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How long after eating test blood sugar: The Best Time to Check Blood Glucose After a Meal

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Target levels throughout the day

A blood sugar, or blood glucose, chart identifies a person’s ideal blood sugar levels throughout the day, including before and after meals. It can help a person with glucose management if they need to keep levels within a normal range, such as those with diabetes.

Doctors use blood sugar charts to set target goals and monitor diabetes treatment plans. Blood sugar charts also help those with diabetes assess and self-monitor their blood sugar test results.

The ideal blood sugar level for an individual depends on when in the day they carry out blood glucose monitoring, as well as when they last ate.

In this article, we provide some charts that demonstrate the ideal blood sugar levels throughout the day. We also explain the importance of staying within the recommended ranges.

Blood sugar charts act as a reference guide for blood sugar test results. As such, blood sugar charts are important tools for diabetes management.

Most diabetes treatment plans involve keeping blood sugar levels as close to normal or target goals as possible. This requires frequent at-home and doctor-ordered testing, along with an understanding of how results compare with target levels.

Doctors often provide A1C blood sugar recommendations in blood sugar charts. They tend to give A1C results as both a percentage and an average blood sugar level in milligrams per deciliter (mg/dl).

To help interpret and assess blood sugar results, the following charts outline normal and abnormal blood sugar levels for those with and without diabetes.

Time of check Target blood sugar levels for people without diabetes Target blood sugar levels for people with diabetes
Before meals less than 100 mg/dl 80–130 mg/dl
1–2 hours after the start of a meal less than 140 mg/dl less than 180 mg/dl
Over a 3-month period, which an A1C test can measure less than 5.7% less than 7%
less than 180 mg/dl

Although a doctor will provide these as a guide, they will also individualize a glucose management plan and include either more or less stringent personal targets.

An A1C test measures a person’s average blood sugar levels over a 3-month period, which gives a wider insight into their overall management of their blood sugar levels.

Appropriate blood sugar levels vary throughout the day and from person to person.

Blood sugars are often lowest before breakfast and in the lead up to meals. Blood sugars are often highest in the hours following meals.

People with diabetes will often have higher blood sugar targets or acceptable ranges than those without the condition.

These targets vary according to a range of factors, some of which include:

  • age and life expectancy
  • the presence of other health conditions
  • how long a person has had diabetes
  • diagnosed cardiovascular disease
  • problems with the smallest arteries in the body
  • any known damage to the eyes, kidneys, blood vessels, brain, or heart
  • personal habits and lifestyle factors
  • not being aware of low blood sugar levels
  • stress
  • other illnesses

Most blood sugar charts show recommended levels as a range, allowing for differences between individuals.

The American Diabetes Association, Joslin Diabetes Center, and American Association of Clinical Endocrinologists also offer slightly different blood sugar guidelines for those with diabetes.

Interpreting blood sugar meter readings depends mostly on individual patterns and targets. A medical professional will set these at the beginning of diabetes treatment.

Certain forms of temporary diabetes, such as gestational diabetes, also have separate blood sugar recommendations.

Time of check Blood sugar level
Fasting or before breakfast 60–90 mg/dl
Before meals 60–90 mg/dl
1 hour after meal 100–120 mg/dl

A person with very high or low fasting blood sugar levels should take the following actions:

Fasting blood sugar level Risk level and suggested action
50 mg/dl or under Dangerously low: Seek medical attention
70–90 mg/dl Possibly too low: Consume sugar upon experiencing symptoms of low blood sugar, or seek medical attention
90–120 mg/dl Normal range
120–160 mg/dl Medium: Seek medical attention
160–240 mg/dl Too high: Work to bring down blood sugar levels
240–300 mg/dl Much too high: This could be a sign of ineffective glucose management, so see a doctor
300 mg/dl or above Very high: Seek immediate medical attention

As long as blood sugar levels do not become critically dangerous, there are ways to return them to within a normal range when readings become too high.

Some ways to lower blood sugar levels include:

  • limiting carbohydrate intake but not fasting
  • increasing water intake to maintain hydration and dilute excess blood sugar
  • engaging in physical activity, such as a post-meal walk, to burn excess blood sugar
  • eating more fiber

These methods should not replace medical treatment but are a helpful addition to any diabetes treatment plan. If blood sugar readings seem unusual or unexpected, consult a doctor.

That said, many factors relating to a monitoring device and its user can influence blood sugar readings, possibly causing them to be inaccurate.

Monitoring blood sugar levels is an important part of diabetes management. The best monitoring plans often rely on both self-monitoring at home and doctor-ordered tests, such as A1C tests.

Many types of blood sugar monitor are available for self-monitoring. Most blood sugar monitors in the United States involve using blood obtained from a finger prick and testing strips. These give blood sugar readings in mg/dl.

Modern home blood sugar meters produce plasma glucose counts instead of whole blood glucose counts.

This allows for more accurate readings of daily blood glucose levels. It is also easier to directly compare the results of self-monitoring and doctor-ordered tests, as doctors also use plasma glucose counts.

Tracking daily blood sugar level changes can help doctors understand how well treatment plans are working. This can help them determine when to adjust medications or targets. It can also help reflect the impact of diet and exercise.

The frequency of blood sugar tests varies among individual treatment plans, as well as the type and stage of diabetes.

Recommendations for testing are as follows:

Type 1, adult: Check at least twice daily, up to 10 times. People should perform their tests before breakfast, at fasting, before meals, sometimes 2 hours after meals, before and after physical activity, and at bedtime.

Type 1, child: Check at least four times daily. People should perform their tests before meals and at bedtime. Tests may also be required 1–2 hours after meals, before and after exercise, and overnight.

Type 2, people taking insulin or other management medications: The recommended frequency of testing varies depending on insulin dosage and the use of any additional medications.

Those taking intensive insulin should test when fasting, before meals and bedtime, and sometimes overnight. Those taking insulin and additional medications should at least perform tests at fasting and bedtime. People taking background insulin and one daily premixed insulin injection should perform tests when fasting, before premixed dosages and meals, and sometimes overnight.

Those not taking noninsulin oral medications or managing blood sugar levels through dietary adjustments require much less frequent blood sugar testing at home.

Type 2, when there is a low risk of low blood sugar: Often, daily tests are not necessary. Performing tests at meal times and bedtime should reflect the real-time impact of lifestyle changes.

If a person is not meeting blood sugar goals or A1C targets, the frequency of testing should increase until levels return to within the normal ranges.

Gestational: Those following a course of insulin should perform tests at fasting, before meals, and 1 hour after meals. Those not taking insulin should perform tests at fasting and 1 hour after meals.

People with gestational diabetes should test more regularly during periods of physical and emotional stress, such as acute illness or depression.

Continuous glucose monitors (CMGs) are devices that are particularly helpful for people who have difficulty using blood sugar meters. CMGs have a sensor that the individual inserts into their skin to measure the amount of sugar in tissue.

If blood sugar levels become much higher than or too far below the established targets, an alarm will sound. Some CMGs also track the changes in blood sugar level over the course of hours and display to the user whether levels are rising or falling.

A person should verify CMGs regularly by taking blood sugar levels with a finger-prick meter. It is best to perform tests at times when blood sugar levels are steady, so avoid testing straight after meals and bouts of physical activity.

Managing blood sugar levels is an important step in preventing the complications of diabetes.

Making sure that blood sugar levels stay within normal ranges can also be a strong sign that treatment is working.

Although many people will have individual requirements and characteristics that shape their target blood sugar range, a doctor will set these goals using a blood sugar chart at the start of treatment. They may adjust these targets as treatment progresses.

If a person notices any symptoms of either extremely low or extremely high blood sugar, they should seek medical attention.

Read the article in Spanish

Target levels throughout the day

A blood sugar, or blood glucose, chart identifies a person’s ideal blood sugar levels throughout the day, including before and after meals. It can help a person with glucose management if they need to keep levels within a normal range, such as those with diabetes.

Doctors use blood sugar charts to set target goals and monitor diabetes treatment plans. Blood sugar charts also help those with diabetes assess and self-monitor their blood sugar test results.

The ideal blood sugar level for an individual depends on when in the day they carry out blood glucose monitoring, as well as when they last ate.

In this article, we provide some charts that demonstrate the ideal blood sugar levels throughout the day. We also explain the importance of staying within the recommended ranges.

Blood sugar charts act as a reference guide for blood sugar test results. As such, blood sugar charts are important tools for diabetes management.

Most diabetes treatment plans involve keeping blood sugar levels as close to normal or target goals as possible. This requires frequent at-home and doctor-ordered testing, along with an understanding of how results compare with target levels.

Doctors often provide A1C blood sugar recommendations in blood sugar charts. They tend to give A1C results as both a percentage and an average blood sugar level in milligrams per deciliter (mg/dl).

To help interpret and assess blood sugar results, the following charts outline normal and abnormal blood sugar levels for those with and without diabetes.

Time of check Target blood sugar levels for people without diabetes Target blood sugar levels for people with diabetes
Before meals less than 100 mg/dl 80–130 mg/dl
1–2 hours after the start of a meal less than 140 mg/dl less than 180 mg/dl
Over a 3-month period, which an A1C test can measure less than 5.7% less than 7%
less than 180 mg/dl

Although a doctor will provide these as a guide, they will also individualize a glucose management plan and include either more or less stringent personal targets.

An A1C test measures a person’s average blood sugar levels over a 3-month period, which gives a wider insight into their overall management of their blood sugar levels.

Appropriate blood sugar levels vary throughout the day and from person to person.

Blood sugars are often lowest before breakfast and in the lead up to meals. Blood sugars are often highest in the hours following meals.

People with diabetes will often have higher blood sugar targets or acceptable ranges than those without the condition.

These targets vary according to a range of factors, some of which include:

  • age and life expectancy
  • the presence of other health conditions
  • how long a person has had diabetes
  • diagnosed cardiovascular disease
  • problems with the smallest arteries in the body
  • any known damage to the eyes, kidneys, blood vessels, brain, or heart
  • personal habits and lifestyle factors
  • not being aware of low blood sugar levels
  • stress
  • other illnesses

Most blood sugar charts show recommended levels as a range, allowing for differences between individuals.

The American Diabetes Association, Joslin Diabetes Center, and American Association of Clinical Endocrinologists also offer slightly different blood sugar guidelines for those with diabetes.

Interpreting blood sugar meter readings depends mostly on individual patterns and targets. A medical professional will set these at the beginning of diabetes treatment.

Certain forms of temporary diabetes, such as gestational diabetes, also have separate blood sugar recommendations.

Time of check Blood sugar level
Fasting or before breakfast 60–90 mg/dl
Before meals 60–90 mg/dl
1 hour after meal 100–120 mg/dl

A person with very high or low fasting blood sugar levels should take the following actions:

Fasting blood sugar level Risk level and suggested action
50 mg/dl or under Dangerously low: Seek medical attention
70–90 mg/dl Possibly too low: Consume sugar upon experiencing symptoms of low blood sugar, or seek medical attention
90–120 mg/dl Normal range
120–160 mg/dl Medium: Seek medical attention
160–240 mg/dl Too high: Work to bring down blood sugar levels
240–300 mg/dl Much too high: This could be a sign of ineffective glucose management, so see a doctor
300 mg/dl or above Very high: Seek immediate medical attention

As long as blood sugar levels do not become critically dangerous, there are ways to return them to within a normal range when readings become too high.

Some ways to lower blood sugar levels include:

  • limiting carbohydrate intake but not fasting
  • increasing water intake to maintain hydration and dilute excess blood sugar
  • engaging in physical activity, such as a post-meal walk, to burn excess blood sugar
  • eating more fiber

These methods should not replace medical treatment but are a helpful addition to any diabetes treatment plan. If blood sugar readings seem unusual or unexpected, consult a doctor.

That said, many factors relating to a monitoring device and its user can influence blood sugar readings, possibly causing them to be inaccurate.

Monitoring blood sugar levels is an important part of diabetes management. The best monitoring plans often rely on both self-monitoring at home and doctor-ordered tests, such as A1C tests.

Many types of blood sugar monitor are available for self-monitoring. Most blood sugar monitors in the United States involve using blood obtained from a finger prick and testing strips. These give blood sugar readings in mg/dl.

Modern home blood sugar meters produce plasma glucose counts instead of whole blood glucose counts.

This allows for more accurate readings of daily blood glucose levels. It is also easier to directly compare the results of self-monitoring and doctor-ordered tests, as doctors also use plasma glucose counts.

Tracking daily blood sugar level changes can help doctors understand how well treatment plans are working. This can help them determine when to adjust medications or targets. It can also help reflect the impact of diet and exercise.

The frequency of blood sugar tests varies among individual treatment plans, as well as the type and stage of diabetes.

Recommendations for testing are as follows:

Type 1, adult: Check at least twice daily, up to 10 times. People should perform their tests before breakfast, at fasting, before meals, sometimes 2 hours after meals, before and after physical activity, and at bedtime.

Type 1, child: Check at least four times daily. People should perform their tests before meals and at bedtime. Tests may also be required 1–2 hours after meals, before and after exercise, and overnight.

Type 2, people taking insulin or other management medications: The recommended frequency of testing varies depending on insulin dosage and the use of any additional medications.

Those taking intensive insulin should test when fasting, before meals and bedtime, and sometimes overnight. Those taking insulin and additional medications should at least perform tests at fasting and bedtime. People taking background insulin and one daily premixed insulin injection should perform tests when fasting, before premixed dosages and meals, and sometimes overnight.

Those not taking noninsulin oral medications or managing blood sugar levels through dietary adjustments require much less frequent blood sugar testing at home.

Type 2, when there is a low risk of low blood sugar: Often, daily tests are not necessary. Performing tests at meal times and bedtime should reflect the real-time impact of lifestyle changes.

If a person is not meeting blood sugar goals or A1C targets, the frequency of testing should increase until levels return to within the normal ranges.

Gestational: Those following a course of insulin should perform tests at fasting, before meals, and 1 hour after meals. Those not taking insulin should perform tests at fasting and 1 hour after meals.

People with gestational diabetes should test more regularly during periods of physical and emotional stress, such as acute illness or depression.

Continuous glucose monitors (CMGs) are devices that are particularly helpful for people who have difficulty using blood sugar meters. CMGs have a sensor that the individual inserts into their skin to measure the amount of sugar in tissue.

If blood sugar levels become much higher than or too far below the established targets, an alarm will sound. Some CMGs also track the changes in blood sugar level over the course of hours and display to the user whether levels are rising or falling.

A person should verify CMGs regularly by taking blood sugar levels with a finger-prick meter. It is best to perform tests at times when blood sugar levels are steady, so avoid testing straight after meals and bouts of physical activity.

Managing blood sugar levels is an important step in preventing the complications of diabetes.

Making sure that blood sugar levels stay within normal ranges can also be a strong sign that treatment is working.

Although many people will have individual requirements and characteristics that shape their target blood sugar range, a doctor will set these goals using a blood sugar chart at the start of treatment. They may adjust these targets as treatment progresses.

If a person notices any symptoms of either extremely low or extremely high blood sugar, they should seek medical attention.

Read the article in Spanish

Target levels throughout the day

A blood sugar, or blood glucose, chart identifies a person’s ideal blood sugar levels throughout the day, including before and after meals. It can help a person with glucose management if they need to keep levels within a normal range, such as those with diabetes.

Doctors use blood sugar charts to set target goals and monitor diabetes treatment plans. Blood sugar charts also help those with diabetes assess and self-monitor their blood sugar test results.

The ideal blood sugar level for an individual depends on when in the day they carry out blood glucose monitoring, as well as when they last ate.

In this article, we provide some charts that demonstrate the ideal blood sugar levels throughout the day. We also explain the importance of staying within the recommended ranges.

Blood sugar charts act as a reference guide for blood sugar test results. As such, blood sugar charts are important tools for diabetes management.

Most diabetes treatment plans involve keeping blood sugar levels as close to normal or target goals as possible. This requires frequent at-home and doctor-ordered testing, along with an understanding of how results compare with target levels.

Doctors often provide A1C blood sugar recommendations in blood sugar charts. They tend to give A1C results as both a percentage and an average blood sugar level in milligrams per deciliter (mg/dl).

To help interpret and assess blood sugar results, the following charts outline normal and abnormal blood sugar levels for those with and without diabetes.

Time of check Target blood sugar levels for people without diabetes Target blood sugar levels for people with diabetes
Before meals less than 100 mg/dl 80–130 mg/dl
1–2 hours after the start of a meal less than 140 mg/dl less than 180 mg/dl
Over a 3-month period, which an A1C test can measure less than 5.7% less than 7%
less than 180 mg/dl

Although a doctor will provide these as a guide, they will also individualize a glucose management plan and include either more or less stringent personal targets.

An A1C test measures a person’s average blood sugar levels over a 3-month period, which gives a wider insight into their overall management of their blood sugar levels.

Appropriate blood sugar levels vary throughout the day and from person to person.

Blood sugars are often lowest before breakfast and in the lead up to meals. Blood sugars are often highest in the hours following meals.

People with diabetes will often have higher blood sugar targets or acceptable ranges than those without the condition.

These targets vary according to a range of factors, some of which include:

  • age and life expectancy
  • the presence of other health conditions
  • how long a person has had diabetes
  • diagnosed cardiovascular disease
  • problems with the smallest arteries in the body
  • any known damage to the eyes, kidneys, blood vessels, brain, or heart
  • personal habits and lifestyle factors
  • not being aware of low blood sugar levels
  • stress
  • other illnesses

Most blood sugar charts show recommended levels as a range, allowing for differences between individuals.

The American Diabetes Association, Joslin Diabetes Center, and American Association of Clinical Endocrinologists also offer slightly different blood sugar guidelines for those with diabetes.

Interpreting blood sugar meter readings depends mostly on individual patterns and targets. A medical professional will set these at the beginning of diabetes treatment.

Certain forms of temporary diabetes, such as gestational diabetes, also have separate blood sugar recommendations.

Time of check Blood sugar level
Fasting or before breakfast 60–90 mg/dl
Before meals 60–90 mg/dl
1 hour after meal 100–120 mg/dl

A person with very high or low fasting blood sugar levels should take the following actions:

Fasting blood sugar level Risk level and suggested action
50 mg/dl or under Dangerously low: Seek medical attention
70–90 mg/dl Possibly too low: Consume sugar upon experiencing symptoms of low blood sugar, or seek medical attention
90–120 mg/dl Normal range
120–160 mg/dl Medium: Seek medical attention
160–240 mg/dl Too high: Work to bring down blood sugar levels
240–300 mg/dl Much too high: This could be a sign of ineffective glucose management, so see a doctor
300 mg/dl or above Very high: Seek immediate medical attention

As long as blood sugar levels do not become critically dangerous, there are ways to return them to within a normal range when readings become too high.

