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How to stop leg soreness: How to Improve Your Flexibility


How to Improve Your Flexibility

To make sure your muscles retain their ability to relax and stretch when you want them to (no matter what your age), they need to do so regularly. That means you need to purposely do movements that stretch your muscles.

If you’re looking to increase your flexibility, Dr. Belkin recommends stretching three to five days a week for five minutes. Here are the types of stretches you can do to maintain or improve flexibility.

Static Stretching

One of the most common types of stretching is static stretching, in which you move to a joint’s end range of motion and then hold that position for 15, 30, 60 seconds, or longer, Walrod explains.

For example, to stretch your hamstrings, you can touch your toes, either while standing or seated on the floor with your legs outstretched. To stretch your chest muscles, you can hold both sides of a doorframe and then step forward. To stretch your glutes, you can hug your knee into your chest.

Most people grew up performing these flexibility stretches before beginning their regular strength training and aerobic workouts. However, consistent research shows that, as a general rule, people should not perform static stretches, especially when held for periods longer than 60 seconds, before their workouts, Walrod says. (2) That’s because static stretches can actually make the muscles too flexible without allowing them to properly stabilize your body’s joints, he explains.

For that reason, it’s best to static stretch after exercise as a way to help cool down or throughout the day as a way to break up long periods of stretching and loosen tight muscles, he explains.

RELATED: Everything You Need to Know About Aerobic Exercise

Dynamic Stretching

Dynamic stretches are exercises that gently move joints through their full range of motion, increasing blood flow to the body’s muscles and connective tissues. For this reason, they are ideal to perform before workouts.

Research suggests that dynamic stretching before a workout can improve performance and help prevent injury — though static stretching after a workout may be better for improving flexibility. (3) Examples include bodyweight squats, lunges, incline push-ups, resistance band rows, and any low-intensity movement that is performed slowly, under control, and through a full range of motion, Walrod says.

Myofascial Release (‘Foam Rolling’)

A form of myofascial release, foam rolling involves applying pressure to the muscles’ connective tissues to help them relax, Walrod says. Think of it as similar to getting a massage. Sometimes, the massage therapist really has to dig into your knots for your muscles to relax and feel better. To improve flexibility, foam rolling may be the most beneficial when performed immediately prior to dynamic stretching.

For example, in one International Journal of Sports Physical Therapy study, when athletes foam rolled, their flexibility didn’t increase. But when they foam rolled and then performed static stretches, their flexibility improved significantly more than it did through static stretching alone. (4) Other research, including a study published in the January 2015 issue of the Journal of Athletic Training, shows that foam rolling after a workout can help reduce muscle soreness later, as well as speed up muscle recovery. (5)

How to Relieve Sore Muscles and Muscle Pain After Exercise

Prolonged muscle pain after a workout can be a sign of muscle injury. The Department of Physiotherapy and LIFE Centre at Singapore General Hospital (SGH) share some tips to relieve muscle pain.

Coping with delayed onset muscle soreness after a workout

Getting sore muscles a day or two after an intensive workout or rigorous exercise is normal, especially if you are increasing your exercise intensity or starting on a new sport or exercise. The delayed muscle aches and muscle pain are caused by tiny injuries in the muscle fibre and connective tissue.

This condition, known as
delayed onset muscle soreness (DOMS), is common, says Ms Cindy Ng Li Whye, Principal Physiotherapist at the
Department of Physiotherapy and
LIFE Centre,
Singapore General Hospital (SGH), a member of the
SingHealth group.

“If you haven’t exercised for a while or if you are starting a new physical activity, you are likely to experience sore muscles after the workout. Your body is simply saying your muscles need time to recover,” says Cindy.

The good news is that once your body gets accustomed to the new sport or exercise, you will experience little or no muscle soreness.

Related article: 
How to Stay Motivated to Exercise

How long is muscle pain supposed to last?

The sore muscles that occur after a rigorous workout will usually subside after 24 to 48 hours of rest. But if the muscle aches do not go away after a few days of rest or even become more intense, it could be a sign that you have sustained a serious muscle injury.

Experiencing severe muscle pain during a workout could also be a sign that you have a muscle strain or muscle injury. If muscle pain is accompanied by breathing difficulty, high fever, muscle weakness and stiff neck, see a doctor.

Related article: 
Home Treatment for Common Running Injuries

Tips to relieve muscle pain and soreness

  1. Use an ice pack

  2. If it’s an acute injury, or if one notices swelling of the muscle or joint area and it feels warm, wrap an ice pack in a thin towel and place it on the sore muscles for about 15 minutes. If there isn’t any swelling and the muscles are just sore from the exercise, apply a heat pack for 15 minutes to boost blood circulation.

  3. Go for a massage

  4. A trigger-point or sports massage will help to relax very tight sore muscles and soothe muscle aches.

  5. Stretch, stretch, stretch

  6. Stretch your muscles for about 10 minutes after a rigorous workout to prevent sore muscles. And before exercising, remember to warm up the body with simple movements like arm swings and marching on the spot, or start walking slowly and gradually pick up the pace.

  7. Do light exercises (such as walking, swimming)

  8. Do not stop exercising completely. The fact that you are experiencing muscle soreness after a workout is a sign that your muscles have been stretched and are slowly getting stronger. By using your muscles (with light activity), you can speed up the elimination of lactic acid buildup.

  9. Build up eccentric exercises slowly

  10. You are more likely to get muscle aches if your muscles are working eccentrically. Eccentric contractions occur when your muscles lengthen under tension as seen in the “down motion” of a bicep curl. Walking or running downhill are also examples of eccentric training. Increase intensity gradually.

  11. Take a warm bath

  12. A warm bath may loosen tight muscles and boost blood circulation, providing temporary relief.

What about topical creams? “There is little evidence that liniments, oils and other typical over-the-counter sports creams have any effect beyond the massaging action,” says Cindy. However, by making the skin feel cold or hot, they may distract your mind from the soreness.

Need help adopting a better lifestyle? The LIFE Centre at Singapore General Hospital (SGH) has a multidisciplinary team of experts who can provide you with guidance on weight management, exercise and diet.

Ref: S13

Other articles you may be interested in:

Participating in a Race? Foods to Eat and Avoid

Ligament, Tendon and Other Common Knee Injuries

Hot Yoga (Bikram Yoga): Is It Good for Your Body?

Dealing with sore and stiff legs after running

Legs that start to feel stiff or sore after a run are not always a sign of a running injury, but could be a sign that your body is adapting to the new physical stress.  

If this pain appears and disappears within a few days, it’s most likely to be Delayed Onset Muscle Soreness (DOMS). It can be caused by a number of factors, such as an increase in running intensity.

DOMS is not exclusively a side effect of running though, and can affect anyone after a training session.


The first goal you should have is to take the necessary precautions to avoid or minimise the effects of DOMS. There are a number of ways you can achieve this, such as warming up properly, having a caffeine-filled beverage before working out, gradually increasing the intensity of your new workout program or helping yourself to some cherries or cherry juice.

If you take preventative steps and still end up with DOMS, there are a number of ways that you can deal with the symptoms.


Apply heat

Heat, whether it’s warm baths, sprays or heat packs, is a common method used to treat the effects of DOMS. Heat helps increase blood flow to the muscle, reducing the symptoms associated with DOMS.


Apply ice

You can use an ice pack or ice cubes, wrapped in a cloth to prevent tissue damage, and apply it to the painful area. This will help reduce pain and swelling by numbing the area that the ice is applied to. Ice should be applied for no longer than 20 minutes at a time up to six times in a 48 hour period.


Ease into your running routine

If you are sore, it is still not only possible but beneficial to go for an easy run. A gentle run increases blood flow to your recovering muscles and decreases the effect of DOMS.


Elevate your legs

If severe, elevating your legs so they are above your heart will decrease blood flow. This will reduce swelling and the associated stiffness and pain.


Gently stretch

Gentle stretching of your muscles for up to 30 seconds can align collagen fibres during healing, speeding up recovery. With running it’s particularly important to stretch the leg muscles and joints, such as your calves, hamstrings and knees before you go for a run.



Massaging a sore muscle can alleviate the effect of DOMS by up to 30%. Massage helps reduce swelling in your muscles by improving circulation. If you are unable to massage the affected your area yourself, foam rolling is one way to massage the area and reduce the effects of DOMS.



A day or two of rest can give the affected muscles time to recover from the effects of DOMS. As recovery occurs, the pain will subside and you’ll be able to return to training the affected muscle group.



Repetition of the exercise over time will reduce the impact on your muscles thanks to the repeated bout effect. While you may still experience DOMS initially, it will reduce over time with regular repetitions of the exercise as your muscles adapt to the workout.


Use acupuncture therapy

While acupuncture might not be for everyone, it has been proven to reduce the effects of DOMS when used on sore muscles.

If you have checked that you aren’t injured but still have sore and stiff legs, you can still run. Just be sure to warm up sufficiently and gradually ease into your run to prevent injury.

However, if you’ve applied any of these methods and it fails to help your stiff legs, you may have a more serious running injury. Five of the most common running related injuries are runner’s knee, iliotibial band syndrome (ITBS), achilles tendinopathy, plantar fasciitis and shin splints.

While each of these injuries are associated with pain, the pain will affect different areas of the leg:

  • Runner’s knee is typically characterised by pain in or around the kneecap. It’s commonly caused an overload on the knee or tissues around the knee. This could be caused by a poor warm up or an issue with your technique. Treatment of this issue will vary depending on the cause of the injury.

  • The primary symptom of ITBS is pain outside of the knee, which is caused by inflammation of the iliotibial band. This condition can be caused by increased exercise intensity or anatomical issues. The usual treatment for this condition is the implementation of a strength and conditioning programme, which will help prevent overworking of the muscle in the future.

