About all

How infectious is staph: The request could not be satisfied


What Is a Staph Infection? Symptoms, Causes, Diagnosis, Treatment, and Prevention

Staph infections are caused by a type of bacteria called staphylococcus. These germs can live on your skin, in your mouth, or in your nose.

There are more than 30 types of staph bacteria, but the most common is Staphylococcus aureus, according to MedlinePlus. (1) About 30 percent of healthy adults have S. aureus in their nose, and about 20 percent have it on their skin, notes the Merck Manual. (2)

Most of the time, staph doesn’t cause a problem. But if the bacteria spreads deeper into your body, you can develop a serious, or even life-threatening, infection.

Types of Staph Infections

There are two types of staph infections, broadly speaking: skin infections and invasive infections. Skin infections are much more common, and most of the time, less serious, although they can be annoying and painful. But they can develop into invasive infections if they’re left untreated. Invasive staph infections can be life-threatening if they’re not managed properly, notes the Mayo Clinic. (3)

Cellulitis, Impetigo, and Other Skin Infections Caused by Staph

Some examples of skin infections that can be caused by staph include:

Folliculitis In folliculitis, the hair follicles (the small pockets in the skin where strands of hair grow) become inflamed and often infected. Men with curly hair who shave their beard close to the skin often get folliculitis on the face and neck.

Stye A stye is a small, red, very painful bump that grows from the base of an eyelash or under the eyelid. There’s usually visible pus in the center of the bump.

Boils Boils are red, swollen, painful lumps that form under the skin. They usually start as an infected hair follicle that enlarges and fills with pus — bacteria, white blood cells, and dead skin. Boils, also called furuncles, often occur on the face, neck, armpits, buttocks, or inner thighs. A cluster of boils that form a connected area of infection is called a carbuncle.

Skin Abscess A skin abscess is a pocket of pus surrounded by a thick membrane under the skin. Abscesses form when the body tries to protect itself from an infection by walling it off. Cutting a hole in the wall of the abscess with a surgical knife and draining the pus is the only real way to treat an abscess.

Cellulitis Cellulitis is an infection of the deeper layers of the skin, including the dermis, or second layer of skin, and the subcutaneous tissue, or fat and connective tissue that form the bottom layer of skin. Cellulitis can occur anywhere on the body but most commonly affects the lower legs.

Impetigo This common and highly contagious staph infection begins as small blisters, usually on the face, hands, or feet, that eventually develop a honey-colored crust. Impetigo usually affects young children, but anyone can develop it.

Staphylococcal Scalded Skin Syndrome (SSSS) This condition is caused by toxins produced by a staph infection and results in peeling skin over large areas of the body. The skin might look burned or scalded. It most often affects babies and young children.

Wound Infections These infections usually crop up two or more days after you’ve had a skin injury or surgery. (1,2,3)

Learn More About Cellulitis

Learn More About Impetigo

Invasive Staph Infections

Invasive staph infections happen when bacteria enter the bloodstream. Some types are:

Sepsis Sepsis is an infection of the bloodstream that leads to a widespread inflammatory response. It’s one of the most dangerous outcomes of staph and can spread throughout your body, affecting the function of internal organs.

Septic Arthritis This infection targets your joints, often the knees, hips, shoulders, finger joints, or toe joints.

Toxic Shock Syndrome This rare but serious condition can happen when staph bacteria get into your bloodstream and produce toxins. Toxic shock syndrome has been linked to the use of high-absorbency tampons, but anyone, including men, children, and women who don’t use tampons, can develop it under the right circumstances.

Endocarditis Endocarditis happens when bacteria affect areas in your heart, most typically the heart valves. If it’s not treated quickly, the infection can damage or destroy your heart valves.

Osteomyelitis This uncommon but serious condition happens when a bone in your body becomes infected.

Pyomyositis Pyomyositis is a rare bacterial infection of the skeletal muscles, which are the muscles you use for movement.

Pneumonia Pneumonia is a common infection that causes inflammation and fluid accumulation in the air sacs of your lungs, making it very hard to breathe comfortably.

Food Poisoning Food poisoning connected to staph is caused by eating foods contaminated by toxins that are produced by the bacteria. It is not a true bacterial infection and should not be treated with antibiotics. Foods typically becomes contaminated by being touched by people who have staph on their hands. (1,2,3)

Drug-Resistant Infections: MRSA

Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) is a type of staph infection that’s resistant to commonly used antibiotics, according to the American Academy of Family Physicians. (4)

Most cases of MRSA occur in people who’ve been in hospitals or other healthcare facilities. But so-called community-associated MRSA, in which the infection is spread outside of hospitals or healthcare facilities, also occurs.

Overuse and misuse of antibiotics are contributors to the development of MRSA. On an individual level, you can help prevent and control the spread of antibiotic resistance by taking antibiotics only when necessary (not for viral infections like the flu or colds) and when they are prescribed to you by a doctor.

Also, always finish your full course of antibiotics, even if your symptoms have improved, to prevent the development of antibiotic-resistant superbugs, such as MRSA.

Learn More About MRSA Symptoms, Diagnosis, and Treatment

Staph Infection | Johns Hopkins Medicine

What is a staphylococcal infection?

Staphylococcus aureus, or “staph,” are common bacteria that normally live on the skin. The bacteria also live harmlessly in the nasal passages of roughly 30 percent of the U.S. population. Staph can cause infection when they enter the skin through a cut or sore. Infection can also occur when the bacteria move inside of the body through a catheter or breathing tube. 

Staphylococcus aureus, or S. epidermidis, can cause staphylococcal meningitis, an infection of the membranes covering the brain and spinal cord caused by; it usually develops as a complication of a surgical procedure or a blood-borne infection. 


Depending on the extent and severity of your symptoms, your doctor may recommend the following tests:

  • A skin biopsy and culture from the infected site

  • Culture of the drainage (fluid) from the infection, to see which organism grows in it

  • Blood culture

  • Sputum culture through coughing or bronchoscopy if pneumonia is present or suspected

  • Urine culture  if a urinary tract infection is present or suspected


Treatment depends on the type of staph infection. Some require intravenous antibiotics. For a local Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) skin infection, draining the abscess at the doctor’s office is usually the only treatment needed. Few antibiotics are available to treat more serious MRSA infections. These include vancomycin (Vancocin, Vancoled), trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole (Bactrim, Bactrim DS, Septra, Septra DS) and linezolid (Zyvox).

Note: It is critically important to finish all doses of antibiotics you have been given, even if you feel better before the final dose. Unfinished doses can lead to development of drug resistance in the bacteria.

