamed below the knee joint, this condition can be treated on an outpatient basis.As a treatment, anticoagulant therapy, elastic bandaging of the limb or compression hosiery are prescribed. But if this seal spreads along the vein above the knee and reaches the middle of the thigh, this is an indication for urgent hospitalization. Thrombolysis can be performed here – with the help of a catheter, special drugs are injected into the vessel to dissolve a blood clot. And with a severe form of thrombosis, thrombectomy may also be necessary – the surgical removal of thrombotic masses in the large veins of the lower extremities.

Prevention for healthy

As already mentioned, stagnation of blood in deep veins, caused by immobility of the lower extremities, plays an important role in the development of thrombosis. But it’s one thing when a person who has suffered a serious illness or injured his legs is forced to lie in bed for a long time: if the vessels are damaged, inflammation occurs and the likelihood of a blood clot formation is seriously increased. And it is completely different when a person himself prefers to lie or sit for a long time, thereby voluntarily exposing himself to danger.

Those who sit in the office all day or fly long distances should periodically exercise their legs to avoid stagnation of venous blood. Those who have a tendency to varicose veins during the flight must definitely wear elastic jersey – stockings or knee-highs. In addition, I recommend that absolutely everyone take 1-2 tablets of the phlebotonics group 2 hours before the flight, even with unchanged veins.

90,000 Deep vein thrombosis treatment and symptoms

What is deep vein thrombosis?

DVT is a pathological condition of the veins, in which blood clots form in them, which are a barrier to blood flow.According to medical statistics, most often the disease affects the deep veins of the lower extremities.

The disease can be triggered by various factors and pathological processes that occur in the human body. In order to correctly determine them, a comprehensive diagnosis is carried out and only after that treatment is prescribed.

Etiology of DVT

The development of DVT provokes an “unfortunate coincidence” of various factors:

  • violation of the integrity of the inner surface of the vein due to influences of various nature;

  • interruptions in the work of hemostasis;

  • increased blood viscosity;

  • slow blood flow.

The formation of a large clot occurs when there is a “barrier” on the wall of the vein, which excludes normal blood circulation. So, even a small blood clot can cause inflammatory processes that will provoke further disruption of the integrity of the vein wall and the appearance of larger clots.

The causes of the disease are divided into three large groups, which are presented in our table:




  • lack of antithrombin, which inhibits blood clotting processes

  • fibrinogen “(G) 10034T”

  • lack of proteins “C” and “S”

  • hemorrhagic syndrome

  • patient’s blood group

  • prothrombin “G20210A”


  • Excess weight

  • Orthopedic surgery

  • Pregnancy and the postpartum period in women

  • Sedentary lifestyle

  • Use of hormone replacement therapy

  • Chemotherapy

  • Malignant neoplasms of the pancreas

  • Prolonged vein catheterization


  • An excess of homocysteine ​​/ fibrinogen in the blood

  • Excess factors “VIII”, “IX”, “XI”

Deep vein thrombosis of the lower extremities often develops due to the fact that a person leads a sedentary lifestyle.Abroad, for these conditions, they even came up with the appropriate terms. One of them sounds like “Economy class syndrome” – for people who often have to make long flights, which is why they developed the disease. The second one sounds like “television thrombophlebitis” – for elderly patients in whom the condition has developed as a result of prolonged sitting in front of the TV.

Clinical manifestations DVT

The symptoms of DVT are determined by the location of the thrombus and are manifested as follows:

  • Unpleasant bloating sensation;

  • Painful symptoms, which become stronger with palpation of the affected vein;

  • Edema from total (entire lower limb) to slight at the level of the ankles.

In approximately 50% of clinical cases, there is a partial restoration of blood flow. This happens when blood flows through the communicative veins into the superficial and the disease practically does not manifest itself.

Complications of deep vein thrombosis

DVT is dangerous because in some cases it proceeds without any clinical manifestations at all. In turn, this excludes seeking professional medical help – but a sudden separation of a blood clot in some cases can cause death.PE is the most severe complication of thrombosis. It is characterized by the penetration of thrombotic masses into the pulmonary artery and its branches – and their occlusion. As a result, the patient develops ARF (acute respiratory failure) and AHF (acute heart failure), any of which can cause death.

