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How do they check for a yeast infection: How Yeast Infections Are Diagnosed


How Yeast Infections Are Diagnosed

Vaginal itching, redness, and discharge sound like sure signs of a yeast infection — a fungal infection that’s as common as it is annoying. As apparent as the infection may seem, however, you may face some risks if you diagnose or treat it yourself. These symptoms can also be a red flag for other, more serious health issues. The only way to know for sure is to see your gynecologist — especially if you’ve never been diagnosed with a yeast infection before.

Symptoms of a Yeast Infection

Vulvovaginal candidiasis, more commonly known as a yeast infection, develops when there’s an overgrowth of the Candida yeast normally found in the vagina. The infection can cause a number of uncomfortable symptoms, including:

  • Itching in and around the vagina
  • A burning sensation in the vaginal area
  • Redness, soreness, or irritation in and around the vagina
  • Vaginal discharge ranging from thin and watery to thick and curd-like

If you have a yeast infection, you might experience other warning signs such as painful urination, says Sarah Wagner, MD, an assistant professor of obstetrics and gynecology at Loyola University Health System in Maywood, Ill. “This is caused by urine making contact with an irritated vulva,” she says.

Some women may also experience redness and swelling, says Oluwatosin Jaiyeoba, MD, an obstetrician/gynecologist with the Cleveland Clinic in Ohio. “These symptoms can develop inside the vagina as well as externally,” she says.

Why It’s Important to See Your Doctor for a Yeast Infection

If you suspect you have a yeast infection, you should see your doctor to confirm a diagnosis and get treatment. Ignoring or delaying treatment for a yeast infection can make the condition more difficult to manage.

There are a number of yeast infection medications now available without a prescription. These antifungal treatments are available in creams, tablets, and suppositories that are inserted into the vagina. Depending on the type of medication you use, treatment can last from one to seven days.

The easy availability of over-the-counter treatments can tempt women who experience the symptoms associated with a yeast infection to self-diagnose and self-treat. That’s not necessarily a good idea, however — especially if you’ve never been officially diagnosed with a yeast infection before.

Some common symptoms of yeast infection could also be signs of another type of infection that requires antibiotics. For instance, yeast infections and urinary tract infections share common symptoms, such as a burning sensation when urinating, Dr. Jaiyeoba says. The signs of a yeast infection are also very similar to certain sexually transmitted infections, like chlamydia and gonorrhea, as well as conditions such as contact dermatitis and bacterial vaginosis.

You should be especially cautious about self-diagnosing a yeast infection if you’re pregnant. Talk to your doctor before using any form of treatment for a suspected yeast infection, particularly if you are in your first trimester.

Diagnosing Yeast Infections at the Doctor’s Office

A diagnosis of yeast infection begins with your gynecologist taking your medical history and asking about your symptoms. Your doctor can confirm a diagnosis by performing a pelvic exam. During the exam, a speculum is inserted in the vagina to allow the doctor to check for symptoms such as swelling or discharge.

Doctors also generally take a sample of discharge with a swab from within the vagina and examine it under a microscope in the office, Wagner says, so a diagnosis can be made right away.

Prescription Treatment for Yeast Infection

Most cases of mild to moderate yeast infection can be treated with an over-the-counter antifungal cream, ointment, tablet, or suppository. If you’re diagnosed with a yeast infection that doesn’t respond to an over-the-counter treatment, your doctor may prescribe a stronger topical or oral medication. Typically, a single dose of oral antifungal medication is sufficient to treat most yeast infections.

For women with recurring or persistent yeast infections, however, one dose may not be enough. Yeast infections are most commonly caused by a type of yeast called Candida albicans, which responds well to typical treatments. But they can also be caused by other types of Candida, which may require longer or more aggressive treatment. “Patients who have a complicated infection because they have a suppressed immune system or they are infected with a non-albicans yeast might need more than one dose,” Jaiyeoba says.

Yeast infection (vaginal) – Diagnosis and treatment


To diagnose a yeast infection, your doctor may:

  • Ask questions about your medical history. This might include gathering information about past vaginal infections or sexually transmitted infections.
  • Perform a pelvic exam. Your doctor examines your external genitals for signs of infection. Next, your doctor places an instrument (speculum) into your vagina to hold the vaginal walls open to examine the vagina and cervix — the lower, narrower part of your uterus.
  • Test vaginal secretions. Your doctor may send a sample of vaginal fluid for testing to determine the type of fungus causing the yeast infection. Identifying the fungus can help your doctor prescribe more effective treatment for recurrent yeast infections.


Treatment for yeast infections depends on the severity and frequency of your infections.

For mild to moderate symptoms and infrequent episodes, your doctor might recommend:

  • Short-course vaginal therapy. Taking an antifungal medication for three to seven days will usually clear a yeast infection. Antifungal medications — which are available as creams, ointments, tablets and suppositories — include miconazole (Monistat 3) and terconazole. Some of these medications are available over-the-counter and others by prescription only.
  • Single-dose oral medication. Your doctor might prescribe a one-time, single oral dose of fluconazole (Diflucan). Oral medication isn’t recommended if you’re pregnant. To manage more-severe symptoms, you might take two single doses three days apart.

See your doctor again if treatment doesn’t resolve your symptoms or if your symptoms return within two months.

If your symptoms are severe, or you have frequent yeast infections, your doctor might recommend:

  • Long-course vaginal therapy. Your doctor might prescribe an antifungal medication taken daily for up to two weeks, followed by once a week for six months.
  • Multidose oral medication. Your doctor might prescribe two or three doses of an antifungal medication to be taken by mouth instead of vaginal therapy. However, this therapy isn’t recommended for pregnant women.
  • Azole resistant therapy. Your doctor might recommend boric acid, a capsule inserted into your vagina. This medication may be fatal if taken orally and is used only to treat candida fungus that is resistant to the usual antifungal agents.

Alternative medicine

No alternative medicine therapies have been proved to treat vaginal yeast infections. Some complementary and alternative therapies may provide some relief when combined with your doctor’s care.

Talk to your doctor about what alternative treatments for vaginal yeast infection may be safe for you.

Preparing for your appointment

If you’ve been treated for a yeast infection in the past, your doctor may not need to see you and may prescribe a treatment over the phone. Otherwise, you’re likely to see a family medicine doctor or gynecologist.

What you can do

  • Make a list of any symptoms you’ve had and for how long.
  • Write down key information, including other medical conditions and any medications, vitamins or supplements you’re taking.
  • Avoid using tampons or douching before your appointment.
  • Make a list of questions to ask your doctor.

Questions to ask your doctor

  • Do I need to take medicine?
  • Are there any special instructions for taking the medicine?
  • Are there any over-the-counter products that will treat my condition?
  • What can I do if my symptoms return after treatment?
  • How can I prevent yeast infections?
  • What signs and symptoms should I watch out for?

During your appointment, don’t hesitate to ask other questions as they occur to you.

What to expect from your doctor

Your doctor is likely to ask you a number of questions, including:

  • What vaginal symptoms do you have? How long have you had them?
  • Do you notice a strong vaginal odor?
  • Have you ever been treated for a vaginal infection?
  • Have you tried over-the-counter products to treat your condition?
  • Have you recently taken antibiotics?
  • Are you sexually active?
  • Are you pregnant?
  • Do you use scented soap or bubble bath?
  • Do you douche or use feminine hygiene spray?

March 17, 2021

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Show references

  1. AskMayoExpert. Vulvovaginitis. Rochester, Minn.: Mayo Foundation for Medical Education and Research; 2018.
  2. Ferri FF. Vaginitis, fungal. In: Ferri’s Clinical Advisor 2019. Philadelphia, Pa.: Elsevier; 2019. https://www.clinicalkey.com. Accessed Aug. 26, 2018.
  3. Lobo RA, et al. Genital tract infections: Vulva, vagina, cervix, toxic shock syndrome, endometritis, and salpingitis. In: Comprehensive Gynecology. 7th ed. Philadelphia, Pa.: Elsevier; 2017. https://www.clinicalkey.com. Accessed Aug. 26, 2018.
  4. Cohen J, et al., eds. Vaginitis, vulvitis, cervicitis, and cutaneous vulval lesions. In: Infectious Diseases. 4th ed. Philadelphia, Pa.: Elsevier; 2017. https://clinicalkey.com. Accessed Aug. 26, 2018.
  5. Butler Tobah YS (expert opinion). Mayo Clinic, Rochester, Minn. Sept. 5, 2018.
  6. Blostein F, et al. Recurrent vulvovaginal candidiasis. Annals of Epidemiology. 2017;27:575.
  7. Bope ET, et al. Vulvovaginitis. In: Conn’s Current Therapy 2018. Philadelphia, Pa.: Elsevier; 2018. https://www.clinicalkey.com. Accessed Aug. 26, 2018.
  8. Vaginal yeast infections. Office on Women’s Health. https://www.womenshealth.gov/a-z-topics/vaginal-yeast-infections. Accessed Aug. 26, 2018.

Yeast infection (vaginal)

How Do I Get Testing & Treatment For Vaginitis & Yeast Infections?

A nurse or doctor can tell if you have vaginitis, and help figure out why it happened. Vaginitis treatments vary depending on what’s causing the problem.