Staph infections – symptoms, causes, treatment and prevention

On this page

What is a staph infection?

The staphylococcus aureus (staph) bacteria is a relatively common type of bacteria that usually doesn’t cause any harm. However, a staph infection can occur when the staph bacteria enter the body and multiplies.

Many people carry a lot of different strains of staph bacteria either on the surface of their skin or in their nose, and in most cases they do not cause any problems.

However, if the bacteria do enter the body, they might multiply and cause an infection.

There are many different types of staph infection, ranging from boils to blood poisoning, and some are resistant to common antibiotics.

Some staph infections could be life threatening. See your doctor as soon as possible or call triple zero (000) and ask for an ambulance if you have these symptoms of an invasive staph infection:

Who is at risk of a staph infection?

Anyone can develop a staph infection, but some people are more prone to staph infections than others. Those who are more likely to develop infections include:

  • children and infants, who may develop an infection known as ‘school sores’ (impetigo) when they start attending daycare, preschool or school
  • people with a weakened immune system, such as those with HIV/AIDS or those taking medicines to suppress their immune systems
  • people who regularly have medical equipment entering their body, such as during kidney dialysis or when using catheters, feeding or breathing tubes
  • people who have been in hospital for a long time, due to their contact with healthcare workers and proximity to other sick people

What causes staph infections?

There are several different types of staph infection. Skin infections are more common in crowded places where there is a lot of skin contact, such as in childcare centres. You can also become ill from food poisoning if the food you eat is contaminated by staph bacteria.

Staph skin infections

Staph infections on the skin include impetigo, wound infection, cellulitis and staphylococcal scalded skin syndrome (SSSS). You can learn more about this type of infection in healthdirect’s staph skin infection article.

Symptoms of a staph skin infection include redness, swelling, pain, heat, and/or sores filled with pus.

Invasive staph infections

Invasive staph infections are far less common than skin infections, but are usually more severe. There are many types of invasive staph infection and you can learn more by reading our invasive staph infections article.

Symptoms of an invasive staph infection may include feeling generally unwell, high fever, uncontrollable shakes, and/or shortness of breath.

How are staph infections treated?

Most staph skin infections are treated with a course of antibiotics.

Simple ones can be treated at home. Serious ones need to be treated in hospital with intravenous antibiotics and other treatments.

Antibiotic resistance

Some staph aureus is resistant to many antibiotics. Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus Aureus (MRSA) has a strong resistance to an antibiotic called methicillin and can cause severe infections that cannot be treated using most antibiotics.

Due to MRSA, doctors have become more cautious about prescribing antibiotics. Only use antibiotics when you really need them to help reduce the risk of bacteria becoming resistant.

When should I see my doctor?

See your doctor if:

  • you have an infection — an area of red, irritated or painful skin, or blisters filled with pus
  • you have a fever
  • the infection is getting worse or spreading
  • it lasts more than a week
  • you have a weakened immune system
  • you keep getting staph infections

FIND A HEALTH SERVICE — Our Service Finder can help you find doctors, pharmacies, hospitals and other health services.

Can staph infections be prevented?

In most cases you can avoid developing a staph skin infection through basic hygiene. Always wash your hands thoroughly with soap and running water and dry them with a clean towel or disposable paper towel.

In particular, wash your hands:

  • before and after touching or cleaning an infected area
  • after going to the bathroom
  • after blowing your nose
  • before handling and eating food
  • after handling animals, including domestic pets

If you live with someone who has a staph skin infection you may be able to avoid developing the infection by:

  • not sharing any personal items with them such as toothbrushes, towels, clothes and linen
  • washing your hands immediately if you come into contact with them
  • ensuring their bedding and towels are cleaned daily, with hot water and bleach, before their infection disappears

If you are at risk of developing an invasive staph infection, it is important to have a healthy lifestyle, maintaining a healthy diet, regular exercise, minimising alcohol and avoiding smoking and illicit drugs.

You can avoid food poisoning by ensuring work surfaces and cooking utensils are clean and always washing your hands before preparing food. Avoid handling food if you are ill, particularly with stomach problems or if you have open sores and cuts.

Staphylococcal food poisoning

You can avoid food poisoning by keeping high standards of food hygiene throughout the cooking process.

Keep your food safe by always cooking it properly, avoiding contaminating cooked food with raw food, and storing food at the right temperature.

Bacterial Skin Infections: Impetigo and MRSA

What kinds of bacteria can cause contagious skin infections?

Certain bacteria commonly live on the skin of many people without causing harm. However, these bacteria can cause skin infections if they enter the body through cuts, open wounds, or other breaks in the skin. Symptoms may include redness, swelling, pain, or pus.

How serious are bacterial skin infections?

While many bacterial skin infections are mild and easily treatable, some can become very serious and even life threatening. In addition, some bacterial infections can be spread to others. This is why prevention is so important.

What are the two most common bacteria that cause skin infections?

  1. Group A Streptococcus (GAS), often called “strep.”
  2. Staphylococcus aureus, commonly called “staph.”


What is impetigo?

Impetigo is a common bacterial skin infection caused by Group A Streptococcus (GAS) or “strep.”

What is Group A Streptococcus (GAS)?

Group A Streptococcus (GAS) or “strep” is a common bacterium (bacterium is the singular form of the plural, bacteria) that is found on the skin or in the throat (“strep throat”). People can carry GAS and have no symptoms of illness or they may develop relatively mild skin infections, including impetigo.

How does impetigo spread?

Group A Streptococcus (GAS) or “strep” can be transmitted through direct person-to-person contact with someone who has the infection. GAS can also be picked up indirectly through contact with an item (such as a wrestling mat, gear, towel, razor, or cell phone) that is contaminated with the bacterium.

What are the symptoms of impetigo?

  • Symptoms usually began 1-3 days after infection.
  • Sores (lesions) begin as small red spots, usually on the face (especially around the nose and mouth), but can appear anywhere on the body.
  • The sores are often itchy, but usually not painful.
  • The sores develop into blisters that break open and ooze fluid — this fluid contains infectious bacteria that can infect others if they have contact with it.
  • After a few days, the ruptured blisters form a flat, thick, honey-colored (yellowish-brown) crust that eventually disappears, leaving red marks that heal without scarring.
  • There may be swollen glands (enlarged lymph nodes), but usually no fever.
  • Click here to view a photograph of impetigo on the face from DermAtlas.

What should athletes do if they think they have impetigo?

While mild cases of impetigo may be treated without seeing a health care provider, athletes are recommended to have a medical professional determine what type of infection they have, how to treat it, and if it is contagious. If the infection is contagious, athletes should not practice or compete until their medical provider clears them to return.

