How is type 1 diabetes diagnosed vs type 2: Type 1 and Type 2 Diabetes
What’s the Difference Between Type 1 and Type 2 Diabetes? | Diabetes Center
Type 1 diabetes and type 2 diabetes are not the same disease. Learn about the differences between the two, and how each affects the body.
By Chris Iliades, MDMedically Reviewed by Bhargavi Patham, MD, PhD
The high levels of blood sugar in diabetes can result from a lack of insulin or the body’s failure to respond to insulin.Gwen Shockey/Alamy
Type 1 and type 2 diabetes share the problem of high levels of blood sugar. The inability to control blood sugar causes the symptoms and the complications of both types of diabetes. But type 1 diabetes and type 2 diabetes are two different diseases in many ways. According to the latest (2014) estimates from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), 29.1 million people, or 9.3 percent of the U.S. population, have diabetes. Type 1 diabetes affects just 5 percent of those adults, with type 2 diabetes affecting up to 95 percent. Here’s what else you need to know to be health-savvy in the age of the diabetes epidemic.
What Causes Diabetes?
“Type 1 diabetes is an autoimmune disease — the body’s immune system attacks the cells in the pancreas that make insulin,” a hormone, says Andjela Drincic, MD, associate professor of internal medicine in the division of diabetes, endocrinology, and metabolism at the University of Nebraska Medical Center in Omaha. The exact cause is not known, but it’s probably a combination of the genes a person is born with and something in the environment that triggers the genes to become active.
“The cause of type 2 diabetes is multifactorial,” says Dr. Drincic. “People inherit genes that make them susceptible to type 2, but lifestyle factors, like obesity and inactivity, are also important. In type 2 diabetes, at least in the early stages, there is enough insulin, but the body becomes resistant to it.” Risk factors for type 2 diabetes include a family history of the disease, a poor diet, a sedentary lifestyle, and obesity. African-Americans, Latin Americans, and certain Native American groups have a higher risk of type 2 diabetes than Caucasian Americans.
Juvenile or Adult-Onset: When Does Diabetes Start?
Usually, type 1 diabetes in diagnosed in childhood, while type 2 diabetes is typically diagnosed after age 40. But these aren’t hard-and-fast rules. People are getting type 2 diabetes at increasingly younger ages and more adults are getting type 1 diabetes, says Shannon Knapp, RN, CDE, a diabetes educator at the Cleveland Clinic, highlighting the need for diabetes prevention at all ages.
What Does Diabetes Do to the Body?
People with type 1 diabetes do not produce insulin, and as a result sugar builds up in the blood instead of going into the cells, where it’s needed for energy. In type 1 diabetes, high blood sugar causes symptoms like thirst, hunger, and fatigue and can cause devastating consequences, including damage to the nerves, blood vessels, and internal organs. The same scary complications of diabetes appear in type 2 as well. The difference is that people with type 2 diabetes still produce insulin; their bodies just become less sensitive to it over time, which is what causes the complications.
Are the Symptoms of Diabetes Different?
The first symptoms of type 1 diabetes appear when blood sugar gets too high. Symptoms include thirst, hunger, fatigue, frequent urination, weight loss, tingling or numbness in the feet, and blurred vision. Very high blood sugar can cause rapid breathing, dry skin, fruity breath, and nausea.
Meanwhile, the first symptoms of type 2 diabetes may not show up for many years — meaning the disease can ravage a person’s body without them realizing it. Early symptoms include frequent infections, fatigue, frequent urination, thirst, hunger, blurred vision, erectile dysfunction in men, and pain or numbness in the hands or feet. Drincic notes that “symptoms of type 2 diabetes don’t start as suddenly as symptoms of type 1 diabetes. “
Is Diagnosing Diabetes Types 1 and 2 Similar?
Blood tests used to diagnose type 1 and type 2 diabetes include fasting blood sugar, a hemoglobin A1C test, and a glucose tolerance test. The A1C test measures the average blood sugar level over the past few months. The glucose tolerance test measures blood sugar after a sugary drink is given.
“The blood sugar testing we do to diagnose and manage type 1 diabetes is very similar to the testing we do for type 2 diabetes,” says Drincic. “We can do a blood test that looks for antibodies. That tells us if it is type 1 or 2.” In type 1 diabetes, the immune system makes antibodies that act against the cells in the pancreas that make insulin, and these antibodies can be detected in a blood test. Your doctor may suspect type 2 diabetes based on your symptoms and risk factors, such as obesity and family history.