Do I have to go to the doctor if I have vaginitis?

If you have symptoms of vaginitis, it’s a good idea to see your nurse, doctor, or local Planned Parenthood health center. Vaginitis isn’t usually a major health problem, but if you don’t get it treated it can become serious.

There are many different causes of vaginitis, and STDs like gonorrhea and chlamydia can have symptoms that are really similar to vaginitis. Seeing a doctor is the best way to find out exactly what’s going on, so you can get the right treatment.

To see what’s causing your vaginitis, your doctor may do an exam, look at a sample of your vaginal discharge under a microscope, or do other tests, like a urine test.

If your doctor has diagnosed you with a vaginal yeast infections before and you’re having the same symptoms, you can try an over-the-counter yeast infection medicine. But if you’re not sure, see your doctor or go to a Planned Parenthood health center. And if you used an over-the-counter medicine but your symptoms don’t go away, see a doctor.

What are the treatments for vaginitis?

Vaginitis is usually easy to cure.  The type of vaginitis treatment that’s best for you depends on:

If your vaginitis is caused by a yeast infection, bacterial vaginosis, or trich, your doctor may give you a prescription for creams, suppositories, vaginal tablets, or pills. You can also get medicated creams or suppositories for yeast infections (like Monistat) at the drugstore without a prescription. Trich is the only type of vaginitis that’s sexually transmitted. So if you have trich it’s very important for your sexual partners to get treated, too.

If your vaginitis is caused by an allergy or irritation, the symptoms will usually go away when you stop using whatever’s causing the problem. Sometimes you might need to use a cream to help clear up your vaginitis. In rare cases of really bad allergic reactions, you may need emergency medical help.

If your vaginitis is caused by low levels of estrogen, your doctor may give you a prescription for creams, pills, or vaginal rings that release estrogen into your body.

No matter what type of vaginitis treatment you need, make sure you:

  • Don’t use anybody else’s medicine. Even if your symptoms are similar, you may have a different infection or need a different kind of treatment.

  • Don’t use old medicine. It may not work anymore, and it could even make the infection worse.

  • Carefully follow your doctor’s instructions or the directions that come with your treatment.

  • Use ALL of your medicine. The infection can come back if you don’t take all your medicine, even if your symptoms stop and even if you have your period.

  • Go to a follow-up appointment with your doctor to make sure the treatment worked.

During your vaginitis treatment:

  • Don’t put anything in your vagina except medicine or tampons. Take a break from oral or vaginal sex until you feel better.

  • If you have your period, it’s okay to use tampons or menstrual cups, unless it’s the kind of medicine you put into your vagina. If that’s the case, use pads instead.

  • If you’re using gels or creams inside your vagina, you can use unscented pads or panty liners to help keep the medicine from leaking onto your clothes.

How can I ease irritating symptoms of vaginitis?

Even though vaginitis can be super itchy and irritating, try not to scratch. It can cause more irritation or cuts in your skin, which can spread germs and lead to more infection. There are over-the-counter vaginal creams that you can use on your vulva to help calm the irritation. Your doctor can also give you tips on relieving burning and itching.

Avoid sex until your infection or irritation goes away (especially if you have trich, because it’s a sexually transmitted infection that you and your partner can pass back and forth). Friction from sex and your partner’s body fluids can cause more irritation or make it harder to heal. And some medicines that you use in your vagina have oil in them, which can cause condoms to break.

Where can I get checked and treated for vaginitis?

You can get checked and treated for vaginitis at your local Planned Parenthood health center, community or reproductive health clinics, or your ob/gyn or family doctor.

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How Yeast Infections Are Diagnosed

Diagnosing yeast infections is best done by a doctor. The standard test involves a physical examination—it looks for a clumpy white discharge and a relatively low vaginal pH. However, that discharge alone is not enough to diagnose a vaginal yeast infection. The doctor must also determine whether there are yeast present in the vaginal secretions.

Yeast infections will affect up to three-quarters of women at some point during their lives. These common infections tend to be frustrating to deal with. They may not have serious long-term health consequences, but they’re uncomfortable. They can also lead to depression and feelings of low-self worth in people who experience one yeast infection after another, so a proper diagnosis and treatment are recommended.

© Verywell, 2018

Self-Checks/At-Home Testing

Commercially available home tests for yeast infections are not actually tests for yeast infections. Instead, they are tests to determine if the vaginal pH is abnormal.

Since bacterial vaginosis is more often associated with a high vaginal pH, these tests can suggest whether a diagnosis of yeast or BV is more likely to be accurate. However, these tests are not actually looking for yeast directly, and they can be incorrect.

People should not rely on commercial tests to start at-home yeast infection treatment unless similar symptoms have previously been diagnosed as yeast by a doctor. 

Labs and Tests

The standard test for a yeast infection is to look at a vaginal smear under a microscope. Yeast are very easy to identify visually in such samples.

The vaginal smear can be taken by the doctor. It can also be taken by the patient, and self-smears have been shown to be similarly effective for diagnosing yeast infections. The swab is simple and painless, and you will receive instructions on how to obtain it.

Note: This type of self-smear is different than a home test for yeast. The smear is taken by the patient but the doctor still looks at it under a microscope.

For Recurrent Infections

When a woman has recurrent yeast infections or complicated symptoms, other tests are available. The doctor may try and collect vaginal fluid and grow yeast from that fluid. Doing this allows the doctor to identify the specific type of yeast that are causing the infection. This can make it easier to pick an appropriate treatment. Often, infections that are not curable through standard treatments are caused by less common types of yeast.

High-Tech Tests

There are high-tech tests for yeast infections. These tests are not used very often. They use technology to look for yeast in fluid samples.

As with urine tests for other STDs, molecular tests can find very small amounts of yeast. Unfortunately, this is less useful for a yeast infection than chlamydia or gonorrhea. Why? Because most women have some yeast present in their bodies at all time.

Just having yeast in the vagina isn’t necessarily a problem. It’s only a problem when the yeast overgrows. Still, over time, it is likely that more and more vaginal testing will move to these molecular methods. Their ease of use, combined with the need for only a small sample size, makes them very attractive. 

Differential Diagnoses 

A number of vaginal health conditions have very similar symptoms. As such, without testing, it can be very difficult to tell whether someone is suffering from a yeast infection, bacterial vaginosis, trichomoniasis, or even another bacterial STD.

Fortunately, whatever condition is causing the common symptoms of all these infections—itching, pain during urination, changes in vaginal discharge—is probably easily treatable. However, that’s only true if the treatment is correct. That’s why testing is so important. Without testing, it’s hard to know if you’re getting the right medication to cure you.

Do I Need to See A Doctor For A Yeast Infection?

In many cases, you can safely treat a vaginal yeast infection with an over-the-counter medication. You can also try to treat a yeast infection at home with these tips to ease itching, burning, and other symptoms. Just know the three situations in which you should see a doctor, and then you can get started.

When Self-Care Might Be OK

It might be OK if your doctor told you in the past that you had a yeast infection and you now have the same symptoms. You need to be sure you have a yeast infection and not something else.

There’s one other question to ask yourself first. Have you had sex with a new partner? Many of the symptoms of a yeast infection — itching, burning, and vaginal discharge — can mimic the symptoms of sexually transmitted infections (STIs).

When to See Your Doctor

If any of these three situations sounds like yours, you need a doctor’s attention:

  • It’s the first yeast infection you’ve ever had. See a doctor to be sure it’s not a more serious problem that needs a different treatment, such as a urinary tract infection or STI.
  • You’re pregnant. Any medications, including over-the-counter vaginal creams, need to be approved by your doctor during pregnancy.
  • You often get yeast infections. If you have four or more yeast infections in a year, doctors call it “recurrent vulvovaginal candidiasis.” If you have it, you’ll need treatment for up to 6 months with an antifungal medication. Frequent yeast infections can also be a sign that you have diabetes or another medical condition.

If you’re concerned about your symptoms or they’re different from past yeast infections you’ve had, you may want to see your doctor for your own peace of mind. Because symptoms are uncomfortable, some women will ask for a prescription-strength vaginal cream to ease the itching and burning more quickly than an over-the-counter product would.

Tips for Self-Care

There’s nothing definitive that you can do that will prevent yeast infections entirely, but there are some things you can try which also may treat a yeast infection once you have it.


Acidophilus. Eating yogurt with live cultures of lactobacillus acidophilus — a natural, “friendly” bacteria — may head off a yeast infection. Taking supplements with lactobacillus acidophilus may also help prevent them.

Watch what you wear. Avoid tight-fitting pants and wear cotton panties to allow your body to “breathe” and stay cool. Yeast thrives in a moist, warm environment, so keep things airy and dry to prevent a yeast infection from coming back.

Nonprescription treatments. If you’re sure you have a yeast infection based on a past episode, you could try an over-the-counter medication to treat your symptoms. These products are usually creams, dissolvable tablets, or suppositories (oval-shaped doses of the medication) that you put into your vagina. If your symptoms do not clear up, follow up with your doctor.

Also, It is helpful that if you diabetes, keeping it under control and keeping up your overall health..

What’s normal, and when should you call your ob/gyn?