Back to Top

Back to Table of Contents

Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA)

What is Staphylococcus aureus?

Staphylococcus aureus (“staph”) is a bacterium that is carried on the skin or in the nose of approximately 25% to 30% of healthy people without causing infection — this is called colonization. Staph bacteria are one of the most common causes of skin infections in the U.S. Most of these skin infections are minor (such as pimples and boils), are not spread to others (not infectious), and usually can be treated without antibiotics. However, some staph bacteria are resistant to certain antibiotics — one type is called MRSA.

What is MRSA?

MRSA stands for methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus. MRSA is a staph bacterium that certain antibiotics in the penicillin family should be able to treat, but cannot. When the infection is resistant to the medication, it is called resistance. However, other non-penicillin antibiotics can effectively treat most MRSA infections.

MRSA Infection on Arm

What causes antibiotic resistance?

Most resistance to antibiotics develops from taking them improperly. Examples are:

  • Incomplete use: Not finishing the entire antibiotic prescription (often because people start to feel better and stop taking the medication).
  • Inappropriate use: Taking antibiotics for a viral infection (antibiotics do NOT treat viral infections such as colds or the flu).
  • Unnecessary use: Taking antibiotics “just in case” (for example, taking them prior to a vacation or special event to try to prevent illness).

It is important to take prescription medication only when prescribed for you by a health professional and to take all the medicine even if you feel better before you have completed the prescription.

How serious is MRSA?

Although health care providers can treat most MRSA skin infections in their offices, MRSA can be very serious and even cause death. MRSA can cause pneumonia or severe infections of the blood, bones, surgical wounds, heart valves, and lungs. MRSA can be fatal if not identified and treated with effective antibiotics.

How does someone get MRSA infection?

Most often, MRSA is transmitted by direct skin-to-skin contact with someone who has the infection.

MRSA can be spread by indirect contact too (for example contact with a mat that has infected drainage on it or by sharing a towel or cell phone with someone who has MRSA). Because of this, never share personal hygiene and health items.

Where on the skin does MRSA appear and what are the symptoms?

MRSA infections commonly occur where there is a break in the skin (for example, a cut or wound), especially in areas covered by hair (for example, the beard area, back of the neck, armpit, groin, legs, or buttocks)

MRSA may look like a bump on the skin that may be red, swollen, warm to the touch, painful, filled with pus, or draining. The pus or drainage contains the infectious bacteria that can be spread to others. People with MRSA may have a fever.

MRSA Infection on Thigh

How is MRSA diagnosed and treated?

Depending on your symptoms, your health care provider may send a nasal swab or skin tissue specimen to a laboratory to identify the infection or confirm that you have MRSA.

Your health care provider may drain the pus from the lesion — do not do this yourself.

If you are prescribed an antibiotic, take it exactly as directed and take all of the medicine even if the infection improves or goes away before you have finished the entire prescription. If the infection does not begin to improve within a few days, contact your health care provider.

Back to Top

Back to Table of Contents

What are Staphylococcal infections? | Facts

Staphylococcal infections are a group of infections caused by the bacterium Staphylococcus. Infection causes a range of symptoms, from skin conditions to food poisoning. 

What are Staphylococcal infections?

  • Staphylococcal infections are a group of infections caused by the bacterium Staphylococcus.
  • The most common of this group of bacteria is Staphylococcus aureus.
  • Staphylococcal infections are spread by skin-to-skin contact and often start by infecting small cuts in the skin.
  • However there is a wide spectrum of Staphylococcal infections, both in terms of severity and how easily they can be treated.

What are the symptoms of Staphylococcal infections?

  • Staphylococcal infections occur when the bacterium gets into the body through a break or cut in the skin.
  • Depending on how far the bacterium gets into the body, Staphylococcal infections are usually divided into two groups: 
    • skin and soft tissue infections
    • invasive infections.

Skin and soft tissue infections

  • Skin and soft tissue Staphylococcal infections include:
    • Boils: painful, red bumps on the skin of the neck, face, thighs, armpits and buttocks
    • Impetigo: a highly contagious bacterial skin infection causing painful sores and painless blisters
    • Cellulitis: a bacterial infection of the deep layer of the skin and the layer of fat and soft tissue beneath the skin. This can cause patients to feel feverish and nauseous.

Invasive infections

  • Invasive Staphylococcal infections include:
    • Sepsis: also known as blood poisoning, this happens when Staphylococcal infections enter the blood stream causing an overwhelming immune response.
      • Symptoms include fever, fast heartbeat, low blood pressure, diarrhoea, pale and cold skin, and sometimes loss of consciousness. Sepsis is a medical emergency.
      • Toxic shock syndrome is a form of severe sepsis. It is a rare but life-threatening infection caused by Staphylococcus aureus releasing a toxic substance. It causes a high fever, a dramatic drop in blood pressure (shock), dizziness and confusion.
    • Septic arthritis: a condition where a joint becomes infected with Staphylococcus aureus bacteria causing joint swelling, pain and fever.
    • Endocarditis: this is when Staphylococcus infects the internal structures of the heart (for example, the heart valves), causing inflammation.
      • Symptoms can develop gradually over the space of many weeks, or quickly over the space of a few days.
      • Symptoms include chest pain, coughs, fatigue, shortness of breath, fever and unexplained weight loss.

How do you treat Staphylococcal infections

  • Skin and soft tissue infections are generally mild and straightforward to treat with antibiotic tablets or creams.
  • The more invasive the infection, the harder it is to treat.
  • Once the bacteria penetrate the skin and enter the blood, they can multiply rapidly, releasing toxins and creating considerable damage to organs and tissues.
  • In these incidences doctors may have to resort to antibiotic injections.

A plate of Staphylococcus aureus 

Image credit: User:Valugi – Own work. Licensed under Creative Commons Attribution-Share Alike 3.0 via Wikimedia Commons 

What are the challenges in treating Staphylococcal infections?

  • Many strains of Staphylococcal bacteria have developed antibiotic resistance.
  • Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus, more commonly known as MRSA, is a type of Staphylococcus aureus that is resistant to a number of antibiotics including methicillin.

What is methicillin-resistant

Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA)?