  • Achilles tendinopathy is identified by pain in the achilles tendon or back area of the heel. Achilles tendinopathy can occur due to overworking of the muscle. Rest is the first option when it comes to treating this condition, but if this fails to help, then injections therapy, shockwave treatment, or surgery might be recommended.

  • Plantar fasciitis can be recognised by stiffness or sharp pain in the arch of your foot. It is generally caused by the force of the foot impacting the ground without sufficient support. To resolve this condition, rest is and stretching are required. If the condition still doesn’t improve, a steroid shot or night splint may be necessary.

  • If you are experiencing an ache or sharp pain in your shins, it’s probably shin splints. The specific cause of this injury may vary from poor running shoes to difficulty running on a specific surface. Your training plan will need to be adjusted to reduce the stress of your shins.

If you’re not sure about the cause of your sore leg, you can check our Sports Injuries Treatment and Recovery Guide for more information. You can also contact us for a personal consultation with a specialist  at our clinic in south west London.

You can also sign up for our Injury Prevention Screening Programme and Return to Running Programme which will provide you with all the information you need to reduce the impact of running on your body.


9 Ways to Get Rid of Muscle Soreness After a Hard Run

Running fast workouts and nailing long runs is a key part of the training process.

During the run we are feeling strong, pushing through that pain, and when we finish, we are greeted with one of the best feelings in the world; the runner’s high.

We go to bed that night with a smile on our faces, proud that we had a great run or race, and excited for what we can achieve in the future.

But then you get out of bed the next day.


Every step hurts,

We wonder if we can run if my legs are sore?

Surely, this cannot be good for my body to run again (if you even want to run again that is).

Will running with sore muscles help or make me feel worse?

In two previous posts I’ve discussed how the workout and recovery process works as well as the importance of keeping your recovery runs easy, but this post is going to outline what I call “the optimal recovery process”.

Unoriginal name, I know, but I’m not fan of making up strange words to impress.

I understand that not everyone will have the time necessary to perform this routine after every hard workout. You may only be able to fit this in after long runs or even as little as once per month.

While this is the ideal recovery plan, you’re free to pick and choose what you’re able to fit in after each workout. If it is sore calf muscles after a race that are bothering you, we have a separate post for preventing sore calves.

For example, the easiest elements, hydration and refueling, should be easy to get in after every run while the ice bath is a nice treat when you have the time.

On a side note, this is what separates professional runners from the rest of the pack; in addition to running, drills, and strength training each day, elite runners will often spend 1-4 hours per day on recovery!

Ready to get those sore muscles back to normal?

Let’s do it

How to Treat Sore Muscles After a Run


After a hard workout or a tough long run, you should begin by hydrating within the first 10-15 minutes after stopping.

Even if the temperature was cool, or downright cold, you still sweat a significant amount and you need to replace the fluid loss.

An electrolyte solution like Gatorade (or a spray that goes in any drink like EnduroPacks) works well and you should aim for 16-20oz of fluid.

When running in the summer, you can use our sweat loss calculator to determine the exact amount of fluid you need to replace.

For a more detailed look at hydration, see my article on how to hydrate after running.

What to eat after a run

After you’re hydrated, you can begin your stretching routine while also ingesting your post run snack or beverage.

This post run fuel could be something like chocolate milk, Endurox, yogurt and granola, banana and peanut butter bagel with orange juice. You want to aim for a 4 to 1 ratio of carbohydrates to protein.

I’ve also experimented with glucose tablets (made for diabetics) directly after running, especially when I travel. The tablet is pure glucose, which stimulates the insulin response in the body and ignites the recovery process.

It’s a quick and dirty trick if you’re crunched for time or have a sensitive stomach. For a more thorough look at post run nutrition, check out my article on post run recovery fuel.

Stretching is good after running only

The stretching and post run fueling should begin within 25-30 minutes of finishing your run.

The stretching should last 10-15 minutes, focusing on the major muscle groups (quads, hamstrings, calves, and hips) as well as anything that is nagging or felt sore on the run.

While the merits of stretching are a hotly debated topic in running circles, I believe stretching after a run is beneficial.

If you have a foam roller and are experiencing any small injuries, it would also be beneficial to roll out on the foam roller to alleviate any knots and tightness.

Ice bath is miserable now, but worth it later

After stretching, it’s time to hit the ice bath.

Fill your bath tub with cold water and add ice until the temperature reaches a balmy 55-60 degrees Fahrenheit.

If you don’t have a thermometer, the ice should still completely melt, but it should take about 3-5 minutes for a normal size ice cube to do so.

Next, grab a towel and your favorite magazine and submerse your entire lower body, up to your hips, in the water. Now, the trick to ice baths is surviving the first 3 minutes.

Bite the towel and dream about your biggest goals. This will help you get through the hardest part of the ordeal.

After 3 minutes or so, you’ll notice the temperature feels more temperate and you can actually relax a little. If you are a veteran ice bather, or just a sadistic human being, you can kick your legs a little to stir up the water.

This will help circulate the warm water surrounding your body and make things cold again.

Remain in the tub for 10-15 minutes.

Trust me, the more you ice bath, the more comfortable this process becomes.

After letting all the water drain from the tub, go ahead and take your shower. Your legs will feel cold for a few hours, but your muscles will thank you later.

Eat a well-balanced meal 1-2 hours after your run

After the ice bath, you’ll want to ensure that you get a well-balanced meal in your system.

So far, you’ve had Gatorade and some light snacks.

To completely refuel within your second optimal window, your muscles need something more substantial.

If you run in the morning, this could be breakfast – eggs with veggies and whole wheat toast, oatmeal with fruit and toast, I even think pancakes are a decent choice if you top with fruit and yogurt.

Lunch or dinner could be salad with a sandwich, pasta, or leftovers from the night before.

You just want to consume a high quality meal with a good balance of carbohydrates, proteins and fats. This will provide your body with the final nutrients it needs to top off the recovery process.

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Take a nap or get a massage – what a luxury

After your meal, put your feet up, take a nap, and follow it up with a massage.

I know this is where things can get “ridiculous”, as massages and naps are a fantasy and extreme luxury; however, I thought it should be included since this is the “optimal” recovery guide afterall.

Move without impact

The body repairs muscle damage by delivering nutrients to your muscles through the blood stream. As such, anything that can increase blood flow to your legs will help aid recovery – provided it’s not causing more damage.

That’s why you should include a short walk or some aqua jogging in your recovery plans (and not just when you’re injured). A short 15-30 min walk or aqua jogging session can make a huge difference in recovery.

Aqua jogging is even better in the summer when it gives an excuse to cool off in the pool.

If you’re interested in aqua jogging, then the absolute best way is to use one of my favorite programs, Fluid Running.

First, it comes with an aqua jogging belt and waterpoof bluetooth headphones so you have everything you need to aqua jog effectively.

Second, they have an app that pairs with the headphones so you can get workouts, guided instructions on how to aqua jog properly, and motivation while you’re actually pool running.

I used to dread aqua jogging workouts because they were so boring and it took all my mental energy to stay consistent.

But, with workouts directly in my ear, it’s changed the whole experience and I actually look forward to the workouts. So much so that I now use aqua jogging as a cross training activity in the summer, even when I am not injured.

Fluid running is an awesome deal when you consider it comes with the belt (highly recommended for better form), the waterproof headphones (game changer for making pool workouts fun), a tether (to add variety to the workouts you can do) and the guided workout app (to make your cross training structure and a whole lot more interesting).

That’s why we’ve partnered with them to give you 2 additional running-specific workouts you can load into the app when you use the code RTTT .

Check out the product here and then on the checkout page, add the code RTTT in the coupon field and the workouts will be added to your order for free.

Warm bath with epsom salts

About 60-90 minutes before bed, you should take a warm/hot bath in Epsom salts.

Combine 4 cups Epsom salt with 1 cup baking soda and relax in the hot water for 10-15 minutes. After the bath, dry off and roll out your muscles with The Stick and get in a good stretching session.

Not only with this help remove excess toxins from the muscles, the stretching before bed will ensure that you wake up feeling ready to go for your next run. Furthermore, the relaxing bath and the Epsom salts will help you sleep.

To sum up this routine in one easy to visualize chart:

  1. Hydrate as soon after your run as possible with Gatorade or electrolyte drink
  2. Stretch major muscle groups and anything that is sore or tight. Roll out any nagging injuries or problem areas.
  3. Eat a small meal that contains a 4 to 1 ratio of carbohydrates to protein
  4. Take an ice bath
  5. Eat a decent sized, healthy meal
  6. Nap, put your feet up, or get a massage
  7. Get moving
  8. Take an Epsom salt bath
  9. Roll out on the stick and stretch well
  10. Get plenty of sleep

As you can see, this routine is quite extensive. You won’t always have the time to get in all of these recovery protocols, but it does give you glimpse of the things you could do on those rare occasions. Do what you can, but at least now you have a plan.

If you are in marathon training, and looking for more advice, check out our marathon training schedule and accompanying 9 part video guide, and guess what, its totally free!

When walking makes your legs hurt

Four conditions for leg pain causes that can affect you when walking

When walking is supposed to be good for you, why do you have to suffer with leg pains? And what causes the pain in your legs when walking? Fitness experts used to stress the benefits of heavy-duty aerobic exercise — the kind that makes you breathe hard and gets your heart going. But the message changed to moderation after a number of studies showed that physical activity that’s far less taxing is associated with lower rates of heart disease, some cancers, and several other illnesses — if it’s done regularly. Plain old walking usually tops the moderate-intensity exercise list because it’s easy, convenient, and free, and it requires minimal equipment — a comfortable pair of shoes.

The trouble is that walking isn’t so easy for everyone. Indeed, the leg pain is agony for many. And forget the “brisk” pace of three to four miles per hour advised for health and fitness.

With age — and occasionally without it — a number of conditions can result in leg pain after walking and make walking difficult. Some are very familiar, such as arthritis that makes knees and hips creaky; others, such as peripheral artery disease, aren’t.