Every woman, at some point in her life, is likely to experience a yeast infection. A yeast infection is an annoying infection of the vagina and vulva that causes itching, discharge and irritation. It is a type of vaginitis caused by an overgrowth of yeast known as Candida albicans and is often easily treated at home, but occasionally it may be severe enough to warrant a visit to your doctor.

On average, three out of four women will suffer a yeast infection at some point in their lives. Some women experience several throughout their lifetimes. While the condition isn’t considered to be a sexually transmitted disease, the fungus can spread through oral contact with female genitals. It’s important to know about the signs and symptoms of a yeast infection and when you should see your ob/gyn.

Signs and Symptoms of Yeast Infections

The signs and symptoms of a vaginal yeast infection can range from mild to more severe. They include the following:

  • Burning sensation, especially while urinating or during sexual intercourse
  • Itching and irritation in the vagina and vulva
  • Redness and swelling of the vulva
  • Thick, white or grayish vaginal discharge that resembles cottage cheese
  • Vaginal rash
  • Vaginal pain and soreness
  • Watery discharge from the vagina

Yeast Infection Risk Factors

There are certain risk factors that can lead to the development of a yeast infection. They include the following:

  • Taking antibiotics
  • Lack of sleep
  • Hormonal imbalance that is near the menstrual cycle
  • Taking hormone therapy or oral contraceptives     
  • Stress
  • Poor eating habits, especially when consuming too many sugary foods
  • Pregnancy
  • Diabetes that is not under control
  • Weakened immune system
  • Wearing pants too tight

Causes of Yeast Infections

A yeast infection can be caused by a number of things, but most often, the fungus Candida albicans is the cause. The vaginal has a natural balance of this substance, as well as other bacteria. However, there are times when there may be an overgrowth of Candida, which leads to the development of a yeast infection. As a result, you may experience a combination of classic symptoms like burning, itching and soreness. Even women who are not sexually active can develop one.

On occasion, other types of Candida fungus may result in a yeast infection, but most treatments, especially those over-the-counter, are made to treat Candida albicans. If you develop a yeast infection that is caused by a different type of candida fungus, you may find it more challenging to treat. When it requires more aggressive treatment, you may have to make an appointment to see your ob/gyn.

How to Diagnose a Yeast Infection

When you visit your ob/gyn the doctor will do the following to diagnose you to determine if you have a yeast infection:

  • Ask about your medical history, including about any past vaginal infections or sexually transmitted diseases
  • Perform a pelvic exam and check both the external and internal parts of the vagina
  • Test a sample of vaginal secretions to determine what type of fungus is causing the infection

Yeast Infection Treatments

Treating a simple yeast infection is usually easy for most women, and may include the following options:

  • Prescription anti-fungal cream, ointment, suppositories or tablets that last one, three or seven days
  • Single-dose oral medication
  • Over-the-counter antifungal cream or suppositories that last three to seven days

For more complicated yeast infections, the doctor may give the following treatment options:

  • Prescription antifungal cream, ointment, suppositories or tablets that last up to 14 days
  • Multi-dose oral medication
  • Maintenance plan for recurrent yeast infections. (This type of treatment typically lasts longer than 14 days and may require oral medication taken once per week for six months or a vaginal suppository taken once a week)

Talk to Your Ob/Gyn

While a yeast infection can certainly cause you discomfort and make you miserable, it doesn’t have to persist. Always share all pertinent information with your doctor so you can find relief and take measures to avoid a future infection.

If you think you may have a yeast infection, contact Kansas City ObGyn at This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it. or (913) 948-9636 to book an appointment today.

Women’s Health Matters – Yeast infections: when to see a doctor

Most women will have a yeast infection at some point: 75 percent of women get at least one during their lifetime. While there are plenty of over-the-counter treatments, there are times when it’s wise to see a doctor.

It’s perfectly normal to have yeast present in the vagina. It’s present about 20 percent of the time, and it’s usually nothing to worry about, says Dr. Amanda Selk, a gynecologist at Women’s College Hospital. It’s only when it becomes overgrown and causes symptoms that it’s called a yeast infection. Symptoms can include itching, burning, painful intercourse, painful urination and a thick white clumpy discharge.

But it’s important to note that just because you have one or more of those symptoms, it doesn’t necessarily mean you have a yeast infection. Studies have shown that women frequently misdiagnose themselves.

“When people have never had a yeast infection before, they only diagnose themselves right about 11 percent of the time, and when they’ve had one before they diagnose themselves right only about 35 percent of the time,” says Dr. Selk. “Even if a doctor looks at it and thinks it’s yeast without actually doing a swab or a slide and looking under a microscope, it’s not really a very accurate diagnosis.”

If you have symptoms, and you’ve never had a yeast infection before, Dr. Selk recommends seeing a doctor, who can do either a slide or a swab to get a solid diagnosis. She also recommends seeing a doctor if you’ve had a yeast infection before and you think it’s the same thing, but your symptoms do not get better with over-the-counter treatment.

“If you’re not getting better, make sure there’s not something else going on,” Dr. Selk says. Your symptoms may be caused by another condition. “They can be bladder infections, they can be gonorrhea or Chlamydia, they can be just normal discharge, they can be all kinds of things.” In some cases, it turns out to be a skin issue such as eczema or contact dermatitis.

“Lots of people think they have a yeast infection and they don’t have one,” Dr. Selk says. “It’s really important to know, as opposed to just treating yourself. If you do treat yourself and you don’t get better, please go and get seen.”

Yeast infections are not sexually transmitted. Also, some women may be more susceptible to yeast infections. Women who have diabetes, who are pregnant, or who are taking steroids or antibiotics are more likely to get yeast infections. These women, and women who get more than four yeast infections per year, may be harder to treat and should speak to their doctor.

“When those people get yeast infections, they are more complicated and sometimes they’ll need longer courses of treatment,” Dr. Selk says.

Over-the-counter treatments for yeast infections are safe to use as directed, and come in antifungal single- or multi-day creams and tablets and one single-dose oral pill. The oral pill should not be used by pregnant women, nor should it be used more frequently than directed.

There isn’t any convincing evidence showing that alternative treatments such as garlic, tea tree oil, lactobacillus, probiotics or dietary changes are effective remedies for yeast infections.

“There aren’t good studies so we just don’t know,” Dr. Selk says of alternative treatments, adding that women can spend a lot of money on them. “If you’re going to spend money on stuff, then there’s stuff we know works.”

If proven yeast infection treatments aren’t working, see your doctor for a definite diagnosis.



This information is provided by Women’s College Hospital and is not intended to replace the medical advice of your doctor or healthcare provider. Please consult your healthcare provider for advice about a specific medical condition. This document was last reviewed on: Feb. 28, 2013

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90,000 What is a yeast infection?

Most healthy women have yeast in their vagina. But sometimes the yeast grows too much and leads to infection. Yeast infections can be very annoying and unpleasant.

What causes yeast infections?

Vaginal yeast infection, also sometimes called vulvovaginal candidiasis, occurs when the healthy yeast that normally lives in the vagina gets out of control. This often leads to itching and other annoying symptoms.The medical name for yeast infections is “ candidiasis ” because they are usually caused by a type of yeast called candida.

When immunity is reduced, the normal yeast that lives in the vagina can grow too strong and lead to infection. Reasons that can cause changes in the environment of your vagina:

  • Normal changes in hormone levels (as during the menstrual cycle)
  • antibiotics, cortisone and other drugs
  • pregnancy
  • diabetes mellitus
  • weak immune system
  • natural reaction to genital chemistry of another person

Yeast infections can occur on the penises and scrotums, but not so often.They can cause redness and irritation on your penis or scrotum.

Yeast infections are not STDs (they are infections that are passed from one person to another during vaginal, anal and oral sex). They are not contagious and cannot be passed on to another person during sex. But intercourse sometimes leads to yeast infections – your body’s chemistry can react to another person’s natural genital yeast and bacteria that cause the yeast to grow.

People can also get a yeast infection in the mouth, throat or tongue – this is called thrush.

What are the symptoms of a yeast infection?

Yeast infections often cause a curd, white, lumpy vaginal discharge that usually does not smell (or smells only slightly different than usual).

Most yeast infections result in itching, burning, and / or redness in or around the vagina. Vaginal itching usually gets worse the longer you have an infection.Sex can be uncomfortable or painful. In extreme cases, you can get cracks or sores in your vagina or vulva. If you have severe irritation, you may experience cramps when urinating.

How are yeast infections treated?

Yeast infections can usually be easily cured in a few days with an antifungal medication. You can get medicated creams or suppositories for yeast infections.

Be sure to follow directions and use all medications, even if your symptoms go away before you finish.You can also treat yeast infections with one tablet (Diflucan or Fluconazole). You need a doctor’s prescription to get your yeast infection pill.

Do not have vaginal or oral sex until treatment is complete and the infection has cleared. Friction from sex can cause more irritation or make treatment more difficult. Some medicines you use in your vagina contain oil, which can cause condoms to break.

Even though yeast infections can be very itchy, try not to scratch the itchy area.This can aggravate irritation or scratch the skin, through which germs can spread and lead to more infections. There are over-the-counter creams that can be used on the vulva to soothe irritation. Your doctor can also give you advice on how to relieve burning and itching.