  • MRSA (methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus) is a form of staphylococcal infection that is resistant to methicillin. It is often resistant to other commonly used antibiotics as well.
  • Because of its antibiotic resistance, MRSA can be very difficult to treat and often spreads quickly in contained spaces such as hospitals, nursing homes and even gyms and homeless shelters.
  • It is sometimes referred to as a ‘superbug’.
  • Hospitalised patients are at the highest risk of getting an MRSA infection because they are frequently in contact with other people who are likely to have MRSA.
  • Many hospitalised patients are older and weaker making them more susceptible to developing an MRSA infection that could become life-threatening.
  • In general, the perfect environments in which MRSA can spread are places which have poor hygiene, large numbers of people passing through and lots of skin-to-skin contact. These conditions mean the bacteria can be easily transferred from person to person.

Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA).

Image credit: Genome Research Limited

Is MRSA always harmful?

  • Many of us live with Staphylococcus aureus and MRSA without any problems. Many people have S. aureus living in their nose or on their skin.
  • Most people who acquire MRSA become silent carriers of the bacterium and do not exhibit any symptoms.
  • Only a small proportion of these carriers go on to develop infection if the bacteria enter their body through an area of broken skin, such as a wound.
  • MRSA causes more problems than regular S. aureus because it is resistant to antibiotics commonly used to treat Staphylococcal infections. This makes it much more difficult to get rid of.

How can the spread of MRSA be prevented?

  • MRSA infections have put a huge strain on healthcare systems.
  • In recent years, increased awareness of the infection has allowed healthcare professionals to manage it more effectively.
  • Prevention techniques include:
    • washing hands before and after visiting someone in a care home or hospital to avoid the spread of any bacteria that may be on the hands (MRSA can be spread by skin-to-skin contact)
    • screening patients for MRSA before they are admitted to hospital for an operation. This is most often done with swabs taken from the nose and groin, or by testing a blood, urine, tissue or spit sample.
    • putting all disposable items, such as dressings and gloves, into the appropriate bins promptly to avoid cross-contamination
    • a policy of patients being encouraged to speak to their nurse or doctor if they are worried about hygiene standards on a ward.

How is MRSA treated?

  • To identify the best course of treatment for an individual with an MRSA infection the doctor will assess the type, site and severity of the infection.
  • They will also find out which antibiotics that the specific strain of MRSA is resistant and sensitive to.
  • Minor skin or soft tissue infections such as boils may only need to be treated superficially, with a technique called ‘incision and drainage’.
  • This is where the surface of a boil is broken open with a sterile scalpel, sometimes under a local anaesthetic, and the pus is drained out, relieving pressure and pain for the patient.
  • Despite being resistant to a number of different antibiotics, some strains of MRSA can be treated effectively with other antibiotics or a combination of antibiotics.
  • These antibiotics are often given as injections and may be given for up to six weeks, depending on the severity of the infection. 

This page was last updated on 2021-07-21

Staph Infection | Primary Care


A staph infection, or staphylococcus infection, results from a type of bacteria that is found on the skin or in the nose of about 25 percent of the population.

Staphylococcus bacteria are usually harmless, until they enter the body, often through a cut on the skin, and cause an infection. Mild staph infections often appear as a red or swollen boil filled with pus.

These infections are usually minor and can be treated with antibiotics, but increasingly, staphylococcus infections are becoming resistant to current antibiotics. Antibiotic-resistant staph infections are dangerous and potentially life-threatening.

Call your doctor if your possible staph infection is accompanied by a fever, intense pain or redness, or red marks radiating from the wound.

Staph infection causes

A staph infection results when staphylococcus bacteria enters the body through an open cut or other pathway. Staphylococcus bacteria can be found on many common surfaces, and even lives on the skin of about 1 in 4 people.

Outbreaks of staph infections often occur in schools, prisons, athletic team locker rooms, and military settings.

Staph infection risk factors

You may be more likely to acquire a staph infection if you:

  • Have certain medical conditions or take certain medications
    • The following conditions and treatments can increase your risk:
      • Taking insulin for diabetes
      • Cystic fibrosis or emphysema
      • Having dialysis for kidney failure
      • Undergoing chemotherapy or radiation for cancer
      • HIV/AIDS
  • Have recently been hospitalized
    • Staphylococcus bacteria are often found in hospitals, where it can those who are already immunocompromised or who have severe open wounds.
  • Wear an invasive device for medical treatment
    • Devices such as catheters and feeding and breathing tubes can provide a pathway through which staphylococcus bacteria can enter the body.
  • Play contact sports
    • If you develop cuts or other skin injuries during contact sports, staphylococcus has an opportunity to enter the body. The infection can then spread to others through direct skin-contact or though sharing equipment.

Staph infection symptoms

Symptoms of staph infections range from mild severe. In order from least severe to most severe, symptoms may include:

  • Skin boils collections of pus that may be surrounded by red, swollen skin
  • Impetigoa painful, blistering, honey-colored rash that leaks fluids and is contagious
  • Cellulitisa deep skin infection characterized by skin swelling, redness, and leaking fluids
  • Staphylococcal scalded skin syndrome — a rash accompanied by a fever and blisters that expose red, raw-looking skin after breaking

Staphylococcus bacteria can also cause food poisoning, which is often accompanied by nausea, vomiting, and diarrhea.

Staph infection complications

Staph infections can lead to serious complications, particularly if caused by an antibiotic-resistant form of the bacteria. Severe complications that can result from staph infections include:

  • Sepsis — If staphylococcus enters a person’s bloodstream, the bacteria can travel throughout the body, infecting other organs including the heart, brain, and lungs. This can cause a person to enter septic shock, which is a life-threatening condition.
  • Toxic shock syndrome — This complication occurs when staphylococcus bacteria release toxins that causes symptoms such as a fever, vomiting, red skin rashes, and muscle aches. It can result from staphylococcus acquired through tampons or some surgeries. Toxic shock syndrome that is left untreated can be life-threatening and lead to limb loss.
  • Septic arthritis — If staphylococcus bacteria reach the joints such as in the knees, hips, or shoulders, it can cause a fever, as well as extreme swelling and pain in those joints.

Staph infection prevention

The following measures can decrease your likelihood of acquiring staph infection:

  • Make sure any cuts or skin injuries are covered and cleaned with soap and water, chlorhexidine or hypochlorous acid
  • Wash your hands often
  • When using tampons, choose the option with the lowest absorbency and change them as often as recommended on the box
  • Refrain from sharing items such as razors, towels, and athletic equipment
  • Use hot water to wash bed sheets and clothing

Staph infection diagnosis

When diagnosing a staph infection, your doctor will perform a physical examination of the affected area, and may collect a tissue sample to identify the presence of staphylococcus bacteria.

Staph infection treatment

To treat staph infections, your doctor will:

  • Prescribe antibiotics as needed
  • Drain the fluids from affected wounds
  • Remove any invasive devices such as tubes or catheters that could allow the bacteria to enter your body

In severe cases, people whose staph infections that travel deep into the body may need to undergo surgery to have the affected areas cleaned.  