This article looks at four nonarthritic conditions that cause leg pain and may affect walking, and some ways to treat and manage them — no need to limp and bear it!

Leg pain causes and conditions

We’re discussing these conditions that may cause leg pain separately, but people may have two or more of them at the same time, which complicates diagnosis and treatment.

1. Peripheral artery disease

Peripheral artery disease is a form of atherosclerosis, the same condition that leads to most strokes and heart attacks. Fat- and cholesterol-filled plaque narrows arteries, and blood clots can collect on the plaque, narrowing them further. In peripheral artery disease, the arteries affected by atherosclerosis tend to be the ones that supply the leg muscles. The risk factors are similar to those for heart disease and stroke: smoking, high cholesterol levels, high blood pressure, and especially diabetes.

The classic symptom is cramping, tight pain that’s felt in muscles “downstream” from the narrowed artery. It can occur in the buttocks, thigh, calf, or foot, but occurs most often in the calf. The pain tends to come on with walking, gets worse until the person stops walking, and goes away with rest. Similar to angina, the pain caused by peripheral artery disease comes from working muscle cells that are “starved” for oxygen because of obstructed blood flow. The medical jargon for this kind of pain is intermittent claudication, from the Latin claudicatio for limping. Many people with peripheral artery disease have other sorts of pain, though. Sometimes their legs are heavy, or they tire easily. And it’s common for people to cut back on their activity level without realizing it, which can mask the problem.

Signs of peripheral artery disease include a diminished pulse below the narrowed artery, scratches and bruises in the lower leg that won’t heal, and pale and cool skin. The diagnosis usually depends on the ankle-brachial index, which compares the blood pressure at the ankle to the blood pressure at the arm. They’re normally about the same, but if there’s a blockage in the leg, blood pressure will be lower in the ankle because of low blood flow.

Arteries narrowed by atherosclerosis leave leg muscles starved for oxygen.

Peripheral artery disease by itself can be serious and debilitating, but it may also serve as an important warning of even more serious trouble. Atherosclerosis in the legs often means there’s atherosclerosis elsewhere, and people with peripheral artery disease are six to seven times more likely to have a heart attack, stroke, or transient ischemic attack than people without it. A peripheral artery disease diagnosis should prompt a concerted effort to rein in cardiovascular disease risk factors.

Walking hurts, so a “just do it” attitude about exercise isn’t helpful. But researchers have found that tightly structured, supervised exercise programs can help people increase the amount they can walk before their leg pain kicks in. These programs usually involve walking ’til it hurts (which may be only for a few minutes), resting ’til the pain goes away, and then walking again. These walk-rest-walk sessions are most effective if people do them for about 30 minutes at least several days a week.

Low dose aspirin (75 mg to 81 mg) is often recommended to reduce the risk of heart attack and stroke. Clopidogrel (Plavix), another drug that makes blood clots less likely by making platelets less sticky, is an alternative for people with aspirin allergy. Cilostazol (Pletal) can help people walk longer distances without pain.

Serious cases of peripheral artery disease can cause leg pain even when the person isn’t walking. This “rest pain” most often occurs in the feet. Even more serious are cases when the condition leads to tissue death and gangrene.

If peripheral artery disease is serious, or isn’t improving with exercise and medication, doctors can reopen the blocked artery with angioplasty or use part of a blood vessel from elsewhere in the body to reroute circulation around the blockage. But the track record of these revascularization procedures is mixed, and some studies suggest that the results from a structured exercise program can be as good, or even better.

2. Chronic venous insufficiency

Like peripheral artery disease, chronic venous insufficiency is a condition of poor circulation, but it involves the veins and the blood’s return trip back to the heart and lungs.

Our arteries are springy and help push blood along, but our veins are relatively passive participants in circulation. Particularly in the legs, it’s the muscles surrounding the veins that provide the pumping power that drains the vessels near the surface of the skin and then push the blood up through the “deeper” vessels that travel toward the heart. Tiny valves inside the veins even out the pressure and keep the blood from flowing backward.

In people with chronic venous insufficiency, the valves are damaged, so blood tends to pool in the legs and feet instead of traveling “north” to the heart. It’s often a vicious cycle: if the valves aren’t working, pressure from the blood collecting in the veins increases, so the veins stretch out. As a result, the valves don’t close properly, so even more blood flows backward, adding pressure.

Symptoms include swelling, inflammation of the skin (dermatitis) and the connective tissue underneath (cellulitis), and ulcerated, open wounds on the bony “bumps” of the ankle. Legs may feel achy or heavy. And when people walk, they may feel a tight, “bursting” pain, most often in the groin or thigh. The leg pain will stop with rest but may take longer to ease up than the pain from peripheral artery disease.

Damaged valves in veins means blood may flow backward and accumulate in veins.

The symptoms from a mild case of chronic venous insufficiency can be helped by lying on your back and using a pillow to elevate your legs so blood flows downhill to the heart. If you’re sitting for long periods, pointing your toes up and down several times can flex the vein-pumping leg muscles.

More serious cases needed to be treated with compression stockings that squeeze harder at the ankle than at the knee. For the stockings to work, they must be much tighter than the “antiembolism” stockings people routinely wear in the hospital. But because they are so tight, people often have a hard time getting them on. Washing a new pair can help. Some people coat their skin with talcum powder or wear thin, regular stockings underneath. Devices called “wire donners” hold the stockings open so people can push a foot and leg into it.

There are no specific medicines to treat venous insufficiency. Surgical procedures have improved significantly over the years. Nowadays varicose vein therapy has moved very far away from the old-fashioned saphenous vein stripping. That procedure involved making an incision in the groin and leg, inserting a stripping device into the vein, and pulling the vein out of the body. It usually required general anesthesia, an overnight hospital stay and weeks of recovery.

Today, physicians usually close the vein permanently rather than remove it. They use one of several minimally invasive techniques, performed through catheters inserted into the veins under ultrasound guidance. These treatments are performed in outpatient settings under local anesthesia, and the patient can walk immediately after treatment.

3. Lumbar spinal stenosis

Stenosis (pronounced ste-NO-sis) is a medical term for any kind of narrowing. Spinal stenosis can occur anywhere along the spine as a result of the vertebrae, the disks between them, or their supporting structures impinging on the tube-like spinal canal that holds the spinal cord and the roots of the nerves that branch off of it. Pain comes from the mechanical pressure, and perhaps also from the pinching off of blood flow to nerves.

The lumbar region of the spine consists of the five large vertebrae that form the small of the back. When spinal stenosis occurs in the lumbar region, lower back pain can be a symptom but often it’s the legs that are affected. The pain can resemble the pain caused by peripheral artery disease: cramping tightness that increases with walking, although it’s often felt in the thigh rather than the calf. The legs may also feel weak and numb.

In the past, the leg pain caused by lumbar stenosis was called pseudoclaudication because it was unrelated to blocked arteries, and doctors didn’t understand that it could be caused by spinal problems. Now the preferred medical term seems to be neurogenic (which means originating from the nervous system) claudication.

Vertebrae, disks, and other parts of the spine impinge on the spinal cord and nerves branching off of it.

The diagnosis starts with discussion of symptoms and medical history. One important clue is whether the pain eases when the back is curved forward, or flexed. That posture tends to take pressure off the lumbar region, and it’s the reason some people with lumbar spinal stenosis find it easier to walk when leaning on a grocery cart or a walker.

An MRI or CT scan will often be ordered to confirm a diagnosis, but imaging studies shouldn’t be used to make one. Many people have spinal stenosis that shows up on an imaging study but doesn’t cause any symptoms.

Treatment usually begins with physical therapy and exercises aimed at strengthening back and abdominal muscles. Pain relievers may help. Growing numbers of older patients are getting corticosteroid injections into the spine, which worries some experts. Evidence that the shots are effective is mixed.

If the pain persists, surgery is an option. The most common procedure is a laminectomy, which involves cutting away part of a vertebra to create more space for the spinal cord and nerves. Bone spurs and portions of the disks and facet joints can also be removed to relieve pressure. Study results for surgery are murky. The majority of patients seem to feel better for the first year or so, but the advantage over a nonsurgical approach seems to wear off after several years. A second operation is sometimes needed. On the other hand, for some, surgery greatly reduces the pain and discomfort.

4. Diabetic neuropathy

People with diabetes are prone to nerve damage, or neuropathy. Exactly why is uncertain. High blood sugar levels may damage the tiny blood vessels that supply nerves, creating “nerve strokes”: nerves starved for oxygen (ischemic) because of damaged vessels. Diabetes may also deplete the body’s store of neurotrophic peptides, chemicals that normally repair and regenerate nervous tissue.

Blood vessels (shown in red) that supply nerve cells can be damaged by high blood sugar.

Diabetic neuropathy affects the upper and lower legs in different ways. In the upper leg, the pain from ischemic nerves can come on suddenly and be felt in just one leg. In the lower legs and feet, where it is more common, the symptoms are typically numbness or tingling, and are usually felt about equally in both legs. The numbness often dulls painful sensations, so sores on the feet go unnoticed and get worse. Diabetic neuropathy can make walking difficult, but leg pain may improve with exercise.

People with diabetes can reduce their chances of developing neuropathy by keeping their blood sugar down. It’s less certain that tight blood sugar control is helpful once nerves have been damaged. Still, it’s an important goal for many other reasons. Pain relievers, tricyclic antidepressants (amitriptyline, desipramine, duloxetine), and anticonvulsants (carbamazepine, gabapentin, pregabalin) are used to control the burning and tingling sensations from neuropathy.

image: © lzf | Dreamstime.com

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Why do I feel pain after exercise?

Have you ever felt sore after starting a new activity or pushing yourself harder than usual during a workout?

Muscle soreness that shows up 1 or 2 days after exercising can affect anyone, regardless of your fitness level.

But do not be put off. This type of muscle stiffness or achiness is normal, does not last long, and is actually a sign of your improving fitness.