Is Diabetes Treatment Different, Too?
A good diabetes diet and regular exercise matters for people with type 1 and type 2 diabetes, Knapp explains. “The big difference is that everybody with type 1 diabetes needs to take insulin,” she says. “People with type 1 diabetes need to check their blood sugar level with a device called a glucometer about four times a day to know how much insulin to take.”
Treatment for type 2 diabetes also starts with diet and exercise, and oral medication can also be used to increase the amount of insulin the pancreas makes, Knapp says. “Over time, if the pancreas stops making insulin, some people with type 2 will also need insulin.” People with type 2 diabetes also need to check their blood sugar, from one to several times a day, depending on their state of health.
What Are the Complications of Diabetes?
“Whether it’s type 1 or type 2,” Drinsic says, “the big picture for diabetes is all about preventing complications,” which are mostly related to nerve and blood vessel damage. For example, if you have either type of diabetes, you have twice the risk of heart attack or heart disease as compared with someone without the disease. Other complications include eye problems, kidney disease, foot infections, skin infections, stroke, high blood pressure, cognitive decline, and high cholesterol.
Can Diabetes Be Prevented or Cured?
“As of now there is no way to prevent or cure type 1 diabetes,” Drincic notes. “There is lots of promising research, but it is still in the early stages.” Some of the initiatives involve targeting the cells in the immune system that cause the autoimmune response. Other possibilities include the use of stem cells or pancreas transplants.
Another area of research is diet and its effects on both prevention and diabetes maintenance. A study published in March 2017 in the British Journal of Nutrition reported that following a diet high in plant nutrients and low in meat consumption lowers a person’s risk of developing type 2 diabetes. The results indicated that certain compounds found in meat, rather than specific proteins, increased the risk of type 2 diabetes. Aside from eating healthy foods rich in plant nutrients, a large number of studies indicate that exercise is paramount not only for weight control, but also for maintaining a healthy, optimistic outlook.
“The best cure for type 2 diabetes is prevention, and research on that is very exciting,” Drincic says. “Losing a moderate amount of weight and exercising regularly can reduce or delay type 2 diabetes significantly.” For example, The Finnish Diabetes Prevention Study (DPS), a landmark study published in December 2003 in the journal Diabetes Care, followed 522 middle-aged, overweight subjects with risk factors for type 2 diabetes. A weight-loss diet and 30 minutes of daily exercise lowered their risk of developing type 2 diabetes by 58 percent compared with those who didn’t follow the diet or exercise.
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Type 1 vs. Type 2 Diabetes: Difference, Symptoms, and More
Type 1 diabetes results from an autoimmune reaction and usually appears in adolescents and young adults. Type 2 diabetes develops over the course of many years. Risk factors include excess weight and a lack of exercise.
Type 1 and type 2 diabetes may have similar names, but they’re different diseases with unique causes.
The key difference between type 1 and type 2 diabetes is that type 1 is believed to be caused by an autoimmune reaction and develops early in life. Type 2 diabetes develops over the course of many years and is related to lifestyle factors such as being inactive and carrying excess weight. It’s usually diagnosed in adults.
Risk factors for type 1 diabetes are not as clear, but family history may play a role.
Causes of type 1 diabetes
The body’s immune system is responsible for fighting off foreign invaders, such as harmful viruses and bacteria.
Type 1 diabetes is believed to be caused by an autoimmune reaction. In people with type 1 diabetes, the immune system mistakes the body’s own healthy cells for foreign invaders.
The immune system attacks and destroys the insulin-producing beta cells in the pancreas. After these beta cells are destroyed, the body is unable to produce insulin.
Researchers don’t know why the immune system sometimes attacks the body’s own cells. It may have something to do with genetic and environmental factors, such as exposure to viruses.
Research into autoimmune diseases is ongoing. Diet and lifestyle habits do not cause type 1 diabetes.
Causes of type 2 diabetes
People with type 2 diabetes have insulin resistance. The body still produces insulin, but it’s unable to use it effectively.
Researchers aren’t sure why some people become insulin resistant and others don’t, but several lifestyle factors may contribute, including being inactive and carrying excess weight.
Other genetic and environmental factors may also play a role. When you develop type 2 diabetes, your pancreas will try to compensate by producing more insulin. Because your body is unable to effectively use insulin, glucose accumulates in your bloodstream.
There are two main types of diabetes: type 1 and type 2.