Some ways to lower blood sugar levels include:

  • limiting carbohydrate intake but not fasting
  • increasing water intake to maintain hydration and dilute excess blood sugar
  • engaging in physical activity, such as a post-meal walk, to burn excess blood sugar
  • eating more fiber

These methods should not replace medical treatment but are a helpful addition to any diabetes treatment plan. If blood sugar readings seem unusual or unexpected, consult a doctor.

That said, many factors relating to a monitoring device and its user can influence blood sugar readings, possibly causing them to be inaccurate.

Monitoring blood sugar levels is an important part of diabetes management. The best monitoring plans often rely on both self-monitoring at home and doctor-ordered tests, such as A1C tests.

Many types of blood sugar monitor are available for self-monitoring. Most blood sugar monitors in the United States involve using blood obtained from a finger prick and testing strips. These give blood sugar readings in mg/dl.

Modern home blood sugar meters produce plasma glucose counts instead of whole blood glucose counts.

This allows for more accurate readings of daily blood glucose levels. It is also easier to directly compare the results of self-monitoring and doctor-ordered tests, as doctors also use plasma glucose counts.

Tracking daily blood sugar level changes can help doctors understand how well treatment plans are working. This can help them determine when to adjust medications or targets. It can also help reflect the impact of diet and exercise.

The frequency of blood sugar tests varies among individual treatment plans, as well as the type and stage of diabetes.

Recommendations for testing are as follows:

Type 1, adult: Check at least twice daily, up to 10 times. People should perform their tests before breakfast, at fasting, before meals, sometimes 2 hours after meals, before and after physical activity, and at bedtime.

Type 1, child: Check at least four times daily. People should perform their tests before meals and at bedtime. Tests may also be required 1–2 hours after meals, before and after exercise, and overnight.

Type 2, people taking insulin or other management medications: The recommended frequency of testing varies depending on insulin dosage and the use of any additional medications.

Those taking intensive insulin should test when fasting, before meals and bedtime, and sometimes overnight. Those taking insulin and additional medications should at least perform tests at fasting and bedtime. People taking background insulin and one daily premixed insulin injection should perform tests when fasting, before premixed dosages and meals, and sometimes overnight.

Those not taking noninsulin oral medications or managing blood sugar levels through dietary adjustments require much less frequent blood sugar testing at home.

Type 2, when there is a low risk of low blood sugar: Often, daily tests are not necessary. Performing tests at meal times and bedtime should reflect the real-time impact of lifestyle changes.

If a person is not meeting blood sugar goals or A1C targets, the frequency of testing should increase until levels return to within the normal ranges.

Gestational: Those following a course of insulin should perform tests at fasting, before meals, and 1 hour after meals. Those not taking insulin should perform tests at fasting and 1 hour after meals.

People with gestational diabetes should test more regularly during periods of physical and emotional stress, such as acute illness or depression.

Continuous glucose monitors (CMGs) are devices that are particularly helpful for people who have difficulty using blood sugar meters. CMGs have a sensor that the individual inserts into their skin to measure the amount of sugar in tissue.

If blood sugar levels become much higher than or too far below the established targets, an alarm will sound. Some CMGs also track the changes in blood sugar level over the course of hours and display to the user whether levels are rising or falling.

A person should verify CMGs regularly by taking blood sugar levels with a finger-prick meter. It is best to perform tests at times when blood sugar levels are steady, so avoid testing straight after meals and bouts of physical activity.

Managing blood sugar levels is an important step in preventing the complications of diabetes.

Making sure that blood sugar levels stay within normal ranges can also be a strong sign that treatment is working.

Although many people will have individual requirements and characteristics that shape their target blood sugar range, a doctor will set these goals using a blood sugar chart at the start of treatment. They may adjust these targets as treatment progresses.

If a person notices any symptoms of either extremely low or extremely high blood sugar, they should seek medical attention.

Read the article in Spanish

Target levels throughout the day

A blood sugar, or blood glucose, chart identifies a person’s ideal blood sugar levels throughout the day, including before and after meals. It can help a person with glucose management if they need to keep levels within a normal range, such as those with diabetes.

Doctors use blood sugar charts to set target goals and monitor diabetes treatment plans. Blood sugar charts also help those with diabetes assess and self-monitor their blood sugar test results.

The ideal blood sugar level for an individual depends on when in the day they carry out blood glucose monitoring, as well as when they last ate.

In this article, we provide some charts that demonstrate the ideal blood sugar levels throughout the day. We also explain the importance of staying within the recommended ranges.

Blood sugar charts act as a reference guide for blood sugar test results. As such, blood sugar charts are important tools for diabetes management.

Most diabetes treatment plans involve keeping blood sugar levels as close to normal or target goals as possible. This requires frequent at-home and doctor-ordered testing, along with an understanding of how results compare with target levels.

Doctors often provide A1C blood sugar recommendations in blood sugar charts. They tend to give A1C results as both a percentage and an average blood sugar level in milligrams per deciliter (mg/dl).

To help interpret and assess blood sugar results, the following charts outline normal and abnormal blood sugar levels for those with and without diabetes.

Time of check Target blood sugar levels for people without diabetes Target blood sugar levels for people with diabetes
Before meals less than 100 mg/dl 80–130 mg/dl
1–2 hours after the start of a meal less than 140 mg/dl less than 180 mg/dl
Over a 3-month period, which an A1C test can measure less than 5.7% less than 7%
less than 180 mg/dl

Although a doctor will provide these as a guide, they will also individualize a glucose management plan and include either more or less stringent personal targets.

An A1C test measures a person’s average blood sugar levels over a 3-month period, which gives a wider insight into their overall management of their blood sugar levels.

Appropriate blood sugar levels vary throughout the day and from person to person.

Blood sugars are often lowest before breakfast and in the lead up to meals. Blood sugars are often highest in the hours following meals.

People with diabetes will often have higher blood sugar targets or acceptable ranges than those without the condition.

These targets vary according to a range of factors, some of which include:

  • age and life expectancy
  • the presence of other health conditions
  • how long a person has had diabetes
  • diagnosed cardiovascular disease
  • problems with the smallest arteries in the body
  • any known damage to the eyes, kidneys, blood vessels, brain, or heart
  • personal habits and lifestyle factors
  • not being aware of low blood sugar levels
  • stress
  • other illnesses

Most blood sugar charts show recommended levels as a range, allowing for differences between individuals.

The American Diabetes Association, Joslin Diabetes Center, and American Association of Clinical Endocrinologists also offer slightly different blood sugar guidelines for those with diabetes.

Interpreting blood sugar meter readings depends mostly on individual patterns and targets. A medical professional will set these at the beginning of diabetes treatment.

Certain forms of temporary diabetes, such as gestational diabetes, also have separate blood sugar recommendations.

Time of check Blood sugar level
Fasting or before breakfast 60–90 mg/dl
Before meals 60–90 mg/dl
1 hour after meal 100–120 mg/dl

A person with very high or low fasting blood sugar levels should take the following actions:

Fasting blood sugar level Risk level and suggested action
50 mg/dl or under Dangerously low: Seek medical attention
70–90 mg/dl Possibly too low: Consume sugar upon experiencing symptoms of low blood sugar, or seek medical attention
90–120 mg/dl Normal range
120–160 mg/dl Medium: Seek medical attention
160–240 mg/dl Too high: Work to bring down blood sugar levels
240–300 mg/dl Much too high: This could be a sign of ineffective glucose management, so see a doctor
300 mg/dl or above Very high: Seek immediate medical attention

As long as blood sugar levels do not become critically dangerous, there are ways to return them to within a normal range when readings become too high.

Some ways to lower blood sugar levels include:

  • limiting carbohydrate intake but not fasting
  • increasing water intake to maintain hydration and dilute excess blood sugar
  • engaging in physical activity, such as a post-meal walk, to burn excess blood sugar
  • eating more fiber

These methods should not replace medical treatment but are a helpful addition to any diabetes treatment plan. If blood sugar readings seem unusual or unexpected, consult a doctor.

That said, many factors relating to a monitoring device and its user can influence blood sugar readings, possibly causing them to be inaccurate.

Monitoring blood sugar levels is an important part of diabetes management. The best monitoring plans often rely on both self-monitoring at home and doctor-ordered tests, such as A1C tests.

Many types of blood sugar monitor are available for self-monitoring. Most blood sugar monitors in the United States involve using blood obtained from a finger prick and testing strips. These give blood sugar readings in mg/dl.

Modern home blood sugar meters produce plasma glucose counts instead of whole blood glucose counts.

This allows for more accurate readings of daily blood glucose levels. It is also easier to directly compare the results of self-monitoring and doctor-ordered tests, as doctors also use plasma glucose counts.

Tracking daily blood sugar level changes can help doctors understand how well treatment plans are working. This can help them determine when to adjust medications or targets. It can also help reflect the impact of diet and exercise.

The frequency of blood sugar tests varies among individual treatment plans, as well as the type and stage of diabetes.

Recommendations for testing are as follows:

Type 1, adult: Check at least twice daily, up to 10 times. People should perform their tests before breakfast, at fasting, before meals, sometimes 2 hours after meals, before and after physical activity, and at bedtime.

Type 1, child: Check at least four times daily. People should perform their tests before meals and at bedtime. Tests may also be required 1–2 hours after meals, before and after exercise, and overnight.

Type 2, people taking insulin or other management medications: The recommended frequency of testing varies depending on insulin dosage and the use of any additional medications.

Those taking intensive insulin should test when fasting, before meals and bedtime, and sometimes overnight. Those taking insulin and additional medications should at least perform tests at fasting and bedtime. People taking background insulin and one daily premixed insulin injection should perform tests when fasting, before premixed dosages and meals, and sometimes overnight.

Those not taking noninsulin oral medications or managing blood sugar levels through dietary adjustments require much less frequent blood sugar testing at home.

Type 2, when there is a low risk of low blood sugar: Often, daily tests are not necessary. Performing tests at meal times and bedtime should reflect the real-time impact of lifestyle changes.

If a person is not meeting blood sugar goals or A1C targets, the frequency of testing should increase until levels return to within the normal ranges.

Gestational: Those following a course of insulin should perform tests at fasting, before meals, and 1 hour after meals. Those not taking insulin should perform tests at fasting and 1 hour after meals.

People with gestational diabetes should test more regularly during periods of physical and emotional stress, such as acute illness or depression.

Continuous glucose monitors (CMGs) are devices that are particularly helpful for people who have difficulty using blood sugar meters. CMGs have a sensor that the individual inserts into their skin to measure the amount of sugar in tissue.

If blood sugar levels become much higher than or too far below the established targets, an alarm will sound. Some CMGs also track the changes in blood sugar level over the course of hours and display to the user whether levels are rising or falling.

A person should verify CMGs regularly by taking blood sugar levels with a finger-prick meter. It is best to perform tests at times when blood sugar levels are steady, so avoid testing straight after meals and bouts of physical activity.

Managing blood sugar levels is an important step in preventing the complications of diabetes.

Making sure that blood sugar levels stay within normal ranges can also be a strong sign that treatment is working.

Although many people will have individual requirements and characteristics that shape their target blood sugar range, a doctor will set these goals using a blood sugar chart at the start of treatment. They may adjust these targets as treatment progresses.

If a person notices any symptoms of either extremely low or extremely high blood sugar, they should seek medical attention.

Read the article in Spanish

How to Control Spikes After Meals

If you’re trying to manage diabetes, you already know it’s important to keep track of your blood sugar levels. But how do you handle a spike that comes after you eat? It’s called “postprandial” blood glucose, and if you take some simple steps, you can get it under control and help avoid health problems.

Why You Should Keep an Eye on It

When your blood sugar is high, you can get symptoms like a foggy-headed feeling that makes it hard to focus or think clearly. Your energy may also take a dive, and you may feel nervous or moody.

If your levels go too low, you could even pass out. In the long run, if your blood sugar stays up, you could be at risk for heart disease, stroke, kidney disease, or other problems.

How to Measure Your Spikes

The American Diabetes Association (ADA) recommends you check your blood sugar levels right before mealtime with a blood sample from a finger stick. Then do it again 1 to 2 hours after that first bite of food.

Keep this up for a week or so. Write down the time and the blood sugar number. Make a note about anything you think might affect your levels, like medicine or exercise. And don’t forget to log exactly what you ate, along with portion sizes and the amount of carbs.

What levels are too high after a meal? Experts vary on what the number should be, but the ADA says a general goal is a blood sugar level under 180 mg/dL, 1 to 2 hours after a meal. Talk to your doctor about what you should aim for, and don’t adjust your medicine without speaking to them first.

How to Manage After-Meal Spikes

Get medicine that works for you. The right insulin or medication program can make a big difference. In general, to cover after-meal spikes, those that kick in quickly and for a short time are a better choice than ones that work slowly over a long period. Your doctor can explain your options.

Keep blood sugar in check before meals. That way, even if it goes up after you eat, it won’t be so dramatic.

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Watch what you eat. Limit sweets, white bread, rice, pasta, and potatoes. They tend to trigger post-meal spikes.

The type of fat you eat may play a role, as well. One study shows you may be able to curb blood sugar spikes after you eat if you skip foods with lots of butter and choose a meal made with a little olive oil instead.

3 Breakfast Options That Fit Your DietStaying on top of your diet can be hard with diabetes. Here are 3 breakfast ideas to start your morning.88

No transcript information is available for this video.

Johns Hopkins: “10 Breakfasts to Help With Glycemic Control.”<br> University of Michigan Comprehensive Diabetes Center: “Diabetes: Breakfast Ideas.”<br> Diabetes Forecast: “The Importance of Breakfast.”/delivery/aws/9d/e1/9de16765-2062-34b2-8d3c-c54ec0991bcd/091e9c5e81dac78d_best-foods-easy-breakfast-ideas-for-people-with-diabetes_,4500k,2500k,1000k,750k,400k,.mp411/18/2019 14:47:0018001200photo of family having breakfast/webmd/consumer_assets/site_images/article_thumbnails/video/diabetes_breakfast_options_video/1800x1200_diabetes_breakfast_options_video.jpg091e9c5e81dac78d

Eat breakfast every morning. Even when you’re in a hurry to get out the door, don’t be tempted to skip it. A study shows that folks with diabetes who don’t eat breakfast get higher blood sugar spikes after lunch and dinner.

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The ideal morning meal? It might just be one that’s packed with protein. A small study shows that when people ate a 500-calorie breakfast that was 35% protein, their post-meal blood sugar levels were lower than those who started their day with high-carb food. But check with your doctor to see what’s right for you.

Go for an after-dinner walk. It’s a healthy habit for everyone, but if you have diabetes, it’s also a good way to burn extra glucose from a meal.

Questions and Answers on blood sugar in diabetes — Diabetes Action

 

Q: Why is my fasting reading higher first thing in the morning?
A: This early morning rise in glucose, known as the “dawn phenomenon” is normal and happens when our bodies produce a surge of hormones to help us wake up. During the day, activity tends to keep sugars under control if following a healthy, active lifestyle. If using insulin, it may help to adjust your nighttime dosage.

Q: Why does my blood sugar level go up when I do yard work? I drink water all the time and eat my meals on time, but when I do yard work, like digging and planting and cutting the grass, my sugar levels rise. 
A:  The first 30-60 minutes of exercise, especially in warmer weather, can raise levels. They should come down after that. Try checking right after your yard work, then again in around 90 minutes and see if you have a drop.

Q: What is the normal range that your blood sugar should be if you test it at home?
A: For a basically healthy person, a good fasting is under 100, and 80-90 is even better for most people. If you test two hours after a meal, under 120 is ideal.

Q: Why is my fasting reading around 110 in the morning but only around 90 two hours after lunch?
A: Fasting blood sugar levels are generally higher in the early morning due to the increase hormonal activity during the night, then tend to decrease to more normal levels during the day.

Q: Why does my blood sugar increase after exercise? I had a blood sugar reading of 135 first thing in the morning but after a 3 mile walk my reading was 155. I had nothing to eat or drink during this time. I repeated this test and got the same results a few days later.
A: Wait an hour after you exercise and see if you get the same results. Exercise is a stressor, so blood sugar will be higher immediately after your session. Also, blood sugars tend to be higher in the mornings because of hormonal activity during the night.

Q: I have lost a good amount of weight using intermittent fasting and low-carb eating but I can’t get my blood sugar levels lower. I seem to be stuck in the 130-140 range. It doesn’t matter if I’ve been fasting for 16 hours, or two hours after eating, it iss always between 130 and 140.
A:
Good job!  As you get closer to lower body fat levels, you can plateau for a time.  The morning fasting levels are higher due to surge of nocturnal hormones that help you get up and join the day. With daytime activity, it is not uncommon to have normal levels with whole foods and regular activity.  You still have a level of insulin resistance.  Overtime, as you continue to decrease visceral body fat, you may see levels drop further, with your pancreas’s ability increasing to better handle glucose surges.  

Q: I am a type 1 diabetic and have been trying to lose weight by cutting back on what I eat. How come the less I eat, the higher my blood sugar readings?
A:
If your diet now consists of less protein, that could be a reason for the spikes.  Carbs will trigger that response, even if the total intake is lower.  Try tracking your foods with levels for at least a week to see patterns and where changes may need to be made.  

Q: Can taking antibiotics increase blood sugar levels? 
A:
Some antibiotics have been shown to cause elevated blood sugar levels, particularly for those who already have diabetes.  You’d have to check about your particular antibiotic to see what the cautions may be.  How high the elevation is will depend on the individual.  In general, antibiotics can change the microbiome of the gut, interfering with insulin sensitivity and glucose delivery to the cells.

Q: I have finally gotten my A1C back in the normal range, do I still have diabetes or am I cured?
A: Congratulations!  If you are not on medication for diabetes, then you now have it in control. However, it is important for you to continue with the lifestyle changes you made to achieve this. Reverting back to old habits would most likely result in elevating glucose levels once again.

Q: I have a normal A1C but recently, 4 hours after dinner I started sweating and my blood sugar was 74. But another time, 2 hours after dinner my blood sugar was 194. What is going on?
A:
If your diet consists of more carbs and fruits, this would account for the highs after meals, followed by a low which is likely the reason for your sweating and other symptoms.  A hypoglycemic diet would appear to be a good start for you: try eating 3-5 small meals with some source of protein. You may also request from your physician an Oral Glucose Tolerance Test, showing how your body processes carbs over a 2 hour period.