Find out how to better manage your sore muscles after exercise.

Why do my muscles feel sore after exercising?

Sore muscles after physical activity, known as delayed onset muscle soreness (DOMS), can occur when you start a new exercise programme, change your exercise routine, or increase the duration or intensity of your regular workout.

When muscles are required to work harder than they’re used to or in a different way, it’s believed to cause microscopic damage to the muscle fibres, resulting in muscle soreness or stiffness.

DOMS is often mistakenly believed to be caused by a build up of lactic acid, but lactic acid is not involved in this process.

Who can DOMS affect?

Anyone can develop DOMS, even those who have been exercising for years, including elite athletes.

It can be alarming for people who are new to exercise, and may affect their initial enthusiasm to get fit.

The good news is the soreness will decrease as your muscles get used to the new physical demands being placed upon them.

The soreness is part of an adaptation process that leads to greater stamina and strength as the muscles recover and build.

What type of activities can cause DOMS?

Any movement you’re not used to can cause DOMS. Taking up a new exercise, a harder than usual workout, or working your muscles in a different way can all cause DOMS.

How long does DOMS last for?

DOMS typically lasts between 3 and 5 days. The pain, which can range from mild to severe, usually occurs 1 or 2 days after the exercise.

This sort of muscle pain should not be confused with any kind of pain you might experience during exercise, such as the acute, sudden and sharp pain of an injury, such as muscle strains or sprains.

How can I treat DOMS?

There’s no one simple way to treat DOMS. Nothing is proven to be completely effective.

These things may help ease some of the symptoms:

  • rest
  • ice packs
  • painkillers
  • massage

DOMS does not generally require medical intervention. But you should seek medical advice if the pain becomes unbearable, you experience severe swelling, or your urine becomes dark.

How can I prevent DOMS?

One of the best ways to prevent DOMS is to start any new activity programme gently and gradually. Allowing the muscle time to adapt to new movements should help minimise soreness.

There’s not much evidence that warming up will be effective in preventing DOMS. But exercising with warmed-up muscles will reduce your chance of injury and improve your performance.

While stretching has many benefits, there’s currently no evidence stretching before or after exercise helps reduce or prevent DOMS. 

Can I continue exercising with DOMS?

You can exercise with DOMS, although it may feel uncomfortable to begin with. The soreness should go away once your muscles have warmed up. The soreness will mostly likely return after exercising once your muscles have cooled down.

If you find it hard to exercise, you could rest until the soreness goes away. Alternatively, you could focus on exercises targeting less affected muscles to allow the most affected muscle groups time to recover.

Will I keep getting DOMS?

DOMS is a type of muscle conditioning, which means your muscles are adapting to the new activity. The next time you perform the same activity or exercise at the same intensity, there’ll be less muscle tissue damage, less soreness, and a faster recovery.

Page last reviewed: 3 February 2021
Next review due: 3 February 2024

What causes leg cramps? Treatment and prevention

Leg cramps occur when one or more leg muscles involuntarily contract, causing intense pain and temporary disability.

Leg cramps are typically harmless. Although they go away on their own, several at-home remedies may help relieve the symptoms.

In this article, we explain what leg cramps are and what can cause them. We also cover ways to treat and prevent cramps and explain when to talk to a doctor.

Leg cramps occur when muscles in the leg suddenly begin to contract and spasm uncontrollably.

The symptoms of leg cramps depend on their severity. While some people may only feel a minor tic or twitching sensation, others may experience sudden, intense pain and tightness that make it temporarily impossible to use the leg.

The skin over the affected muscles may also visibly twitch or distort, and the area may feel hard.

How long cramps typically last ranges from a few seconds to 15 minutes or more. The cramps may occur several times before they stop entirely, and the affected muscles may continue to feel sore for 24 hours afterward.

Cramps can affect any skeletal muscles, which are those over which people have voluntary control. Leg cramps can occur in several leg muscles, but they most commonly affect the:

  • gastrocnemius and soleus muscles, which are at the back of the calf
  • quadriceps, at the front of the thigh
  • hamstrings, at the back of the thigh

Leg cramps are more likely to occur during the night or a few hours after intense activity, but a person may experience them at any time.

In most cases, leg cramps are not a cause for concern. However, in rare instances, serious underlying conditions may cause muscle cramps, and these conditions will require medical treatment.

Doctors do not know exactly why muscular cramps occur, meaning that they are typically idiopathic, or without a known cause.

However, some researchers think that muscle cramps primarily occur due to one or more of the following causes.

Inadequate stretching and muscle fatigue

Muscle cramps may occur if someone does not properly stretch before intense or prolonged activity, leading to muscle fatigue and an imbalance in the mechanisms that control muscle contraction.

Muscles contain bundles of fibers that contract and expand, allowing muscle movement.

Properly warming up and stretching a muscle lengthens the muscle fibers, allowing them to contract and tighten more intensely during exercise.

Stretching also allows the tendons, which are band-like tissues that connect muscles to bones, to warm up and lengthen. If tendons become too short, they can trigger cramps.

When muscles are not well-conditioned, or a person does not stretch them before intense activity, they are more vulnerable to fatigue, which can change the reflex activity of spinal nerves.

As the muscles become fatigued, they rapidly deplete their oxygen supply, and waste can build up, which can lead to spasms. Once the cramp begins, the altered spinal nerve stimulates it to continue.

For some unknown reason, these altered nerves tend to fire at night, often causing cramps painful enough to wake someone. Stretching tired muscles before bed may help prevent this from happening.

Most cramps related to poor conditioning and overuse go away without medical care.

To help relieve a leg cramp, a person can try:

  • stopping the activity
  • holding the leg in a stretched position
  • gently massaging the cramping muscle
  • resting


During exercise, the body sweats to release excess heat, which removes water and important salts and minerals called electrolytes.

Exercising in a warm environment or just doing daily activities in a hot or humid climate increases the rate of sweating and the risk of dehydration.

When the body loses too much water or electrolytes, muscle cramps can occur.

Tips for treating muscle cramps due to dehydration or electrolyte imbalances include:

  • moving to a cool, shaded, well-ventilated area
  • drinking plenty of fluids even if not thirsty — ideally plain water or fluids rich in electrolytes, which include many sports drinks, electrolyte packets that dissolve in water, and most natural juices
  • resting and trying to avoid overheating

Other causes

Scientists think that most cramps occur due to poor conditioning and muscle fatigue or dehydration and electrolyte imbalances. However, the following causes may also trigger muscle cramps:

  • sudden restrictions in blood flow to the muscles, which cause oxygen depletion and waste buildup
  • compressed nerves
  • pregnancy, during which extra body weight can strain the leg muscles
  • liver disease, which can cause toxins to build up in the blood
  • toxin exposure, which can allow poisonous substances to accumulate in the blood or muscles
  • infection, which can cause bacteria and their toxic byproducts to build up in the blood or muscles
  • certain neurological conditions that affect muscle control, such as peripheral neuropathy, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), or motor neuron disease
  • diuretic medications that can dehydrate the body or make it more vulnerable to dehydration
  • statins and nicotinic acid medications that alter the levels of cholesterol in the blood
  • thyroid disease, which alters metabolism
  • hormone conditions
  • nutritional deficiencies

People who experience leg cramps that are not due to inadequate stretching and muscle fatigue or dehydration and electrolyte imbalances often require medical care to treat the underlying condition.

However, people can generally relieve most cramps to some extent with home remedies, such as stretching, massage, and cold or heat therapy.

If leg cramps occur as a result of using a medication, a doctor may suggest a different dosage or an alternative medication.

Pregnancy-related leg cramps should resolve after the person gives birth and starts to return to their original weight. A pregnant person may relieve cramps by resting the muscles or stretching them frequently throughout the day.

If toxins are responsible for a person’s leg cramps, a doctor may need to prescribe intravenous therapy and antibiotics.

Muscle relaxants can treat leg cramps related to a lack of muscle control or liver disease. In extreme cases, healthcare providers may give someone quinine, an antimalarial drug that tends to reduce cramping.

If someone’s leg cramps are due to the compression of a nerve, blood vessel, or muscle, they may require emergency medical care and surgery.

A few at-home remedies may help reduce symptoms while cramps are occurring.

The best way to stop a muscle from cramping is to straighten and stretch the affected muscle.

For example, if the cramp is affecting the calf, a person can straighten the leg and lift the foot upward while bending the ankle so that the toes point toward the shins.

Other at-home remedies for leg cramps include:

  • applying ice or cold packs wrapped in cloth to sore or tender muscles for 20-minute intervals
  • applying heat pads or packs to tight, tense muscles
  • taking over-the-counter pain relief medication or muscle relaxants, if pain continues after the cramp
  • walking on the heels, if cramping affects the calf muscles
  • using a foam roller or muscle roller
  • massaging the affected muscles and those around them
  • resting the legs

Some people are more prone than others to leg cramps. The cramps may develop even when a person is inactive.

However, people can take steps to help reduce the risk of cramping. These include:

  • warming up properly before exercise, such as by walking briskly for a few minutes
  • stretching the leg muscles properly before exercise, making sure to stretch the calves, hamstrings, quadriceps, and muscles of the feet
  • stopping activity if pain or exhaustion begins
  • staying hydrated, especially when exercising or in a warm environment
  • avoiding exercising in very warm, humid conditions
  • stretching the leg muscles frequently throughout the day and before bed

In most cases, leg cramps are harmless and go away without medical care.

However, people should talk to a doctor if they experience cramps that are:

  • frequent
  • severe
  • prolonged, meaning that they last longer than 10 minutes
  • disabling after the cramping stops
  • not related to exercise or heat
  • potentially related to infection, toxic exposure, or organ disease
  • unresponsive to home remedies

Leg cramps are typically harmless and resolve randomly or with the use of home remedies.

People can sometimes prevent leg cramps, primarily by stretching before exercise, throughout the day, and before bed.