When to seek care

Call your doctor if your possible staph infection is accompanied by a fever, intense pain or redness, or red marks radiating from the wound.

Next Steps

Staph infections are contagious while you have a fluid-filled wound. To prevent staph from spreading, avoid skin-to-skin contact with other people by making sure your wound is covered, until it has healed.

MRSA | Home

AR/MDROs Home   Data   FAQs   Reporting   Resources

Organisms, Causative Agent, or Etiologic Agent Email Questions

Once S. aureus is tested in the lab and known to be resistant to certain antibiotics, we call it methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus. MRSA is pronounced either “M-R-S-A” or “mer-sa”. It is resistant to certain antibiotics called beta-lactams. Roughly 2% of the population has MRSA on their skin or in their nose. Most of the time it does not cause any sickness or infection.

Staph can easily be spread through touch. When a person touches the infected area and does not clean their hands afterwards and then touches another person or an object, the germs are spread by their hands.

Staphylococcus aureus is a type of bacteria that about 30% of the population has in their nose or on their skin. Most of the time is does not cause any sickness or infection. When this germ does cause a problem, a doctor may choose to treat it with antibiotics. Sometimes the antibiotics do not work and we call the staph resistant or methicillin-resistant staphylococcus aureus. This type of staph is commonly called MRSA and pronounced either “M-R-S-A” or “mer-sa”. It is resistant to certain antibiotics called beta-lactams. Roughly 2% of the population has MRSA on their skin or in their nose (Gorwitz RJ et al. Journal of Infectious Diseases. 2008:197:1226-34).

Both types of staph can be spread through touch. When a person touches the infected area and does not clean their hands after and then another person or an object, the germs are spread by their hands. Sometimes people do not know they have MRSA and do not clean objects after touching or using them, so the germs stay on the object when the next person uses it.

Having contact with someone else’s MRSA skin infection or personal items they have used, like towels or razors that touched their infected skin can also spread the germs. These types of infections are most likely to be spread in places where people are in close contact with others—for example, schools and locker rooms where athletes might share razors or towels.

As with all staph infections, recognizing the signs and receiving treatment for staph skin infections in the early stages reduces the chances of the infection becoming severe.

MRSA in healthcare settings usually causes more severe and potentially life-threatening infections, such as bloodstream infections, surgical site infections, or pneumonia. The signs and symptoms will vary by the type and stage of the infection.

In the community, most MRSA infections are skin infections that may appear as pustules or boils which often are red, swollen, painful, or have pus or other drainage. They often first look like pimples, spider bites or bumps that are red, swollen, and painful. These skin infections commonly occur at sites of visible skin trauma, such as cuts and scrapes, and areas of the body covered by hair (e.g., back of neck, groin, buttock, armpit, beard area of men).

MRSA can be spread by not cleaning our hands once we have contaminated them.

Factors that have been associated with the spread of MRSA skin infections include: close skin-to-skin contact, openings in the skin such as cuts or abrasions, contaminated items and surfaces, crowded living conditions, and poor hygiene. People may be more at risk when these factors are present in certain locations, including: athletic facilities, dormitories, military barracks, households, correctional facilities, and daycare centers.

MRSA is not naturally found in the environment (e.g., soil, the ocean, lakes). MRSA contaminates objects and surfaces outside the body if someone touches infected skin or certain areas of the body where these bacteria can live (like the nose) and then touches the object or surface. Keeping skin infections covered with bandages is the best way to reduce the chance that surfaces will be contaminated with MRSA.

Even if surfaces have MRSA on them, this does not mean that you will definitely get an infection if you touch these surfaces. MRSA is most likely to cause problems when you have a cut or scrape that is not covered. That’s why it’s important to cover your cuts and open wounds with bandages. MRSA can also get into small openings in the skin, like the openings at hair follicles.

The best defense against MRSA is good hygiene.

  • Keep your hands clean
  • Use a barrier like clothing or towels between you and any surfaces you share with others, like gym equipment
  • Shower immediately after activities that involve direct skin contact with others
  • Clean, disinfect and cover any cuts or wounds you may get
  • If you or someone you know has an MRSA infection frequently disinfect commonly touched, hard surfaces
  • Always tell your healthcare provider, like a doctor or nurse, that you have had MRSA.

School Exclusion
Children do not need to be excluded from child care, school or extra-curricular activities. Draining, open wounds, or abrasions should be cleaned and covered with a dressing until healed.

Texas Trends
Texas has limited MRSA information that is reportable through TxHSN.

  • 2012: Of the 609 S. aureus isolates, 335 isolates (55%) tested susceptible to oxacillin/methicillin
  • 2013: Of the 790 S. aureus isolates, 352 (44.55%) tested susceptible to oxacillin/methicillin
  • 2014: Of the 710 S. aureus isolates,  315 (44.33%) tested susceptible to oxacillin/methicillin

90,000 Angina: How is angina transmitted?, Types of angina, Symptoms of angina

Angina is an infectious-allergic disease that mainly affects the tonsils. As a rule, it is provoked by streptococci that enter the pharynx as a result of using objects shared with a sick person or by airborne droplets. Sometimes the disease is caused by microbes that usually live in the throat of a healthy person, without causing concern, but are activated under the influence of factors such as hypothermia, weakened immunity, etc. e. Angina during pregnancy can complicate the development of the fetus.

How is angina spread?

Pathogenic microorganisms live in the tonsils of every person, including absolutely healthy, usually not showing themselves in any way. But if any provoking factors arise, then the pathogenic microflora is activated, as a result the tonsils become inflamed – angina develops.

Typically, the peak incidence occurs during the winter and off-season, when people cough and sneeze most often.This is due to the fact that angina is transmitted by airborne droplets. You can get infected from a loved one through kissing or sharing personal hygiene items.

Types of sore throat

There are no significant differences in the classification of the disease in children and adults. The disease can be catarrhal, lacunar, follicular, necrotic. The mildest is catarrhal, and the most severe is necrotic. Let us consider in detail what kind of angina is in children and adults.