90,000 6 safe home remedies for thrush

Having invaded our lives in 2020, the COVID-19 pandemic immediately took over the entire media space.Many people have the impression that other diseases have faded into the background, and now all the forces of health care are thrown into the fight against the new coronavirus. However, non-communicable diseases remain the main threat to the health and life of modern people. None of the known viruses can compare with them (yet).
Today we will look at some of the common dangerous noncommunicable diseases in women, talk about their risk factors and how to protect themselves from them.

Diseases of the heart and blood vessels

Cardiovascular diseases are the main killers of modern people.For example, in 2016, according to the WHO, they claimed nearly 18 million lives. In more than 75% of cases, death is caused by myocardial infarction or cerebral stroke. But these conditions do not arise from scratch – they are preceded by chronic arterial hypertension (high blood pressure), atherosclerosis (a condition in which atherosclerotic plaques are deposited on the inner wall of blood vessels, which clog them), angina pectoris (recurrent chest pain due to a violation blood flow to the heart muscle).

The role of diseases of the cardiovascular system among the causes of death of women is often underestimated. There is a widespread myth that this is mainly the lot of men. Indeed, men die from heart attacks and strokes much more often. But among women, these pathologies are also very common.

In the early stages, diseases of the heart and blood vessels are often asymptomatic. A person can live with high blood pressure for a long time without even knowing it. At the same time, WHO experts argue that most deaths from cardiovascular pathologies can be prevented if you are careful about your health and exclude factors contributing to their development.

How to protect yourself?

  • Switch to a healthy diet. The basis of the diet should be fruits and vegetables. It is necessary to exclude as much as possible red (pork, beef, lamb) and processed (fried, smoked, grilled, barbecued) meat.
  • Maintain a healthy weight. Overweight and obesity are a factor in the development of many diseases.
  • Quit smoking.
  • Minimize alcohol consumption.
  • Exercise regularly.
  • Monitor blood pressure.
  • Seek medical attention promptly if symptoms appear.
  • If blood pressure is already high, see a doctor and take prescribed medications.

Malignant tumors

Cancer is a large group of diseases, which is in second place in terms of mortality after cardiovascular diseases. According to the WHO, in 2020 they claimed 10 million lives.In women, malignant breast tumors are most common. In Russia, more than 70 thousand cases of this disease are diagnosed annually. According to the American Cancer Society, the probability of getting such a diagnosis during her lifetime for the average woman is 13% or 1: 8. In recent years, the prevalence of breast cancer has increased by 0.5% annually. This is largely due to the fact that the average life expectancy is growing, and the female population is gradually “aging”.In parallel, the number of deaths from breast cancer is gradually decreasing – thanks to improved treatment and large-scale screenings.

Another common malignant tumor in women is cervical cancer. True, this is not a completely non-infectious disease. In most cases, it is caused by an infection with human papillomavirus (HPV). Oncogenic viruses (primarily types 16 and 18) lead to DNA abnormalities and malignant cell transformation. You can get infected during unprotected sex, but even condoms do not guarantee one hundred percent protection.Besides viruses, there are other risk factors.

How to protect yourself?

First of all, the prevention of malignant tumors is reduced to a healthy lifestyle. It is important to know about the risk factors for the development of oncopathologies and to exclude them. Cancer can hide behind the guise of many other diseases, so you need to pay attention to any unusual symptoms and see a doctor in time. Screening tests – they help to detect a tumor at an early stage, when the chances of cure are highest:

  • All women from 45 years old need to undergo mammography 1-2 times a year – an X-ray of the mammary glands.
  • For women at high risk, the doctor may recommend screening from a younger age, using MRI.
  • Once a month, on the 5-6th day of the menstrual cycle, a breast self-examination should be performed – even if you are already undergoing mammography. Once a year, it is worth undergoing preventive examinations by a mammologist.
  • All women with the onset of sexual activity need to regularly visit a gynecologist, take smears for cytology and / or an HPV test every few years.

Diabetes mellitus

The prevalence of diabetes mellitus is constantly growing. In 1980, there were 108 million diabetics in the world, and in 2014 there were 422 million. Type 1 diabetes develops in children when the pancreas cannot produce enough insulin, a hormone that lowers blood sugar levels. Why this form of the disease develops is unknown, there are no effective preventive measures. But type 2 diabetes is mainly a disease of age and an unhealthy lifestyle.In this case, insulin is produced, but the body has “forgotten how” to use it correctly. The insidiousness of the disease is that it can go on for a long time with almost no symptoms. Therefore, type 2 diabetes is often diagnosed many years after the onset, when there are already complications. The main risk factors are: unhealthy diet, physical inactivity, excess weight.

Type II diabetes can lead to blindness, impaired blood flow in the lower extremities, due to which they have to be amputated, renal failure.Diabetics are 2-3 times more likely to have strokes and heart attacks. Diabetes complications kill 1.5 million people every year.
In women during pregnancy, gestational diabetes can develop, due to the fact that the metabolism is rebuilt and the load on the pancreas increases. This can lead to some dangerous complications and increases the likelihood of developing type 2 diabetes in the future.

How to protect yourself?

The risk factors and prevention measures for diabetes are the same as for cardiovascular diseases.At an older age, it is worth checking your blood sugar periodically. Gestational diabetes in pregnant women is diagnosed during prenatal screening.


Depression is perhaps the most underrated medical condition on our list. Many people perceive it as just a bad mood, sadness and melancholy. Such people are often accused of laziness, pessimism, they are advised to rest or be distracted. In fact, depression is a serious illness associated with biochemical abnormalities in the brain.The patient ceases to experience joy, satisfaction with life, his desires disappear. He cannot influence this and blames himself.

There are now 264 million people living on Earth with depression, and women are more susceptible to this disease than men. Depression can be difficult to recognize. The main symptoms: persistent bad mood, a feeling of hopelessness, guilt, sleep disturbances, loss of interest in previously loved things, unwillingness to do anything, decreased concentration, apathy. If these symptoms persist for more than two weeks, this is definitely a reason to visit a psychotherapist.In severe cases, depression can lead to suicide. More than 800 thousand depressions end in this way every year. As a rule, these are people from the age group 15-29 years old.

There are several forms of depression, one of which – postpartum – develops in young mothers.
Resting or walking in the fresh air will not help you deal with depression. Treatment usually begins with antidepressant medications. This is followed by a course of psychotherapy.

How to protect yourself?

This is a multifactorial disease, therefore it is difficult for a predisposed person to protect themselves from it.The onset of an illness can trigger a serious event, such as the death of a loved one, divorce, job loss. It is important to be attentive to your health and, at the first symptoms, immediately consult a doctor.

Alzheimer’s disease

Healthy people retain a clear mind until old age, and a noticeable deterioration in memory, thinking and changes in behavior most often indicate a serious illness – dementia (in common people – “senile dementia”). When elderly relatives start to behave eccentric and forget everything in a row, this is perceived as a natural phenomenon.An estimated 50 million people with dementia now live on Earth, and more than 10 million new cases are diagnosed each year. Most often, the disease begins after 60 years.

There are different forms of dementia, the most common is Alzheimer’s disease. It accounts for 60–70% of all cases. It is a chronic disease that is constantly progressing. At first, his symptoms can be very mild and almost imperceptible, but in the end, a person ceases to recognize loved ones and cannot cope with the simplest tasks at the level of getting dressed and washing.He constantly needs care, supervision, and this imposes a huge burden on all relatives.

Unfortunately, there is no cure for Alzheimer’s disease. But there are medications that help to significantly slow down its progression, to keep the symptoms under control. Treatment should be started at the earliest stages.

How to protect yourself?

To reduce the likelihood of developing dementia, doctors recommend regular exercise, mental work (even banal solving crosswords, playing checkers is useful), maintain a normal weight, eat right, stop smoking and alcohol.Social isolation is a risk factor for dementia, so older people need regular communication.

5 important questions about yeast.

Almost every woman has encountered an unpleasant visitor – a vaginal infection caused by a yeast fungus, which can be indicated by pain, itching in the external genital area and unpleasant discharge. This infection is most commonly seen in women of reproductive age and can be promoted by excessive stress, reduced immunity, antibiotic use, and certain chronic illnesses.What is yeast, what causes it and how to fight it, says gynecologist Elizaveta Murzina, Veselības Centrs 4.

What is yeast?

Yeast fungus or Candida albicans is one of the common inhabitants of the normal vaginal microflora. This bacterium also lives in humans on the skin, mouth and intestines. A vaginal yeast infection, or vaginal candidiasis, develops when this bacterium grows overly and causes unpleasant symptoms.

How to recognize it?

The fact that the bacteria of the yeast fungus in the vagina has multiplied excessively and caused an infection may be evidenced by:
– a burning sensation and discomfort in the external genital area;
– painful urination;
– painful intercourse;
– significant whitish or grainy discharge.

Usually these complaints are worse before menses. In some cases, when a yeast infection is advanced, there may be swelling in the genital area or spotting caused by damage to the vaginal mucosa.

What are the most common causes of yeast infections?