Other complications of thrombosis:

Diagnosis of deep vein thrombosis

Acute deep vein thrombosis is diagnosed on examination by a phlebologist.Its presence is evidenced by such signs as hyperemia and swelling of the affected area, as well as pain symptoms during palpation. To obtain more accurate information, carry out:

  • general blood analysis;

  • determination of the concentration of D-dimer;

  • coagulogram.

In order to determine the nature of thrombosis and how closed the lumen of the vein is, duplex scanning is used.Contrast phlebography will help to assess the state of the deep venous system and features of blood flow. It involves the injection of an iodine-based contrast agent into the vein and provides accurate information.

Ultrasound duplex scanning is the leading research at the present time. It not only allows you to determine in which part of the vein the thrombus is located, but also to see the degree of closure of the lumen of the vein, the degree of blood flow disturbance, and determine the danger of a thrombus tearing off.In addition to it, computed and magnetic resonance imaging are used to diagnose deep vein thrombosis.

Treatment of deep vein thrombosis

The treatment plan for this disease is selected individually, taking into account the characteristic features of the disease and the patient’s indications. When conducting events, the phlebologist directs his efforts to solving the following tasks:

  • restoration of the patency of the venous system;

  • exclusion of the possibility of destruction of a blood clot and damage by thrombotic masses of other vessels.

Treatment is carried out using various techniques: both conservative and surgical. They are presented in the table below.

Conservative treatment

Surgical treatment

Use is advisable if the thrombus remains in one place and prevents blood flow

  • The patient is recommended an elevated position of the limb, an active motor mode (walking) or bed rest and the exclusion of any loads on the affected limb in case of danger of separation

  • Avoid legumes and any high-fat foods from your diet.

  • You need to drink less than 2 liters of water per day so that the blood viscosity does not increase

  • Drug treatment involves the use of anticoagulants and drugs that destroy blood clots

The use is indicated if the patient has an allergic reaction to pharmacological agents for drug treatment, as well as with a high risk of thrombus rupture and the development of PE

  • Thrombolysis is an event that allows you to dissolve even very large blood clots by injecting thrombolytics into the affected vessel.Shown only in difficult cases

  • Thrombectomy is an operation that involves cutting out a blood clot from a vein. It can be performed using traditional and endovascular techniques, the latter of which is gentle and widely used.

Prevention of DVT

The prevention of deep vein thrombosis requires serious measures from the patient aimed at changing the usual way of life:

  • To give up smoking;

  • Proper nutrition and elimination of excess weight;

  • The correct selection of shoes and the rejection of high-heeled shoes;

  • Provide optimal loads on the lower extremities, excluding too intense, or their complete absence;

  • Regular performance of leg gymnastics;

  • Refusal to wear tight, tight-fitting clothes that press on the body.

In case you nevertheless find the first signs of thrombosis in yourself, urgently seek medical help. Phlebologists of the Doctor Ryadi network of clinics have everything they need to carry out treatment in accordance with international standards.


Thromboembolism of the pulmonary arteries is one of the serious and most dangerous diseases to which mankind annually pays tribute to the death of many, many thousands of patients.In the United States of America last year, three patients died from AIDS, which the American society has thrown into the fight against. At the same time in this country, according to the American Medical Association, annually there are up to 650,000 cases of pulmonary embolism. About a third of them end in the death of the patient. In the Russian Federation, according to experts, about 100,000 people die from pulmonary embolism every year. Thus, this disease claims more lives than car accidents, regional conflicts and criminal incidents combined.


Science and Life // Illustrations

A thrombus (dense blood clot) can break away from the vessel wall and rush into the pulmonary arteries with the flow of blood. The length of the thrombus shown in the picture can be determined using the ruler located next to it.

This is how the muscle-venous pump of the lower leg works.

Blood flows through the vessels.

A thrombus has formed in the vessel.