  • Catarrhal sore throat – superficial lesions of the glands and moderate signs of intoxication, temperature up to 38 degrees, changes in the blood are insignificant.Examination of the throat reveals a bright hyperemia covering the back of the pharynx, hard and soft palate. The tonsils are enlarged mainly due to swelling and infiltration.
  • Lacunar and follicular tonsillitis. These types of angina have similar symptoms and often develop simultaneously: accompanied by temperatures up to 39-40 degrees, signs of intoxication are clearly expressed
  • Fibrinous tonsillitis – characterized by the presence of a whitish-yellow fibrinous plaque on the tonsils, regional lymphadenitis is observed.It should be noted the following feature of this type of angina – in children with severely weakened immunity, it occurs more often. This disease can result from lacunar sore throat or develop on its own.
  • Phlegmonous tonsillitis – purulent fusion of the tonsil area. Mostly people in the age range from 15 to 40 are affected. The amygdala is hyperemic, enlarged, painful on palpation. The throat hurts badly when talking and swallowing, signs of intoxication are pronounced.The patient’s temperature rises to an alarming level of 39-40 degrees.
  • Necrotic tonsillitis. In this case, the general and local symptoms are more pronounced than with the above forms. The patient is observed: a stable febrile state, signs of confusion, constant vomiting. A plaque with a pitted surface is found on the tonsils. Its color can be grayish or greenish-yellow. The affected areas are often impregnated with fibrin, that is, they become dense.

Causes of sore throat

The main cause of angina is various viruses, sometimes it can be bacteria, of which hemolytic streptococcus occurs in 80% of cases. In the secondary form of angina, the causes can be infectious diseases and blood diseases: scarlet fever, measles, mononucleosis, diphtheria, syphilis, agranulocytosis and leukemia.

Angina is transmitted by airborne droplets, through food and water, as well as through communication and contact with a sick person. Most often, the disease occurs during damp and cold seasons, in autumn or winter.Angina in a child can be a consequence of hypothermia with weak immunity and other diseases. Sore throats can be caused by dental disease, tooth decay, and infections in the mouth.

Symptoms of sore throat

Angina is manifested acutely by the following symptoms:

  • severe muscle weakness;
  • Sharp sore throat when swallowing and talking;
  • high temperature, which can reach 40 degrees in severe forms of the disease;
  • headache;
  • enlargement of the tonsils, characteristic white bloom;
  • Severe redness of the mucous membrane of the throat and tonsils.

The first symptoms of a sore throat are easy to mistake for a cold or flu, but they are more severe. With a sore throat, the tonsils immediately enlarge, a sore throat can last for a whole week, so it is easy to identify. It is very important to start treatment immediately, since this disease is dangerous with various complications. One of them is paratonsillar abscess. The patient may experience a sharp sore throat, which is constantly increasing. After 2-3 days a person cannot swallow, the temperature rises, salivation becomes abundant.During swallowing, due to severe swelling of the soft palate, food can enter the nasopharynx and nose. Respiratory passages are practically blocked and the patient may suffocate.

Only a doctor should be involved in the diagnosis of angina. As a rule, he prescribes laryngoscopy, but if necessary, additional tests may be needed: a blood test and bacterioscopic examination of smears from the pharynx and nasal cavity.

Treatment of sore throat

In this disease, therapy should be comprehensive.Its basis is complete rest in bed rest. Even with proper drug treatment without bed rest, viral tonsillitis can cause complications that require much more radical and expensive methods of exposure.

With regard to nutrition, it is better to give up heavy and sweet dishes during the illness. Some of them irritate the throat, and their digestion requires additional energy from the body.

Drinking plenty of fluids will help the body to cope with the infection much faster.In this case, toxins will be excreted along with urine.

Regular gargling is able to remove the infection from the body as quickly as possible and reduce pain. In this matter, the main thing is to adhere to stability.

Antihistamines and anti-inflammatory drugs are prescribed to reduce swelling and soreness in the throat, as well as to alleviate general toxic manifestations.

Some forms of sore throat require surgical intervention, as the patient may suffocate or the infection spreads to other organs.In this case, complete or partial removal of the affected tonsils and pus is performed. The patient is recovering at the hospital. After the operation, it is necessary to limit physical activity, take care of hypothermia, strengthen the immune system and health.

Search in pharmacies of the appropriate quality of drugs for the treatment of angina, read their instructions and book through our online service.

Angina in children

Symptoms and treatment of angina in children are specific.The course of the disease in older children is accompanied by weakness and drowsiness, while in younger children, on the contrary, one can notice manifestations of anxiety and irritability. Enteroviral sore throat in children is accompanied by the appearance on the mucous tonsils, arches and pharynx of a bubbly rash with liquid inside. When the bubbles open, ulcers appear with a white coating. There are no scars after their healing.

Angina in children under five years of age is dangerous because such a dangerous condition as false croup can develop.In this case, there is an edema of the larynx, its lumen narrows, as a result, a clinic of suffocation arises. If a child has breathing problems, you need to call an ambulance immediately, and before she arrives, provide fresh air in all possible ways, for example, take the baby to the balcony or just open a window.

We recommend that you read the article: Treatment of angina in a child at home

Angina in babies

Angina in infants is a rather dangerous phenomenon that can lead to serious consequences.To prescribe adequate treatment, it is necessary to make a correct diagnosis. This task is made difficult by the fact that the baby cannot tell about his feelings. When making a diagnosis, the doctor relies on the examination data and information received from the parents.

The following signs give grounds to suspect a sore throat in an infant:

  • temperature rise to 39-40 degrees, against the background of which convulsions sometimes occur;
  • refusal to eat, vomiting, diarrhea;
  • anxiety and constant crying.

If necessary, the baby is placed in a hospital. This will have to be done if he suffers from congenital diseases, angina has given complications or there are signs of severe intoxication.

Angina during breastfeeding

Angina during breastfeeding is quite common, and treatment during lactation is a difficult task, because it should help the mother and at the same time not harm the baby. When a sore throat occurs in a nursing mother, the doctor should decide how to treat it, because during this period self-medication is unacceptable.

Most drugs pass into breast milk at least in small amounts. Medical treatment of angina during breastfeeding should be carried out carefully, with strict adherence to the dosage of the drugs. Mostly, agents are used that act locally and rarely give pronounced side effects.

Complications after tonsillitis

With a disease such as tonsillitis, treatment in accordance with the doctor’s recommendations is a guarantee that the disease will not provoke the development of more serious pathologies.In practice, many people come to the doctor even when it becomes impossible to turn away from the effects of tonsillitis caused by viruses.

Any inflammatory process in the throat area is fraught with a potential threat, even if the course of the disease at first seems mild. The body weakened by the virus is not able to resist bacterial infections (staphylococcus, streptococcus, pneumococcus). As a result, pathogenic processes spread to organs that are located not only near the larynx, but also far from this zone.