Q: I failed the one hour glucose screening scoring 197, however, I test myself a few times a day and my blood sugar is always within range, I even experiment with high carb meals and they have never gone over 140. Fasting is always at around 80-85. Is there any explanation for the high results on glucose screening? I am also anemic and wonder if that could be cause for a false positive?
A:
There can be false positives.  Given you were 7 points above the cut-off, a repeat may be considered, particularly if you did not follow the prep guidelines for the test.  Another alternative would be taking a 3 hour glucose tolerance test to get a more complete picture of how you process your carbs.  As with any of these tests, it is important to follow the prep guidelines.  Anemia can increase an A1C otherwise it is usually more associated with hypoglycemia.  With all these potential variables and the fact that you are diligently testing with good results, a second testing is certainly a reasonable request, assuming your anemia is being addressed.

Q: I tested my blood sugar 2 hours after eating fried food and stir-fried vegetables and the reading was 167. My dietician said the high reading was because of the oil used to fry the food. Should I be concerned? 
A:
Fried foods and high carbs, especially refined grains and sweets will increase blood sugar levels.  Sometimes you need to experience how other types of foods affect your levels so you have a clearer understanding of how to better control them going forward.  

Q: I have Type 2 diabetes and have been trying to manage my BG through diet and exercise for the last 4 months. I am no longer taking any insulin supplements but still take 2000mg of metformin per day. I eat less than 50g of carbs per day and exercise regularly. My weight has gone from 158 to 142. My blood ketones average 1.5 indicating that I am in ketosis and probably have no glycogen stores left. My BG, however, averages 140. Why can’t I get my BG down? The lowest fasting BG I have recorded was 103 and that was after going 2 days with zero carbs.
A:
If your fasting levels tend to be the reason for your higher average, with daytime levels being < 140-150, you may want to review the timing of your metformin to better target your fasting levels. This is something you can revisit with your physician. Eating whole foods high in nutrients is important to support the reactions in your body that facilitate increased uptake of glucose from the bloodstream.  

Q: Any blood sugar level below 100 gives me headache and nausea. I seem to feel best when its in the 140-150 range. I also cant feel highs until it gets in the 200 and above range. How can this be?
A:
If you have long standing diabetes with glucose levels that ran high for some time, your system can adapt to this level, causing symptoms of low blood sugar if you try to lower to a more normal range too quickly.  If you are on medication, this may need adjustment. Perhaps your diet needs a better balance as well, slowing down the rate of food conversion to glucose.  An Oral Glucose Tolerance Test can give you a picture of how your body is processing carbs. Discuss all these with your physician.

Q: Besides drinking water, what can I quickly do to reduce a high blood sugar test result (212)? 
A:
A high test result does not mean there is a one quick fix. For the short-term, I suggest that you do not consume any carbs, and instead eat small amounts of healthy fat/protein.  Exercise may raise blood sugar in the short run, but lower in the long run.    

Q: Do I have pre-diabetes? About five months ago I started checking my glucose levels after meals because I was consistently experiencing brain fog. I found that after an especially high carb, zero protein meal, my 1 hour glucose would be as high as 180. I immediately reduced my carb intake significantly, lost weight, and increased my exercise. I recently had labs drawn and my A1C was 4.7. However, even 2 tablespoons of barbecue sauce will raise my one hour glucose to 145, but it will be well blow 120 at 2 hours. Am I pre-diabetic? My doctor told me to stop checking 1 hour glucoses and only worry about my 2 hour levels. I can’t stand the brain fog that comes with glucose levels a live 120 though.
A: Elevated glucose levels aren’t the only reason for brain fog. Changes in hormonal levels could be another factor to consider.  If you consistently notice brain fog after eating refined carbohydrates, try eating an unrefined diet with most of your carbs coming from veggies and legumes.  Perhaps only check your glucose levels when you feel “foggy”.  You may have the genetic tendency for diabetes, but are in control as you have taken charge of your lifestyle.

Q: Why do I sometimes feel extremely angry when my blood sugar level is high?
A: Anger can be an emotional response to high glucose levels, and perhaps more so if one has underlying feelings of anger (it is not uncommon to feel anger when dealing with diabetes management as well).  It is positive that you recognize this in yourself, perhaps working to best of your ability to not get to those levels that push those buttons.  

Q: Can an anxiety attack or severe anxiety raise blood sugar levels?
A:
It is possible.  Anxiety is a stressor that can elevate hormones, especially cortisol, the fight or flight hormone.  This rallies glucose to the bloodstream to prepare you to run or defend yourself.  Hopefully, you are working with anti-anxiety techniques such as deep breathing being a good place to start.  

Q: I have been told that I have diabetes, or “pre-diabetes”, or that I am in the “honeymoon period” . My readings are all over the place: sometimes in the 120’s, others in the 90’s, sometimes, but rarely in the 150-170’s. My doctor does not want to put me on medication yet. I exercise regularly and am not overweight though my diet is variable. I certainly like sweets, pizza, and pasta. What is the long term effect of these continued high blood sugar levels?
A: Firstly, kudos for your physician for giving diet/lifestyle changes a chance to work. Reduction of body fat often is the first best start. This may or may not be true in your case but certainly sweets, pizza, etc. are affecting your numbers. If you can discipline yourself at this time to eat unrefined foods and be more active, your beta cells that produce insulin may get the rest they need to become efficient again. Our diabetes management booklet has many referenced foods/supplements that may help to stabilize your glucose levels. In time, your favorite foods may be reintroduced in moderate amounts. You appear to be more in the pre-diabetes range at this time. Complications are a long process. If your daytime levels stay under 120-140, that is good. Fasting levels are higher due to hormonal activity nighttime; these levels are a much slower road towards any complications. Continue working on lifestyle/diet, as both can always be a bit better, and in time, you may start seeing continued improvement.

Q: What would cause my blood sugar to drop over 200 points over the course of a day? My morning sugar was 252 when I got up, an hour after breakfast (w/ 73 net. carbs) sugar hit 390. A 138 point spike. An hour later 306. At lunch I had a “cutie” orange, and I checked an hour later my sugar was still dropping, the cutie didn’t raise it any. I’ve also drunk 48 ounces of water thus far today. 390 an hour after breakfast at 8:50AM, to 188 at 3:30PM. No meds either. I’m curious as to the 202 drop over 8 hours with no med and 73 net carbs that set the spike. 
A:
Carbs certainly drive your glucose up faster. The first change I would suggest is to eat healthy protein/fat for breakfast.  This creates a slower rise with a longer digestion time.  An Oral Glucose Tolerance Test over a two hour period can help confirm where your spikes occur.  Getting better control of your fasting levels will set the tone for lower levels during the day. Nocturnal hormonal activity is what can drive up our fasting levels.  During daytime activity, these hormonal surges wind down until night/sleep cycle kicks in.   Revamping your diet and keeping as active as can are your first lines of defense.  

Q: I’m taking insulin and Trulicity but my sugar keeps spiking all day and night long. This morning I started out at 190 but after coffee my blood spiked to over 300. I just can’t get control of this and every diet I try to follow I get spikes.
A:
You may want to only eat protein and lots of green veggies for several days to see if this helps you to stabilize your blood sugars and then slowly adjust once stabilized. This means no high carbohydrate foods such as grains, potatoes, or fruit. Your only carbs will come from low carb veggies. Use olive oil/coconut oil as fat source.  There are many diet theories out there now but no one diet is good for all.  If you can manage without coffee for this time, that may also have an impact as you may be super sensitive to it.

Q: hi, I’m 24 weeks pregnant, my blood sugar in the morning ranges from 97 to 106. I’ve been monitoring my blood sugar level for a couple of weeks now. I only eat half cup of rice every meal with snacks in between, of course. My blood sugar sometimes drop below 100, 2 hours after meal. is that normal? I’ve been on a low carb, high fiber and less sugar diet for a couple of weeks now.
A:
Getting enough fuel for both you and your growing child is important.  It is typical for blood sugar to be higher in the morning, due to activity of hormones during the night.  Rice is a “race horse” carb meaning it converts quickly to glucose with a quick spike and dip.  If your lows are occurring more towards afternoon, focus on morning food being more protein/healthy fats because they take longer to convert to glucose and may help with sustaining a more normal glucose the rest of the day.  Perhaps switch your grains to something with higher plant protein, like quinoa.  Again, check that you have adequate caloric intake.  If yogurt agrees with you, this may be a good addition for bringing levels up in better balance.   And of course, never hesitate to pose these questions to your physician.

Q: My fasting blood sugar level is 155. After a 30 minute morning work out on an empty stomach it reaches 167. How to manage this? 
A:
Your levels are higher in the morning anyway due to hormonal activity during the night.  After exercising, you may have elevated blood sugar levels for one hour or more before lowering.  Exercise in the short run is a stressor, which causes the liver to release glucose to blood stream to “fuel up” for the activity.  A goal will be to have lower fasting levels, which often will be result of dietary and activity changes.  

Q: Can sunbathing and high temperatures increase blood sugar levels?
A: High heat can lead to dehydration, which in turn can cause high blood sugars. It takes 6 molecules of water to move one molecule of sugar from the blood stream, so the higher the sugar, the more water you need to drink. Extreme hot or cold temperatures can cause changes in the vascular system that can affect blood sugar and cause reactions.

Q: Do I have diabetes? My most recent A1C test was 5.4. But this last Sunday, four hours after dinner I started sweating and checked my blood sugar and it was 74. Yesterday my blood sugar was 167 two hours after eating.
A:
You may want to get an Oral Glucose Tolerance Test that measures your levels over a 3 hour period after a drinking a prescribed sugar syrup.  Decreasing carbs and increasing healthy fats and proteins while eating smaller, more frequent meals may help these swings if you are on the path of hypoglycemia which can in time become diabetes if left unchecked.  It would be a good idea for you to track your food intake for week, checking your levels one hour after eating to see where the shifts are.

Q: I was diagnosed with type 2 diabetes at 13 after I fell into a diabetic coma with a 1200 blood sugar level but I lost 90 pounds and was pretty much diabetes free. I haven’t taken medication in 7 years or so. I’ve recently gained a lot of weight and am concerned that my blood sugar levels now range from 90-107 after fasting for 8+ hours. During the days and after meals they are in the normal range.
A:
Regaining weight, if too much, may be a key factor here, as that can impair your body’s insulin to effectively take up sugar from your blood stream.  Even though your blood sugar was under control for years, changes in your lifestyle are starting to manifest with elevated fasting levels. This would be a good sign for you to re-evaluate what you eat and your activity levels. You may have a decline in insulin production that is now manifesting.  Hopefully, you are discussing this with your physician if you continue to see your levels elevating.  He/she may want to conduct testing to see what your insulin output is.  

Q: As a type II diabetic my normal blood sugar readings are between 120 and 160. Unusually low reading of
94 is that of any concern?
A:
If your 94 is a fasting reading, that’s a good level if there are no contraindications such as cardiac issues.  If this is the reading you are getting daytime, make note of any signs of hypoglycemia.  Perhaps you ate less that day?  If you begin to routinely get lower daytime readings, then visit with your physician about lowering your medication doses.  That would be a good goal!  

Q: Do I need to test every new container of test strips with the red liquid or can I match the code on my tester with what’s on the lid of a new container?
A:
The recommendation from FDA is to use control solution with every new test vial, after codes are matched and discard after 90 days.  This may be costly for many on a tight budget.  One guideline to adhere to would be to test a strip from your vial if your numbers start to suddenly change.  Use your best judgement; you can also cross reference with your physician.

Q: I took my blood sugar test and it was 182 and two minutes later it was 136. What would cause such a difference in testing levels for just 2 minutes apart?
A: Smaller variances are not uncommon. If you normally test towards the higher number, the lower number would appear off.  Try some more tests close together for comparison and if you see this pattern repeat, contact the meter company for advice.

Q: My fingers are sore. Is there any other place on my body I can use to check my sugar?
A: Forearms are the next place you may be able to go. However, you may want to discuss this with both your meter company and your physician to see what the difference may be between finger/forearm. I trust you are testing the sides of your finger pads, and not directly on them.

Q: I have not been diagnosed with diabetes and my A1c is only 5.0. However, I am concerned that when I wake up my blood sugar is sometimes as high as 140. Do I have diabetes? If I do, why is my A1c normal?
A:
An A1C reflects an average so it may be possible that you are experiencing lows throughout the day that would average out some of the highs.  It would benefit you to get a 2 hour Glucose Tolerance Test done to see just where lows and highs are occurring. Two tests with a fasting glucose of 126 or greater is considered a diabetes diagnosis.

Q: My husband with type 2 diabetes is trying to get his blood sugar down by eating a low carbohydrate diet and skipping lunch. He is having problems with an increased evening reading. Should he eat regular meals? 
A:
Skipping meals can send glucose levels on a bit of a roller coaster ride.  The liver can actually release too much glucose into the bloodstream when no food has been eaten, perceiving a “hunger” situation.  He may be better off eating smaller meals with lower carb/healthy foods that will convert to glucose at a more reasonable rate, generally resulting in better levels. 

Q: I was diagnosed as a pre-diabetic several years ago and I am taking Metformin 500mg one tab a day.
My fasting blood sugar is between 110 and 125. My friend said my fasting level should be under 100.  What fasting and A1C level should I maintain for the rest of my life to best prevent complications.
A: The “ideal” blood sugar level is around 80 fasting but the guidelines provide a wider range. The range you are in may, over many years, have an effect on your nerve endings but this is often dependent upon what other conditions you may have. Taking Metformin in the evening may target a lower faster blood sugar. The first best guideline is to maintain as healthy a lifestyle as you can with food, activity and lower stress levels. I always suggest focusing more on improving lifestyle before getting overly focused on the number.

Q: Why do I still have high blood sugar readings even after a super low carb dinner? I’m currently on 500mg metformin twice daily. I have already lost 30 pounds and now weigh 300 lbs. 
A:  A set dose of medication doesn’t guarantee good control, even with diet improvement. You have started a good path with losing body fat, but you still carry enough to contribute to insulin resistance. Other medical conditions and medications you may be taking can also be a factor. In addition, foods eaten at earlier meals may not fully metabolize until later in day. If you are diligent with lifestyle changes, you should continue to see improvements over time.

Q: I have been told that the older you are the higher the blood sugar readings can be. At 82 years of age my fasting reading is 140-152 with no medications. Is this cause for concern?
A: It is elevated enough for you to perhaps reexamine your carbohydrate intake, the timing of foods, as well as your overall lifestyle.  Other health concerns may also be playing into elevated fasting levels.  With advancing age, we can experience decreased efficiency of our organ systems, pancreas included.  Perhaps more so, the liver – the major clearinghouse for so much of our digestion/absorption – goes on a decline.  Increasing your phytonutrients through higher intake of greens is supportive, as are many other foods that more naturally help to detoxify the liver.  Staying as active as possible is always key.  

Q: Why does my blood sugar jump from 115 to 165 after eating breakfast?
A: All food turns into sugar and carbs turn the fastest. It is normal for everyone’s blood sugar to rise after a meal though folks without diabetes don’t go over 140 as a rule. If your blood sugars had been closer to 100 before your meal, you would have been closer to a normal range. Also, it may have been the types of foods you ate. A breakfast that includes protein, such as an egg, and whole grains, such as a higher fiber toast may help to keep your numbers down. Check your blood sugars 2 hours after eating for a while so that you see how you are the rest of the day. This will help your physician in adjusting any medications you might be on. Keeping a very healthy lifestyle is your best ally for keeping those numbers down.

Q: I was recently diagnosed with gestational diabetes and have been controlling it very well with diet. However, last night I had pizza for dinner, I know not the best choice! Two hours after eating, my blood sugar was 130. I know sugar should be under 120 after two hours, but is it acceptable since my sugar never went about 140?
A: With gestational diabetes, the goal is tighter control to help ensure better health to your child.  Isolated instances will occur, but choosing foods to keep you closer to goal is a good target.  I suggest you also visit this question with your medical team who has your entire health history to influence best answers.  

Q: Every two hours after I eat, I take my blood sugar reading. I assume that if two hours post-meal my reading is 120 or below, I have good control of my sugar. However, if I have a small snack 30-60 minutes before I test, will that affect my blood sugar when I take it at two hours post-meal? 
A: It may, depending on what you eat. Simple carbs will react pretty immediately and certainly within the 30-minute timeframe. Protein and fats take longer in the digestive process. You may want to check just before your snack. The highest peak blood sugar levels generally occur 1 hour after a meal if carbs were eaten. At 2 hours, protein begins to break down into blood sugar so one may begin to see some food effect. Test both before and after your snack and see what differences in readings you may notice.

Q: My morning and afternoon blood sugar readings are fine but the reading before my evening meal is still really high, even though I have only been drinking black coffee and water during the afternoon. I try to walk between two and four miles a day, so I am sure I am getting enough exercise. I do seem to be stressed most of the time, and wondered if this could have something to do with it. 
A: Stress can play a part; you may want to have your cortisol levels checked to see if they stay elevated later in the day. Caffeine can also elevate levels in the short run. If you exercise right before you take your reading that can also be a factor. Try waiting 1/2-1 hour and see if that makes a difference.

Q:  I recently had a scary situation where my blood sugars dropped to a low number. An EMT was called and he measured my blood sugar with a meter at 46. He told me to eat some cookies. I ate four or five cookies and immediately had blood check again but it wasn’t going up yet, so was administered a tube of some type of glucose. Once again my blood sugars were measured within a minute or two and the level was now up to 125. The EMT left but within minutes I was experiencing extreme confusion, my legs were very shaky, and I finally fainted for a short time. I had nausea, and an extreme headache for hours. What could have been happening to me? 
A:  Your blood sugar levels rose too quickly. 46 is very low, and it sounds as though within the space of 10 minutes or so you were back into the diabetes range. The protocol to follow for low blood sugar when that low would be to administer 15 grams of carbs, then re-measure. Starting with the tube would have brought you into a better range more immediately, wait 15 minutes, then retest. You would probably have been in a range where the next “food” would be a protein/carb combo: milk if you drink it, yogurt, nut butter on crackers, etc. Always stay well hydrated; this will help avoid some of those after-effects of low sugars. Better yet: be sure you are understanding how to eat for blood sugar control. This is even more important if also on medications. 

Q: I suffered what I believe was a low blood sugar attack with extreme dizziness and nausea. I take medication for type 2 diabetes. What should I do next time this happens?
A: It sounds like you did have a low blood sugar attack. It could be that you are not requiring as much medication, and/or you waited too long between meals. You should be checking your blood sugars and make sure that you know what ranges your physician wants you in. The idea is not to eat more to feed the medication, but to hopefully lower the medicine dose. Glucose tablets are good to carry with you in emergencies as the dose is then measured. Lifesaver candies can also work. The usual amount is 15 grams of carbs every 15 minutes until blood sugars come up.