Science and Life // Illustrations

Science and Life // Illustrations

Clot-catching cava filter

Let’s recall some information from the school course on anatomy. The human heart consists of a right and left section, each of which includes an atrium and a ventricle, separated by valves that allow blood to move in only one direction. These departments do not communicate directly with each other.Venous blood (with a low oxygen content) enters the right atrium through the superior and inferior vena cava. Then the blood enters the right ventricle, which, by contracting, pumps it into the pulmonary trunk. Soon, the trunk divides into the right and left pulmonary arteries, which carry blood to both lungs. Arteries, in turn, break down into lobar and segmental branches, which are further divided – to arterioles and capillaries. In the lungs, venous blood is cleared of carbon dioxide and, enriched with oxygen, becomes arterial.Through the pulmonary veins, it enters the left atrium and then into the left ventricle. From there, under high pressure, blood is pushed into the aorta, then goes through the arteries to all organs. Arteries branch out into smaller and smaller ones and eventually become capillaries. The blood flow rate and blood pressure are significantly reduced by this time. Oxygen and nutrients enter the tissues through the walls of the capillaries from the blood, and carbon dioxide, water and other metabolic products penetrate into the blood. After passing through the network of capillaries, the blood becomes venous.Capillaries merge into venules, then into larger and larger veins, and as a result, the two largest veins – the superior and inferior vena cava – flow into the right atrium. As long as we are alive, this cycle repeats over and over again.

Thromboembolism of the pulmonary arteries is a disease in which dense blood clots (thrombi) formed in the great veins break away from the vessel wall, with the flow of blood enter the right heart and then into the pulmonary arteries. A thrombus that migrates through the vessels is called an embolus.

As a result of thromboembolism of the pulmonary arteries (especially massive, which means blockage of at least one of the main pulmonary arteries), the work of the heart, pulmonary blood flow and gas exchange are catastrophically disrupted. In this case, the right ventricle seems to “choke” with blood flowing through the vena cava, which he is not able to pump through the pulmonary arterial bed closed by a thrombus. The patient experiences severe suffocation, chest pain, severe weakness. Cyanosis of the upper half of the body appears, blood pressure drops, and a quick death is very likely.

Fortunately, large (massive) thromboemboli do not always get into the lungs. If their size is small, they disrupt blood flow only in the lobar or segmental pulmonary arteries, which is manifested by symptoms of a pulmonary infarction (chest pain, aggravated by breathing, cough, hemoptysis, fever). Sometimes such “minor” embolism may not appear at all until repeated episodes lead to more severe changes in pulmonary blood flow.

Pulmonary embolism is not an independent disease that develops suddenly in the midst of complete health. It is necessarily preceded by the occurrence of venous thrombosis. Particularly dangerous are blood clots formed in the inferior vena cava basin: in the deep veins of the pelvis and lower extremities. The fight against thromboembolism of the pulmonary arteries should begin at the distant frontiers – with treatment, and better with the prevention of venous thrombosis.


The reasons for intravascular thrombus formation were formulated in the middle of the 18th century by the outstanding German pathologist Rudolf Virchow, who also proposed the term “embolism”.A thrombus is formed as a result of damage to the vascular wall, slowing blood flow and changes in the composition of the blood itself. Sometimes one reason is enough. In the presence of all three, thrombus formation is inevitable.

Veins are quite delicate and easily injured anatomical formations (see Science and Life, No. 2, 2001). Their walls are much thinner than those of arteries of the same diameter. The blood pressure in the veins is much lower, therefore, the middle (muscle) layer is less developed. Veins are less resistant to external compression and injury, they are easily involved in the inflammatory process even without the participation of microorganisms.In addition, there are valves in the veins, damage to which and stagnation of blood in the area of ​​their location contribute to the formation of blood clots.

Much more complicated than in the arteries is the movement of blood through the veins. The blood is pushed through the arteries by powerful contractions of the left ventricle. From the legs and the lower half of the body, blood returns to the heart from the bottom up, against the force of gravity. What contributes to this difficult process? First of all, the work of the muscles. Their regular contractions during walking and exercise cause compression of the deep veins.The valves in the veins only allow blood to flow to the heart. This mechanism, called the musculo-venous pump, essentially acts as a second peripheral venous heart. It is very important for the normal functioning of the blood circulation. The negative pressure that occurs in the chest cavity during the respiratory movements of the diaphragm and the walls of the chest, as well as the transmitting pulsation of the arteries lying next to the veins, help to return blood to the heart.