Both types of diabetes are chronic diseases that affect the way your body regulates blood sugar or glucose. Glucose is the fuel that feeds your body’s cells, but to enter your cells it needs a key. Insulin is that key.
People with type 1 diabetes don’t produce insulin. You can think of it as not having a key.
People with type 2 diabetes don’t respond to insulin as well as they should and later in the disease often don’t make enough insulin. You can think of it as having a broken key.
Both types of diabetes can lead to chronically high blood sugar levels. That increases the risk of diabetes complications.
Risk factors for type 1 diabetes are less clear than risk factors for type 2 diabetes.
Known risk factors include:
- Family history: People with a parent or sibling with type 1 diabetes have a higher risk of developing it themselves.
- Age: Type 1 diabetes can appear at any age, but it’s most common among children and adolescents.
Type 2 diabetes risk factors
You’re at risk of developing type 2 diabetes if you:
- have prediabetes, or slightly elevated blood sugar levels
- are carrying excess weight or have obesity
- have a lot of belly fat
- are physically active less than 3 times a week
- are over age 45
- have ever had gestational diabetes, which is diabetes during pregnancy
- have given birth to a baby weighing more than 9 pounds
- are Black, Hispanic or Latino, American Indian, or Alaska Native due to structural inequities contributing to health disparities
- have an immediate family member with type 2 diabetes
- have polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS)
If not managed, type 1 and type 2 diabetes can lead to symptoms such as:
- urinating frequently
- feeling very thirsty and drinking a lot
- feeling very hungry
- feeling very fatigued
- having blurry vision
- having cuts or sores that don’t heal properly
- having blurry vision
- having very dry skin
- having more infections than usual
People with type 1 and type 2 diabetes may also experience irritability, mood changes, and unintentional weight loss.
Diabetes and numbness in hands and feet
People with type 1 and type 2 diabetes may experience numbness and tingling in their hands or feet. Good glucose management significantly reduces the risk of developing numbness and tingling in someone with type 1 diabetes, according to the American Diabetes Association (ADA).
Although many of the symptoms of type 1 and type 2 diabetes are similar, they present in very different ways.
Many people with type 2 diabetes won’t have symptoms for many years, and their symptoms often develop slowly over a long period of time.
Some people with type 2 diabetes have no symptoms at all and don’t discover they have the condition until complications arise.
The symptoms of type 1 diabetes develop quickly, typically over the course of several weeks.
Once known as juvenile diabetes, this type usually develops in childhood or adolescence. But it’s possible to develop type 1 diabetes later in life.
There’s currently no cure for type 1 diabetes. People with type 1 diabetes don’t produce insulin, so it must be regularly taken, and blood sugar levels must be regularly checked.
Some people take injections into soft tissue, such as the stomach, arm, or buttocks, several times a day. Other people use insulin pumps. Insulin pumps supply a steady amount of insulin into the body through a small tube.
Blood sugar testing is an essential part of managing type 1 diabetes because blood sugar levels can go up and down quickly.
Type 2 diabetes can be managed and even prevented with diet and exercise, but many people need extra support. If lifestyle changes aren’t enough, your doctor may prescribe medications that help your body use insulin more effectively.
Monitoring your blood sugar is an essential part of type 2 diabetes management, too. It’s the only way to know whether you’re meeting your target levels.
Your doctor may recommend testing your blood sugar occasionally or more frequently. If your blood sugar levels are high, your doctor may recommend insulin injections.
Type 1 diabetes can’t be prevented.
It may be possible to lower your risk of developing type 2 diabetes through these lifestyle changes, such as:
- maintaining a moderate weight
- working with your doctor to develop a healthy weight-loss plan, if you have overweight
- increasing your activity levels
- eating a balanced diet and reducing your intake of sugary foods or overly processed foods
Even if you’re unable to prevent the disease, careful monitoring can get your blood sugar levels back to standard and prevent the development of severe complications.
According to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), 37.3 million people in the United States have diabetes. That’s slightly more than 1 in 11 people.
The CDC estimates that 8.5 million people are living with undiagnosed diabetes. That’s about 3.4 percent of all U.S. adults.
The percentage of people with diabetes increases with age. Among those 65 years old and older, the rate reaches 29. 2 percent.
Are men more likely to get diabetes?
Men and women get diabetes at roughly the same rate.
But prevalence rates are higher among certain races and ethnicities in the United States.
Statistics show that diabetes occurs more frequently among historically marginalized populations in the United States.