Q: My friend’s meter is giving me a different reading than my meter. I use the control solution BUT is that really accurate?
A: It is not uncommon to get some difference in readings between meters, but it should not be too broad a span. You might consider taking your meter to your physician’s office at your next visit and see if you can test it against one of theirs. I suggest you also call your meter company and discuss your concerns. They do calibration studies and should be able to give you some solid answers.

Q: Why are blood sugar monitors so inconsistent. I thought my first one was broken because of the wide discrepancy in readings so I ordered another and calibrated it according to the instructions and it seems to be the same. I can get a reading of 160 and seconds later do another test and get a reading of 125. They call that accurate?! 
A:
True, machines are never pinpointing the actual number, which is somewhat of a constant change.  The current FDA ruling is 95% of time there is no more than 15% variance and 99% of the time there is no more than 20% variance.   A meter value of 120 would reflect a range of 102-138.  What “seasoned” testers start to see over time are more numbers closer together as long as lifestyle/management is consistent. Work out a testing schedule just to see where your greater discrepancies lie; discuss this with your physician as needed if adjusting medication based on numbers.  

Q: Can the hot weather have an effect on a persons blood sugar readings? 
A: High heat, particularly warm weather, does not directly affect your glucose levels, but it can lead to changes in your daily habits: eating less and not adjusting medication, being less active, and possibly over exerting yourself. These situations can lead to either higher or lower levels. Dehydration can set in more readily; don’t wait for thirst to be your clue. Carry water at all times. Sunburn is stressful to the body and can elevate glucose, so plan your sun exposure and exercise for earlier or later in the day. Remember also that high heat can affect meter strips and medications, especially insulin. Be smart with the heat, and you will manage your glucose much better this summer.

Q: After 8 years of successfully controlling my type 2 diabetes, my fasting numbers are starting to creep up into the 200+ range and my doctor wants to put me on insulin. What am I doing wrong?
A: Many variables can cause this change. One factor is that as we age (I like to refer to this as “chronological maturity”), hormones change as well. Another very common variable is that we often eat the same way, not increasing our intake, but neither do we increase our activity levels. Taking insulin for a time may give the beta cells the rest they need, with perhaps returning to your lower levels. Conversely, many do experience a decline of insulin output over time, regardless of lifestyle management. Your gene pool may have you on this path. Do what you need to get back into good management. Managing one’s stress levels is a “must”; yoga, Tai Chi, dance are just a few examples of very positive supports. Find what works for you.

Q: I have type 1 diabetes and whenever my blood sugar is low I feel as if my thinking process is different and I tend to feel anxious. Then once my sugar gets back up I don’t feel that anxiety anymore. Does that have to do with blood sugar levels affecting my thinking? 
A: These are symptoms that occur with most people with low blood sugar. Remember, food is fuel for the body, and the form of our food is sugar, which you need to have enough of in your body for your brain to function normally. With low blood sugar levels, anxiety, lack of focus, gloom-to-doom thought patterns can manifest. This is very true with hormonal imbalances as well. Many kids begin to show signs of this with puberty and poor lifestyle/eating patterns that abound in today’s society. The important thing here is that you know how to fix these symptoms. Better yet, keep yourself from getting to that point by always having something with you to elevate your blood sugar. Keeping a pack of glucose tabs with you at all times gives you a set dose of carbs to take when you first feel signs coming on. Dry roasted nuts also carry well to hold off hunger.

Q: I am an elementary school nurse. I have a 10 yr old student with type 1 diabetes. He typically comes in low before lunch (50-70), eats lunch, retakes his blood glucose 30 minutes later and it is up to 120-140. However, at that time the parent recommends the full compensation of insulin for carbs ingested at lunch. Invariably he comes back in less than an hour dropped back down to 50-70. My thought is they need to compensate for the low number that they are starting with before they give him a dose based on carb ingestion only. What are your thoughts? 
A: You are on the right track with seeing there is a deficit here in food/insulin. This is an active growing child. As with anyone with diabetes, it is important to have the right amount of protein/fat in place to create a more stable baseline for levels. Being around 110 pre-meal would be good unless his physician has established different numbers. The goal is not to keep feeding carbs to manage the insulin, but to reduce the insulin overall because the glucose levels are in better range. If he eats eggs for breakfast, they should provide a more stable morning. If the child begins to show fatigue and his performance is affected in school, this may be the documented route you need to have them revisit the protocol with their physician. Nobody wants him to suffer hypoglycemic episodes, which it sounds like he could be a candidate for. 

Q: I have had type 2 diabetes for 15 years. Although my fasting levels are generally higher in the morning, two weeks ago I noticed a few levels approaching 240 fasting before breakfast. For example, last week my morning level was 235. I ate a meal that had eggs and turkey sausage and coffee without sugar. My blood sugar dropped to 196 after one and a half hours. I took a walk for 20 minutes and my sugar level was 127. Then I had another coffee and an hour later my sugar was 190 again. Why would this happen?
A:
  Food intake is a most powerful player here. It is common for blood sugar levels to be elevated in the early morning due to hormonal activity during the night, then begin to drop during the day with usual daytime activity. Then, assuming eating is well-controlled, daytime levels can be in normal ranges. You should clarify with your physician what the target glucose goals are for you for both fasting and 1-2 hours post meals. The morning protein meal you ate converted into glucose at a far slower rate than if you had eaten a carbohydrate based meal, so it is not surprising that you saw a drop in levels as you did after that meal. Coffee is often listed as a “free food” that does not affect blood sugar levels but you can see this may not be the case. It does stimulate the central nervous system and can cause some short term rise in levels. 

Q: I was diagnosed with type 2 diabetes five months ago. I have been testing and trying to determine what is working and what is not. I’ve noticed recently I could have a double cheeseburger and fries and have a reading of roughly 140 two hours after. Yesterday I vigorously tested and found, 1.5 hrs post was 122, 2 hrs post was 142, 2.5 hrs post was 168, 3 hrs post was 189 and finally 3.5 hrs post was 85. A 104 pt drop in 30 minutes. Should I still be testing two hours after a meal when I was apparently at my highest three hours after?
A: This all depends on what you are eating. A double cheeseburger will show its greatest impact in that 3-4 hour time frame because proteins and fats start to peak into glucose 3-4 hours post meal. Most carbs peak by 1 hour after eating and are pretty much through the entire digestive process 2 hours after eating. If you eat few carbs and primarily meat and fats, then you will peak later. This is why in most structured meal planning, you will see meat intake to be about 3oz./serving, gradually increased for high calorie meal plans required by larger individuals. Get a good balance with your foods to where you include lots of veggies/higher fiber foods and smaller amounts of refined carbs/very low fiber starches (white breads ,etc). Testing after different times with different foods will give you a better idea of what raises your glucose levels more quickly.

Q: When my type 1 diabetic son goes low….under 70, if we give him 15 grams of carbs, how much does it bring his levels up by? 
A: 10-15 grams is targeted to elevate glucose levels 30-45 mg/dL. Assuming this is from quick acting choices such as 4 oz juice, 3 glucose tabs or 6 oz. of milk, his levels should come up quickly and be tested at 15 minute intervals until the target is reached. For those on insulin, it is especially suggested to treat once blood sugars drop below 72mg/dL. I suggest you enroll in diabetes management class if you have one in your area, or at least be very clear from your medical team what the basic targets and management skills are for your son.

Q: I just got a new glucose monitor and my numbers are lower than with my old monitor – as much as a 23 point difference. I am curious if you know why this would be? 
A: I’m assuming you have made sure your old strips are up to date and calibrated if necessary? I suggest you call both companies for an explanation, then perhaps assume the newer meter is giving more accurate readings. You can verify this by bringing your meter to your physician’s office next time you go and test against their machine if they do this in the office. There is often some difference between meters, but that is a very wide range.

Q: I think I may have diabetes because my fasting glucose is 140 but my doctor said I do not have diabetes. I get light headed, dizzy, blurry eyed, and my hands shake if I don’t eat a snack with sugar in it between meals. Please help, my doctor says Im fine. 
A: You clearly have blood sugar imbalances, going from some moderate highs to lows. The shakiness, etc. is hypoglycemia. Has your doctor done a glucose intolerance test on you yet? I suggest the one that shows your glucose levels at 4 intervals 2-3 hours apart. You may be higher in the morning and then going low daytime. Eating unrefined foods, lean protein, and more veggies than starches are really important for you right now. Eating 5-6 small meals/snacks should be your pattern. An apple and 1 oz. of cheese or 1 tbs. of nut butter is an idea for a snack. Learn where protein comes from and include it more. Beans have a good source of plant protein and fibers that stick with you longer and break down into sugar (as all food eventually does) in your blood stream more slowly. This is a good thing, as you won’t get a low blood sugar nearly as quickly. Candy, juices, etc. are all turned into blood sugar very fast; they don’t stick with you. Think of these simple sugars as very short term fuel. You may need a 2nd opinion. Eating correctly will help you straighten this out.

Q: My Dr. said my glucose number should be between 65-99. I am a 77 1/2 year old female who recently started experiencing low blood sugar episodes, especially at night. If my number when tested is 103 and lower, I shake, sweat and am generally miserable till I drink orange juice, etc. Is it possible that my count needs to be higher? 
A: I do think you need to revisit this with your physician, as clearly you seem to be requiring a higher blood sugar level. A textbook normal fasting glucose is closer to 80; 65 would be too low for many people. Keep close track of your intake, and be sure to eat protein at each meal.

Q: I was recently diagnosed with type 2 diabetes and manage with diet and medication. My primary care doctor told me when my blood sugar gets low and I get shaky I should take a pinch of table sugar. My question is, should I eat something like an orange or something other than table sugar to raise my blood sugar? It just seems counterproductive to watch what I eat all day, every day, then take some sugar to even out my blood.
A: Low blood sugars are better treated by drinking 4-6 ounces of milk if you are a dairy consumer, 4 ounces of juice, or some sugar equivalent to equal 15 grams. 3-5 Lifesaver candies often does the job. However, the goal is not to have to eat more, but to lower your medication requirements. As you continue to take charge of your lifestyle and how different foods affect your levels, episodes will be less frequent. When you are just beginning to show the signs of low blood sugar, milk is a good choice (this includes soy milk) because it has the right carbs to get into your bloodstream quickly, but also has some protein to digest at a slower rate. I suggest you try to find some diabetes classes in your area to learn all you can on how to manage, especially eating.

Q: I’m a type 1 diabetic and going though menopause. My blood sugars are consistently high whereas before they were on target. Does menopause cause my body to resist insulin? 
A: Hormonal changes can affect your glucose levels, as you are experiencing, which is not exactly insulin resistance. It is important during this time that you eat foods as unrefined as possible and stay active to reduce any potential symptoms like sweats and hot flashes. This will help to reduce glucose fluctuations as a result of less fluctuation at the nerve levels. You may want to eat the exact same diet every day to see what is due to hormones versus diet, etc. In addition, nutritional compounds for menopause may help with balance.

Q: I am on an 800-1000 calorie diet and my blood sugar readings are still 104-109. Shouldn’t they be lower?
A:  I would first suggest that you are eating too few calories; this is not effective fat loss. It will most likely serve to alter your metabolism more than give you any long lasting results. Fasting blood sugars of 100-125 constitute a diagnosis of pre-diabetes. You would fall into this range. A goal would be to be less than 100 fasting. I suggest you get some guidance with a healthy eating plan for yourself, be active, and target long term body fat loss at a gradual pace as the way to effectively achieve your goals.

Q: What finger should I use when testing? On two occasions I’ve had different readings from two different fingers.
A:  It should not matter which finger you use as long as you test on the side of the finger.  Do not milk the finger; hold it upside down to let the blood flow to the tip.  Readings may vary slightly.  If the spread is wide, be sure you tested correctly in both situations.  If you still get discrepancies, I suggest you call the 800 number on your meter and ask their advice.

Q: What are the risks when blood sugar is 400 to 500?
A: The intensity of the symptoms will vary between individuals. If these high blood sugars persist, some symptoms that may be experienced include dizziness, nausea, headaches, frequent urination, and hunger. In some cases, one may even experience Diabetic Ketoacidosis, a condition that if left unchecked, can lead to coma. This is generally more associated with type one diabetes. High blood sugars over the long-term precipitate complications such as organ and nerve damage.

Q: I had a blood test but did not realize that I was supposed to fast beforehand. I had two cups of the coffee in the morning, and a sandwich and chips for lunch. My results came back at 293. Is this an accurate test? Do I have diabetes? My doctor wants to put me on medication.
A: 293 would still constitute a diagnosis of diabetes, since it is over 200 – the limit for a random blood sugar, even without fasting. In my experience working with endocrinologists, the next step after “discovering” the high blood sugar would be to order an A1C test to measure an average over the last 3 months. An Oral Glucose Tolerance test may also be order to see how the blood sugars go over the course of 3 hours after a high carb load. If you have no other symptoms or uncontrolled conditions, a course of 3 months of focused diet/lifestyle changes may be put in place to see how far your numbers come down before starting medications. It is most important for you to get educated on eating for diabetes management. Exercising and working towards reduced body fat is usually also at the top of the list.

Q: What is the normal blood sugar levels for a pregnant person fasting, immediately following a meal and 2 hours after? How many carbs can I eat?
A: The guidelines for gestational diabetes have gotten tighter. Those practitioners who manage their patients more tightly prefer a fasting glucose of less than 90 and 110 one-two hours post meal. The best rule of thumb for carbs is NOT to eat them in the morning if you do experience elevated blood sugars. This often means saving your fruit for lunch or later. How many carbs is dependent on your nutritional needs and caloric needs for your pregnancy. It would be helpful for you to have a consult with a nutritionist who understands gestational diabetes patterns. Once you and your physician have determined your blood sugar guidelines, a management plan should follow. Meanwhile, eat unrefined foods as much as possible, lean “flesh”, and minimize sweets and juices.

Q: Can having diabetes cause your blood alcohol levels to go up? 
A: Yes, though generally this is more pronounced for those with insulin dependent diabetes. When the cells can’t suck in the blood sugar due to insufficient insulin, the body breaks down fat for fuel and produces ketones, which can cross-react with both blood and alcohol tests to produce a positive result, even without a drink. Lots of ketones can cause a fruity breath, mistaken for alcohol, and cause a person to have symptoms of being intoxicates such as slurred words and dizziness. ALWAYS HAVE ID ON YOU THAT IDENTIFIES YOU ARE DIABETIC TO AVOID UNNECESSARY HASSLE AND GET TREATMENT YOU MAY NEED IN A TIMELY FASHION!

Q: Is a 132 glucose level, after a ten hour fast, high enough to be concerned about? 
A: Two fasting levels of 126 or greater is a diagnosis of diabetes. If this was a lab test, your physician should order another fasting glucose to confirm, and an A1C to get your average level over a 3 month period. Meanwhile, start practicing a very healthy lifestyle, understanding what food choices to focus on. In a nutshell, focus on eating lots of veggies, some fruit, legumes, lower starch, and fish or smaller amounts lean meat. BE ACTIVE! That is the best key to control.

Q: My fasting blood glucose is normal, but the A1c was 6.5. What would you recommend?
A: I suggest to closely review what you eat the entire day, and increase your activity level if necessary. If your fasting is between 80-90, great! If higher, then lifestyle habits certainly are what need to be addressed first. You may also request an Oral Glucose Tolerance Test to see what your blood sugar response is post-meal.

Q: Why does my blood sugar get highest 3 hours after eating? One hour after eating my blood sugar is around 160-180, after 2 hours it is around 100-125. What’s confusing is it goes up again after 3 hours post-meal to reach 140 then drops down again to 100, and stays at that level. Readings taken after fasting are between 90 to 110. Is this usual?
A: Most of what you describe is usual, particularly depending on what you are eating. Is the 3 hour rebound the same daily? Do you monitor that often? If you are exercising or particularly active before that 3 hour measurement, that could account for a slight rise, followed by the drop. That is a normal pattern for the immediate effect of exercise on blood sugar. Are you on insulin? It sounds as though you may need to revisit your eating habits and tweak your medication program to help you start with an even lower fasting blood sugar.

Q: I have type 2 diabetes and am having problems keeping my morning blood sugar to desired levels. My afternoon levels are usually in the normal range. I’m overweight, but I’ve lost about 27 pounds hoping to reduce my average blood sugar. However, this has not happened. What could this mean? Is my disease progressing?
A: There are several factors that affect morning blood sugars. Often, with reasonable control of diet and exercise resulting in weight loss as you indicate, you do experience a drop. Is your diet as “impeccable” as you can make it? Nutritional supplements also can be helpful when professionally guided. Don’t give up; keep up with your good work. Insulin resistance can be just that: resistive! For some people, if they don’t follow a disciplined program, blood sugars will keep rising. Sticking to a healthy lifestyle will only be a win-win situation for you in the long run.

Q: I sometimes experience a rise in blood sugar levels whenever I am under a great deal of stress or am ill. Even if I’m strict about my diet, is there any way of keeping the sugar levels down without having to take insulin? Will they return to “normal” levels without medication, or will I still require insulin shots?
A: In general, illness and stress do elevate blood sugar, and if you are already requiring insulin when you are otherwise healthy/unstressed, you may need more at these times. If your blood sugars fall into normal levels without needing medications, then triggers such as an illness may or may not raise them, and if so, may not raise them high enough or long enough to warrant medication. Be sure you understand the nature of the disease, and monitor yourself in all situations as closely as you can. No one will be able to manage this better than yourself.

Q: What is a good blood sugar reading after eating a meal?
A: In an entire day, we generally say your blood sugar should not go over 140 even after eating a large meal. Ideally it would not go over 120 two hours after eating. With diabetes, one’s physician may have a higher goal, depending on the health of the person, in order to avoid hypoglycemia (low blood sugar).

Q: Does maintaining a level glucose mean that I should constantly keep my sugars the same, or will the numbers go up and down?
A: There are ranges to maintain your glucose within. Ideally, you will target to be under 100 before breakfast (fasting), and under 140 after meals. You are trying to avoid the extremes of high and low blood sugars. Ask your physician what his/her blood sugar goals are for you immediately and over the long term.

Q: Does high blood sugar cause your blood to get thick and sticky? 
A: Very high blood sugars can accelerate dehydration, which could contribute to “thick” blood. Other medications may also lend to dehydration. It takes six molecules of water to move one molecule of sugar through the blood stream. With all the emphasis on food and lifestyle changes, drinking enough water is basic to good management. Generally, 8 glasses per day is a good start for most people, realizing some will need more, some less. If your first morning urine is not reasonably pale, you are probably not getting enough water.