  • Taking antibiotics. Yeast infections often appear after taking antibiotics, since they destroy not only the causative agents of various infections, but also the good bacteria in the vagina – lactic acid bacteria (Lactobacillus). When the microflora of the vagina changes, instead of the good lactic acid bacteria of the vagina, a fungus multiplies.
  • Weakened immunity. An exacerbation of Candida albicans can begin during a period of weakened immunity.It can be weakened by other common infectious diseases, such as the flu, etc., or diseases that affect the immune system (such as HIV infection).
  • Pregnancy. The likelihood of contracting a yeast infection also increases during pregnancy, when the body’s natural defenses are weakened.
  • Regular medication intake. You should be wary of yeast with regular use of various medications, for example, corticosteroids, which can weaken the immune system.If corticosteroids are used on the skin (for example, to treat psoriasis), special precautions are needed only when they are used in the genital area, where they can negatively affect the natural microflora of the genital organs.
  • Chronic diseases. Yeast fungus can be a frequent visitor if a woman has a chronic illness, such as diabetes, when the fungus multiplies in the vagina due to high blood sugar levels.

How to get rid of yeast?

Yeast infection is treated only in cases where its excessive proliferation causes specific complaints – itching, pain and increased discharge. However, if there are complaints, one should not delay with a visit to the doctor – if the yeast has caused inflammation of the vagina, which is not treated, the inflammation can develop, which means a longer period of treatment and recovery.

Currently, there are two types of drugs available for the treatment of fungus:
1.Oral prescription drugs containing the active ingredient fluconazole. If the infection has not started, one capsule is sufficient. In the most severe cases, two capsules can be taken three days apart.
2. Local preparations (active substance clotrimazole, econosol or miconazole) in the form of vaginal suppositories or cream. Depending on the concentration of the active substance, the treatment usually lasts from 1 to 7 days. Popular among women is Canesten, available over-the-counter, a vaginal cream that only needs to be applied once.

Attention! OTC antifungal medications are only useful when it is impossible to see a doctor quickly enough, and for women who already have a yeast infection and who are familiar with the symptoms. Dr. E. Murzina warns: when faced with the characteristic symptoms of a yeast fungus for the first time, it is necessary to consult a doctor, since there are many infections with symptoms and discharge characteristic of a yeast fungus, but their treatment is different.

What to do to protect yourself from yeast?

  • Avoid unnecessary stress and strengthen the immune system, which can be achieved through a healthy lifestyle.
  • Observe precautions when taking antibiotics. Be sure to tell your doctor if taking antibiotics has ever caused a yeast infection. In this case, the doctor will choose another medication or recommend probiotic drugs for the prevention of vaginal microflora, or prophylactic antifungal medications.
  • Be aware of yeast in case of chronic diseases. For example, in diabetes mellitus, control is important – regular visits to the family doctor or endocrinologist, and taking medications.
  • Yeast infection is not a sexually transmitted disease and cannot be sexually transmitted to a partner.

Photo: Shutterstock

yeast infection – Russian translation – Linguee

In September 2003, they

testified that t h e infection o f b lood samples […]

at Al-Fatah hospital had occurred in 1997, two years


before the incriminating facts, and one year before the author became an intern in the hospital.


In September 2003 they gave


indications that blood samples from

Alfa Hospital t ah were for ra wife in 1997, […]

i.e. two years before the incriminated acts


and a year before the author began working as an intern in a hospital.


The only such sources available in commercial

quantities globally a r e yeast d e ri ved products, including brewer s yeast a n d extracted ferme nt e d yeast p r od ucts, but with limited […]

information concerning


their total global production and availability.


Currently, the only source of microbiological components that


available in volume

on the world market, are the product t s, obtained from d rye e s, including pi vn yeast and and extract pr cd yeast fermentation, however [ …..]

information on total


production and distribution volumes are limited.


Because tuberculosis is an infectious disease for which countermeasures are particularly important, the Government has drawn


up specific guidelines for

preventing the tubercul os i s infection a n d is also taking other […]

tuberculosiss specific measures,


such as promoting the use of the DOTS (directly observed treatment, short-course) strategy.


Given the importance of countering the spread of tuberculosis as one of the infectious diseases, the government has developed a program


specific activities for

Prevention with ty tuberculosis and p ri is doing this […]

a number of other practical measures, such as


as an implementation of a strategy of directly controlled short-term chemotherapy courses (DOTS – strategies).


Research is aiming to produce long-chain omega-3 fatty

acids from hydrocarbon s b y yeast f e rm entation, through extraction […]

from algal sources and / or


through genetic modification of plants.


Research is underway to obtain


long-chain fatty acids

“Omega-3” from carbohydrates p od s with using f e pm en ta yeast, by […]

extracts from unicellular algae


and / or by the method of genetic modification of plants.


VOGELBUSCH expertise in the field also includes detailed engineering and supply of complete process lines with proprietary technology, e. g.


for the production of starch

sugar syrup, for alcoho l o r yeast m a de from by-products of […]

such complexes as well as the production


of special fermentation products such a citric acid, using the starch isolated in the process or sugars thereof as substrates.


VOGELBUSCH’s competence in this area also includes the detailed design and supply of ready-made patented


technological lines, e.g. for

production of dext p oz but g o syrup, from p ir and and whether yeast obtained […]

of such by-products


complexes, as well as for the production of special fermentation products such as citric acid using starch isolated during the technological process or starch sugars as a nutrient medium.


The drink contains:

prepared artesian water, honey, sugar, malt extr ac t , yeast .


Consists of: prepared

artesian water, honey, sugar, s l od s s extract, d p cool oo .


Numerous studies underscore the social costs of rural women’s lack of education and


assets, linking them directly to high rates of malnutrition, infant mortality and, in

some countries, HIV / AI D S infection .


Numerous studies highlight the social costs of low education and asset ownership among rural women,


which is directly related to high levels of malnutrition,

infant mortality o st and and, at p poison e countries, prevalence […]



T h e yeast s t ra in used for fermentation depends on […]

the beverage.


W t am m yeast, and cn o ls ye for fermentation, depends […]

from the drink.


UNHCR also provided complementary food, including 65.5

tons of tea and 27 ton s o f yeast , a nd conducted joint food […]

monitoring with WFP for the general food basket distribution.


UNHCR also provided additional


food aid including

provision of 65.5 tons n h i and 27 tons dr o lzh eu , and together with […]

WFP conducted food monitoring


for the distribution of food items in the main food basket.


The dough for the linguacce di


suocera is prepared by mixing water and

flour with nat ur a l yeast o n t hree occasions […]

and leaving it to rise for 5 hours, the


dough is then broken into loaves that are then rolled out with a rolling pin five / six times to a length of 30cm and a width of 10cm.


Kneading the test for “Mother-in-law’s tongue”


is produced by three portions

water addition and m uk and and for t ur l yeast, […]

the resulting dough is left to rise


5 hours, then the dough is divided into pieces, which are rolled out with a rolling pin five / six times to obtain strips 30 cm long and 10 cm wide.


Incubation shakers in different sizes for

the cultivation of bacte ri a , yeast , i ns ect, mammalian and plant […]

cell cultures.


Incubation vibrators of various sizes for cultivation

cell cultures b a kt ep and s, yeast, at s e com s , mammals […]

and plants.


However, the legislator has not given in the Act a clear indication that this article does not apply to HIV-infected women (to whom the phrase “a person being


aware of his / her positive HIV

status and intentionally endangerin g t o infection o r i nfect other person “might well be […]



However, the legislator did not give a clear indication in the Law that this article does not apply to HIV-infected women (to whom



“A person who knew about the presence of and and not th HIV infection c and and for ve , who is at risk of infection […]

or someone who has infected another person “).


During fermentation, the young beer in the vats heats up and for this reason, its temperature must be checked every day to make


sure it does not exceed 12 ° C. At

higher temperatures t h e yeast f u ng us degenerates, the […]

taste of the beer is impaired and


more of the carbon dioxide escapes into the air.


During fermentation, young beer in vats heats up and therefore needs to be checked every day


temperature so that it is not

exceeded 12 ° C. At large e e high t hem ne ra yeast rounds […]

fungi degenerate, beer worse than


taste and carbon dioxide escapes into the atmosphere more intensively.


Recently, ADM entered into a joint venture

to convert starch into ba ke r y yeast .


Recently, the ADM company created a joint venture, according to the technology of which from starch

will receive bread p eka p us yeast .


13:33 Another parable He spoke


to them. “The Kingdom of the

Heavens, “He said,” is li k e yeast w h ic h a woman takes and buries […]

in a bushel of flour, for


it to work there till the whole mass has risen.


13:33 He told them another parable:

Kingdom of Heaven n o o n o leaven, to o to ru yu the woman took […]

in three measures of flour, until everything is leavened.


There you will be treated with not only wheat, buckwheat a n d yeast p a nc akes, but also wonderful toppings of fish and shrimp in a creamy sauce , sea bass, spinach and beluga caviar and sturgeon.


There you will be treated not only with wheat, buckwheat and d rye pancakes, but also amazing fish and shrimp fillings in a creamy sauce, with sea bass and spinach and with beluga and sturgeon caviar.