It is important to talk to a doctor about leg cramps that are more intense, severe, or frequent than normal or do not respond to at-home treatments.

90,000 Relief of pain symptoms with varicose veins

Varicose veins have many symptoms, but pain in the legs is especially common among patients. Elimination of pain makes sense only with the correct diagnosis and treatment, since painkillers and folk remedies mask the problem, and varicose veins progress further. It is reasonable for a person to eliminate the cause of the pain – in this case, the removal of pain symptoms is part of the treatment.

Pain sensations before surgery

It is recommended not to draw conclusions without consulting a phlebologist.Pain is not only caused by varicose veins – it is a symptom of many diseases, including neuralgia and arterial disease. The main cause of pain in varicose veins is a violation of the blood flow associated with the failure of the venous valves to perform their functions, and the subsequent increase in pressure in certain areas of the veins. To eliminate pain, you can reduce pressure or try to restore elasticity to the veins – this principle is exploited by many folk remedies. However, one must remember that these funds do not stop the development of the disease:

  • Keep your legs elevated.Due to the fact that the legs are above the level of the heart, blood pressure in them is significantly reduced. It is useful in the early stages of varicose veins.

  • Take a contrast shower. The alternation of cold and warm water increases the tone of the veins, but too hot water cannot be used, and the stream of water should help the blood move through the veins, i.e. go from the feet.

  • Use heparin gels.These funds have a weak therapeutic effect, but, like venotonics, are used as part of a complex treatment.

  • Wear compression hosiery. Knitwear does not replace EVLO and surgery, but in the early stages it relieves pain and relieves swelling.

Pain syndrome after treatment

Pain after surgery is associated with the degree of trauma. If sclerotherapy of the veins of the lower extremities was performed, the pain sensation is slightly stronger than the pain from the injection.If EVLO was chosen as the main method of treatment, conventional pain relievers can be used to eliminate painful sensations. In both cases, compression hosiery is used, which simultaneously contributes to the correct completion of the treatment and relieves pain.

When performing a classic phlebectomy, pain is
significant, therefore, the whole range of funds is used, ranging from painkillers
and massage, and ending with continuous round-the-clock wearing of compression
knitwear.After treatment, we monitor the condition of patients in order to
prevent any complications, and before it begins, we conduct a full consultation,
we answer your questions. We offer to get answers by signing up
for the first consultation!

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90,000 reasons, effective treatments, facts and myths

Myth 1.

Capsules and tablets can get rid of varicose veins.

Modern drugs help relieve the symptoms of the disease, but are not aimed at getting rid of the disease itself.The veins affected by varicose veins do not disappear, but, over time, will only become larger and more noticeable. Moreover, in the presence of varicose veins, the risk of vein thrombosis increases dramatically.

Myth 2. Ointments and gels will help cure varicose veins.

It is completely incomprehensible how varicose veins can be cured with gels and ointments. In a TV commercial, a woman applies ointment to a varicose vein, and, miraculously, the vein melts before our eyes! For such a miracle ointment, many patients would give anything! However, rubbing in all the “miraculous” ointments and gels has only a slight massage effect on sore legs, and the menthol contained in them gives a cooling effect.

Myth 3. It is possible to cure varicose veins with the help of leeches.

In medicine, leech therapy is called hirudotherapy. And, indeed, leech therapy can help in many situations, but not in the case of varicose veins. The basis of leech saliva is hirudin, a blood thinner. But why dilute it with varicose veins? Do you know for certain that you have a thick one? Moreover, varicose vein hirudotherapy is dangerous with the risk of thrombophlebitis.

Myth 4. Mud baths can get rid of varicose veins.

In fact, the stagnation of blood in the veins is removed only with the removal of the vein itself. While staying at the resort, it is possible to improve the general well-being due to the milder climate, walking and fresh air. Due to all this, the removal of puffiness and fatigue in the legs can be observed. But remember – mud treatment in the presence of varicose veins can even be dangerous, as it can provoke acute thrombophlebitis.

Myth 5. Compression hosiery is able to get rid of varicose veins.

Currently, the treatment of varicose veins is really associated with the wearing of compression hosiery. And with deep vein thrombosis of the lower extremities, this is generally one of the main medical recommendations.
After removing varicose veins, wearing special knitwear is necessary, but this is still not the main component of treatment. Wearing elastic knitwear can relieve such signs of varicose veins as puffiness, feeling of tiredness and heaviness in the legs. In addition, the use of compression can inhibit the development of existing varicose veins.

Myth 6. Apitherapy (treatment by bees) will relieve varicose veins.

The healing properties of bee venom, capable of activating physiological processes in the human body, have been known for a long time. Experts-beekeepers claim that the components of bee venom, in particular, hirudin, are able to dissolve blood clots in the veins, relieve pain and the venous network. In fact, as a result of a bee sting at the location of varicose veins, you can easily damage the walls of the veins and get thrombophlebitis. Therefore, having conceived to be treated with apitherapy, measure seven times!

Myth 7.

Varicose veins can be cured once and for all.

It will not be possible to insure against varicose veins for life even with the use of basic means of prevention. There is a very big task on the veins of the legs – the delivery of blood to the heart against the force of gravity, therefore, basically, it is they who expand. Deficiency of protein in the vein wall leads to its stretching. Removing the diseased vein will save you from the problem and from possible complications, but no phlebologist can guarantee that you will not have new varicose veins during your life.

Myth 8. No matter how many veins are removed, they will appear again.

If, after removing varicose veins, the patient has not been observed by a phlebologist for many years, varicose veins may indeed develop again in other places. The reason for this is only the further development of chronic varicose veins. However, with a regular visit to a phlebologist, at least once a year, and following all his recommendations, the development of the disease can be significantly slowed down.

Myth 9. Treatment of varicose veins is a protracted painful process.

With the advent of such methods of getting rid of varicose veins as radiofrequency obliteration, laser coagulation and micro-foam sclerotherapy, the treatment requires one procedure and does not cause painful sensations to the patient. These interventions last no more than an hour and do not require any lengthy rehabilitation.

Myth 10. Operations to treat varicose veins leave ugly scars and scars.

Previously, veins were actually removed using incisions. As a result, up to twenty to thirty scars could remain on the leg.Currently, the surgical treatment of varicose veins is carried out taking into account the principles of aesthetic surgery, without stitches and scars.

Myth 12. After removal of diseased veins, the load on healthy ones will increase.

With a prolonged course of the disease, the varicose veins cease to participate in the blood flow, their function passes to the deep venous system, which does an excellent job of the outflow of venous blood towards the heart.
After removal of diseased veins, the blood flow in healthy veins even improves, since the reflux of blood and congestion in the dilated veins is eliminated.

Myth 13. Surgery to remove varicose veins involves a long stationary period.

In fact, at present, the treatment of varicose veins involves one-day or outpatient surgery. Interventions are performed under regional or local anesthesia, so a long stay in the clinic is not advisable. Within a day after the operation, the patient can leave the clinic in excellent condition and on healthy legs.

Myth 14. In the summer, the treatment of varicose veins should be postponed until autumn.

For some reason, it is in Russia that there is an opinion that it is not worth being treated in the summer. In hot countries, they are of the opinion that if a problem has appeared, it is not worth delaying its treatment.
Indeed, someone decides for themselves to be operated in a more comfortable cool period. But here everyone makes a choice for himself – to postpone the solution of the problem, dangerous possible complications, or get rid of the disease in a few days and enjoy the summer without varicose veins. In fact, modern phlebology does not depend on the seasons.

Myth 15. After the operation, you need to limit yourself to sports for a long time.

Many people believe that varicose veins and sports are incompatible things. In fact, even in the presence of varicose veins, dosed loads on the legs are very desirable. You just need to use compression hosiery and strictly control the amount of load. Correct exercise can improve blood circulation in varicose veins. After veins have been removed, exercise usually begins with minimal exertion and gradually builds up.

Myth 16. Varicose veins are a disease of the elderly.

In fact, varicose veins are getting younger. In addition to the hereditary factor, obesity, an inactive lifestyle, uncomfortable shoes and heels, frequent stress – all this leads to the fact that young people are increasingly showing signs of varicose veins. Therefore, in the case of varicose veins, it is necessary to protect your legs from a young age!

Do you want to know more about the treatment and prevention of varicose veins? Please contact our phlebologists. They will answer all your questions and prescribe modern, effective treatment.

Venous diseases – swelling of the ankles and feet are treatable

What is venous disease?

Vein disease is widespread. Symptoms of venous disease may initially be cosmetic but may not cause discomfort such as telangiectasia. But, if you do not start treatment in a timely manner, this can lead to the development of a serious illness. If the saphenous veins are involved in the process, then they are already talking about varicose veins or varicose veins.

Many men and women suffer from chronic venous diseases . There is often hereditary predisposition to the disease. However, factors such as long standing or sitting, being overweight, and lack of physical activity also play a negative role.

Heavy legs, fatigue, a tingling sensation, or swelling may indicate a vein problem. But if you correctly interpret the symptoms and take timely measures, then vein disease can be effectively counteracted .

Venous system

While arteries transport blood from the heart to the tissues, veins transport oxygen-depleted blood back to the heart – against gravity. The movement of blood is supported by the so-called venous-muscular pump of the legs, and the reverse flow of blood is prevented by venous valves. If these mechanisms cease to cope with work, blood stagnation develops in the legs. Spider veins, varicose veins, phlebitis appear and, in the later stages of the development of the disease, venous ulcers may develop.

Diseases of the veins: Characteristics

Chronic venous disease:

Telangiectasias :
This is an enlargement of small but clearly visible veins in the upper layer of the skin.

Varicose veins :
Varicose veins are enlarged superficial veins of the legs that appear as twisted bluish cords under the skin.

Venous insufficiency :
Chronic venous insufficiency (CVI) is associated with long-term impaired venous function. Veins of the legs are usually affected. Typical symptoms of CVI include swelling and discoloration of the skin.