Q: Do I need to be concerned that my blood glucose runs about 106 fasting every morning? The rest of the day it is fine. I run and lift weights regularly, and my diet is good while watching my carbs. I do not drink. I am also careful with snacks at night.
A: It is good that you are normal during the daytime. The biggest wear and tear on the body seems to come from fluctuating daytime levels rather than a stable but slightly high fasting level. Yes, it would be good to get under 100, ideally between 80-90, but if you truly are most diligent in your lifestyle, you should be able to maintain good health. Certain hormones elevate nighttime levels, contributing to morning highs. Research is out there on many nutraceuticals that may lower fasting blood sugar levels. Water soluble cinnamon in capsule form is one of the most recent that is showing good results.

Q: What should my blood sugar be before meals and 90 minutes after a meal to be an acceptable level? I am pre-diabetic.
A: In general, you do not want to be over 140 post-meal at any time of day. Staying closer to 120 post-meal is an even tighter goal and mimics the non-diabetic state better. Pre-meal blood sugars will vary depending on the last time food was consumed; a goal is to stay between 80-120. Maintaining consistent exercise and monitoring carbs and food quantity will assist in keeping your 2 hour post meal blood sugars under 140.

Q: However, I can have a normal blood sugar reading of about 90 before breakfast and then after a moderate cereal-toast breakfast, my blood sugar will go over 200. I am not diabetic according to medical tests.
A: Have you had an Oral Glucose Tolerance Test? Newer research is placing more emphasis on the after meal glucose elevations as opposed to just monitoring fasting glucose. You are experiencing hyperglycemia, which as an initial diagnosis, generally manifests as slowly elevating fasting glucose. Ideally, your fasting glucose should be closer to 80. 100 is pre-diabetes. I would suggest that your breakfasts now consist of more protein and less carbs. Good choices include egg, yogurt, nut butter, cheese, meat, oatmeal, etc. Target for 20-30 grams of protein at each meal. Any carbs you eat should have fiber: whole grain toast, fresh fruit, etc. Breakfast cereals generally don’t fit these criteria unless you search for a type with higher fiber. I suggest an overabundance of plant foods now, to clean out your system a bit, giving your liver a work break. This should help to fine tune your metabolism. Make sure you have essential fatty acids in your intake: fish/plant foods are main sources.

Q: My husband is on an insulin pump but after a severe low blood sugar, he will struggle for several weeks to get his blood sugars under control again. The blood sugars go low and then high for no reason, regardless of diet, exercise, insulin.
A: I suggest you work a bit more closely with the pump trainer on how to cut back on insulin depending on time of day, activity level, etc. With the abilities of today’s pumps, there are many options for programming different dosages throughout a 24 hour cycle. In my experience, most pumpers need at least 2-3 different program rates. If you begin to notice a pattern of lows, that would be the time of day or activity relationship to begin cutting back with. This may mean both bolus and basal rates. If lows do occur, try to avoid over treating. Four ounces of juice may be enough if he is really low. Tablets may be a better choice to control the carb amounts, re-administering every 15 minutes until a desired blood sugar level is reached. With perseverance and lifestyle consistency, he should reach a more stable pattern.

Q: Do cold temperatures affect blood sugar? My blood sugar numbers have gone up since the building turned the air conditioning down. The cold air vent is directly above my desk, blowing cold air directly on me. 
A: Extreme temperature changes can create a stress reaction, elevating blood sugars. If you are cold, I’m sure you are “bundling up”. Hopefully, you will adjust with time. And is it possible to shift your desk?

Q: How often should pen needles be used before discarding?
A: Pen needles technically are to be used once. In reality, most people who do more than one injection per day immediately cap their needles after use, discarding at the end of the day. Most pens are prefilled, so when finished, discard and start another pen.

Q: My wife is having problems with her blood sugar levels. She has been watching her carbohydrate intake but when she sleeps for at least 8 hours, her sugar levels are higher. Why?
A: It is good she is monitoring her carbs closely, but it is also about the total intake of food and her activity level. Glucose is generally higher in the early morning due to hormonal activity during the night. If she is also elevated during the day, it again may be the types and quantities of foods. Perhaps her medication needs reevaluating. I would suggest she pose these questions to her physician.

Q: I have had type 1 diabetes for about 16 years now. My A1C was 8.6 for a while but now I have it down to 7.6 and lower now. The problem is that now I feel like I am having low blood sugar even when I am in the good range.
A: For many who have adapted to functioning on higher sugars for many years, then in a reasonably short period drop into more normal ranges, low blood sugar symptoms may persist for a time. This means that your insulin is functioning far more efficiently in removing sugar from your bloodstream. At 7.6, you are still in a higher range, but certainly closer to numbers that are more protective for complications. If you are on other medications, particularly for CAD, these may also contribute to symptoms. Make sure you know from your physician what range you should be in. If the symptoms persist, perhaps something else would be the cause not directly related to glucose lowering in the bloodstream. Hormonal changes as part of the life cycle can also play a role.

Q: Do I use the first or the second drop of blood when testing my blood sugar?
A: With most strips now, you can touch them with the first drop. It takes far less blood than it used to to get a good sample. One drop is all that is needed.

Q: I’ve been taking my blood sugar readings for 2 years. The highest reading was 200 after a meal by 1 hour. Fasting blood sugar is almost between 80 to 100. With such readings, should I be concerned about being diabetic?
A: You are showing readings of hyperglycemia. There is a greater movement among diabetes management practitioners to emphasize the importance of post meal control. This is because blood sugar excursions contribute to higher oxidative stress, which in turn may cause increased tissue damage leading to greater risk of complications. This seems to be more true than chronic sustained high blood sugars, such as only high fasting levels.

The ideal fasting blood glucose reading is less than 100. The ideal post-meal blood glucose reading is less than 140. 140-200 post meal/random reading is considered pre-diabetes. I suggest you carefully reevaluate your daytime eating, perhaps being more careful of carb intake and type and follow up with your health care practitioner.

Q: I am a 74 year old male whose glucose level has gone slightly but steadily up over the past year and a half: 99, 104 and today 106. My doctor seems not concerned as I have none of the usual diabetes symptoms, have loads of energy, exercise a great deal at recreational sports, and eat wisely. Given the glucose level and fact that many in my family have diabetes, I am concerned and wonder what I could do?
A: It sounds like you are on a good path geared towards a healthy lifestyle. You may want to seek professional nutritional counseling to fine tune if you are not already very aware of such issues as the impact of carbohydrates. You are still maintaining a low pre-diabetes status. There are nutritional supplements such as cinnamon that may also be helpful in keeping your blood sugars down. Be certain too that you stay well hydrated by drinking lots of water. If you maintain these numbers and don’t go any higher, you should do well.

Q: My blood glucose runs about 106 fasting every morning. The rest of the day it is fine. I run and lift weights regularly, and my diet is good while watching my carbs. I do not drink. I am also careful with snacks at night. Is this morning level a reason for concern and why is it high in the morning?
A: It is good that you are normal during the daytime. The biggest wear and tear on the body seems to come from fluctuating daytime levels rather than a stable but slightly high fasting level. Yes, it would be good to get under 100, ideally between 80-90, but if you truly are most diligent in your lifestyle, you should be able to maintain good health. Certain hormones elevate nighttime levels, contributing to morning highs. Research is out there on many nutraceuticals that may lowering fasting blood sugar levels. Cinnulin PF, from cinnamon, is one of the most recent that is showing good results. It can be found in capsule form.

Q: I have been overweight for years and have been having my blood sugar checked at bi-annual doctor’s appointments, always to be told it was “fine” or “normal”. Five months ago the A1c was 6.3. Now it has gone to 10.1 with a fasting blood sugar of 329. While at my first diabetic management appointment, the nurse showing me how to test my blood sugar got a 428, stuck a needle of insulin in me, and sent me home with vials and needles. Is it normal for someone to go from fine to insulin diabetic so rapidly?
A: I would hope you had a bit more instruction than what you are conveying. With blood sugars over 300, it is now the thought of many endocrinologists to start a person on insulin to detox the beta cells of the pancreas. This may only be for a short period if lifestyle changes are diligently made. Sometimes, it is a shift to oral medication, or none at all. Over the years, one may need a return to insulin and/or other medications. Take charge of you lifestyle habits and get all the education you can on managing this disease.

 

FAQ — Diabetes Action

Top frequently asked questions about diabetes and blood sugar. Browse our site to see many more diabetes questions and answers.

Q: What is a normal blood sugar level?

A: A person without diabetes will have an A1C test below 5.7%, a fasting blood glucose test less than 100 mg/dl, and a glucose tolerance test of 140 mg/dl or below. Learn more about diabetes test results.

 

Q: What is a normal blood sugar 1 hour after eating?

A:  The highest peak blood sugar levels generally occur 1 hour after a meal if carbohydrates were eaten. At 2 hours after a meal, protein begins to break down into blood sugar which could again increase blood sugar. Generally, over the course of a day, your blood sugar should not go over 140, even after eating a large meal. Ideally it would not go over 120 two hours after eating. This goal should be discussed with a medical provider because some people may require a higher goal in order to avoid hypoglycemia (low blood sugar).
Learn more about what to eat when you have diabetes.

Q: Do I have pre-diabetes if my fasting blood sugar is 102?

A: You are considered to have pre-diabetes when either
1) your A1C test is between 5.7% and 6.4%
2) your fasting blood glucose is between 100 and 125 mg/dl
3) your oral glucose tolerance test is between 140 and 199 mg/dl.
Learn more about prediabetes.

 

Q: How do I test for diabetes?

A: You are considered to have diabetes when either
1) your A1C test is 6.5% or greater
2) your fasting blood glucose is 126 mg/dl or greater
3) your oral glucose tolerance test is 200 mg/dl or greater
Learn more about diabetes test results.

Q: Why is my blood sugar high in the morning?

A: This early morning rise in glucose, known as the “dawn phenomenon” is normal and happens when our bodies produce a surge of hormones to help us wake up. During the day, activity tends to keep sugars under control if following a healthy, active lifestyle. If using insulin, it may help to adjust your nighttime dosage. Learn more about reducing stress to improve your blood sugar.

 

Q: What is the A1C test?

A: The A1C (also called HbA1c) is a blood test shows how blood sugar levels were controlled over the previous two to three months. It should be done by your doctor at least twice a year. Aim for a level below 6.5. 

 

Q: I have finally gotten my A1C back in the normal range, do I still have diabetes or am I cured?

A: Congratulations!  If you are not on medication for diabetes, then you now have it in control. However, it is important for you to continue with the lifestyle changes you made to achieve this. Reverting back to old habits would most likely result in elevating glucose levels once again.

Q: Do I need to fast before an A1C test?

A:  No, fasting is not required for an A1C because the test measures your average blood glucose levels over the past three months.

Q: How long should I fast before a fasting glucose blood test?

A: At least 10 hours gives your body a chance to digest all food in your system to more readily determine what your true fasting blood sugar is. Carbs, proteins and fats all digest at a different rate and a larger meal will take longer to digest. A fasting blood sugar of 126 repeated twice is a diagnosis of diabetes.

Q: Can I drink black coffee before a fasting glucose blood test?

A: No, do not drink coffee, even if it is black. You can only drink plain water so do not drink coffee, tea, or anything else before a fasting blood test, even if it is diet/unsweetened.

 

Q: Can stress increase blood sugar levels?

A: Stress can elevate blood sugar, and if you are already requiring insulin when you are otherwise unstressed, you may need more at these times. Be sure to monitor yourself in all situations as closely as you can. Learn more about reducing stress to improve your blood sugar control.

 

Q: Can being sick increase blood sugar?

A: Illness can lead to an increase in blood sugar levels. The most important step to take during illness is to make sure that blood sugar levels are stable to prevent a small problem like a cold or the flu from causing greater problems. Learn more about diabetes and illness.

 

Q: What are the best foods to lower my blood sugar?

A: There is no one answer to your question; your meal program needs to be individualized to meet your needs. Testing your glucose at different times during the day will let you know how your foods are affecting your levels. Eat high fiber foods, drink lots of water, and focus on eating veggies, legumes, and fish.

Q: When is the best time to test my blood sugar?

Most people with well-controlled diabetes who are not taking any medications need to have their blood sugar checked only 2 – 3 times a week. Monitoring 2 – 4 times a day is necessary for most individuals with diabetes in order to track the changes that may occur. People with diabetes who are ill, have more than two insulin shots a day, or are pregnant, may need to check blood sugar even more often. The best times to do this are before breakfast, lunch, and dinner, at bedtime, and 1 – 2 hours after meals. Learn more about monitoring your blood sugar.

 

Q: Why is my blood sugar higher after exercise?

A: Wait an hour after you exercise and see if you get the same results. Exercise is a stressor, so blood sugar will be higher immediately after your session.

Q: Does hot or cold weather affect blood sugar levels?

A: High heat can lead to dehydration, which in turn can cause high blood sugars. It takes 6 molecules of water to move one molecule of sugar from the blood stream, so the higher the sugar, the more water you need to drink. Extreme hot or cold temperatures can cause changes in the vascular system that can affect blood sugar and cause reactions.

90,000 experiment of the Finnish biohacker Ilmo Strömberg – Personal experience on vc.ru

Testing a sensor for continuous monitoring of blood glucose from the Finnish startup VERI in the material of the publication Reminder.

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A new sensor for continuous monitoring of blood glucose from the Finnish startup VERI has not yet entered the market.I managed to get early access to it at the very end of 2020.

Before that, like most non-diabetic people, I knew little about the importance of blood sugar and even less about how to control it. But in just two weeks of testing, he reached a completely new level of understanding of the work of his body. The English version of the report on this experiment can be read on my personal blog.

Why measure your blood glucose if you don’t have diabetes?

For diabetics, constant glucose monitoring helps keep blood sugar levels in a more or less safe range to avoid the worst complications.The rest of the doctors recommend donating “blood for sugar” no more than once a year. Let’s say you took this test and made sure that your glucose level does not exceed the maximum allowed value. Why measure more?

A standard one-time fasting finger or vein test is like a snapshot. It doesn’t show how your diet and lifestyle affects carbohydrate metabolism over the long term.According to the standards of the American Diabetes Association, the norm is no more than 5.6 mmol / L of fasting blood plasma.

But many recent studies have convincingly shown that even within this norm there are indicators that are more dangerous and less dangerous. For example, if your glucose level exceeds 5.5 mmol / L, your risk of developing type 2 diabetes is three times higher than if you have 4.6 mmol / L.Namely, diabetes often creates the basis for deadly pathologies: cardiovascular disease, cancer and Alzheimer’s disease.

Diabetes is usually preceded by so-called prediabetes. According to the estimates of the American Center for Disease Control and Prevention, in the United States more than 25% of the population suffers from it, and in Finland it is slightly less than 20% 90,021 (in Russia, according to estimates, approximately the same indicators.- Reminder) . This means that nearly one in five post-meal blood sugar levels are above normal and remain at their peak longer than a healthy person. But fasting can be normal. Until.

Recently, Levels Health, also a real-time glucose monitoring company, published an excellent guide to blood sugar guidelines based on the latest medical research.These are the indicators it calls optimal.

Disease risk is not the only fact that convinced me of the importance of this indicator. Productivity – physical and mental – directly depends on the level of glucose in the blood. Lethargy and fog in the head are very often associated with fluctuations in sugar, but this factor is usually not taken into account at all.

You need constant monitoring of blood sugar if:

– You strive for longevity and preservation of physical fitness.

– You want to eliminate the potential factor of reduced productivity.

– You have relatives with diabetes – a tendency towards it is often transmitted genetically.

How does VERI work and what does it measure?

Translated from Finnish, veri means “blood”, but when you install the sensor, you will not see it. It is a coin-sized round applicator that attaches to your forearm. Although it has a thin, flexible needle to measure blood sugar, it is painlessly inserted under the skin.

After one hour of calibration, the VERI is ready for use. Its readings can be taken with a smartphone, bringing the camera to the sensor (gadgets of this type are already on the market, we wrote about them in detail in our review – Reminder) .

All data is processed and visualized in the VERI application – so far only on the iPhone.In the near future, the developers are planning to add a personalization mechanism to the application, which will calculate the minimum and maximum values, taking into account age, weight, diet and other individual parameters.

VERI differs from other wearable glucose sensors in that it not only measures blood sugar levels. The manufacturer calls this device a “metabolic health compass”.In practice, this means that it records some more interesting metrics.

  • Stability Index – calculated on the basis of three indicators: 1) peak blood glucose concentration immediately after a meal, 2) glucose level two hours after a meal, and 3) the number of minutes during which the glucose level after reaching the peak value exceeds the norm.For example, when I ate fresh salmon salad, my stability index was close to ideal – 9/10. The spike in glucose levels was minimal, and after two hours, its concentration steadily returned to average.

  • Metabolic Flow: summarizes and evaluates a number of indicators on a scale of up to 100 points. The most important two: 1) how much time per week the sugar level is in the optimal range (+/- 1 mmol / L) and 2) how much the glucose concentration deviates from the average level during the day.The best indicator is less than 0.6 mmol / L.
  • The number of peaks in blood sugar levels per day. Ideally, there should be no more than one. Here is one such peak, recorded in my morning.

Another useful option is the ability to photograph food in order to establish a correlation between the stability index and the consumption of certain foods.Even more convenient, products can be sorted by this criterion.

This is a very simple and visual way to determine which food suits you best. In addition, there is the ability to monitor blood sugar levels during exercise and integration with the Apple Health app so that all sensor data is automatically uploaded to your personal cloud log.

During testing VERI, I noticed a couple of shortcomings. Four times in two weeks, the application recorded a data gap – in the interval from 2 to 10 hours. It also turned out that when visiting a sauna or when it is strongly cooled, the sensor may give incorrect information.

One sensor costs 129 euros and is valid for two weeks.At the end of this period, you will receive a final report that summarizes all the indicators. Here’s what I got: the average glucose level is 4.3 mmol / L.

Experiment

To make the results of the experiment more revealing, I decided to start by asking three simple and specific questions:

  1. Is your blood sugar dependent on taking a 30 minute walk after lunch?

  2. Does standing work affect glucose concentration?
  3. Is there a relationship between fluctuations in blood sugar and sleep quality?

During the experiment, only such parameters as choice of food for lunch, walking and position during work were varied; other conditions (breakfast menu, sleep and wake-up times) remained unchanged.

Walk After Meal

For the first two days, I ate a standard 30cm Subway tuna sandwich for lunch. According to the manufacturer’s official information, it contains 75 grams of carbohydrates, including 9 grams of added sugar.Enough to trigger a glucose spike right after a meal.