Research suggests that this may be due in part to environmental factors, such as the history of discriminatory housing and lending policies in the United States.
Researchers posit that these policies resulted in racially and ethnically segregated neighborhoods that have inadequate access to healthy foods, insufficient health educational resources, and higher rates of obesity—a risk factor for type 2 diabetes.
American Indian and Alaska Native adults are almost three times more likely than non-Hispanic white adults to be diagnosed with diabetes.
For both men and women, diabetes diagnoses are highest among American Indians and Alaska Natives, non-Hispanic blacks, and people of Hispanic origin.
Prevalence rates are higher for Hispanic Americans of Mexican or Puerto Rican descent than they are for those of Central and South American or Cuban descent.
Among non-Hispanic Asian Americans, people with Asian Indian and Filipino ancestry have higher rates of diabetes than people with Chinese or other Asian ancestries.
How common is type 1 diabetes
Type 1 diabetes is less common than type 2.
About 5 to 10 percent of people with diabetes have type 1. It usually develops in children, teens, and young adults — but can happen at any age.
How common is type 2 diabetes?
Type 2 diabetes is much more common than type 1, and 90 to 95 percent of people with diabetes have type 2.
Nutritional management and managing your blood sugar are key to living with diabetes.
If you have type 1 diabetes, work with your doctor to identify how much insulin you may need to inject after eating certain types of food.
For example, certain carbohydrates can cause blood sugar levels to quickly increase in people with type 1 diabetes. You’ll need to counteract this by taking insulin, but you’ll need to know how much insulin to take. Learn more about type 1 diabetes and diet.
People with type 2 diabetes need to focus on healthy eating.
Weight loss is often a part of type 2 diabetes treatment plans. A doctor or nutritionist may recommend a low-calorie meal plan. This could mean reducing your consumption of animal fats and junk food.
Typically, people with type 2 diabetes or prediabetes are recommended to reduce their consumption of processed foods, trans fat, sugary drinks, and alcohol.
People with diabetes may need to try different diets and nutritional plans to find a plan that works for their health, lifestyle, and budget.
Read this article in Spanish.
Endocrinologist called the rejection of bad habits a must for patients with diabetes In Russia, this disease has acquired the status of a “national pandemic” – about 5 million Russians suffer from it, approximately one in 30. The disease annually
takes several tens of thousands of lives of our compatriots. These data were provided by an endocrinologist, Central Clinical Hospital RZD-Medicine Natalya Khudyakova.
Diabetes mellitus (DM) is a chronic disease characterized by chronic hyperglycemia. That is, a patient with diabetes mellitus has a constantly high blood glucose level if he does not follow the necessary therapeutic diet or does not follow the prescribed therapy. “Chronic hyperglycemia is the result of impaired secretion of the pancreatic hormone insulin, insulin action, or both,” she explained. – The disease is dangerous not so much in itself, but because of the inevitable chronic complications that are extremely difficult to treat. These are diabetic polyneuropathy, nephropathy, retinopathy, as well as atherosclerotic vascular damage and worsening of the course of cardiovascular diseases.”
Today, diabetes is incurable, but it can be well controlled with the help of modern methods of diagnosis and treatment, while observing the rules of a healthy lifestyle.
How to tell. Diabetes mellitus: types and symptoms
There are several types of diabetes. They are similar in clinical manifestations, but the pathogenesis (the mechanism of occurrence and development) differs significantly, the specialist said.
Type 1 diabetes mellitus (DM1) is an autoimmune, rapidly progressive disease of the pancreatic beta cells that produce insulin. Signs of type 1 diabetes: dry mouth, thirst, frequent urination. Patients with type 1 diabetes rapidly lose weight, in 2-3 months they can lose up to 30 kg. They are concerned about weakness, drowsiness, decreased performance. A high level of glucose disrupts the functioning of the immune system, therefore, in such patients, even small wounds heal hard and take a long time, they are more likely to suffer from infectious diseases. DM1 is characterized by absolute insulin deficiency: the disease is now diagnosed when the beta cell damage reaches 90% or more, within a year after diagnosis, they are completely destroyed. Therefore, only insulin therapy is used as a treatment for type 1 diabetes.