Acute venous diseases:

Phlebitis is often associated with varicose veins.It is manifested by severe redness, swelling, a feeling of heat and pain in the veins.

Deep vein thrombosis:
Deep vein thrombosis occurs when a blood clot (thrombus) blocks a deep vein and partially or completely blocks blood flow. Thrombosis can present with swelling, pain, and discoloration of the skin. However, in some cases, thrombosis does not initially cause any symptoms, which can lead to late diagnosis and the development of complications.

Causes of vein problems

If the function of the venous valves is disturbed, for example, with age or due to hormonal changes (pregnancy), then there is a reverse flow and stagnation of blood.The vein wall becomes thinner and the vein expands. This leads to the appearance of telangiectasias, varicose veins and, at a later stage of the development of the disease, venous ulcers.

Risk factors

There are both factors controlled by the patient and factors that he cannot influence:

Factors that cannot be influenced:

  • Old age
  • Hereditary predisposition
  • Sex
    (the disease occurs more often in women than in men)
  • Hormonal background
    (for example, during pregnancy)

Factors that can be influenced:

  • Insufficient physical activity
    (for example, in occupations related to standing or sedentary work)
  • Overweight
  • Alcohol use
  • Overheating
  • Tight clothing and high heels
  • Main symptoms – how to recognize venous diseases?

    The first signs usually appear long before the appearance of varicose veins or other changes: Feeling of heaviness, fatigue, tingling or pulling pain in the legs – especially in the late afternoon. Swelling may also develop. This leads to the development of “heavy legs syndrome”.

    If these signs occur, you should immediately consult a doctor in order to start treatment at an early stage of the disease.

    Stages of chronic venous diseases – CEAP classification

    Usually, the severity of chronic venous disease is determined using the so-called CEAP classification from C0 (no clinical manifestations) to C6 (most severe):

    • C = Clinic (clinical class of disease)
    • E = Etiology (etiology of disease)
    • A = Anatomy (anatomical location of the disease)
    • P = Pathophysiology (pathophysiology, indicates the type of disorder)

    9 0210

    Stage Changes
    C 0

    No visible signs of CVD

    C 1






    Telangiectasias 9015

    0 reticular 9015 9015 9015 902 reticular 9015 9015 902 reticular 902 902 902 veins without clinical signs of chronic venous insufficiency

    C 3

    Varicose saphenous veins with edema

    C 4

    Varicose changes such as saphenous veins

    C 4a

    Hyperpigmentation and / or varicose eczema

    C 4b

    Lipodermatosclerosis and / or white atrophy of the skin

    C 5 9000 Varicose veins 3
    C 6

    Varicose saphenous veins with open (active) venous ulcer

    The severity of venous disease should not be underestimated. Varicose veins are not just a cosmetic problem: If left untreated, the condition can lead to serious complications. Adequate therapy can relieve symptoms of the disease and possibly slow its progression.

    Prevention of venous diseases

    Prevention of venous diseases: You can do it yourself:

    • Sports and exercise: “It is better to walk or lie down than sit or stand.”This is a rule of thumb of the German Venous Society (Deutschen Venen-Liga e.V.) Movement helps keep veins healthy and elastic. Alternating contractions and relaxation of the leg muscles maintain venous blood flow, and special exercises help keep the veins healthy.
    • Diet: A healthy, balanced diet is essential. It is recommended to limit the consumption of alcohol.
    • Weight Management: Maintain a normal body weight.
    • Clothing and footwear: Wear loose, comfortable clothing.Replace high-heeled shoes with flat shoes: Feet move better in flat shoes, which activates the musculo-venous pump. Conversely, in high heels, the contractions of the calf muscles are limited so that the pressure on the veins is reduced.
    • Shower: A hot / cold shower also improves the condition of the legs.

    Prevention of venous diseases: It can be done independently

    “Better to walk or lie down than sit or stand.”This is a rule of thumb of the German Venous Society (Deutschen Venen-Liga e.V.) Movement helps keep veins healthy and elastic. Alternating contractions and relaxation of the leg muscles maintain venous blood flow, and special exercises help keep the veins healthy. …

    Hot / cold showers also improve leg health.

    Patients with venous disease should, if possible , eliminate or at least minimize the “risk factors they may affect” described above . The following have a positive effect on the treatment process: proper nutrition, maintenance of normal body weight, regular physical activity (for example, walking, swimming, cycling). It is recommended to limit the consumption of alcohol.

    More often replace high heels with shoes with small heels or almost flat soles: in high heels, the foot exhibits only very limited muscle activity, so that muscle pressure on the venous system decreases.Wearing flat shoes activates the calf pump.

    Treatment of chronic venous diseases

    Diseases of the veins are not completely cured, but treatment can significantly improve the condition. Even for difficult cases, there are many treatment options. Consult your doctor for the best option.

    Your doctor may refer you to a vein specialist (phlebologist).After a detailed examination, anamnesis and examination, the phlebologist will establish a diagnosis. Imaging techniques such as ultrasound are often used to clarify the diagnosis. Depending on the severity of the disease and the individual characteristics of the patient, the doctor prescribes treatment.

    The main treatment options include compression therapy and, if necessary, surgery:

    • Regular use of medical compression hosiery improves venous function, reduces leg strain and reduces discomfort.Compression knitwear with physiological pressure distribution decreasing from the level of the ankles upwards, prevents blood stagnation in the vessels of the legs and facilitates the return of blood to the heart.
    • There are various surgical techniques for treating varicose veins. A number of them are minimally invasive procedures. The most popular are phlebectomy (removal of veins) and sclerotherapy. After the procedure, you must use medical compression hosiery.

    Regular use of medical compression hosiery is recommended.The pressure of the jersey acts on the veins . Thanks to this , the cusps of the venous valves are better closed . As a result, blood is better pumped to the heart and blood congestion in the veins disappears. This reduces symptoms such as pain, swelling and feeling of heaviness. Medi offers a wide range of compression hosiery ranges in a variety of colors and designs.

    Medi products for the treatment of venous diseases

    Thanks to the breathable and elastic material, the compression hosiery provides high wearing comfort. Modern medical compression hosiery is visually indistinguishable from model hosiery, but provides high medical efficiency in use.

    Click here for more information on the medi compression hosiery.


    90,000 ➥ Stiffness in the legs. The reasons. Diseases. | Phlebologist Solomakhin A.E., reception at the phlebological center in Moscow

    With age, after long walks or a hard day, there is a feeling of stiffness in the legs. Initially, this problem has no external manifestations – just the lower limbs seem to be motionless and heavy. Over time, the symptoms worsen even with little physical exertion. Unpleasant sensations arise when jogging, swimming, which confirms the progressive development of pathological processes.

    Blood circulation is a complex process in which arteries, veins, heart, valves, etc. are involved. Valves help to overcome the force of blood gravity. When a system malfunction occurs, it loses its ability to return at the desired speed. The result is congestion causing stiffness in the legs. After some time, the symptoms appear visually, as evidenced by dilated veins, edema, and a change in the color of the skin of the lower extremities.

    What contributes to decreased mobility?

    • Overweight.
    • Diabetes mellitus.
    • Diseases of blood vessels and heart.
    • Excessive load on the legs or lack of it.
    • The use of potent drugs.
    • Presence of joint problems.
    • High blood coagulability.
    • Changes at the hormonal level.

    The main reason for the decrease in mobility are diseases of the veins of the lower extremities. The feeling of stiffness in the legs becomes a consequence of chronic venous insufficiency, thrombosis, varicose veins.Moreover, initially, no pallor, no blue discoloration of the skin, no spider veins, puffiness and dilated veins are imperceptible.

    Large physical activity

    Physical education has not harmed anyone yet. Neither swimming in the pool, nor cycling, nor other easy exercises can adversely affect health. On the contrary, well-distributed physical activity promotes blood acceleration and improvement of its circulation. Both have health benefits.

    Complete absence of load leads to blood stagnation. Moreover, there are many people who cannot protect themselves from such a negative impact due to the peculiarities of their professional activities. These include security guards, programmers, drivers, salespeople, hairdressers, surgeons and other professionals. Everyone who works in these areas is prone to varicose veins. Stiffness in the legs manifests itself both under dynamic and static loads (for example, when sitting at a computer throughout the day or constantly at the checkout, etc.)etc.).

    Valves and veins can be adversely affected by heavy sports. These include powerlifting, weightlifting. Athletes, whose work is closely related to huge weights, need periodic visits to a phlebologist.

    Pregnancy and contraceptives

    Statistics show that in women, stiffness in the legs manifests itself much more often. This feature is not always associated with lifestyle or genetics.

    The reason for such problems is often the wearing of shoes with high heels, with an uncomfortable last, etc. But most often this type of disease is caused by hormonal imbalance. This can happen both during the menstrual cycle and during pregnancy. The use of contraception also affects hormonal balance. If you get into a risk group for any of the above reasons, it is important to periodically do an ultrasound scan, get tested, and visit a phlebologist.

    Adaptation to environment

    A feeling of stiffness in the legs may occur while resting in hot countries.For example, many people prefer to take a vacation and leave during the severe frosts in February or January to Thailand or Egypt. However, such a sharp change in climate becomes a shock for the body. Metabolism changes, resulting in faster burning or fluid retention. Such a shock effect often becomes the cause of temporary pathology in the veins of the lower extremities.

    However, not only those who travel are prone to dependence on climate change. In the summer, the body is rebuilt.This is noticeable, for example, by increased thirst, that is, lack of water, lack of hunger. Such circulatory disorders are reversible, so it is not advisable to take blood-thinning drugs. You just need to visit a phlebologist.

    Excess weight

    The load on the legs when overweight increases, but this is not the main factor provoking stiffness in the legs. It occurs due to an increase in the volume of blood and interstitial fluid in general. The fatty layer puts unnecessary stress on the veins.In most cases, the solution to this problem is simple: getting rid of bad habits, drawing up a balanced diet and exercising regularly.