Indeed, the stability index on a day without a walk turned out to be 7 out of 10. But the next day, when I walked only half an hour after lunch, it went up by two points. Other indicators also differed greatly. Based on this dynamic, if I lengthened the walk by another 30 minutes, I would not have a sharp rise in my glucose level after lunch at all.

Standing work

This test was inspired by a study that found that two hours of standing in an office reduced post-meal glucose peaks by as much as 43%.

On the day of the experiment, I increased the standing time to 3 hours and ate a decent 600 grams of salmon lasagna.The result was overwhelming, especially considering that lasagna is not the healthiest food: according to Myfitnesspal, I had 60 grams of carbs in my serving.

So, the stability index is 10 (maximum), the glucose concentration at the moment of the peak is only 4.8 mmol / l, and after two hours – 4.5 mmol / l.

Holidays and Sugar

My experiment partly fell on New Year’s holidays, which gave me the opportunity to test how disturbances in the usual eating rhythm affect the glucose balance.Spoiler alert: The worst metabolic rate for the entire experiment was recorded by the sensor on Christmas Eve after a large portion of rice pudding with blueberry sauce.

I drew up a graph of metabolic flow fluctuations, compared them with my diet and found a clear pattern: the worst indicators fell on those days when I often had snacks – I ate chocolates, bananas, gingerbread; the highest were strongly correlated with healthy eating, such as fresh lettuce, and physical activity, including standing work.

But not all delicious food was equally harmful. For example, kombucha, raisin curd, blueberry smoothie, and collagen protein bar, on the other hand, improved my metabolic flow by 9-10 points. As a champion of healthy snacks, it was especially pleasant for me.

Sleep and Sugar

There is scientific evidence that blood sugar levels and sleep quality are linked.Sleep problems increase the risk of type 2 diabetes, and frequent fluctuations in blood sugar levels are seen in people with sleep apnea.

To test this relationship for myself, I took the sleep tracking data collected during the Oura ring experiment and compared it with the VERI scores. The strongest correlation was found between the number of glucose peaks and the quality of sleep.The more spikes in my blood sugar levels during the day, the worse I slept the next night.

Conclusions

Of course, a two-week study without benchmarks is not enough to draw far-reaching conclusions.But if you, like me, were wondering if there is a biohacking gadget that can help you lower your sugar level by 50%, improve your sleep, give you a boost of energy and mental clarity, then this experiment will give you an unexpected answer: no gadget for you for it is not needed.

You already have everything you need. It is enough to walk for half an hour after lunch, periodically stand during work – and your physical performance will noticeably improve.I have always believed in non-training physical activity and standing work. But to be convinced of their effectiveness with your own eyes is a valuable experience.

Article prepared by the online edition Reminder, which is dedicated to health, psychology and practical philosophy. More useful information can be found on our pages on Facebook, Telegram or in the newsletter.

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Q&A

In this section we answer frequently asked questions.As new frequently asked questions appear, the section will be supplemented. Send your questions to [email protected] Be sure to indicate to whom the letter is addressed, for example, “ophthalmologist”, “chief physician”, etc.


Question: Hello, I had diabetes during pregnancy, after giving birth, I continue to follow a diet, a complete rejection of sugar, sweets, baked goods. Sometimes I measure my sugar level and often in the morning immediately after waking up I have somewhere around 6.2, and after a meal after 2 hours the sugar is normal.As soon as I come to the clinic to take a glucose tolerance test, it shows normal sugar on an empty stomach. I think the fact is that I walk 2 km to the clinic and then wait in line for about half an hour and the sugar goes down. And naturally they tell me you don’t have diabetes. I don’t understand whether I should be worried or insist that sugar is higher than normal after waking up. Best regards, Julia

Answer: Good afternoon. If you are of normal weight, then there is nothing to worry about. To diagnose diabetes mellitus, only laboratory tests are used, not a glucometer.The glucose stress test also reveals latent (latent) diabetes. If your meter is calibrated for capillary plasma, and not for capillary whole blood, then the meter readings are within normal limits. Gestational diabetes is a risk factor for developing type 2 diabetes. Therefore, it is periodically necessary to monitor glucose indicators and be sure to maintain a normal body mass index (no higher than 25).


Question: Mom used to have sugar up to 19.She was recently prescribed insulin. We measured her sugar 3 times a day. By the evening the sugar drops. At night, from about two to five, she starts a real rampage, she starts screaming, fighting, rolling on the floor, urinating under her. They took her to the clinic to see a neurologist. He said that the reason for this behavior is low sugar. Could hypoglycemia cause such inappropriate behavior?

Answer: Your mother’s behavior exactly corresponds to a severe hypoglycemic condition. Be sure to talk urgently with your doctor about insulin therapy, evening insulin dose and food intake before bedtime.At the first sign of inappropriate behavior, immediately give sweet tea, compote, juice.


Question: Hello! Please tell me if a child’s sugar can rise to 7 because of a strong nervous experience? Will it return to normal then? Or do you already need to see a doctor? Will this not remain with the child forever, automatically, in the form of a disease?

Answer: Good afternoon! The data provided by you is insufficient for an objective assessment of the situation. All questions of interest can be asked at an appointment with an endocrinologist at the dispensary.Help and appointment by phone. Registries (8 0152) 44 72 00, 44 72 15.


Question: Good afternoon, tell me please, can I pass a category A driver’s license with type 1 diabetes?

Answer: You can take a license of category A in the absence of a coma in the anamnesis, followed by an annual medical examination (resolution of the Ministry of Health of the Republic of Belarus dated 06.12.2018 No. 88).


Question: My child (he is 12 years old) has signs of diabetes: constant thirst, frequent trips to the toilet, especially at night, loss of appetite, dry skin, irritability, sometimes chills, nausea and even vomiting (usually at night). The urine is almost colorless. Have passed the analysis for sugar … 5.2, but the doctor said that there are many leukocytes in the urine. What disease can these symptoms indicate? Thank you in advance.

Answer: Based on the content of your letter, the child may be suspected of having a urinary tract disease.You should contact your pediatrician to clarify the nature of the disease.


Question: My gynecologist recommended to drink Siofor to lose excess weight. Is this drug dangerous and how to take it?

Answer: The question of the advisability of taking Siofor should be discussed with a general practitioner or endocrinologist. If you have indications and there are no contraindications for taking it, you will be assigned an adequate dose and explained the rules for taking the drug.


Question: Hello. My sugar is increased to 6.7. What does this mean? No signs of diabetes were observed.

Answer: Hello. This may mean that you have diabetes. Such glucose values ​​do not give any symptoms. You need to repeat the fasting blood glucose (fasting period at least 8 hours). With the result of the analysis, contact your GP.


Question: I have type 2 diabetes, I take pills.Recently they discovered an ovarian cyst and sent to an endocrinologist to consult about the possibility of surgery. If in connection with the operation it is necessary to switch me to insulin, can I then switch to pills again?

Answer: Do not worry, after surgical treatment and healing of the wound surface, it is possible to switch back to treatment with tablets.


Question: I am 22 years old. Six months ago, type 1 diabetes was discovered. I give insulin.Recently resumed training with the gym. I am about to start intravenous amino acids along with an additional dose. I would like to know if such procedures are safe? During the state of hypoglycemia, I will not be alone and at any time I will be able to receive the necessary help.

Answer: Young man! Be sure to discuss your decision on intravenous administration of amino acids with your doctor! Your decision to take an extra dose of insulin to induce a hypoglycemic response is clearly wrong.Even mild hypoglycemia seriously affects the function of the central nervous system, impairing memory and causing other negative consequences that are not always treatable. Be careful!


Question: Hello! I have such questions. Type 2 diabetes was discovered a year ago. The sugar was 9.0. Prescribed metformin at 850 mg, “sat down” on a diet. In 9 months I lost 10 kg (from 97 to 86)! Is it okay? Will the weight continue to decline? Morning sugar is now between 5.9 and 7.2.I also take indap and verapamil from pressure. I read that they reduce the effect of metformin. Do I need to replace them with other antihypertensive drugs or not pay attention to it? And yet, in the annotation to metformin it says: “take with caution in old age” Why? I am 69 years old. Thank you very much in advance.

Answer: According to your letter, we can conclude that the treatment of diabetes is carried out adequately. On the background of taking metformin in combination with a balanced diet, good results were obtained.Older age is not a contraindication to long-term treatment with metformin. It is advisable to monitor the functional parameters of the liver once a year. It is better to coordinate the intake of antihypertensive drugs with the attending physician, maintaining blood pressure at 135/80 mm Hg. Art.


Question: I am 64 years old. I felt dry mouth in the morning, but I could not get to the endocrinologist right away. Month strictly observed the diet. Using my husband’s glucometer (he has diabetes for more than 10 years), I checked my blood sugar in the morning on an empty stomach.Indicators – from 7.9 to 6.2 mmol / l. And when I went to the endocrinologist and got tested in the laboratory, I was surprised: on an empty stomach – 7.82, and 2 hours after taking glucose – 4.78. How can this be?

Answer: The blood glucose levels you listed in the letter may be in the early stages of type 2 diabetes. In addition to following the diet, you need to coordinate additional treatment with your doctor. Treatment will depend on your weight, blood pressure, and other medical conditions.You do not have a significant difference between fasting blood glucose levels in the laboratory and on your home glucometer.


Question: I fell ill with diabetes in November 2010, when the ambulance was taken to the hospital, my blood sugar was 19.7. Before that, for a long time I could not understand why I feel so bad. My question is: how to eat to gain weight? Until I was diagnosed and I did not know what was happening to me, I lost 15 kg. I was never full, but now I am “skin and bones”.

Answer: To answer your question, it is necessary to meet with an endocrinologist and discuss the tactics of treating diabetes. You have not told your age, what antidiabetic drugs you are using, whether you are taking insulin, what are your current blood sugar levels, whether you have any concomitant diseases. The answers to all of these and other questions will help your doctor prescribe the right treatment and stop weight loss.


Question: What analysis is used to determine the number of surviving beta cells in diabetes? Thank you.

Answer: Currently, the state of the beta cells of the islet part of the pancreas is assessed by the level of C-peptide in the patient’s blood and antibodies to beta cells.


Question: hypothyroidism was suspected in my clinic. And how to know more precisely if it exists?

Answer: Confirming hypothyroidism is quite simple: you need to check the level of thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH). It is the most informative test for diagnosing any thyroid disorder.With hypothyroidism, the TSH level will be increased. If necessary, a blood test for free thyroxine T4 is additionally prescribed. With obvious hypothyroidism, its level is lowered.

Determination of the TSH level is indicated if a person is gaining weight, although there is no apparent reason for this, and neither diet nor physical activity helps to reduce it if he is cold, while others feel comfortable if he quickly gets tired. persistent constipation appears if the skin becomes dry and hair and eyebrows begin to fall out intensively.Swelling of the face and soreness of the joints can also indicate the same disease, but these symptoms appear when the process has already gone far. There are a number of other signs as well. However, there are groups of people who have a higher risk of hypothyroidism. These are women over 40 years old, people with high blood cholesterol levels, those who have had thyroid diseases in their relatives. All of them are advised to check their TSH levels. And it will not hurt others either. You can only exclude young men who do not have the slightest health problems.


Question: Why check your blood sugar level ?

Answer: In order to detect diabetes in time. The disease is when the blood glucose level is twice on an empty stomach 7 and above mol / l. With a single random surrender, the suspicion arises when it is 11 or higher.

Two types of diabetes mellitus are most common. The first type, as a rule, affects young people and children. In this case, the body stops producing the hormone insulin, which is necessary for the absorption of glucose.To normalize metabolism, you need to constantly administer an insulin preparation.

In type 2 diabetes mellitus, there is usually enough insulin in the body, sometimes even too much, but it becomes ineffective. This condition is much more common (up to ninety percent of all cases). The patient does not need constant injections, but attention to his own health becomes paramount. Because the disease is dangerous, first of all, complications, often leading to disability and disability.They can develop slowly over many years. The vessels of the retina are affected and blindness may occur, chronic renal failure develops, the blood supply to the legs is disrupted, and trophic ulcers occur. The blood supply to the heart and brain is impaired, which can lead to myocardial infarction or stroke.

Almost every patient with type 2 diabetes mellitus has arterial hypertension, for which, as a rule, no serious measures have been taken, ischemic heart disease.And most of the “diabetics” are overweight. People eat much more than is necessary to restore energy costs, and this leads to obesity and metabolic disorders. Adipose tissue contains substances that reduce insulin sensitivity. Therefore, type 2 diabetes develops much more often in obese people.

This is why lifestyle change comes first in antidiabetic prescriptions.


Question: My hair began to fall out, although my age is still not old and I eat normally.The doctor at the clinic said that this may be due to the work of the thyroid gland. Can this be?

Answer: Hair growth is indeed very sensitive to the state of thyroid function. It can be impaired in both hypothyroidism and thyrotoxicosis. You need to be tested for thyroid hormones and a complete blood count. If TSH and hemoglobin levels are normal and hair problems persist, it is most likely a hair condition on its own and you need to see a dermatologist.


Question: They say that in order to protect the thyroid gland from diseases, and even more so to treat her sick, you need to take iodine. Is it so?

Answer: No, this is not correct. There are several dozen diseases of the thyroid gland, the approaches to the treatment of which can be diametrically different. Iodine is essential for the production of thyroid hormones. With hypothyroidism, it is destroyed and is no longer able to synthesize them using iodine, so there is no point in taking preparations containing it.In any case, I would like to warn against the use of an alcoholic solution of iodine for preventive purposes, and in general about

Sugar level 2 hours after eating. What should be the blood sugar in a healthy person immediately after a meal? What might be the value of glucose in a child?

Minimize


Sugar analysis is a necessary procedure for people who have diabetes, as well as for those who have a predisposition to it.For the second group, it is equally important to regularly conduct blood tests in adults and children in order to prevent the development of the disease. If the content of glucose compounds in human blood is exceeded, you should immediately consult a doctor. But in order to do this, you need to know what kind of sugar a person should have.

It can even vary greatly from minute to minute. When you eat, it can increase dramatically. When you exercise, he often falls. When you are given routine blood tests, doctors usually order a fasting glucose test.The most informative indicator of blood sugar is blood sugar after a meal, measured 1 and 2 hours after a meal. Doctors rarely test this important blood sugar measurement because it is time consuming and therefore expensive.

Rarely do doctors order an oral glucose tolerance test that tests your response to a massive dose of pure glucose that hits your bloodstream within minutes and produces results completely different from the blood sugar you will experience after every meal.Below you will find the normal readings for these various tests.

Conducting research

With age, the effectiveness of the work of insulin receptors decreases. Therefore, people after 34 – 35 years old need to regularly monitor daily fluctuations in sugar or at least take one measurement during the day. The same applies to children with a predisposition to type 1 diabetes (over time, the child may “outgrow” it, but without sufficient control of glucose in the blood from the finger, prevention, he can become chronic).Representatives of this group also need to do at least one measurement during the day (preferably on an empty stomach).

Blood sugar after meals

This is a significant body of research finding. People whose blood sugar is at this level do not develop diabetes over the next decade or longer. This is evidenced by the graph at the top of this page, which shows blood sugars measured during a study where normal people had blood sugar taken every few minutes after a high-carb meal.

What is abnormally low blood sugar?

This is because home blood sugar meters often read below laboratory values, so a reading in this slightly lower range may be normal. More importantly, insulin or an oral medication that has lowered your blood sugar to that level can still work to lower your blood sugar even further.

The easiest way to make the change is to use a finger on an empty stomach using a home blood glucose meter.Glucose in capillary blood is the most informative. If you need to take measurements with a glucose meter, proceed as follows:

  1. Turn on the device;
  2. Using a needle, which is now almost always supplied with them, pierce the skin on the finger;
  3. Apply sample to test strip;
  4. Insert a test strip into the machine and wait for the result to appear.

The numbers that appear are the amount of sugar in the blood. Control by this method is informative enough and sufficient in order not to miss the situation when the glucose readings change, and the norm in the blood of a healthy person can be exceeded.

Normal blood sugar levels during pregnancy

Based on current research, the blood sugar levels of normal pregnant women fall within this range. Pre-guaranteed women with diabetes should aim for these blood sugars. You can learn about the studies that have established these values.

This percentage tells you what percentage of your red blood cells are glucose bound to them. This can occur if you have anemia, abnormally long-lived red blood cells, or some unusual red blood cell genes.You can learn more about the relationship between heart disease and blood sugar test results on this page. 1-hour glucose tolerance test – not a fasting glucose test accurately determines the risk of diabetes. In contrast, the researchers found that the one-hour reading of the glucose tolerance test worked well for screening people heading for diabetes.

The most informative indicators can be obtained from a child or an adult when measured on an empty stomach.There is no difference in how to donate blood for glucose compounds on an empty stomach. But in order to obtain more detailed information, it may be necessary to donate blood for sugar after meals and / or several times a day (morning, evening, after dinner). Moreover, if the indicator slightly rises after eating, this is considered the norm.

In fact, evidence suggests that lowering blood sugar levels below 5% using safe methods reduces the incidence of all classic diabetes complications.If your doctor tells you otherwise, he is showing that his “diabetes education” comes only from reading incomplete one-page research fact sheets, which are notorious for ignoring follow-up actions in those studies that correct or point out deficiencies.

Learn more about normal – and abnormal – blood sugar

If you want to understand your true risk of developing diabetes and what science has learned about the process people go through developing diabetes, read on.

What does he get to get normal blood sugar

Find out which foods your body can process. If you feel hopeless because you have failed on any other diet you have ever tried, the good news is that an effective diabetic diet is much easier and more forgiving than a weight loss diet.

Decoding of the result

The readings obtained when measuring with a home glucometer, you just need to decipher yourself.The indicator reflects the concentration of glucose compounds in the sample. The unit of measurement is mmol / liter. At the same time, the level rate may differ slightly depending on which meter is used. In the USA and Europe, units of measurement are different, which is associated with a different system of calculation. Such equipment is often supplemented by a table that helps to convert the indicated blood sugar level in a patient into Russian units of measurement.

Many doctors do not have time to educate their patients on how to get insulin doses set at levels that give better control.So if you’re on insulin and still not feeling well, it’s time to hit the books. You will find several helpful books on our resources page to help you understand how to properly work with insulin.

Herbal Infusions

You can also get a lot of help from true experts – other people with diabetes who have reached normal blood sugar. You will find some in the discussed online support forums. When you have diabetes, you should have good blood sugar control.If your blood sugar is not controlled, serious problems caused by complications can happen to your body many years later. Learn how to manage your blood sugar so you can stay as healthy as possible.