AirPure removes any particulate which is bigger than 0.1 micron including: Airborne bacteria such as Acinetobacter, Bacilli,


Flavobacterium and Streptomyces; mold

spores, human and pet h ai r ; yeast c e ll s; pollen; tobacco smoke, […]

oil smoke and smoke from synthetic


materials; coal dust, grain dust, dust mites, atmospheric dust, tea dust, talcum dust, insecticide dusts; burning wood; paint pigments, smouldering or flaming cooking oil, and liquid droplets.


AirPure removes all particles larger than 0.1 micron, including the following: airborne bacteria such as akinetobacteria, bacilli,


flavobacteria and streptomycetes;

mold spores gr and bo in, hair and wool; cl et ki yeast fungi; […]

pollen; tobacco smoke, vapors


oils and fumes from synthetic materials; coal dust, grain dust, dust mites, atmospheric dust, tea chips, talc, insecticidal dust; burning wood, coloring pigments, smoldering and burning of oil during cooking; drops of liquid.


Monacolin K obtained from r e d yeast r i ce helps maintain a normal […]

level of cholesterol in the blood when taking the recommended


daily dose, which provides the body with 10 mg of monacolin.


From k p ac but g o yeast p and ca to lu monacolin K helps maintain […]

normal blood cholesterol level, recommended


daily dose of 10 mg provides monacolin.


If you are interested in using naturally occu ri n g yeast f o r fermentation, you might want to check out Sandor Katz’s book “Wild Fermentation” [3 ] It offers a lot of amazing information about making fermented foods / drinks utilizing naturally occur ri n g yeasts .


If you are interested in using s s en and and natural dr o lzh and for i fermentation, you can check the book by Sandor Katz “Wild fermentation” [3] He offers a lot of amazing information about fermented foods and nap and tc and using eu t eu tv en yeast.


We are going to sell new products at


schools as means of centralized

school diary in substitutio n o f yeast r o ll s (510 thousands of US […]

dollars per a year). We have already


started meeting directors of schools and negotiating contracts on delivery of our production.


Introducing the centralized

school meals at for IU n yeast b at lo chk and ($ 510 thousand per year): […]

meetings are already being held


with directors of schools, contracts are concluded for the supply of our products.


The moment for t h e yeast t o b e separated […]

from the raw sparkling wine is determined by process conditions, results of fermentation


inspection, chemical and microbiological tests and the quality required of the sparkling wine.


Yeast ud a l yt sya from wine material for […]

champagne at the moment when it is necessary in terms of production flow


processes, as well as depending on the results of the control over the fermentation process and microscopic examination of the champagne in terms of the desired quality indicators.


We’ll note that new unfiltered types from the first Ukrainian beer was created


using selected wheat malt,

quality hop and specially selects ct e d yeast , a nd all these things with the […]

combination of 300 year experience


of Lviv brewers create high quality, unique taste and aroma of TM “Lvivske White Lion”.


Note that a new unfiltered variety from the first Ukrainian beer was created from


using selected wheat

malt, quality hme l i and specifically about then b wounds us x yeast that is combined […]

with 300 years of experience


Lviv brewers make TM “Lvovskoe White Lev” high quality beer with a unique taste and aroma.


Such location of tags, i.e. from different sides of the protein, relates to the ability of the amino acid sequence termini to fold inside a protein globule; the latter is most probably one of the reasons behind the decrease in the effectiveness of affinity chromatography.the S tag is a short sequence (4 kDa) which can be used for the stabilization of proteins in a solution. the expression of proteins was

induced by IPtG; the proteins were purified by metal-chelate chromatography on ni-ntA-aragose. the results on the isolation of the proteins expressed by using various constructions are shown in Fig. 1.the hptert protein is detected in all the samples eluted with ni-ntA-agarose. the latter indicates that the selection of thermotole ra n t yeast a s a source for the production of the telomerase catalytic subunit was successful.


The S-tag is a small sequence (4 kDa) that can be used to stabilize proteins in solution. Protein expression was induced by IPtG; proteins were purified by metal chelate chromatography on ni-ntA agarose.


The product exhibits antimicrobial activity against Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria (including pathogens of nosocomial and intest in a l infections , M yc obacterium tuberculosis), (including adenovirus, viruses of acute respira to r y infections , S AR S, avian viruses influenza and pig influenza, viruses, rotaviruses, viruses of enteral and parenteral hepatitis, herpes, HIV, etc.), fungi (inclu di n g yeasts , f un gi of the genus Candida and Trichophyton).


The agent has antimicrobial activity against gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria (in volume h is l e pathogens in well tribological and intestinal infections, mycobacterium tuberculosis), viruses ( in to m number a den s Iruses, viruses of acute respiratory infections, atypical pneumonia, avian and swine flu, enteroviruses, rotaviruses, entnral and parenteral viruses l n s hepatitis, ge rp EU a, HIV, etc.), mushrooms (including yeasts, fungi of the genus Candida and Trichophyton.


In its HIV / AIDS work

(caring for t h e infected a n d affected, […]

preventing the spread of the epidemic and protecting the most


vulnerable), the Education Sector is joining efforts with the Youth and Gender Units and is participating as well in the promotion of “cultural sensitive” approaches for projects in education.


In its work on

fight against HIV / AIDS about m ( care for and infected […]

and affected, preventing the spread of the epidemic


and protection of the most vulnerable) The Education Sector is working with the Youth and Gender Units and promoting culturally sensitive approaches in education projects.


The man who gets drunk on fried potatoes

  • Helen Thomson
  • BBC Future

Photo author, Getty

There are some people, albeit few of them, who get drunk from carbohydrates. What processes in their body lead to such a result? Correspondent

BBC Future is looking for an answer to this question.

At first, Nick Hess simply could not understand what was happening to him.”Something unimaginable was happening to me. As soon as I eat something containing carbohydrates, I suddenly turned into a jerk, some kind of vulgar type.”

Unexplained nausea began, stomach and head ached. “Every day for a year, I vomited as soon as I woke up,” he says. “Sometimes this state passed after a few days, and sometimes it was like this: bam, and I’m drunk.”

He did not touch alcohol, but no one believed him. One fine day, his wife turned their whole house upside down – looking for hidden bottles of alcohol.”It seemed to me that everyone was just mocking me, until my wife filmed me on video. I looked and realized: indeed, I look like a drunk.”

Gradually Hess realized that he was suffering from the so-called “internal brewery syndrome” or “auto-fermentation syndrome”. This is a rather rare and controversial medical disorder in which an excess of yeast-like fungi in the intestines converts the sugars in food into excess endogenous alcohol in the blood.What is it like to live with such a strange syndrome? And what if it turns out that almost everyone around – from close friends to judges – takes people with such symptoms for drunkards?

The first mentions of conditions similar to those of Hess can be found in the reports of Japanese researchers dating back to the 1970s. They described the mysterious symptoms that exhibited in patients with chronic yeast infection. In a report published at the time, scientists noted that all of these patients were deficient in liver enzymes.This meant that alcohol was hardly eliminated from their bodies.

Each person’s intestines contain a small amount of yeast, which interact with carbohydrates and sugars in food to produce tiny amounts of alcohol. The following happened to Japanese patients: an excess of yeast in the body caused by a yeast infection, and the fact that they ate a lot of rice rich in carbohydrates, combined with a lack of liver enzymes, made them unable to process alcohol quickly enough for it in a timely manner. excreted from the body.

Photo author, Thinkstock


How does it feel to suddenly get drunk when you don’t want it and don’t expect it at all?

This symptom is being studied today, among others, by Barbara Cordell, Dean of the Department of Health Sciences and Nursing at Panola College in Texas. She and her colleague Justin McCarthy were the first to diagnose this syndrome in a 61-year-old man in the United States and were able to confirm their conclusions with the results obtained during clinical observations. Cordell became interested in the condition in 2005 when a close acquaintance, let’s call him Joe, began to experience sudden symptoms of intoxication.He complained of dizziness, nausea and exhaustion. This is how people feel after a stormy night with abundant libations. At the same time, Joe said that he did not take a drop of strong alcohol in his mouth.

His wife, a nurse by profession, began to write down every such incident. One day, Cordell recalls, she sat at the table with Joe, his wife and their son. They ran tests with an alcohol meter. They each drank a glass of wine, and then they checked the alcohol content of each of them’s breath.The result that Joe showed was three times higher than the testimony of all the other people present at the table.

“It all seemed extremely mysterious to me, simply inexplicable,” Cordell recalls. Over time, the problem only got worse. By 2010, Joe was suffering from sudden bouts of drunkenness two to three times a week.

Brewery in the stomach

In January 2010, Joe was admitted to the hospital, where he was under round-the-clock surveillance.Doctors, suspecting that Joe was just an alcoholic, hiding bottles in a secluded place, checked all his belongings in order to make sure that he did not secretly carry alcohol with him. Apart from doctors and nurses, no one had access to him during their hospital stay. Joe was put on a diet high in carbohydrates and blood was drawn every two hours. On one occasion, Joe’s alcohol level rose to 120 mg per 100 ml of blood. For a person of average height and weight, this is equivalent to seven servings of whiskey. ( The standard US whiskey serving is 44 ml or 1.5 oz.- Ed.)