    To exclude venous and cardiovascular diseases, you should undergo a comprehensive medical examination. Otherwise, there is a high probability of error: fighting only the symptoms without eliminating the root of the problem will not bring the desired result.

    Heart disease

    Cardiomyopathy may be the cause of swelling and decreased mobility.There are several types of this disease: hypertrophic, dilated, restrictive. Each type has its own symptomatology:

    • As a result of hypertrophic cardiomyopathy, pain, shortness of breath, fainting, accelerated heartbeat appear. This gradually leads to stiffness in the legs.
    • The restrictive type provokes severe swelling of the lower extremities and the appearance of shortness of breath, although initially it proceeds without any pronounced symptoms.
    • Dilated – leads to pallor and blue discoloration of the epidermis, the appearance of puffiness, increased fatigue.

    Chronic heart failure can also lead to decreased mobility. Symptoms of this disease include:

    1. The onset of edema.
    2. Fatigue.
    3. Change in the shape of nails, hair loss.
    4. Dry cough.
    5. Skin discoloration.
    6. Shortness of breath.
    7. Stiffness in the legs.

    Diseases of arteries and veins

    An unhealthy diet and bad habits are at the root of the rise in bad cholesterol and the formation of plaque within the arteries. The walls of the vessels become thicker and harder. As a result of this process, a person begins to feel pain in the calves. Even a little physical activity, such as walking, provokes unpleasant painful sensations. The main symptom of the described problem is a low temperature of the extremities even in summer for no obvious reason.

    The cause of stiffness in the legs may be endarteritis, which leads to inflammatory processes in the tissues. Pain is also felt. One of the leading signs of the disease is instability.For example, a person can travel 50 meters and feel pain, itching, constraint and other unpleasant sensations. After resting, the symptoms disappear, he is able to walk the same distance, after which they return again.

    Varicose veins are recognized as the most common venous disease. Women have to deal with him most often. The enlargement of the veins is not immediately noticeable, but the person begins to feel:

    • Burning.
    • Painful sensations, swelling, stiffness in the legs.
    • Weakness in the lower limbs, decreased physical activity.
    • Convulsions at night.

    Only ultrasound or duplex scanning can identify the stage of varicose veins. The disease may not manifest itself for many years. Overweight, genetic predisposition, hormonal changes, excess or lack of physical activity and other factors can cause its acceleration.

    Stiffness in the legs is a danger sign

    To find out the cause of the problem and to protect your own health, consult a specialist phlebologist.I conduct a comprehensive examination, which includes checking the condition of the veins of the lower extremities by ultrasound angioscanning, giving appointments and recommendations in accordance with the condition of your veins and choosing a treatment regimen.

    Treatment of transverse flat feet

    Longitudinal flat feet usually occur between the ages of 16-25. Transverse flat feet are more common at a later age (35-50 years). In this case, the weight of a person is important: the greater the weight and, accordingly, the load on all parts of the foot, the more pronounced the flat feet.Flat feet are 20 times more common in women than in men. Often, transverse flat feet are accompanied by other changes in the foot, such as longitudinal flat feet, which usually appear at a young age.

    Symptoms of flat feet

    • Abrasion of the shoe and more wear on the inner sole.
    • Rapid fatigue of the legs when walking and static activity on the legs.
    • Fatigue and pain in the legs in the evening, a feeling of heaviness, cramps.
    • Swelling of feet and ankles.
    • Difficulty and pain when wearing stiletto heels and high heels.
    • The need to buy shoes for a larger size due to the size of the foot in width.
    • Extension of the foot so that the foot does not fit into the shoes that previously fit.

    With transverse flat feet, the transverse arch of the foot is flattened, the forefoot distributes pressure to the joints of all five metatarsal bones, the length of the feet is reduced due to fan-shaped divergence of the metatarsal bones, deviation of the first toe outward and hammer-shaped deformity of the central toes. The transverse flat feet are also called a transversely spread foot with a deviation of the first toe outward.

    With transverse flat feet, the forefoot expands and, as it were, spreads out. In this case, the support is distributed on the heads of all metatarsal bones, and not only on the first and fifth, as anatomically laid down by nature. The load on the previously weakly involved second and fourth joints of the metatarsal bones increases, and the share of the load on the joint of the first metatarsal bone decreases.

    The work of the muscles that are attached to the first toe of the foot changes, which creates conditions for the deviation of the first toe inward. At the same time, the head of the first metatarsal bone protrudes, and the first toe deflects towards the second, creating pressure on it, and leads to deformation of the second toe.

    Transverse flat feet are often associated with prolonged standing, being overweight (including increasing weight during pregnancy), decreased muscle tone and decreased muscle elasticity with a prolonged sedentary lifestyle, immobilization due to injuries and fractures, aging, etc. Also, during prolonged walking on high heels or high heels, the pressure is redistributed, body weight is redistributed from the heel to the area of ​​the transverse arch, which is not ready for it, therefore it cannot cope with the loads and is deformed, which is why transverse flat feet appear. The main reason in the development of transverse flat feet, therefore, is the insufficiency of the ligamentous apparatus.

    Manifestations of transverse flat feet

    Transverse flat feet is reflected in the redistribution of the body weight load from the heel to the forefoot: when a healthy person walks, the heel and the first metatarsal bone (suitable for the big toe) fall under the greatest load; with transverse flat feet, this load is significantly re-distributed.The load previously borne by the I metatarsal bone falls on the heads of the middle metatarsal bones. Due to this redistribution of the load I, the metatarsal bone turns and rises, and the big toes deviate. Since the forefoot and its central part receive a significant load, the skin on its sole thickens, dry calluses and corns appear on it.

    A significant deviation of the thumb from the normal position is observed with prolonged transverse flat feet.Such a deviation of the big toe is accompanied by pain arising from pressure on the I metatarsal bone (for example, when squeezing in shoes). The head of this bone (below the big toe) may show signs of inflammation (bursitis), which appear as redness and swelling of the area. Gradually in this place there is an overgrowth of cartilaginous tissue (“bone”).

    Osteoarthritis occurs in the joint of the first metatarsal bone and the main phalanx of the first toe . Mobility in this joint decreases, painful sensations appear.The other toes also undergo changes. In the joints between the heads of the metatarsal bones and the main phalanges of the fingers, subluxation of the joints is formed. The middle fingers, which are now subject to an exorbitant load for them, acquire a hammer-like shape.

    Hammer-like deformity of toes , which often becomes the main source of pain in people with transverse flat feet, makes it difficult and painful for them to wear standard and sometimes orthopedic shoes. Pain syndrome and problems when using shoes lead to inactivity, irritability, sometimes destroy the psycho-emotional balance of a person and make it impossible to move. All this leads to the restriction of labor and household activities.

    Consequences of flat feet

    Flat feet leads to very serious consequences for the whole organism. This seemingly local pathology, which affects almost the entire musculoskeletal system and accelerates its wear.

    The main consequences of flat feet.

    • Diseases of the spine and posture disorders (curvature, osteochondrosis, herniated discs, sciatica).
    • Excessive stress on the joints and, as a result, their premature wear (osteoarthritis, arthrosis of the joints) as a result of additional transverse loads.
    • Diseases of the pelvis (coxarthrosis).
    • Foot deformities lead to “neurological disorganization” due to distortion or misinterpretation of nerve impulses from the foot receptors. As a result, imbalance and coordination disorders, decreased efficiency of movements.
    • Muscle imbalance leads to painful trigger points. The smoothness of the gait is disturbed, lameness appears over the years. With flat feet, the efficiency of the venous pump mechanism of the calf muscles decreases, blood stagnation occurs in the legs, which contributes to the formation of varicose veins of the lower extremities.
    • Another consequence of flat feet is a disease of the plantar aponeurosis, a nerve (Mardan’s neuralgia) – a heel spur, which is accompanied by burning pains.
    • Due to the slowing down of blood flow in the lower extremities, the cardiovascular system as a whole works worse.

    A decrease in the work of the cardiovascular system, in turn, leads to chronic hypoxia of the tissues of the lower extremities. This contributes to the progression of varicose veins. A vicious circle is formed. In older people with initially reduced work of the cardiovascular system and diabetics, such disorders often lead to pathological edema, trophic disorders, ulcers of the foot and lower leg.

    Treatment and slowing of the progression of transverse flat feet

    Conservative treatment is aimed at curbing the progression of flat feet and reducing pain. In the early stages of transverse flat feet, treatment consists of making and wearing individual orthopedic insoles or cushions placed below the corns. In the later stages (with severe deformities) of transverse flat feet, patients wear orthopedic shoes, tailored to individual measurements in strict accordance with the recommendations of the orthopedic traumatologist.

    Conservative treatment includes also physical exercises, massage and physiotherapy procedures, warm foot baths (they help to relax muscles, and therefore relieve pain). Conservative treatment for such deformities is a preventive measure that maintains the function of deformed toes and feet under static and dynamic loads, which improves the quality of life of patients and slows down the progression of foot deformities. However, if flat feet have already led to deformation of the toes (their hammer-like shape), primary importance is given to surgical methods of correction and elimination of secondary changes in soft tissues.

    Surgical treatment of transverse flat feet is carried out with significant pain, which can be relieved using conservative treatment methods. Interventions are performed on the joints of the fingers to eliminate the hallux valgus of the first toe as an independent intervention or as a component of a reconstructive surgery aimed at correcting the entire forefoot. Among them it is necessary, first of all, to name the operation of Schede.

    Operations are performed on the bones and ligaments of the foot.As a rule, during the operation, the cartilaginous outgrowth on the head of the metatarsal bone (part of the protruding “bone”) is cut off, the bone is leveled, the tendon is reduced so that it can keep the first toe in a straight position. All this is fixed with a special tape. The operation is complex, but effective.

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    90,000 Treatment results – Treatment of varicose veins 63. It is easy to cure varicose veins!