The fasting level is always lower than the level after eating. At the same time, on an empty stomach, a sample from a vein shows sugar slightly lower than on an empty stomach from a finger (let’s say a spread of 0.1-0.4 mmol per liter, but sometimes blood glucose may differ even more significantly).

Explanation by a doctor should be carried out when more complex tests are passed – for example, a glucose tolerance test on an empty stomach and after taking a “glucose load”. Not all patients know what it is. It helps to track how the sugar level changes dynamically some time after taking glucose. To carry it out, a fence is made before accepting the load. After that, the patient drinks 75 ml of the load. After that, the content of glucose compounds in the blood should be increased. The first time glucose is measured in half an hour.Then – an hour after eating, an hour and a half and two hours after eating. Based on these data, a conclusion is made about how blood sugar is absorbed after a meal, what content is acceptable, what are the maximum levels of glucose and how long after a meal they appear.

Know the basic steps to manage diabetes. Poorly managed diabetes can lead to a host of health problems.

  • Recognize and treat low blood sugar.
  • Recognize and treat high blood sugar.
  • Blood sugar monitoring.
  • Take care of yourself when you are sick.
  • Find, Buy and Store Diabetes.

If you are taking insulin, you also need to know how.

Adjust your insulin dosage and the foods you eat to manage blood sugar during exercise and on sick days. Give yourself insulin.
… You must also live a healthy lifestyle. Always check with your doctor before starting any new exercise plans.Set up your meal plan.

  • Exercise at least 30 minutes a day, 5 days a week.
  • Do muscle strengthening exercises 2 or more days a week.
  • Avoid sitting for more than 30 minutes at a time.
  • Walk, swim or dance.

Take your medications as your doctor recommends.

Indications for diabetics

If a person has diabetes, the level changes dramatically. The permissible limit in this case is higher than that of healthy people.The maximum permissible indications before meals, after meals for each patient are set individually, depending on his state of health, the degree of compensation for diabetes mellitus. For some, the maximum sugar level in the sample should not exceed 6-9, and for others, 7-8 mmol per liter is normal or even a good sugar level after a meal or on an empty stomach.

By checking your blood sugar frequently and recording the results, you will know how well you are managing your diabetes. Talk to your doctor and diabetes educator about how often you should check your blood sugar.Not everyone with diabetes needs to have their blood sugar checked daily. If you have type 1 diabetes, check your blood sugar at least 4 times a day. But some people may need to check this many times a day.
… Usually, you will check your blood sugar before meals and before bed.

You can also check your blood sugar. After you eat, especially if you have eaten food that you usually do not eat, if you feel sick.

  • In front of you and after training.
  • If you have a lot of stress, if you eat too much.
  • If you are taking new medicines.

Keep the record for yourself and your supplier. This will be of great help if you have problems managing your diabetes. It will also tell you what works and what doesn’t work to control your blood sugar.

The glucose content after meals in diabetics rises faster, that is, sugar rises more intensively than in a healthy person.Therefore, post-meal blood glucose readings are also higher for them. The doctor will make a conclusion about which indicator is considered normal. But to monitor the patient’s condition, the patient is often asked to measure sugar after each meal and on an empty stomach, and record the results in a special diary.

All unusual events such as feeling stressed, eating different foods, or pain.

  • Time of day Your blood sugar level.
  • The amount of carbohydrates or sugar you ate.
  • The type and dose of your diabetes or insulin medication.
  • The type of exercise you do and for how long.

Many meters can store this information.

Recommended target blood sugar levels

You and your healthcare provider should set a target blood sugar target at different times throughout the day. If your blood sugar is higher than your goals for 3 days and you are unsure why, call your provider.The American Diabetes Association recommends that people with type 1 diabetes should base their sugar goals on the person’s needs and goals. Talk to your doctor and diabetes educator about these goals.

Indications in healthy people

Trying to control their level in women and men, patients often do not know what the norm a healthy person should have before and after meals, in the evening or in the morning. In addition, there is a correlation between normal fasting sugar and the dynamics of its change 1 hour after eating according to the patient’s age.In general, the older the person, the higher the allowable rate. The numbers in the table clearly illustrate this correlation.

Before eating, the blood sugar level should be as follows. Before bed, your blood sugar should be. For people with type 2 diabetes, the American Diabetes Association also recommends individualizing blood sugar goals. Talk to your doctor and diabetes educator about your goals.

In general, your blood sugar should be present before meals. After eating, your blood sugar should be there.Call your provider if your blood sugar is too high or too low and you are not sure why. When your blood sugar is within your target range, you will feel better and your health will be better.

Acceptable glucose content in the sample by age

Age, years Fasting, mmol per liter (maximum normal level and minimum)
Babies Metering with a glucometer is almost never done, i.e.because the baby’s blood sugar is unstable and has no diagnostic value
3 to 6 The sugar level must be within the range of 3.3 – 5.4
6 to 10-11 Content standards 3.3 – 5.5
Adolescents under 14 years of age Normal sugar values ​​in the range of 3.3 – 5.6
Adults 14 – 60 Ideally, in an adult in the body 4.1 – 5.9
Elderly 60 to 90 years Ideally at this age 4.6 – 6.4
Old people over 90 years old Normal value 4.2 to 6.7

At the slightest deviation from these figures in adults and children, you should immediately consult a doctor who will tell you how to normalize sugar in the morning on an empty stomach and prescribe treatment.Additional examinations may also be prescribed (health workers will also notify how to take an analysis to obtain an extended result and issue a referral to it). In addition, it is important to consider that the presence of chronic diseases also affects what sugar is considered normal. The conclusion about what should be the indicator is also determined by the doctor.

Blood sugar levels depend on what, when and how much you eat, and how efficiently your body makes and uses insulin.Blood sugar is an excellent indicator of your risk of developing diabetes; The higher the blood sugar level, the higher the risk. Chronic elevated blood sugar can be a wake-up call, letting you know it’s time to lose weight and make healthier food choices.

Normal blood sugar before meals

Target blood sugar levels depend on the time of day and if you already have diabetes or prediabetes.

Normal blood sugar levels after meals

Your blood sugar will start to rise shortly after you start eating and at its highest level 1 to 2 hours after eating.

—FOOT —

It should be remembered separately that blood sugar in the age of 40 and older, as well as in pregnant women, may fluctuate slightly due to hormonal imbalance. Nevertheless, at least three measurements out of four, the sugar should be within the permissible range.

Level increase after eating

Normal post-meal sugar varies between diabetics and healthy people. At the same time, not only is it different how much it rises after eating, but also the dynamics of the change in content, the norm in this case is also different.The table below shows data on what is the norm for some time after a meal in a healthy person and a diabetic according to WHO data (data for adults). This figure is equally universal for women and men.

Illness, infection, stress, emotional trauma, insufficient exercise, excessive intake of insulin or other diabetes medications, eating too many simple carbohydrates, or simply overeating can cause high blood sugar, also called hyperglycemia.

If an underlying illness or injury is causing your glucose levels to rise, you need to address the issue before you can expect your blood sugar levels to return to normal. Changes in your routine can also wreak havoc with your blood sugar; Returning to a normal schedule should help regulate blood sugar levels.

The norm after meals (for healthy people and diabetics)

Empty stomach sugar limit Contents 0.8 – 1.1 hours after eating, mmol per liter Blood counts 2 hours after eating, mmol per liter Patient condition
5.5 – 5.7 mmol per liter (normal fasting sugar) 8.9 7.8 Healthy
7.8 mmol per liter (increased in an adult) 9.0 – 12 7.9 – 11 Violation / lack of tolerance to glucose compounds, possible prediabetes (you need to consult a doctor for a glucose tolerance test, and take a general blood test)
7.8 mmol per liter and above (such indications should not be in a healthy person) 12.1 and more 11.1 and higher Diabetic

In children, the dynamics of carbohydrate digestibility is often similar, adjusted for the initially lower rate.Since the initial readings were lower, it means that the sugar will not rise as much as in an adult. If the sugar is 3 on an empty stomach, then checking the reading 1 hour after eating will show 6.0 – 6.1, etc.

Once your blood sugar is high, you will need to use additional blood glucose or take additional insulin. Prevention is the best treatment for high blood sugar. Choose high-carb carbs like vegetables, fruits, whole grains, and beans instead of sugary carbs like cookies, cakes and candy, or starchy carbs like pasta, bread, or potatoes.

Keep your blood sugar levels in check

Limit your carbohydrate intake to 45 to 60 grams per meal, eat a variety of foods and do not overeat – even too many healthy carbohydrates affect blood sugar levels. The most effective way to maintain normal blood sugar levels and prevent blood sugar build-up is to take every meal.

The norm of sugar after meals in children

The most difficult thing to say is what blood glucose levels are considered acceptable in children.The doctor will name the normal in each case. This is due to the fact that more often than in adults, fluctuations are observed, sugar rises and falls more sharply during the day. The normal level at different times after breakfast or after sweets can also vary significantly depending on age. Indications during the first months of life are completely unstable. At this age, it is necessary to measure sugar (including after meals after 2 hours or sugar after 1 hour) only according to the testimony of a doctor.

Delivery on an empty stomach

As can be seen from the tables above, the sugar rate during the day varies depending on the consumption of food.Also, during the day, muscle tension and psychoemotional state have an impact (playing sports converts carbohydrates into energy, so sugar does not have time to rise right away, and emotional upheavals can lead to its surges). For this reason, the sugar rate after a certain period of time after consuming carbohydrates is not always objective. It is not suitable for tracking whether a healthy person’s sugar intake is being maintained.

When measured at night or in the morning, before breakfast, the norm is the most objective.After eating, it rises. For this reason, almost all tests of this type are done on an empty stomach. Not all patients know how much glucose a person should ideally have on an empty stomach and how to measure it correctly.

A sample is taken immediately after the patient gets out of bed. Don’t brush your teeth or chew gum. Also, avoid physical activity, as it can cause a decrease in blood counts in a person (why this happens is described above). Take a fasting finger test and compare the results with the table below.

Indications for a healthy diabetic person

The norm for women after eating is the same as for men. Therefore, regardless of gender, if the indicators are exceeded, it is necessary to consult a doctor for prescribing treatment. It must be remembered that this condition can threaten health.

Correct measurements

Even knowing what the indicator should be, you can make an erroneous conclusion about your condition if you incorrectly measure sugar on a glucometer (immediately after eating, exercising, at night, etc.).etc.). Many patients are interested in how long after a meal can sugar be measured? The readings of glucose in the blood after a meal always rises (how much depends on the state of human health). Therefore, after eating, sugar is not informative. For control, it is better to measure sugar before meals, in the morning.

But this is only true for healthy people. Diabetics, on the other hand, often need to track, for example, whether the blood sugar rate in women is maintained after a meal while taking hypoglycemic drugs or insulin.Then you need to take measurements 1 hour and 2 hours after glucose (carbohydrate intake).

It is also necessary to take into account where the sample comes from, for example, an indicator of 5 9 in a sample from a vein can be considered exceeded in case of prediabetes, while in a sample from a finger, this indicator can be considered normal.

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When sugar enters the human body, it is processed and forms glucose.It contributes to the normal nutrition of the cells in the body. If the level after eating is increased, then this indicates violations that occur in the body. This is the main symptom of gestational diabetes. To make it easier for the patient to monitor the level, there is a special device.
It allows you to identify critical moments during the day when the amount of sugar in the blood reaches possible limits. It is very important for a diabetic patient to have such a device at home. With its help, you can determine the presence of a violation and take the necessary measures in time.

Signs and Diagnosis of Diabetes Mellitus

Gestational diabetes develops very slowly and is not particularly pronounced with vivid symptoms. But if the disease begins to progress, then in a patient with such a disease, 2 hours after eating, the following symptoms usually appear:

  1. Great thirst.
  2. Abrupt fatigue.
  3. Frequent urge to go to the toilet.

Typically, patients with gestational diabetes eat a lot and often lose weight.A patient with these symptoms should see a doctor right away. It is much more difficult to distinguish similar signs of the disease in pregnant women. But a young mother should know that if a similar condition manifests itself regularly after a meal, then a visit to the hospital cannot be postponed.

In order to determine the level of glucose in the blood, the patient must consult a doctor who will prescribe a detailed blood test. As a result of such a diagnosis, the patient’s blood sugar level will be understood.Usually, patients are assigned 2 studies. The first blood sample is taken on an empty stomach, and the second is taken after taking 50 g of glucose. This diagnosis makes it possible to see a complete picture of the processes taking place in the body.

In order to make sure that the diagnosis is correct, the patient is prescribed a blood test 2 weeks after the initial examination. If this time the diagnosis is confirmed, then the patient is prescribed treatment. Pregnant women are at risk of developing gestational diabetes, as well as women after 35 years of age (if they have relatives who suffer from diabetes mellitus, or they have polycystic ovary disease).

Normal blood sugar

Usually blood sugar after a meal is measured several times – after each meal. Each type of diabetes has its own required amount of research throughout the day. Sugar levels can rise and fall throughout the day. This is the norm. If, after a meal, the amount of glucose in the blood rises slightly, then this does not indicate the presence of a disease. The average normal value for both sexes is 5.5 mmol / L.Glucose during the day should be equal to the following indicators:

  1. On an empty stomach in the morning – 3.5-5.5 mmol / l.
  2. Before meals at lunchtime and before dinner – 3.8-6.1 mmol / l.
  3. 1 hour after a meal – up to 8.9 mmol / l.
  4. 2 hours after eating – up to 6.7 mmol / l.
  5. At night – up to 3.9 mmol / l.

If the change in the amount of sugar in the blood does not correspond to these indicators, then it is necessary to measure more often than 3 times a day. Glucose control will provide an opportunity to stabilize the patient’s condition if he suddenly becomes ill.It is possible to normalize the amount of sugar with the help of proper nutrition, moderate exercise and insulin.

In order to maintain a normal blood sugar level after a meal, you must follow the recommendations of your doctor and do your best to protect yourself. During the month, the patient needs to have regular blood tests. The procedure should be carried out before meals. It is best to write your own in a separate notebook 10 days before visiting a doctor. This will help the doctor assess your health.

A patient with suspected diabetes needs to purchase a device that measures blood glucose. It is advisable to carry out diagnostics not only at the moment when malaise appears, but also regularly for prevention purposes, to track changes. If the change in blood sugar after a meal remains within acceptable limits, then this is not so bad. But strong jumps in glucose levels before meals are a reason to seek urgent medical help. The human body cannot cope with such a change on its own, and in order to reduce the amount of sugar, insulin injections are needed.

How to keep the indicators normal?

Diabetes mellitus cannot be completely cured. But you can resort to measures that will help maintain the health of the patient. These precautions make it possible to control your blood sugar levels. Patients with elevated glucose levels need to eat as many foods as possible that are absorbed for a long time, and exclude small carbohydrates.

It is desirable for the patient to eat as much fiber as possible.It is slowly digested in the acorn. Whole grain bread contains fiber, which should be used as a substitute for conventional baked goods. The patient should receive a large amount of antioxidants, minerals and vitamins per day. These elements are found in fresh fruits and vegetables.

Overeating should not be allowed in diabetes. Therefore, the patient needs to eat more protein. It promotes faster satiety. Diabetes is often triggered by being overweight.In order to reduce the stress on the body, try to eliminate saturated fats from the diet. Portions should be small, but there should be a break between them for 2-3 hours. Often, blood sugar levels reach critical levels after prolonged fasting. If food does not enter the patient’s body, then his health begins to deteriorate sharply. At such times, you need to check your blood sugar and eat a little.

Completely eliminate the use of any sugary foods.It is better to replace them with sour berries and fruits. This will help bring your blood sugar levels back to normal. The correct diet should be accompanied by light physical activity and the complete elimination of bad habits. Excessive alcohol consumption provokes a destabilization of the amount of sugar and worsens the patient’s health.

Gestational diabetes in pregnancy

If the patient did not have diabetes before she became pregnant, this does not mean that she will not have problems with blood sugar levels throughout the entire gestation process.Usually, during the 3rd trimester, a woman must undergo a special diagnosis. A blood test can determine glucose tolerance. Such a study is carried out 2 times. First, on an empty stomach. And then – after eating.

If the sugar level does not correspond to the norm, then the patient is prescribed treatment. Most pregnant women have a fasting test that shows normal blood sugar. But the second study may show a deviation from the norm. The risk of developing gestational diabetes can be determined in advance.The following factors usually contribute to the development of the disease:

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Himself a laboratory assistant

The most affordable means for home self-control are special diagnostic tests in the form of strips coated with a reagent. Reacting with the patient’s blood, the test is colored in one color or another depending on the amount of glucose dissolved in it.Normally, the level of glucose in blood taken on an empty stomach ranges from 3.3–5.5 mmol / l. After eating, the sugar content rises to 8.9-9.9 mmol / l, and then returns to its original value. Diabetes patients should be guided by it.

Algorithm for the determination of blood glucose

1. Wash your hands thoroughly with soap, while warming them under running hot water, and dry with a clean towel to keep them dry.

2. Cover the table with a clean cloth and carefully lay out the test strips, color scale, disposable scarifier (this is the name of a special needle that pierces the skin) or insulin needle, watch with seconds and cotton swabs.

3. Massage your hands lightly, as if you were washing them, and knead the finger from which you will draw blood.

4. Pierce the side of your toe (it doesn’t hurt that much).

5. Put your finger down and wait for a large hanging drop to form.

6. Bring the edge of the strip to your finger and allow the drop to drain. The blood should completely cover the reagent-soaked test field.

7. Time yourself and wait exactly as long as indicated in the instructions for the test system (usually 30 or 60 seconds).

8. After the specified period, carefully wipe off the blood with cotton or filter paper, if it is supplied with the diagnostic kit, and make one more pause, the duration of which is indicated in the instructions.

9. Compare the color of the test field with the reference color scale.

Evaluation of results

The number under “your” color corresponds to the blood sugar level. The higher it is, the darker the color of the test field.

Has the test field acquired an intermediate color between the two colors? Add adjacent numbers and divide by two.

If you find it difficult to determine the color of the eye test, purchase a special portable device – a glucometer. It will simplify the procedure and make the result extremely accurate. You put a drop of blood on a test strip, put it in the meter, and that’s it. After a few seconds, the screen will display the analysis result with an accuracy of tenths.

For those who are “under 50”

Diagnostic systems that control the concentration of glucose in urine are arranged according to the principle of test strips for determining blood sugar.Sugar appears in it if its blood level exceeds 10 mmol / l. This is the so-called middle renal threshold, when the urinary system is unable to retain glucose and begins to get rid of its excess. The higher the blood sugar level rises, the more it is in the urine, which means that by the presence of excreted glucose, one can indirectly judge its content in the blood. True, with age, the renal threshold for glucose increases, and the analysis becomes less reliable. After 50 years, it is better not to use this diagnostic system.This method of self-control is not informative enough for patients with type 1 diabetes.