Maintaining blood in a liquid state ensures the simultaneous operation of a huge number of complex biochemical mechanisms.They maintain a precise balance between the blood coagulation and anticoagulant systems. There are a large number of typical situations, well known to doctors, in which the venous blood flow is simultaneously disturbed and the coagulation system is activated.

For example, during any surgical operation, a large amount of tissue thromboplastin, a substance that stimulates blood coagulation, enters the bloodstream from tissues. The harder and more extensive the operation, the greater the release of this substance.The same happens with any injury. This mechanism was formed in ancient times, and without it humanity, as a biological species, simply would not have survived. Otherwise, any trauma in our distant ancestors, and in ours, would have ended in death from bleeding. The body, as a whole system, does not care what caused the wound – the claws of a saber-toothed tiger or a surgeon’s scalpel. In any case, there is a rapid activation of the blood coagulation potential. But this protective mechanism can often play a negative role, since it creates the prerequisites for the formation of blood clots in the venous system in operated patients.

On the first day after the operation, it is difficult for the patient to get up, move and walk. This means that the work of the musculo-venous pump is turned off and venous blood flow slows down. In case of injuries, in addition, it is necessary to apply plaster casts, skeletal traction, connect bone fragments with metal pins, which sharply limits the patient’s physical activity and contributes to the occurrence of thrombosis. Its frequency after surgical operations on the abdominal organs can reach 25-40%. With hip fractures, knee and hip joint replacement, deep vein thrombosis of the legs develops in 60-70% of patients.

The most serious problem is venous thromboembolic complications during pregnancy. Even in economically developed countries such as the USA, France, Japan, Switzerland, where they have learned to successfully deal with many of the complications, pulmonary embolism has come to one of the first places in the structure of maternal mortality.

The fact is that a woman’s body prepares itself in advance for childbirth, and therefore for blood loss. Already from the early stages of pregnancy, the blood coagulation system is activated.The tone of the veins decreases due to the general softening of the connective tissue. The inferior vena cava and iliac veins are compressed by the growing uterus. Therefore, all the components of Virchow’s triad are present, and thrombosis easily occurs. Even obstetricians-gynecologists do not always notice this danger, often considering edema of the lower extremities (one of the main signs of thrombosis) as a complication of pregnancy associated with impaired renal function.

Acute venous thrombosis may complicate the use of hormonal contraceptives.These drugs, as it were, deceive the woman’s body, “convincing” it that pregnancy has already begun, and hemostasis, naturally, reacts by activating the coagulation system. Although pharmacologists are trying to reduce the content of hormones, primarily estrogens, in these drugs, the incidence of venous thrombosis (and, therefore, the possibility of pulmonary embolism) in women taking hormonal contraceptives is at least 3-4 times higher than in those taking who does not accept them. The risk of thrombus formation is especially high in women who smoke, because under the influence of nicotine, thromboxane is released, a powerful blood clotting factor.Actively promotes thrombus formation and overweight.

Venous thrombosis is a common complication in neoplasms, both malignant and benign. Patients with tumors, as a rule, have increased blood clotting. This is due, apparently, to the fact that the patient’s body prepares in advance for the future disintegration of the growing tumor. Often, venous thrombosis acts as the first clinical sign of an onset cancer process.

Even a long flight in a cramped airplane seat, with legs bent at the knees, in case of forced inactivity, can provoke venous thrombosis (“economy class syndrome”).

Thus, any surgical intervention, any trauma, pregnancy, childbirth, any disease associated with the patient’s inactivity, circulatory failure, can be complicated by venous thrombosis and pulmonary embolism. This is what explains such a high incidence of venous thromboembolic complications even in countries with well-developed medicine.

The insidiousness of venous thrombosis also lies in the fact that its clinical manifestations do not cause a feeling of great trouble in the patient.Swelling of the leg, pain, usually of a moderate nature, slight cyanosis of the limb does not frighten patients, and sometimes they do not even consider it necessary to consult a doctor. In this case, a blood clot without any warning can break off from the vein wall in a few seconds, turn into an embolus and cause severe thromboembolism of the pulmonary arteries with an unpredictable outcome. That is why pulmonary embolism is perceived as a “bolt from the blue” not only by patients, but also by doctors.