A child may develop a pharyngeal abscess, characterized by severe pain in the throat, which is aggravated when he opens his mouth. If an abscess ruptures, pus enters the posterior mediastinum. In this case, posterior mediastinitis develops, the consequences of which are neuropsychiatric disorders and cardiovascular failure.

Angina can cause inflammation in the middle ear and parotid gland. Getting into the lymph and blood, the infection in some cases affects the joints, liver or kidneys.

Prevention of sore throat

Prevention of angina is aimed at general strengthening of the body and exclusion of various infections that provoke the disease. It requires an integrated approach:

  • Maintaining personal hygiene. During illness, the patient must use a separate towel, toiletries and utensils.
  • In case of angina, the patient must be isolated from other family members and people. The room should be cleaned regularly.
  • Maintaining proper nutrition.It should be healthy, nutritious, contain vitamins and minerals.
  • Regular examination and treatment of helminthiasis, as well as all sources of chronic infection: caries, pyelonephritis, sinusitis, chronic tonsillitis, various purulent skin diseases. Maintain oral hygiene, see a dentist. If necessary, carry out partial or complete removal of the adenoids or tonsils.
  • Hardening a child from an early age. It is best to start hardening in childhood, but it can be done at any age.Among the methods of hardening, douche, rubdown, contrast shower, swimming, walking barefoot on stones and sand are distinguished. The process should take place gradually so that the body gets used to the stress. Hardening can only be carried out in a healthy state.
  • Increasing the level of immunity. It is necessary to protect mucous membranes from damage with dry and warm air. Do not use often topical antiseptics in the form of sprays. Cold drinks and food can be consumed, only in small quantities, so that the mucous membrane gets used to low temperatures.It is necessary to increase the body’s defenses. To do this, you can make an appointment with an immunologist who will prescribe medications that stimulate cellular and humoral immunity, immunomodulators of bacterial origin, a complex of vitamins.

Prevention of complications

Taking into account what complications can be after a sore throat, the need for thoughtful preventive measures becomes obvious. Following a few simple recommendations will help prevent serious health consequences.So how to avoid complications after a sore throat?

  • It is necessary to observe bed rest until the symptoms from the oropharynx completely disappear, even if the temperature is within normal limits.
  • Local treatment aimed at eliminating the manifestations of the disease should include lubrication of the affected tonsils and rinsing.
  • After suffering a sore throat, you should refrain from strong physical activity for some time, try not to overcool.

It is very important to follow the recommendations on the regimen and nutrition given by the doctor. He must explain what complications occur after a sore throat and how to avoid them. You can choose the best otolaryngologist or general practitioner in Kiev who will prescribe effective treatment on the website Doc.ua.

Erysipelas – ProMedicine Ufa

Erysipelas is an infectious disease caused by group A streptococcus, mainly affecting the skin and mucous membranes, characterized by the occurrence of limited serous or serous-hemorrhagic inflammation, accompanied by fever and general intoxication.Clinically, erysipelas is characterized by a typical bright red edematous lesion of the skin, which has clear boundaries and signs of lymphostasis. Complications of erysipelas include: the formation of necrotic foci, abscesses and phlegmon, thrombophlebitis, secondary pneumonia, lymphedema, hyperkeratosis, etc.

Patients with erysipelas are not very infectious. Women get sick more often than men. In more than 60% of cases, people aged 40 and older carry erysipelas. The disease is characterized by a distinct summer-autumn seasonality.


Erysipelas is caused by a special microorganism – group A beta-hemolytic streptococcus.In an uncomplicated course of the disease, it plays a major role. In conditions of reduced immunity, representatives of other flora, in particular, staphylococcus, can join streptococcal inflammation. Then the disease proceeds more severely due to the development of purulent complications, it is less treatable.

Factors that contribute to the infection of erysipelas include:

– existing diseases associated with damage to the integrity of the skin and skin malnutrition: fungal skin lesions, diabetes mellitus, obesity, chronic venous insufficiency;
– constant trauma to the skin when performing professional duties, work associated with constant contamination of the skin (miners), prolonged wearing of rubber shoes, etc.etc .;
– decreased immunity after an illness, hypothermia, hypovitaminosis;
– the presence of sources of chronic infection (tonsillitis, dental caries, otitis media, etc.).

The source of infection is a sick person with signs of erysipelas or a carrier. A carrier is a patient in whose body streptococcus is constantly present without the appearance of characteristic symptoms of erysipelas.

With dirty hands, clothes, shoes, as well as in case of non-observance of the rules of sterilization with dressings and medical instruments, streptococcus enters the human body through an abrasion, abrasion, crack, insect bites, especially if they have been combed, and sometimes even through invisible eyes microscopic skin damage.Erysipelas develops only in immunocompromised individuals. In other people, the body’s own defense systems cope with microorganisms and the disease does not occur.


The initial period of erysipelas is characterized by the rapid development of general toxic phenomena, which in more than half of the patients for a period from several hours to 1-2 days ahead of the onset of local manifestations of the disease. It is noted:

– headache, general weakness, chills, muscle pain
– nausea and vomiting appear in 25-30% of patients
– already in the first hours of the disease, the temperature rises to 38-40 ° C.
– on areas of the skin in the area of ​​future manifestations, a number of patients have a feeling of bloating or burning, mild pain.

The height of the disease occurs within a few hours to 1-2 days after the first manifestations of the disease. General toxic manifestations and fever reach their maximum. Typical local manifestations appear.

Most often, erysipelas is localized on the lower extremities, less often on the face and upper extremities, very rarely only on the trunk, in the area of ​​the mammary gland, perineum, in the area of ​​the external genital organs.


Erysipelas is differentiated from many infectious, surgical, skin and internal diseases: erysipeloid, anthrax, abscess, phlegmon, panaritium, phlebitis and thrombophlebitis, obliterating endarteritis with trophic disorders, eczema, dermatitis, toxicoderma and other skin diseases, systemic voloderma erythematosus and others. less often other areas of the skin), the development of regional lymphadenitis, the absence of severe pain at rest.


Erysipelas needs complex therapy. Local treatment is not enough, it is necessary to take antibiotics, drugs to combat allergies and measures to strengthen the immune system.

Erysipelas is an infectious disease, therefore antibiotic therapy is the basis of its treatment. Antibiotics, together with antibacterial drugs of other groups, destroy the pathogen. Antihistamines can help manage allergies to streptococcal toxins.

The patient is not dangerous to others and can be treated at home. But remember, during the period of illness, you must especially carefully follow the rules of personal hygiene. This contributes to a speedy recovery.

At different stages of the disease, their own physiotherapeutic procedures are necessary: ​​ultraviolet irradiation to the affected area with erythemal doses, high-frequency magnetotherapy to the adrenal glands, electrophoresis with potassium iodide or lidase, ronidase, UHF, infrared laser therapy, applications with warm paraffin.