Joe was lucky because he knew the researchers who could understand his condition. Hess was not so lucky. He suffered for many years and almost gave up hope of being cured. He went to see every doctor he could find in the telephone directory and underwent all kinds of clinical procedures, including colonoscopy, endoscopy, and liver examinations, to which he was referred by the doctors. Fortunately for Hess, his wife stubbornly continued to look for a way to understand what was happening to him, and somehow, late at night, she came across Cordell’s notes on the Internet about the case with Joe and his amazing symptoms.

Photo author, SPL

Photo caption,

Under certain circumstances yeast takes over in your body

The Hess contacted Barbara Cordell and another doctor named Anup Kanodia, who are now collaborating on the study of Inner Brewery Syndrome. Kanodia studied Hess’s stool samples and performed genetic and microbiological tests to figure out what was going on in his intestines. “There was 400% more yeast in the gut than it should have,” Canodia said.“This is the highest yeast count I’ve seen in a single person in my entire career.” there may be twice as many such cases in the US

The problem is that few of these people have abnormal liver enzymes, similar to those described by Japanese scientists.So what happens to them?

The working theory that Cordell and her colleagues are developing is: “The problem occurs when the amount of yeast in the gut gets out of hand. Typically, the bacteria keep the yeast levels normal, but sometimes the yeast takes over.”

If you look at the gut flora of people with the internal brewery symptom, you can always find an abnormally large amount of yeast. The most common strain is Saccharomyces cerevisiae , aka “baker’s” or “brewer’s” yeast, as bakers and brewers call them.

Photo author, Nick Hess

Photo caption,

Hess is very grateful to his wife for not giving up

According to Cordell, it often happens that these people can accurately indicate when they began to experience this condition. As a rule, it coincides with long-term antibiotic use. It is very likely that by taking such drugs for a certain period of time, the bacteria that control the growth of yeast fungi are destroyed. This gives the yeast a chance to take over.However, it is not yet fully clear, she says, why such cases do not occur more often when people take antibiotics for a long time.

In the Dock

Forensic Toxicologist Wayne Jones needs additional arguments to support this theory. He recently retired after 40 years at the Swedish National Council for Forensic Medicine in Linköping. He says that any alcohol that forms in our gut as a result of the breakdown of carbohydrates must pass through the liver before it enters the circulatory system.Our liver contains enzymes that process alcohol in such a way that almost all of its volume is removed from the blood. This is called the first pass metabolism (or effect).

It is this physiological process that does not convince Jones of the ability of people, due to the mere imbalance of yeast in the body, to produce such an amount of alcohol in their own blood that could be of importance for medicine and forensic science. The incidents that took place in Japan are, from his point of view, only a few exceptions.

Photo author, Thinkstock

Photo caption,

Perhaps you are one of those who were punished for drunk driving when you did not take a drop in your mouth?

Jones testified in court as an expert and eyewitness several times during hearings in cases in which lawyers for defendants convicted of driving while intoxicated claimed that their clients suffered from an undiagnosed internal brewery syndrome. “Several people have argued for years that the high level of alcohol in their blood was not the result of drinking beer, whiskey or wine, but was caused by the internal properties of their body,” says the expert.

A couple of years ago, a lower court judge in Sweden took into account such a defense argument for the first time in history. The prosecutor’s office appealed and Jones was asked to testify in court. The driver was later found guilty of driving while intoxicated.

By the way, Hess is now trying to challenge the drunk driving charges against him in Hawaii. He says this is due to the characteristics of his body.

I showed Wayne Jones the most recent report, prepared by Barbara Cordell, which sets out the facts and conclusions surrounding her friend Joe’s hospital stay.According to Jones, he would like more information about the methods by which doctors measured the level of alcohol in the patient’s blood, as well as how much carbohydrates were given to him with food. He added that research data is still needed on how long the formation and breakdown of alcohol produced by the patient’s intestines took place.

“I don’t mean to say that Cordell’s findings are wrong, but I need to see much more information before I can accept her findings as proven fact,” he said.

Barbara Cordell herself admits that more research is needed. For starters, she would like to conduct additional genetic and metabolic analyzes. “My main goal is for doctors to have an open mind about the people who come to them with these symptoms,” she says.

Antifungal drugs and a low carbohydrate / sugar diet helped Nick Hess and Joe significantly alleviate these symptoms. “I still have one or two of these cases a month,” says Hess.“But now it’s not as bad as it used to be. I have to say thank you to my wife. She did not give up and continued looking for an answer when I was about to give up. I am so grateful to her! “

Understanding Yeast Infection (Vaginal) – Health 2021

Yeast infection (vaginal). A full review covers symptoms, treatments, home remedies for vaginal yeast infections.


Vaginal yeast infection is a fungal infection that causes irritation, discharge and intense itching of the vagina and vulva when vaginal tissue is opened.This is a type of vaginitis or inflammation of the vagina.

Vaginal yeast infection (also called vaginal candidiasis) affects up to 3 out of 4 women at some point in their lives. Many women experience at least two episodes.

Although vaginal yeast infection is not considered a sexually transmitted infection, you can spread the fungus by mouth prior to genital contact. Medications can effectively treat vaginal yeast infections. If you have recurrent yeast infections – four or more in a year – you may need a longer course of treatment and a maintenance plan.


Symptoms of a yeast infection can range from mild to moderate and include:

  • Itching and irritation in the vagina and tissues on vaginal opening (vulva)
  • Burning, especially during intercourse or when urinating
  • Redness and swelling of the vulva
  • Vaginal pain and tenderness
  • Vaginal rash
  • Vaginal discharge
  • Thick, white, odorless vaginal discharge with the appearance of curd
Complex yeast infection

You may have a complex yeast infection if:

  • You have severe symptoms such as extensive redness, swelling and itching resulting in tears or fissures (fissures) or sores
  • You have four or more yeast infections per year
  • Your infection is caused by a candida type other than Candida albicans
  • Are you pregnant
  • You have uncontrolled diabetes
  • Your immune system is weakened due to certain drugs or conditions, such as HIV infection
When to see a doctor

Make an appointment with a doctor if:

  • This is the first time you have symptoms of a yeast infection
  • You are not sure if you have a yeast infection
  • Your symptoms persist after treatment with over-the-counter antifungal vaginal creams or suppositories
  • You develop other symptoms


The fungal candida causes a vaginal yeast infection.The vagina naturally contains a balanced blend of yeast, including candida and bacteria. Lactobacillus bacteria produce acid that prevents yeast overgrowth. This balance can be disturbed and lead to yeast infections. Too much yeast in the vagina causes vaginal itching, burning, and other classic signs and symptoms of a yeast infection.

Yeast overgrowth can result from:

  • Antibiotic use that reduces lactobacilli bacteria in the vagina and changes the pH of your vagina
  • pregnancy
  • Uncontrolled diabetes
  • Impaired immune system
  • Taking oral contraceptives or hormonal therapy to increase estrogen levels

Candida albicans is the most common type of fungus that causes yeast infections.Sometimes other types of candida mushrooms are to blame. Usually, treatment will usually cure the Candida albicans infection. Yeast infections caused by other types of candida can be more difficult to treat and require more aggressive treatments.

Yeast infection can occur after certain sexual activities, especially oral sex. However, a yeast infection is not considered a sexually transmitted infection. Even women who are not sexually active can develop yeast infections.

Risk factors

Factors that increase the risk of developing a yeast infection include:

  • Use of antibiotics. Yeast infections are common in women taking antibiotics. Broad-spectrum antibiotics, which kill a variety of bacteria, also kill healthy bacteria in the vagina, leading to overgrowth of yeast organisms.
  • Increased estrogen levels. Yeast infections are more common in women with elevated estrogen levels.This may include pregnant women or those taking high-dose estrogen birth control pills or estrogen hormone therapy.
  • Uncontrolled diabetes. Women with diabetes who have poor blood sugar control are at greater risk of yeast infection than women with well-controlled diabetes.
  • Impaired immune system. Women with reduced immunity, such as corticosteroid therapy or HIV infection, are more likely to become infected with yeast.
  • Sexual activity. Although yeast infections are not considered sexually transmitted infections, sexual contact can spread candida.

Preparation for appointment

If you have received treatment for a yeast infection in the past, your doctor may not need to see you and you may be able to schedule treatment over the phone. Otherwise, you will likely see your family doctor or gynecologist treating your condition.

What can you do

Here’s some information to help you prepare for your appointment and what to expect from your doctor.

  • List any symptoms you have and for how long.
  • Pay attention to key health information, including any other conditions you are being treated for and the names of any medications, vitamins, or supplements you are taking.
  • Avoid using tampons or douching before prescribing so that your doctor can assess any vaginal discharge you have.
  • Make a list of questions to ask your doctor, putting the most important ones first if time is running out.

For a yeast infection, some basic questions to ask your doctor include:

  • How can I prevent yeast infections?
  • What symptoms should I watch for?
  • Do I need to take medicine?
  • Should my partner be tested or treated?
  • Are there special instructions for taking medication?
  • Are there over-the-counter products that will handle my condition?
  • What can I do if my symptoms return after treatment?