Fortunately, not every venous thrombosis is complicated by thromboembolism, although their number is very large.The so-called floating blood clots are dangerous. This is a variant of thrombosis when the top of the thrombus is washed with blood from three sides and is fixed to the vein wall only at one point at the base. A thrombus sways in the bloodstream with any sudden movement, coughing, straining, easily breaks off and “flies” into the pulmonary artery. It is impossible to find out which blood clot threatens pulmonary embolism, and which one does not, during a routine examination of the patient. This requires special instrumental research methods.


So, the fight against deadly thromboembolism of the pulmonary arteries is a fight, first of all, with acute venous thrombosis.Of course, it is much more effective to prevent thrombosis than to treat it. That is why the attention of doctors of various specialties, pharmacologists, pathophysiologists and biochemists is now riveted to the problem of preventing venous thromboembolic complications. That is why surgeons, oncologists, gynecologists, physical therapy physicians are so persistently trying to get their patients out of bed the next day after the operation, or even on the same day, in order to take a few steps around the ward (often listening to accusations from their patients of all mortal sins ).In this case, the common phrase “movement is life” comes to mind quite aptly. That is why low-traumatic endoscopic operations are of such interest among surgeons, and active methods of trauma treatment – among traumatologists.

Of the pharmacological agents that prevent thrombosis, the so-called low-molecular-weight heparins (clexane, fraxiparin, fragmin, etc.), administered in prophylactic doses before the operation and in the first days after it, have proven themselves best. The complex application of physical and pharmacological measures can reduce the number of pulmonary embolisms by 5-7 times, although, unfortunately, it does not completely exclude them.

If thrombosis of the great veins has already developed, then doctors direct all efforts primarily to prevent pulmonary embolism. Previous attempts to remove the thrombus were completely futile, since against the background of altered hemostasis, a new thrombus appears on the inflamed vein wall, which is looser and even more dangerous. The venous thrombosis does not threaten the leg’s viability, since the arteries passable for blood flow regularly bring oxygen and nutrients. Venous gangrene is a very rare complication; it develops if blood clots close absolutely all veins, both deep and subcutaneous.Therefore, simultaneously with antithrombotic therapy, aimed at preventing the growth and spread of a thrombus, the patient is examined to identify floating, embolic forms of venous thrombosis.

For a long time, only phlebography was used for this, that is, an X-ray study of the great veins using a contrast agent. Currently, in most patients, the diagnosis can be made using ultrasound techniques. First of all, this is ultrasound angioscanning, which does not require a vein puncture, the introduction of a toxic contrast agent and, which is very important – especially when examining pregnant women, is not associated with the patient’s radiation.At the same time, the information content of the study is not inferior to phlebography.

In cases where a floating thrombus is found during examination, the most important thing is to prevent a possible pulmonary embolism. In specialized clinics, so-called cava filters are used for this purpose.

If for any reason it is not possible to install or, as surgeons say, to implant a cava filter, plication of the inferior vena cava can be performed. This is an operation in which the lumen of the vena cava is stitched with U-shaped mechanical sutures, as a result of which one wide lumen of the vein turns into several narrow channels that allow blood to pass through and do not allow large blood clots to pass through.

But the most dangerous, often catastrophic course of the situation takes on the already occurred pulmonary embolism. Thromboemboli, as a rule, are of considerable size, and in most patients they close the pulmonary trunk or the main pulmonary arteries.

For quite a long time, the only possible attempt to help these people was a complex and traumatic operation – pulmonary embolectomy. At the same time, the sternum was dissected, the pulmonary trunk was opened, and emboli were removed from its lumen.The best results were achieved when artificial blood circulation was used during this operation, a complex and expensive procedure that did not allow such interventions to be widely performed.