Algorithm for determining the level of glucose in urine

If you have type 2 diabetes, if you feel well, do the test 1-2 times a week before and 1.5-2 hours after meals.

1. Immerse the test field in a jar of urine for 1–2 minutes, or place it under the stream.

2. Allow excess liquid to drain (shake off and do not blot).

3. Wait for the time indicated in the instructions (usually 1-2 minutes).

4. Compare the color of the test field with the color scale.

Glycosylated hemoglobin

A modern and extremely informative method – determination of sugar not in blood, but in hemoglobin. It does not exclude traditional research, but complements it. The “classic” blood sugar test records only the glucose level at the moment, but does not say anything about how this indicator behaves in the body at all. Let’s say the fasting blood sugar is normal.But this figure cannot be used to judge what will happen to carbohydrate metabolism after a plentiful meal: how long will “high” blood sugar circulate when it returns to normal and whether it will happen at all … fluctuations in glucose levels, you need to repeat the tests before and after meals throughout the day.

The method for determining glycosylated hemoglobin is devoid of these disadvantages. It gives a general idea of ​​carbohydrate metabolism and signals about its disturbances.A persistent and long-term (within a day or longer) rise in blood sugar levels leads to the so-called glycosylation – the combination of proteins (including the respiratory pigment of erythrocytes – hemoglobin) with glucose.

The method for determining glycosylated hemoglobin allows the doctor

* to judge metabolic processes in the last 3 months (how many erythrocytes live and circulate in the blood, and with them glycosylated hemoglobin),

* more effectively identify latent forms of diabetes,

* monitor and, if necessary, adjust treatment and diet.

The higher the blood sugar level, the more glycosylated hemoglobin. Normally, its content is 5–8%, with a compensated (drug-controlled) form of diabetes – up to 10%, and with a pronounced decompensation of the disease – 16% or more.

This indicator is not subject to daily fluctuations, which means that it is not necessary to fast before the analysis: blood can be donated at any time, including after meals. True, the study itself is quite complex and requires serious preparation and special equipment.Therefore, it is carried out only in the laboratory and is not suitable for self-control.

How to Determine Blood Sugar Level in Diabetes

Everyone with diabetes should have their blood sugar or glucose levels checked regularly. Knowing your blood sugar level will allow you to change your diabetes management strategy if the level is not close to your target blood sugar level.

In addition, regular monitoring of your blood sugar can help reduce your risk of developing long-term complications of diabetes.According to studies in people with type 1 diabetes (The Diabetes Control and Complications Study [DCCT]) and type 2 diabetes (UKPDS), maintaining , close to normal, significantly reduces the risk of developing complications of diabetes.

Methods for determining the level of sugar in your blood with diabetes

  • Traditional measurement of blood sugar at home. The traditional method for determining your blood sugar level is to prick your finger with a lancet (small sharp needle), place a drop of blood on a test strip, and then insert the strip into a meter that shows your blood sugar level. Meters (meters) may vary in performance, legibility (with large screens or audible instructions for people with visual impairments), portability, speed, size, and cost.Modern devices process information in less than 15 seconds and can store it for later use. These meters can also calculate the average blood sugar level over a period of time. Some of them have software that allows you to extract information from the meter and create graphs and tables of your previous results. Blood glucose meters and test strips are available at your local pharmacy.
  • Meters using other test sites. Newer blood glucose meters allow you to take blood tests from more than just your fingertip; alternative sites for blood sampling include the shoulder, forearm, base of the thumb, and thigh. True, testing blood from other sites can give you results that differ from your fingertip blood sugar levels. Blood sugar levels in your fingertips respond more quickly to changes than elsewhere. This is especially important when your blood sugar is changing rapidly, such as after eating or exercising.You also need to know that if you are testing your blood sugar at an alternate site when you are experiencing symptoms of hypoglycemia, you cannot rely on the results of these tests.
  • Laser blood sampling for analysis. In 1998, laser blood sampling was approved by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA). The laser device creates a high-precision light beam that penetrates the skin of the finger instead of piercing it, thereby reducing pain and discomfort.
  • MiniMed continuous glucose monitoring system. This device consists of a small plastic catheter (very small tube) that is inserted directly under the skin. She collects a small amount of blood and measures the sugar concentration over 72 hours.
  • GlucoWatch. In 2001, the FDA approved the GlucoWatch, a watch-like device that helps people with diabetes measure their blood sugar levels using an electric current. It draws a small amount of fluid from the skin and measures your blood sugar three times an hour for 12 hours.GlucoWatch is considered the first step towards non-invasive continuous blood glucose monitoring, but it has several disadvantages.

The FDA recommends that these newer devices should not replace traditional daily finger punctures.

When should I check my blood sugar?

A blood sugar test is usually recommended before meals and at bedtime. Daily sugar levels are especially important for people on insulin or taking medications in the sulfonylurea class of antidiabetic drugs.

The frequency and timing of sugar measurements should be selected on the basis of individual readings. Your doctor will tell you when and how often you should have your blood sugar checked.

Remember: Acute and chronic illnesses or changes in your medication can affect your blood sugar. When you are sick, you should check your blood sugar more often.

Conditions that affect your blood sugar level

Certain conditions can affect the accuracy of your blood sugar level, for example:

  • Anemia
  • Gout
  • High ambient temperature
  • High humidity
  • Altitude sea ​​level

If you think your meter is not reading correctly, calibrate and check the test strips.


what do we know about him / State budgetary institution of health care of the Yamalo-Nenets Autonomous Okrug “Labytnangskaya city hospital”

High blood sugar levels were found, and the doctor was stunned by the diagnosis of “prediabetes”? This is a serious reason to think about health and revise your lifestyle.

If you have prediabetes, after a couple of years this borderline condition can turn into a serious disease – diabetes mellitus.But until then, everything is fixable: prediabetes can be dealt with.

What is prediabetes
Prediabetes (also called impaired glucose tolerance) is a condition that is intermediate between health and diabetes.

With prediabetes, the body cannot maintain normal blood sugar levels, so blood glucose levels fall outside the normal range. Although glucose does not rise as dramatically as in diabetes, it has serious consequences.

In people with glucose tolerance, blood vessels are affected, which increases the risk of heart attack and stroke. But the most unpleasant thing is that a person does not even suspect that he has health problems, because there are no unpleasant sensations and alarming symptoms in prediabetes.

Pre-diabetes risk groups:
The diagnosis of prediabetes is often included in the medical record of overweight people who have crossed the forty-year line.

However, prediabetes is not an age-related disease, as impaired glucose tolerance can develop at any age.Even obese children are diagnosed with borderline diabetes.

Risk factors for prediabetes:
Stomach ulcer
Hypertension
Relatives with type 2 diabetes
Polycystic ovary
Gestational diabetes during pregnancy

Prediabetes: how to suspect something is wrong
As a rule, impaired tolerance to glucose … Sometimes a person with prediabetes begins to notice the first “bells”, but does not always pay attention to them, attributing a slight malaise to fatigue, stress and nutritional errors.

Signs that may indicate the development of prediabetes:
Migraines;
Itching of the skin;
Insomnia;
Night cramps;
Blurred vision;
Increased appetite;
Numbness of the limbs;
Increased fatigue;
Long-lasting healing wounds;
Thirst and frequent urination.
Prediabetes: diagnosis

If you suspect diabetes or a predisposition to it, the patient is first asked to donate blood from a finger on an empty stomach.

Laboratory tests to suspect prediabetes
1.Elevated fasting glucose
Fasting sugar should not exceed 5.5 mmol / L. If the level of glucose in capillary blood on an empty stomach is higher than 6 mmol / L, this indicates the onset of prediabetes (when taking blood from a vein, values ​​up to 6.1 are considered normal).
The concentration of glucose in capillary blood in the range of 6.1-7.0 mmol / l indicates a state bordering on diabetes.

2. Increased level of glycated hemoglobin
Glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c) – the amount of hemoglobin irreversibly bound to glucose.The formation of such a connection takes a long time, therefore, the level of glycated hemoglobin makes it possible to estimate the degree of “sugariness” of the blood for 3 months. Normally, this figure does not exceed 4-6%. The impaired glucose tolerance is indicated by the level of HbA1c in the range of 6.0-6.5%.

3. Elevated levels of cholesterol and triglycerides
Norms of cholesterol and triglycerides may differ in different laboratories. However, people with prediabetes tend to have higher cholesterol and triglyceride levels than the norm on the form.

4. Increased glucose values ​​during glucose tolerance test
To clarify the diagnosis, a glucose tolerance test is often prescribed. This test allows you to identify, including the so-called latent diabetes. Blood is taken on an empty stomach, and then the analysis is repeated at a certain time after the patient drinks the glucose solution.
In a healthy person, a couple of hours after the glucose load, the sugar level will not exceed 7.8 mmol / L. At a level from 7.8 to 11.0 mmol / l, one speaks of impaired glucose tolerance.A blood glucose level of more than 11.0 mmol / L indicates the presence of diabetes mellitus.
In order for the results of the glucose tolerance test to be as correct as possible, it is important that the person adheres to his usual diet and physical activity for at least three days before the test. For 10-14 hours before the study, you should not eat and alcohol, as well as smoke, and before the study, take certain medications.

It is not recommended to conduct a glucose tolerance test if a person is under stress, after surgery and childbirth, serious illness, during menstruation, or if glucose absorption is impaired due to diseases of the gastrointestinal tract.To clarify the diagnosis, the test is recommended to be passed twice.

When to get tested
If you have one or more symptoms, you should see a doctor and check your blood sugar.

At least once every three years, such an analysis should be passed to all healthy people over forty years old.
Once every three years, glucose tests should also be taken for tridcytogenic people if they are obese, hypertensive, have high cholesterol and other predisposing factors.
An annual blood glucose test is necessary for people over forty, suffering from overweight and chronic diseases, especially if their close relatives (parents) suffered from diabetes.
How to cure prediabetes
To prevent prediabetes from becoming diabetes, it is often enough to normalize your diet, exercise, and control potassium levels in your blood. Sometimes it makes sense to try herbal medicine.

1. Physical Activity
Walking, swimming, yoga, dancing, and any other physical activity are suitable.

2. Proper nutrition
Particular attention should be paid to your diet. The ban includes sweets, honey, preserves and jams, buns made from butter or puff pastry, grapes, bananas, strawberries, dates and raisins, fruit juices and soda.

If it is difficult to give up sweets, sweeteners and desserts for people suffering from diabetes will come to the rescue. When choosing a sweetener, go for stevia.

Do not lean on cheese and other fatty dairy products, use mayonnaise and products containing margarine, salty and spicy sauces.Eliminate fatty meats, salted and smoked foods and canned food from the diet.

Vegetable salad, peas, mushrooms, Jerusalem artichoke, juice from fresh cabbage leaves and fresh potatoes are useful for prediabetes.

It is better to steam food. It is acceptable to bake or stew food with a minimum of oil. It makes sense to switch to fractional meals: eat in small portions five to six times a day.

3. Controlling the level of potassium in the blood
Another important point: for the prevention and treatment of prediabetes, it is important to exclude potassium deficiency.This trace element can be obtained both with food and in tablet form. The dosage in this case is selected by the doctor.

4. Herbal medicine
In the fight against prediabetes, you can try herbal medicine as an additional tool in addition to proper nutrition and a healthy lifestyle.

Bilberry leaves, oat infusion, juice of fresh wild strawberries have a sugar-reducing effect. Special fees for glucose monitoring can be purchased at the pharmacy.
Ginseng root, Leuzea extract, Zamanihi tincture and Eleutherococcus extract indirectly normalize carbohydrate metabolism.
However, you should not “prescribe” phytopreparations yourself. It is better to consult a doctor beforehand. Take care of yourself, listen to your own body, and be healthy!
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Blood sugar norm: for women, men, children :: Health :: RBC Style

Glucose is the fuel for cells. For the normal functioning of the body, it is necessary that a small amount of it is always present in the blood.If there is too little of it, cells begin to starve, and this harms the work of organs. Excess blood glucose is most often the result of insulin problems, which can be a manifestation of diabetes or other diseases.

  1. How sugar is measured
  2. Standard
  3. Level Up
  4. Reduced level
  5. Doctor’s comment

The material was checked and commented by Anastasia Danilova, endocrinologist of the Semeynaya network of clinics

How is blood sugar measured

It is worth clarifying right away: when people talk about blood sugar levels, they mean glucose.This is not entirely true – ordinary sugar, entering the body, is broken down into glucose and fructose.

Traditional methods of measuring sugar levels are analyzes of venous plasma and capillary blood (from a finger). The first method is more accurate and is used in medical research. You can easily collect blood from a finger by yourself, so the second method is used in pocket blood glucose meters, which allow you to check blood sugar levels without the help of a doctor.

Over the past few years, innovative devices for continuous monitoring of sugar levels have appeared on the market.Sensors that are attached to or implanted under the skin transmit glucose readings every few minutes.

Another clinical method for diagnosing diabetes is the glucose tolerance test. The patient is measured fasting blood sugar and then given a glass of water with dissolved glucose (oral, OGTT). Then the sugar level is checked after two hours (or an hour later – in pregnant women). This allows you to study how the body metabolizes carbohydrates [1].

Norm of blood sugar

In Russia, blood sugar is measured in millimoles per liter (mmol / L).In America and Europe, it is in milligrams per deciliter (mg / dl). 1 mmol / L = 18.01 mg / dL.

The norm of sugar on an empty stomach

Sugar rate two hours after OGTT

Source: “Type 1 diabetes mellitus in adults, clinical guidelines of the Ministry of Health of the Russian Federation”, 2019 [2]

A value above 11.1 mmol / L is considered an indicator of diabetes, even with a random test, that is, at any time after a meal.The Ministry of Health does not recommend diagnosing diabetes on the basis of a single blood test, except in acute situations where hyperglycemia is evident. For accuracy, the study must be repeated.

Elevated blood sugar

A condition where the glucose level is above 7 mmol / L on an empty stomach or 11.1 mmol / L two hours after a meal is called hyperglycemia. Most often, it occurs when there is a violation of the production and use of insulin – a hormone that delivers glucose to cells.In this case, there is a lot of sugar in the blood, but it is not used.

Diabetes mellitus is the main cause of impaired insulin production, but there are other causes. Sugar jumps can occur:

90 055 90 056 after operations;

  • against the background of diseases of the pancreas;
  • against the background of diseases of the endocrine system, such as Cushing’s syndrome;
  • against the background of infectious diseases, such as influenza;
  • when taking steroid drugs;
  • 90,056 after stress.

    For people who do not have such diseases, surges in glucose are not terrible – the body itself will return its level to normal.

    Symptoms of hyperglycemia are similar to those of diabetes:

    • copious urination;
    • constant thirst;
    • increased fatigue;
    • impairment of thinking abilities;
    • 90,056 headaches;

    • blurry vision.

    Hyperglycemia is the first sign of a carbohydrate metabolism disorder.If a doctor has diagnosed this disorder, he may recommend:

    • to move more, play sports;
    • switch to a low-carb diet;
    • monitor the glycemic index of food;
    • give up bad habits.

    Low blood sugar

    The condition when the amount of glucose in the blood falls below 2.8 mmol / L in healthy people and below 3.9 in patients with diabetes is called hypoglycemia [3].With it, the body does not have enough energy, the cells gradually begin to starve.

    Acute hypoglycemia affects all organs, but primarily the nervous system and the brain. The main symptoms of this condition are:

    • dizziness;
    • weakness;
    • inability to concentrate;
    • depressed mood;
    • 90,056 hunger;

    • sweating;
    • nausea;
    • aggressiveness;
    • mydriasis – pupil dilation;
    • panic;
    • trembling;
    • confusion of consciousness;
    • convulsions;
    • paresthesia – tingling, burning sensations on the skin;
    • heart palpitations.

    If the glucose level drops even lower, damage to the nervous system begins, which can lead to coma and death. The critical value is 2.5 mmol / l in men, 1.9 in women and 2.2 in children.

    These symptoms may accompany other diseases and conditions, including hyperglycemia. Sugar levels often drop without symptoms at all. Therefore, hypoglycemia can be detected only with the help of a glucometer.

    Hypoglycemia most often occurs in people with diabetes who take too much insulin and then do not consume enough carbohydrates.In patients with type 1 diabetes, hypoglycemia, as well as hyperglycemia, can occur in the morning, and in people with type 2 diabetes, after physical activity and taking certain medications.

    In people without diabetes, dangerous hypoglycemia occurs quite rarely, and in completely healthy and well-fed people almost never. She can be provoked by:

    • Drinking alcohol in large quantities – it can impair the function of the liver, which is responsible for saturating the blood with glucose;
    • 90,056 taking certain drugs – antimalarial drugs, antibiotics, drugs for pneumonia;

    • anorexia;
    • hepatitis;
    • diseases of the adrenal glands and pituitary gland;
    • liver disease;
    • diseases of the pancreas, including insulinoma – a rare tumor that provokes the production of additional insulin;
    • 90,056 postpartum period;

    • severe physical exhaustion;
    • prolonged fasting.

    In addition, there is reactive hypoglycemia, in which blood sugar levels drop some time after eating. It can develop after surgery on the stomach and upper small intestine [4].

    Hypoglycemia is treated with high carbohydrate foods or drinks, glucose or glucagon injections.

    Doctor’s comment

    Anastasia Danilova, endocrinologist of the family clinic chain

    At what age and under what risk factors should you start monitoring your blood sugar?

    Your glucose level should be checked regularly, even if everything seems to be in order.The WHO Expert Committee recommends that all patients over 45 years of age be screened for diabetes, with a negative test being repeated every three years.

    But, given the fact that diabetes is rapidly getting younger and more widespread in the current conditions, doctors recommend annual examination of patients and younger age, especially if there are signs of the so-called metabolic syndrome. It can be talked about in the case of severe obesity, and in addition, with a hereditary history of diabetes mellitus, hypertension and high cholesterol.For women, additional risk factors are gestational (detected during pregnancy) diabetes and the birth of a child weighing more than 4.5 kg.

    Under what conditions can dangerous hypoglycemia develop in a healthy person?

    The state of hypoglycemia can also develop in a healthy person in the event of starvation, severe emotional stress, prolonged physical or mental stress without replenishing glucose reserves. Hypoglycemia can occur after drinking alcohol, especially on an empty stomach or immediately after intense physical activity.

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