After an illness, patients are under the supervision of an infectious disease specialist of the polyclinic for three months, after a relapse of erysipelas for two years.

90,000 Why is it harmful to drink a course of antibiotics to the end – Science

Anyone who has been prescribed antibiotics knows that in no case should they “not finish drinking” – stop treatment earlier than recommended, even if you feel better. Taking antibiotics correctly is your personal contribution to the fight against bacterial resistance.

Or not? Are your irresponsible friends who quit medicine as soon as their fever has subsided actually doing everything right? This is what scientists from the Brighton and Sussex School of Medicine write about in an article for BMJ magazine.

Among the recommendations of physicians on the competent use of antibiotics, the need to always complete the course of antibiotics prescribed by the doctor is often mentioned and in no case should be interrupted earlier, as soon as the state of health has improved.

This clause is in the recommendations of the World Health Organization (WHO), as well as in national campaigns to combat antibiotic resistance in Australia, Canada, the United States and Europe. In the UK, where the authors of the article work, this prescription is taught as a science fact in high school.

On this topic

“However, the idea that stopping antibiotic treatment early is contributing to the emergence of resistance is not supported by evidence, when taking medication longer than necessary increases the risk of it … We urge decision-makers, teachers and doctors to stop talking about the importance of ending antibiotics. and, moreover, publicly and actively declare that this recommendation is not based on facts and is not true, “the scientists write.

They note that the misconception about the need to “drink the whole course” of antibiotics arose at the dawn of their use. In his 1945 Nobel Prize speech, Alexander Fleming described what he saw as a dangerous scenario in which an imaginary patient with streptococcal infection does not take enough penicillin – as a result of which the streptococcus develops antibiotic resistance – and then infects his wife with it, who then dies of an incurable disease and his indiscretions.That is why, according to Fleming, “if you are using penicillin, use enough.”

However, the authors of the article write, the drug resistance that Fleming had in mind occurs, for example, in HIV or tuberculosis, but almost never occurs in bacteria that cause special concern among scientists – for example, E. coli Escherichia coli and the so-called ESKAPE bacteria: enterococci, staphylococci, etc.

These opportunistic bacteria live in our bodies and the environment, usually without causing any problems.But they can cause infections in immunocompromised patients and, in the case of antibiotic resistance, dangerous nosocomial infections.

“When a patient takes antibiotics for any reason, species and strains that are susceptible to them on the skin, in the intestines and in the environment are replaced by resistant and capable of further causing infection.

On this topic

The longer these bacteria are exposed to antibiotics, the stronger the selection in favor of resistant species and strains.For example, it is this resistance to methicillin that developed in Staphylococcus aureus.

In addition, we have very little evidence that the recommended courses of antibiotics (formed in practice and out of fear of under-treatment) are in fact the minimum required time for taking them.

“The very idea of ​​an antibiotic course does not take into account that different patients may react differently to the same antibiotic. Now we ignore this fact and give universal recommendations for the duration of antibiotic use, based on poor data,” the authors of the article emphasize.

In their opinion, the simplicity and unambiguousness of advice on completing a full course of antibiotics may be the reason for the persistence of this myth. To understand how long it takes to take antibiotics, research and careful monitoring of the patient’s condition is needed.

“In the meantime, antibiotic education materials should highlight the fact that antibiotic resistance is a consequence of overuse and cannot be prevented by taking a course of medication. Society needs to be reminded that antibiotics are a valuable and exhaustible resource that must be conserved.” – scientists conclude.

Olga Dobrovidova

Read the full version of the material on the popular science portal “Cherdak”

90,000 What is osteomyelitis, and how is it dangerous

What is the cause of osteomyelitis, what complications are possible with this disease?

Ivan Dmitrievich, Baranovichi

Osteomyelitis is an inflammatory disease of the bone. Previously, this disease was called caries.Mostly osteomyelitis occurs in children and adolescents, but adults, especially the elderly, can also get sick with it – they account for up to 20% of cases.

In osteomyelitis, the long tubular bones are mainly affected – the bones of the thigh, lower leg, shoulder, forearm. Most often, the disease is caused by Staphylococcus aureus, less often – pneumococcus and other microorganisms. But the pathogen cannot just get to the bone tissue. Distinguish between post-traumatic and hematogenous osteomyelitis. With hematogenous osteomyelitis, the microorganism enters the bone tissue from any focus of infection.It can be purulent inflammation of the skin and subcutaneous tissue (abscesses, phlegmon), pneumonia, urinary tract infections, etc. The disease often begins with traumatic bone injury.

The clinical picture is very variable, but the main symptom is pain in the lesion. The pain is clearly localized in the damaged area, it intensifies with the slightest movement or pressure. Impaired limb function quickly arises, the patient not only cannot use it – even passive movements become impossible.Redness and swelling appear in the affected area. However, this is more typical for acute osteomyelitis; in chronic osteomyelitis, the symptoms are not so pronounced.

In children, the disease proceeds with a high fever, in adults, the temperature may not be increased so much. But an important diagnostic criterion is pathological changes in the blood. X-ray changes appear only after three weeks. An early diagnostic method can be computed tomography or magnetic resonance imaging of the bone.The acute process often turns into a chronic one, which is characterized by a recurrent course. In this case, the formation of fistulas is possible, from which pus and bone sequesters (dead pieces of bone tissue) are secreted. The patient suffers from general weakness, fatigue, intoxication. The temperature is either subfebrile or absent altogether. Periods of remission can last from several weeks to several years. Only in the absence of relapses within 3-4 years can we talk about a cure for this disease.

A complication of the process may be damage to nearby joints with the development of purulent arthritis. In children, bone growth zones are affected, which ultimately leads to a shortening of the limb, even with successful treatment. The most severe complication that can result in death is sepsis. The outcome of the disease largely depends on the timely initiation of treatment. It is based on antibiotic therapy, and not one, but most often several drugs (their choice is based on determining the sensitivity of the causative agent to them).Treatment is carried out in a hospital, since the antibiotic is very often given intravenously. With chronic purulent osteomyelitis, surgery is necessary.

Yuri Kuzmenkov, doctor of the Republican Scientific and Practical Center “Cardiology”

The doctor’s sphere of interests is therapy, cardiology, endocrinology.

We are waiting for your questions, friends!

Complete reprinting of text and photographs is prohibited.Partial citation is permitted provided there is a hyperlink.

Did you notice a mistake? Please select it and press Ctrl + Enter