Thrombolytic therapy is now more and more widely used for pulmonary embolism, which helps to save previously doomed patients. A group of drugs (streptokinase, urokinase, tissue plasminogen activator) capable of dissolving fibrin, the main binding component of blood clots, has been created. A catheter is inserted through the subclavian vein into the pulmonary trunk, through which a thrombolytic agent enters the thrombus.

Thrombolytics are highly effective drugs, but their use is possible only in specialized departments and are administered by highly qualified specialists with the necessary knowledge and experience.

Modern medicine has a wide range of tools for the diagnosis and treatment of acute venous thrombosis and pulmonary embolism. Nevertheless, it should be remembered that the main way of dealing with this most dangerous complication is prevention, carried out in collaboration by doctors and patients.Fighting overweight, uncontrolled intake of hormonal drugs, smoking, physical inactivity, conscious and active implementation of medical recommendations can significantly reduce the frequency of tragedies and accidents caused by this disease.

Deep vein thrombosis – a directory of diseases – HealthInfo

The goal of deep vein thrombosis treatment is to prevent the growth of a thrombus and its separation, which can lead to the development of PE. Thereafter, the goal is to reduce the likelihood of recurrent thrombosis.

Treatment options:

  • Blood thinning drugs. Medications for DVT include anticoagulants, sometimes called blood thinners, whenever possible. These are medicines that reduce the blood’s ability to clot. Although they do not destroy existing blood clots, they can prevent them from enlarging and reduce the risk of additional blood clots forming

Treatment is usually started with a heparin infusion over several days.Once heparin is started, treatment can be continued with other injectable anticoagulants such as enoxaparin, dateparin, or fondaparinux. Other anticoagulants are taken in pill form – warfarin, rivaroxoban. The newest blood thinning drugs may have additional effects in the near future.

You may need to take these funds for three months or longer. If you are prescribed anticoagulants, it is important to take them exactly as prescribed by your doctor.Anticoagulants have significant side effects when taken too little or too much.

You may need periodic blood tests to assess clotting properties. Certain anticoagulants should not be taken by pregnant women.

  • Thrombolytics. If you have severe deep vein thrombosis or pulmonary embolism, or if other medications do not work, you may need other medications.

One of the groups of such drugs is thrombolytics.These drugs, called tissue plasminogen activators, are used to break up blood clots and can be given through a catheter at the site of the clot. This type of medication can cause severe bleeding and is usually only used for life-threatening conditions. For these reasons, thrombolytics are used only in intensive care units in hospitals.

  • Installation of filters. If you are unable to administer blood thinners, into the vena cava (v.cava) a custom filter can be installed. A kava filter prevents any loose blood clot from reaching your lungs.
  • Compression garments. Its use is aimed at preventing edema associated with venous thrombosis. The stockings are worn on the legs at the level from the feet to the upper third of the thighs.

The pressure they exert helps reduce the likelihood of blood stagnating and clotting. These stockings should be worn daily for two to three years, if possible.Wearing compression garments can prevent the development of PTFS.

Dissolution of blood clots in Moscow: catheter thrombolysis to remove blood clots at the Innovative Vascular Center

Dissolution of blood clots in blood vessels (targeted thrombolytic therapy, catheter thrombolysis) is an effective treatment for acute deep vein thrombosis (DVT) or arteries. The meaning of treatment is to supply a drug that dissolves blood clots directly into the clot itself using a special catheter under X-ray control.Blood clots usually occur in the leg, hip, or pelvis and can move. When a blood clot enters the lungs it can cause shortness of breath, chest pain and lead to sudden death, if a blood clot develops in the arteries it causes heart attack, stroke and gangrene.

It is important for patients to understand that traditional medicine methods are not suitable for dissolving blood clots in blood vessels and this therapy cannot be carried out at home. All “folk remedies” that are offered by “healers” for dissolving blood clots in the veins of the lower extremities are nothing more than fraud and misleading.No tinctures, even if allowed to infuse, can prevent the formation of blood clots. Only special preparations of thrombolytics and heparin derivatives used to thin the blood can relieve a person of blood clots and prevent their appearance.

The Innovative Vascular Center has developed an emergency thrombolysis technology that allows you to dissolve blood clots in the vessels in the shortest possible time to prevent the development of deadly complications.