The development of type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM2) is based on two mechanisms. The first is insulin resistance, a decrease in tissue sensitivity to insulin, which occurs in overweight people. The risk of developing DM2 is especially high in people with morbid obesity, when the body mass index is more than 40 kg per sq.m. The second mechanism – relative insulin deficiency – occurs when cells are insensitive to the action of insulin: glucose cannot enter the cells and will be collected in the blood. At the same time, the level of glucose rises, the pancreas seems to produce little insulin, and it begins to work for wear and tear, increasing the excess production of the hormone. Over time, the reserves of the gland are depleted and its cells begin to gradually die off, or reduce insulin production. Then relative insulin deficiency sets in: there is insulin in the body, but its amount is reduced, and pancreatic cells are insensitive to insulin. In this case, therapy with tableted hypoglycemic drugs is possible.
DM2 is characterized by a long asymptomatic preclinical stage of development, and it is extremely difficult to recognize it due to the absence of visible manifestations before diagnosis, or the disease can be detected incidentally. By this time, the blood glucose level may already be overestimated and be 8-9 and 10-11 mmol per ml, but the body gets used to the increased values, and the person stops noticing the symptoms that indicate the disease. Meanwhile, a high glucose level contributes to damage to the vascular endothelium and the development of dangerous chronic complications characteristic of DM2.
Due to a long asymptomatic period, these complications can be detected already at the time of diagnosis, so patients with a primary diagnosis of type 2 diabetes must be referred for further examination to an ophthalmologist-retinologist, nephrologist and other related specialists.
Type 2 diabetes mellitus: a pandemic across Russia
“Among all types of diabetes in Russia, DM2 is diagnosed in 90%,” said Natalya Khudyakova. “Therefore, prevention of diabetes is very important for each of us: a healthy diet, an active lifestyle and a visit to the endocrinologist during the annual medical examination. Fasting glucose norms in a healthy person: less than 5.6 in capillary blood and less than 6.1 in venous blood; with a glucose tolerance test after two hours, the glucose content should be less than 7.8 in both venous and capillary blood. Higher numbers indicate, if not a disease, then at least an impaired tolerance to carbohydrates or fasting glycemia. These patients are at high risk for developing type 2 diabetes and require diet, physical activity, and weight loss as recommended by their doctor.”
What to do if you have type 2 diabetes
Do not panic, adjust to a new lifestyle and strictly follow the treatment regimen and doctor’s recommendations on diet, physical activity and other aspects of the prevention and treatment of pathology – such advice to patients gave Natalia Khudyakova. A diabetic needs to learn methods of self-monitoring of glucose levels. Today there are two of them: a popular portable glucometer for home use and continuous glucose monitoring, which is just beginning to enter into extensive practice in Russia.
The glucometer measures the glucose level at least seven times a day: before main meals, two hours after meals, at night before going to bed, if necessary at night. After compensating for DM2 with hypoglycemic drugs, it is mandatory to measure once a day at different times and one glycemic profile once a week. Continuous monitoring is a system that determines the level of glucose in the interstitial fluid every one or five minutes during the day. The sensor is installed on the surface of the shoulder and gives readings through the scanner – the data can be obtained through the application in the smartphone.
With diabetes for life. Principles of treatment and self-preservation
In the first place in the treatment of T2DM are nutrition and dietary measures. Physical activity is extremely important: it lowers the level of glucose in the blood, improves the sensitivity of tissues to insulin, teaches the muscles to work well and actively, not to use glucose as fuel. Rejection of bad habits is obligatory: smoking and alcohol consumption are completely contraindicated.
Patients with type 2 diabetes are often overweight and obese (this is the main provoking factor in the development of type 2 diabetes). Therefore, they are recommended a low-calorie balanced diet for weight loss in combination with any regular physical activity. Even normal walking significantly improves the sensitivity of cells to insulin and helps to reduce glucose levels. In extreme cases, mainly in morbid obesity, surgical treatment (bariatric surgery) is used.
Complete and irrevocable cessation of smoking and alcohol is required. According to various data, cigarette smoking can increase the risk of T2DM by 30-40% in active smokers compared to non-smokers. In a patient diagnosed with type 2 diabetes, smoking, together with chronic hyperglycemia, increases the destruction of the endothelial wall of blood vessels and leads to the development of micro- and macrovascular complications (from atherosclerosis and coronary heart disease to heart attack and stroke). As for the organ directly affected by diabetes – the pancreas, smoking, provoking inflammation, leads to chronic pancreatitis, in which the beta cells of the gland are destroyed and do not produce enough insulin. In chronic smokers, beta cells gradually die, the gland does not produce enough insulin, which naturally leads to diabetes and its complications. Quitting smoking significantly reduces these risks.