    The hero of our today’s photo story is 62 years old.He is one of those men who ignore the symptoms of varicose veins for years until they become constant and painful, until they deprive them of their usual life opportunities.

    At first, our hero periodically felt heaviness in his legs, but he thought: with whom does it not happen? Then the severity became constant, the skin in the lower part of the legs became covered with a network of dark vessels, a burning sensation appeared in the veins – the severity of the symptoms increased for more than 20 years. Where it all came in the end: to clusters of inflamed veins, entangling both legs from top to bottom, and painful night cramps.With such veins, there is no work, no full life: the legs instantly become heavy, you just have to walk a little, and standing still is even worse.

    And then the man came to the clinic for laser surgery “No varicose veins” with a firm intention to change his life. Duplex ultrasound scanning showed that the time of drugs and other half measures has long passed, that both legs of the patient need laser surgery. Only in this case is it possible to get rid of pain and cramps and a visible improvement in appearance.

    At the clinic “No varicose veins” at that time there was a significant discount for laser treatment of both legs, and this also helped the patient to decide!

    So, laser treatment of category C on the right and left legs was carried out: endovenous laser coagulation + miniflebectomy of several areas of diseased veins + foam sclerotherapy. Composite manipulations were performed by the experienced hands of a cardiovascular surgeon, a surgeon-phlebologist of the clinic “No varicose veins”.

    The photo shows how the legs have changed in a month and a half! The bunches of sore, inflamed veins are gone! Legs look much healthier.Internal changes are also significant: along with the swollen veins, exhausting night cramps, pain and heaviness in the legs disappeared from the patient’s life. The opportunity to live a full life has returned – this is the main thing, here is the result of the treatment of varicose veins in the laser surgery clinic “No varicose veins”!

    Our hero put off solving his problems for a long time, suffered as much as 20 years, and because of this, the treatment of varicose veins turned out to be difficult and, despite a good discount from the clinic, weighty in price! It always happens: the sooner you decide to get rid of the disease, the easier and cheaper it will be.

    Recovery period after plastic surgery. Recommendations

    There is a myth that plastic surgery is an easy procedure that is quick and painless. In fact, like any surgical intervention, plastic surgery is not complete without pain, swelling, bruising, and limitation of physical activity. Everyone who has expressed their decision for plastic correction goes through this. The duration of the rehabilitation period is influenced not only by the complexity of the operation itself, but also by the psychological mood of the patient.If you are prepared in advance for the upcoming difficulties, then they will not cause unnecessary anxiety, which will favorably affect the duration of the recovery period. Moreover, many of the proposed methods of modern medicine will contribute to the fastest passage of rehabilitation and return you to your usual way of life.
    So, what does not a single recovery period do without and how to make this time as comfortable as possible?

    Immediately after operation

    During the first 2-3 days after the operation, the body needs rest for the fastest recovery and wound healing.Therefore, you need to worry in advance about who will take care of you during this period: pick you up from the clinic, cook dinner, give prescribed medications. During this period, psychological comfort is no less important than physical. Therefore, it is better to opt for a person you trust: for example, a spouse, parent or close friend.


    During withdrawal from anesthesia, during the first 6-8 hours, attacks of nausea are possible. Their likelihood increases with an increase in the time of anesthesia for more serious surgical interventions.Side effects in modern analgesics and sleeping pills are minimized, but still especially sensitive patients experience them periodically.


    At the first moment, when you came to your senses, after the operation, most likely, you will feel pain in the operated area. Usually, to take them off, it is enough to take a pain reliever. After 2-3 days, most patients experience only moderate soreness, which noticeably increases in the operated area only when moving or touching it.And if minor cosmetic corrections are performed (for example, contouring or laser liposuction), most likely, you will not even need analgesics, since the initial pain may be minor.


    Edema is a natural reaction of the body to surgery. Most of all, our face is exposed to edema, namely the tissues around the eyes, since they are the thinnest and it is easier for liquids to accumulate in them. Therefore, with face plastic surgery, the area around the eyes swells first.The peak of edema is recorded on the second or third day, after which a decline is observed. After a week, the skin smoothes and stretches a little tighter than usual, and after two weeks, only minor edematous zones are observed, almost invisible from the outside. To speed up the recovery process after face, neck or chest surgery, for the first time (several days) after the operation, it is recommended to sleep on high pillows, which significantly reduces swelling. Ice also helps to combat this. On the first day, the operation area should be cooled constantly.To reduce tumors, the surgeon may prescribe special ointments, and recommend lymphatic drainage or physiotherapy.


    Bruises are more noticeable at first after the operation. This is considered normal and occurs because of the small amount of residual blood under the skin after surgery. Bruises are observed for three weeks before the initial wound healing. If the resorption of a large hematoma is delayed for a month or longer, then this is already stated as a complication.The quantity and “quality” of bruises is influenced not only by the skill of the surgeon, but also by the peculiarity of the patient’s tissues. Therefore, in the first week after the operation, taking aspirin and other drugs with acetylsalicylic acid is contraindicated, in order to avoid blood thinning and a possible increase in hematomas. The use of various cosmetics will help to hide the traces of the operation. Hypoallergenic cosmetics can be used within a few days after the operation, but do not apply to the incision itself until the stitches and damaged skin areas are removed.

    Seals under the leather

    Lumps (infiltrates) can form due to absorbable hematomas and healing scars and are not a complication. To speed up their resorption, you need a light massage or ultrasound procedures. Such postoperative procedures are recommended by your doctor.

    Decrease in sensitivity

    Any surgical intervention inevitably leads to damage to the nerve endings, and therefore the temporary appearance of some numbness and decreased sensitivity in the operation area is not a complication.Within 1-1.5 months after the operation, the nerve endings are restored and the sensitivity gradually returns.

    Traces from operation

    The seamless surgery myth is just a gimmick to attract new clients. Suture-free procedures include only cosmetic procedures, where the tissues of the body lying under the skin are not affected, such as peeling or laser correction. Even after contour plasty, injection marks remain on the treated area for a couple of days. It is impossible to cut the skin so that it heals without forming a visible scar.However, modern plastic surgery, possessing certain operating techniques, made it possible to leave the thinnest, short scars, moreover, in inconspicuous places.

    The appearance of the scar is influenced by many factors: the physiological feature of the body tissues where the incision is located, the age of the patient, how and with what the surgical wound was sutured. For early healing and maturation of scars, special stickers are used to relieve stress on the scar and improve healing conditions.The initial period can last up to three weeks when the scar tissue is most active. At this time, it is hard and red. Modern surgery has a significant arsenal of tools that can significantly speed up the healing process and make the scar less noticeable. These include various physiotherapy procedures, special ointments and scar stickers. After three months, some scars become barely visible, and their strength reaches the final value – about 80% of the strength of the skin. The final appearance of the scar is formed in about a year.And only after that, if the scar is too noticeable, its correction is possible.

    Bandage and compression garments

    Immediately after the plastic surgery, it is necessary to apply a pressure bandage to the operated area so that the swelling and bruising are less. In case of correction on the head or neck, the bandage is required only in the first week after the operation. If the correction was carried out on other parts of the body, then more often than not, it is recommended to wear compression underwear in addition to the bandage.For example, if you underwent breast augmentation, then you can put on lace underwear no earlier than 3 months after the operation. During this time, you will be advised to wear a special slimming bra. After liposuction or abdominoplasty, you must always wear a bandage. But all this does not create significant inconveniences, even if they have to be worn for several months – modern models of compression underwear are beautiful and comfortable, they are invisible under clothes and do not hinder movement.

    Water and solar treatments

    Taking a shower after surgery is on average possible after 5-7 days. In the future, after 2 weeks, after complete healing of the scars, it is possible to take a bath. During the rehabilitation period, many patients take leave. However, you need to know that visiting hot countries is not recommended: while there is swelling, exposure to the sun is contraindicated, capillaries expand and swelling increases accordingly, which slows down recovery. For the same reason, within a month after plastic surgery, it is recommended to cancel trips to the bathhouse or sauna.Exposure to sunlight on fresh scars can lead to pigmentation, making the stitches visible and requiring subsequent pigmentation treatment.

    Physical activity

    Usually, after plastic surgery, it is recommended to start movements early (ideally, on the same day), and especially after extensive intervention. Early activation is the prevention of formidable complications associated with stagnation of venous blood in the lower extremities and an increased risk of blood clots.However, beware of painful movements to avoid disturbing the operated tissue. After 3-5 days, you can start walking and do your homework. Avoid heavy lifting for a month. In case of abdominal plastic surgery, it is recommended to increase this period to three months in order to avoid stress on the stitched muscles. You should be aware that movements that stretch and strain the operating scar often lead to its enlargement. Active sports can be started no earlier than 3-5 months, depending on the type of surgery.After six months, any activity will not cause any discomfort and you will completely abandon restrictions.

    Power supply

    Any surgical intervention significantly reduces the amount of fluid in the body. Therefore, in the first days after the operation, it is necessary to restore the water balance. Clean drinking water is best for this. 8 glasses a day and you will feel better immediately. Heavy food will become an unnecessary burden on your weakened body after surgery.Therefore, during the first days, you should eat only food that is easy to digest.

    Unacceptable complications

    Do not let all the inconveniences described above cause your concern, because this is a natural reaction of the body to surgical intervention. However, there are a number of symptoms that require immediate medical attention:

    • An increase in temperature above 38 ° C may indicate the development of infection.
    • Increased edema – bleeding, gray (fluid accumulation), or infection may be suspected.
    • A severe rash may indicate that you are allergic to any of the medications or, again, an infection has entered your body.
    • A sharp increase in pain indicates a complication.

    Almost all types of cosmetic and plastic corrections are not without “side effects”: like bruising, swelling, the need for a temporary change in the usual way of life. But all of them gradually pass, and we begin to fully experience the pleasure of the resulting effect!