How is catheter dissolution of blood clots performed

Treatment is carried out in an X-ray operating room.Under local anesthesia, the vascular surgeon will puncture a vein or artery. The puncture site is chosen according to the localization of the thrombotic blockage, so that the path to the thrombus is the shortest. Through a puncture, a thin plastic tube is inserted into the vessel and, under the control of an X-ray machine, is carried to the site of thrombosis. A drug that dissolves blood clots is injected through the tube and into the clot. If necessary, a small machine is inserted through the tube to break or suck up the curd.

After the dissolution of blood clots, various pathological processes are often found in the iliac or subclavian vein (May-Turner syndrome, constrictions, narrowing, compression at the exit from the chest) or in the arteries – atherosclerotic plaques.These problems with angioplasty and / or a stent can be eliminated already during the clot dissolution procedure. Or later, a separate surgical intervention is performed.

Angioplasty is the expansion of the vessel with a special balloon. After the blood clot dissolves, a small balloon device is inserted into the affected area of ​​the vessel. The balloon is then inflated and deflated several times, if the narrowing is severe, a metal mesh – a stent can be placed inside the vessel to keep it open.The stent acts as a scaffold to support the inner wall of the vessel and remains there. After achieving the clinical and angiographic result, the catheter is removed, and the puncture is closed with a sterile pressure bandage.

After treatment

You can spend the day in the intensive care unit (ICU). You will be prescribed antithrombotic drugs (heparin) for 12 to 14 hours to reduce blood clotting. After successful lysis of clots in the veins, it is necessary to use a compression stocking or sleeve to accelerate the outflow of blood.
Your vascular surgeon will probably recommend that you take a blood thinner (acetylsalicylic acid or xarelto). Vessel Due F may be prescribed to reduce blood viscosity.

Risks, Contraindications, and Complications

Although dilution can safely and effectively improve blood flow and relieve thrombotic symptoms in many patients, it is not recommended for everyone. Thrombolysis cannot be recommended for patients using blood thinning medications, herbs, or dietary supplements, or for people with certain conditions associated with an increased risk of bleeding.These conditions include:

  • High blood pressure
  • Active bleeding or severe blood loss
  • Hemorrhagic stroke
  • Severe kidney disease
  • Recent surgery

Thrombolysis may also be associated with complications or increased risk of pregnancy are in old age, as well as in people with other diseases.

Patients undergoing thrombolysis have a small risk of infection (less than one in 1000) and a small risk of an allergic reaction to a contrast dye that may be required for imaging.

In addition to the risk of serious internal bleeding, other possible risks include:

  • Bleeding or hemorrhage at the access site
  • Damage to a blood vessel
  • Migration of a blood clot to another part of the vascular system
  • Kidney damage in patients with diabetes mellitus or others kidney disease
  • The most serious possible complication is intracranial bleeding, which is potentially fatal.But this complication is rare. Cerebral hemorrhage causing stroke occurs in less than 1% of patients.


Although thrombolysis is usually successful, the drugs fail to dissolve blood clots in 25% of patients. Another 12% of patients subsequently develop a blood clot or blockage in a blood vessel.

Thrombolysis by itself cannot revive tissues that have already been damaged by impaired blood circulation, therefore, further treatment may be required to eliminate the underlying causes of the thrombus and restore damaged tissues and organs.Timely dissolution can also prevent the development of post-thrombotic disease and the formation of trophic ulcers on the legs.

90,000 “At least 60 percent of people taking mRNA injections will suffer from these blood clots”

Well, what can I tell you, those who are going to be regularly “vaccinated” against something that has NOT been reliably detected in the latest laboratories from China to the USA for a whole year and a half, it may be necessary to regularly check the cardiovascular system instead of regular “vaccination”

I checked the original material, the link is below, if you wish, you can evaluate the possible degree of trust in it yourself

Also, on both links, if you wish, you can watch the author’s video material in English

Well, I quote the corrected auto-translation, highlighting some places, and recommend reading carefully

“The doctor says that vaccines with mRNA“ will kill most people ”due to heart failure, 62% of vaccinated people already show microscopic blood clots


13.07.2021 / Ethan Huff

The vast majority of people injected with the Wuhan coronavirus (Covid-19) will die within a few short years from heart failure, warns Dr. Charles Hoffe, MD, a practitioner in British Columbia, Canada .