During your appointment, do not hesitate to ask other questions as they arise.

What to expect from your doctor

Your doctor may ask you several questions, such as:

  • What vaginal symptoms do you have?
  • Do you notice a strong vaginal odor?
  • How long have you had symptoms?
  • Have you ever been treated for a vaginal infection?
  • Have you tried any over-the-counter products to treat your condition?
  • Have you recently taken antibiotics?
  • Are you sexually active?
  • Are you pregnant?
  • Are you using a scented soap or bubble bath?
  • Do you care for or use a feminine hygiene spray?
  • What medications or vitamin supplements do you regularly take?

Tests and Diagnostics

To diagnose a yeast infection, your doctor can:

  • Ask questions about your medical history. This may include collecting information on past vaginal or sexually transmitted infections.
  • Perform a pelvic exam. Your doctor will check your external genitals for signs of infection. Your doctor will then place an instrument (speculum) in your vagina to keep the vaginal walls open to examine the vagina and cervix.
  • Test a sample of vaginal secretions. Your doctor may send a sample of your vaginal fluid for testing to determine the type of fungus causing the yeast infection.Your doctor may prescribe a more effective treatment for recurrent yeast infections by identifying the type of fungus causing the infection.

Treatment and drugs

Treatment for a yeast infection depends on whether you have an uncomplicated or complex infection.

Uncomplicated yeast infection

For mild to moderate symptoms and rare episodes of yeast infections, your doctor may recommend:

  • Short-term vaginal therapy. Antifungal agents are available as creams, ointments, tablets and suppositories. An antifungal regimen that lasts one, three, or seven days will usually clear up the yeast infection. A number of drugs have been shown to be effective, including butoconazole (Ginazol-1), clotrimazole (Gyne-Lotrimin), miconazole (Monistat 3), and terconazole (Terazol 3). Some are only available with a prescription, while others are available without a prescription. Side effects may include slight burning or irritation during use.You may need to use an alternative form of birth control. Because suppositories and creams are oil based, they can potentially weaken latex condoms and diaphragms.
  • Single-use oral preparations. Your doctor may prescribe a single oral dose of the antifungal drug fluconazole (Diflucan). Or, you can take two single doses for three days to help manage severe symptoms.
  • OTC treatment. OTC antifungal vaginal suppositories and creams are effective for many women and are a safe choice during pregnancy. Treatment usually lasts three to seven days.

Make a follow-up appointment with your doctor if symptoms persist after treatment, or if they return within two months of treatment.

Complex yeast infection

Treatment of complicated yeast infection may include:

  • Long term vaginal therapy. An azole medication treatment procedure for 7-14 days can successfully clear a yeast infection. The medication is usually a vaginal cream, ointment, tablet, or suppository.
  • Multi-dose oral preparations. Your doctor may prescribe two or three doses of fluconazole to be taken by mouth instead of vaginal therapy. However, this therapy is not recommended for pregnant women.
  • Service plan. For recurrent yeast infections, your doctor may recommend a treatment routine to prevent yeast overgrowth and future infections.Therapeutic therapy begins after the yeast infection has cleared with treatment. You may need longer treatment, up to 14 days, to clear up the yeast infection before starting maintenance therapy. Therapy may include a regimen of oral fluconazole tablets once a week for six months. Some doctors prescribe clotrimazole as a vaginal suppository, which is used once a week instead of being taken by mouth.

Your sex partner may not need treatment for a yeast infection.If you have recurrent yeast infections, your doctor may recommend treating your partner if your partner has symptoms of a genital yeast infection (balanitis) or the use of condoms during intercourse.

Alternative medicine

Although there has been some research on alternative yeast infection treatments, well-designed and controlled studies are needed to investigate these treatments before experts can make any recommendations.

Examples include:

  • Boric acid. Boric acid, a prescription vaginal insert (suppository), may be considered a treatment for chronic, less common strains of candida and candida that are resistant to azole drugs. Treatment is done vaginally only and is applied twice a day for two weeks. However, boric acid can irritate your skin and can be fatal if accidentally ingested, especially by children.
  • Yogurt. Some women find relief from yeast infection symptoms when they eat yogurt or apply it vaginally, and there is some evidence to support this. Some studies have shown that yogurt was more effective than placebo or vaginal clotrimazole. However, only a small number of women were included.

Before trying any alternative therapy, check with your doctor to weigh the pros and cons in your situation.


To reduce the risk of developing vaginal yeast infections:

  • Put on cotton underwear and loose pants or skirts.
  • Avoid tight-fitting underwear or tights.
  • Change wet clothing immediately, such as swimwear or workout outfits.
  • Stay away from hot baths and very hot baths.
  • Avoid unnecessary antibiotic use, such as for colds or other viral infections.

Updated: 2015-09-18

Publication date: 2010-05-18

Alzheimer’s protein protects against infections

Antimicrobial properties of Alzheimer’s beta-amyloid peptide have been tested in animals.

It is known that Alzheimer’s disease and other similar neurodegenerative diseases begin due to the accumulation of protein deposits in the neurons of the brain, due to which nerve cells begin to work poorly and eventually die.

There are a number of such dangerous proteins, and in the case of Alzheimer’s syndrome they usually speak of beta-amyloid (which is usually called a peptide due to its small size – only about 40 amino acids). It is formed by the cleavage of a larger molecule, the so-called beta-amyloid precursor.

Naturally, the question immediately arises as to why the cell needs both of these proteins – it would be extremely strange if their only purpose was to harm neurons. For the precursor of beta-amyloid, which sits in the cell membrane and is able to interact with some other molecules, useful functions have been found, but the beta-amyloid itself, from which protein dumps are derived, has long been considered just metabolic garbage.There is little of it in a healthy brain, so it would be logical to assume that the disease begins with a breakdown of the garbage truck – beta-amyloid accumulates and begins to spoil the life of the cell.

However, data gradually began to appear that beta-amyloid may be useful. For example, a few years ago, Rudolph Tanzi ( Rudolph Tanzi ) and his colleagues at Harvard University and Massachusetts Central Hospital discovered that beta-amyloid peptides, both synthetic and natural, inhibit the growth of a number of bacteria and potentially dangerous yeast Candida albicans , capable of causing candidiasis with a weakened immunity.The effect of beta-amyloid was the same as that of the antimicrobial peptide LL-37, found in immune cells, leukocytes and macrophages.

In a new paper published in Science Translational Medicine , the same researchers write about how Alzheimer’s protein works in living organisms. Its antimicrobial abilities were tested, firstly, on mice, secondly, on nematode worms, and, thirdly, on cell culture. The mice were modified so that they synthesize a lot of human beta-amyloid in their brains, but without the formation of pathological deposits – the famous amyloid plaques.The Salmonella typhimurium bacterium was then injected into the brains of the animals.

It turned out that in mice with increased levels of beta-amyloid, the chance of survival after infection was increased. The peptide worked like this: the night after the onset of infection appeared, the notorious amyloid plaques appeared in animals, which contained bacterial cells. By themselves, such deposits, as we just said, did not form in mice, and in general, in the case of Alzheimer’s syndrome, they are believed to form for years, and only then the disease becomes obvious and noticeably accelerates.In the case of microbial invasion, plaques, as we see, appear quickly, neutralizing pathogenic cells.

Nematode worms were infected not with bacteria, but with yeast, and here the picture was the same: worms that, after biotechnological manipulations, acquired the ability to synthesize human beta-amyloid, lived with a yeast infection 3-4 days longer, which is actually for short-lived nematodes quite a bit of. Finally, experiments with cell cultures that themselves synthesized beta-amyloid showed that the alzheimer’s peptide prevents the fungus from attaching to cells by forming protein strands and holding yeast in them.The same threads appeared in the stomach of the worms, protecting them from infection.

In fact, some common antimicrobial peptides used by the immune system work in a similar way – they kind of imprison the pathogen in a peptide “prison” in order to kill it later. Considering that beta-amyloid is precisely known for its ability to form long cords (which then, in case of illness, fold into large deposits), it could well be expected from it the same reaction to bacteria or to any other infection.

In parallel with the new results, one may recall that recently, useful functions have also begun to be found in prion proteins. Prions and proteins of Alzheimer’s syndrome, Parkinson’s syndrome, etc. are very similar to each other – prions also destroy the nervous system, filling neurons with huge masses of stuck together protein molecules. However, it turned out that it is their ability to stick together that helps the yeast survive in extreme conditions, and in Drosophila prion complexes maintain long-term memory.

And yet, no matter how useful beta-amyloid may be, during an illness you still need to do something with it. There is still no cure for neurodegenerative disorders, although many laboratories are working to find a remedy that would rid neurons of harmful protein deposits, remove excess amyloid beta, or at least prevent it from sticking together.

In light of recent results, an additional requirement is obviously added to such a drug: it should not completely remove amyloid beta peptide from cells and should not completely suppress its adhesion – otherwise, there is a possibility that our antimicrobial defenses will suffer.

Alzheimer’s plaques in the brain of a mouse. (Photo by Enrique T / Flickr.com.)

Strands of their molecules of Alzheimer’s beta-amyloid, entangling yeast cells.