In recent years, the use of alternative sources of nicotine delivery – electronic tobacco heating systems (ETS) has been actively discussed all over the world. The principle of action of ESNT is based on heating, rather than burning tobacco, so much less harmful substances enter the body. If a patient cannot or is not ready to completely stop smoking, the use of ESSNT can be recommended as a temporary alternative, says Natalia Khudyakova. The “gold standard” is still a complete cessation of smoking.
“Many pathogenic mechanisms of smoking influence are connected not with nicotine itself, but with toxic components of tobacco smoke and tobacco combustion products. she noted. “Therefore, it can be assumed that there is a decrease in the harmful effects when using ESLT, compared with smoking conventional cigarettes, due to the absence of combustion. This thesis is confirmed by the latest clinical guidelines of the European Society of Cardiology 2021 and a number of independent studies.”
A diabetic receives therapy with hypoglycemic drugs, constantly conducts self-monitoring of glycemia – this is the basis for compensating for diabetes. It is important that the person himself can assess whether he is in a state of compensation or not, whether the help of a doctor is required.
Diabetes School is a set of knowledge and skills required for a diabetic. You need to master the tools and methods of self-control, diabetic nutrition, regular foot care. Training in the principles of disease management and their unconditional observance is necessary in order to live a full quality life, the specialist concluded.
Partner Material: PMI Science
Top 10 important things to know about diabetes
In recent years, doctors are increasingly talking about the epidemic of diabetes: according to WHO, there are more than 200 million people in the world with this diagnosis, and every year their number is increasing. And all due to the fact that we consume more calories than we expend, do not move enough and miss the signals that the body gives us.
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What is the difference between type 1 and type 2 diabetes?
There are two types of diabetes: one, when the body does not produce enough insulin, and the other, when the body cannot use the insulin it produces effectively.
Type 1 diabetes affects children and young people under 30 years of age. The disease cannot be cured completely, but it is possible to identify it in time and avoid serious consequences in the future.
Type 2 diabetes is a disease of adults. Often the disease occurs due to excess weight or lack of physical activity, but genetic predisposition is also of great importance. Therefore, if there are diabetics in the family, it will not be superfluous if all its members switch to a healthy lifestyle.
What are the causes of diabetes development?
- Hereditary predisposition, metabolic disorders caused by obesity, sedentary lifestyle (lack of exercise), which to a certain extent is also associated with obesity.
- Diseases of the pancreas.
- Infectious diseases caused by viruses, such as rubella, smallpox, influenza.
Requirement to control the implantation of malt abyss to prevent cerebrodiabetes
What signs should alert?
Thirst and dry mouth. A person drinks much more than before, sometimes up to 3-5 liters per day.
Sudden weight loss for no reason.
Constant fatigue, irritability, weakness, drowsiness.
Frequent and profuse urination.
Sudden attacks of nausea and vomiting.
Numbness of arms and legs, tingling sensation in fingers.
Feeling of hunger.
Poor wound healing.
Itching of the skin.
How to diagnose diabetes?
For diagnosis, laboratory tests of hormones, biochemical analysis of blood and urine will be required. You will need to donate blood for glucose, glycated hemoglobin and fructosamine, and a glucose tolerance test is used to determine the type of diabetes.
How often should you check your blood sugar?
Blood glucose should be monitored once a year. However, if you are in a group (you have relatives with diabetes, are overweight, not very healthy lifestyle, etc.), you need to check your glucose at least twice a year.
What should be done to prevent diabetes?
What is necessary to work with uveal diabetes
- Regular monitoring of glycemia, blood lipids;
- Weight control – if the patient feels that he is gaining extra pounds, you need to contact a nutritionist and get advice on making a rational menu.
- Power control. Get into the habit of eating right, reduce your intake of sugar and saturated fats.
- Regular exercise. Try to move at least 30 minutes every day (even a regular walk at a good pace counts).
- Continuous monitoring of blood pressure.
What are the main risk factors for developing diabetes?
Sedentary lifestyle. Lack of exercise increases the risk of developing diabetes. During physical activity, glucose moves from the blood to the muscles and is used as an energy source. If a person does not move, glucose remains in the blood.
Fat around the waist. Extra pounds that are deposited in the waist area are often a symptom of metabolic syndrome, in which the sensitivity of cells to insulin decreases.
Diabetes in immediate family. If siblings or parents have diabetes, the risk of developing the disease is increased.
Lack of sleep. In those who do not get enough sleep, the body activates the secretion of stress hormones that stimulate appetite.