In one of his latest updates, Dr. Hoffe explains that on he is observing in his patients who have received the mRNA (messenger RNA) “vaccine” from Pfizer-BioNTech or Moderna that their capillaries are now clogging, which he says is will eventually lead to serious cardiovascular disease .

Injections of mRNA from the Chinese virus are programmed to turn the human body into a spike protein “factory”. And Dr. Hoffe says that over time these mass-produced spike proteins cause progressive blood clotting .

At least 60 percent of people who take an mRNA injection will suffer from these blood clots – and eventually the vast majority will end up six feet deep due to damage.

“We now know that only 25 percent of the ‘vaccine’ given to a person in the arm actually remains in your arm ,” explains Dr. Hoffe in one of his blogs.

The remaining 75 percent of these little packets of messenger RNA are collected by your lymphatic system and literally enter your bloodstream . By the way, there are literally 40 trillion mRNA molecules in one dose of the Moderna “vaccine”. ”

Dr. Hoffe says that while these packages were designed by Big Pharma to be directly absorbed into human cells, the only place they can actually be absorbed is around the blood vessels and into the capillary networks , which are the smallest blood vessels. in which blood flow is slowed down, and where genes are released.

Then your body starts reading and then producing trillions and trillions of these spike proteins,” he says.

“Each gene can produce many, many spike proteins. The body then recognizes that these are foreign bodies and makes antibodies against them to protect you from COVID. This is ‘s idea. ”

Injections of mRNA insert “sharp pieces” into blood vessels, ultimately causing heart failure .

Although it has long been claimed that these spike proteins act as a deterrent to viral infection after injection into the human body, they actually become part of the human vascular endothelial cell wall .

“This means that these cells lining your blood vessels, which need to be smooth for your blood to flow smoothly, now have these little, protruding spines ,” explains Principia Scientific.

Dr. Hoffe says blood clots will inevitably form from the injected drug, because as the adhesion proteins injected with the vaccine are embedded in the blood vessels and capillaries, platelets circulate around them, trying to solve the problem and creating more and more clots.

“So , when a platelet passes through the capillary, it suddenly bumps into all these COVID thorns, and it becomes absolutely inevitable that blood clots will form that block this vessel ,” he writes.

Therefore, these spike proteins can predictably cause blood clots. They are in your blood vessels (if you are vaccinated with the mRNA vaccine), so is guaranteed. ”

It turns out that these blood clots differ from the “rare” ones, which are mentioned in the media , which are found on computed tomography and MRI. They are microscopic and not detectable on testing as they can only be detected by a blood test known as D-dimer .

Dr. Hoffe performed D-dimer tests on his patients vaccinated with the mRNA vaccine, whereby he found that at least 62 percent of them had these microscopic thrombi .

“The most disturbing part of this is that has certain parts of the body, such as the brain, spinal cord, heart and lungs, that cannot [regenerate],” he says.” When these tissues are damaged by blood clots, they are irreversibly damaged .”

Source: https://www.pandemic.news/2021-07-13-doctor-says-mrna-vaccines-kill-most-people.html “

Information source: https://www.infomirsk.org / koronavirus / doktor-govorit-chto-vakciny-s-mrnk-ubjut-bolshinstvo-ljudej-iz-za-serdechnoj-nedostatochnosti

Actually, this is quite similar to what the microbiologist said at the round table at Masha in the spring. dedicated to domestic “vector vaccines” – but in fact, of course, it is the drugs of gene therapy that have nothing to do with what was previously understood as vaccines

Well, let me remind you the words of the Honored Doctor of Russia, who for two decades worked as the main an infectious disease specialist of the Novosibirsk Federal District and the city of Novosibirsk:

What is observed immediately after vaccination is NOT a consequence, it is just a reaction to the very introduction of the vaccine.The consequences begin in about six months and appear in up to three years

Well, since these drugs are new, their action has not yet been investigated so much that even the official period of their clinical trials on volunteers is far from over, and they act at the cellular microlevel .