How to stop urinating so much: Kegel Exercises Video
Science Explains How Men Can Stop Peeing So Much At Night
Dads who are concerned about how much they have to pee at night can take comfort in the fact that they’re not alone. About one in every 10 patients urologist Jamin Brahmbhatt sees comes in worried about nocturia, the medical diagnosis for excessive urination at night. And while it’s true that an enlarged prostate can cause frequent urination and be a sign of serious trouble, that’s seldom the reason why 30- and 40-year-olds find themselves running to the bathroom at 3 a.m.
“A lot of the younger guys just enjoy happy hour a little too much,” Brahmbhatt told Fatherly. He suspects that, while women often get a reputation for having overactive bladders, men likely experience as many issues but tend to underreport symptoms. Still, most men don’t appreciate wake-up calls from their bladders. So Brahmbhatt has several ways to slow down your late-night pee train.
Stop Drinking Liquids Three Hours Before Bed
When you drink liquids three hours before bedtime, your kidneys are going to start filtering that while you sleep, creating more urine, and eventually compelling you to pee. So the easiest solution is to stop ingesting liquids within this window. Since alcohol is a diuretic (meaning that suppresses the release of anti-diuretic hormones, which help kidneys return water to your bloodstream) it will make you have to piss even more, and should be especially avoided in this three-hour window. Brahmbhatt similarly recommends steering clear of foods with a lot of liquid in them, such as watermelon, before bedtime.
Pee Before Bed, Not Before Netflix
It’s important for parents to practice what they preach during potty training and remember to pee right before going to bed. While this may seem obvious, Brahmbhatt says the most common mistake people make is urinating when they get ready for bed, even when they won’t be going to sleep until after an hour of podcasts or Netflix. Men should make a point of getting up to pee one more time before actually closing their eyes, Brahmbhatt says, lest they find themselves awake a few hours later.
Cut Back on Sugar
“If patients have really high sugar levels, that can irritate their bladders,” Brahmbhatt says. Cutting back on sugar can also help individuals who are overweight, as added fat gives their bladders less room to expand and increases urgency. On top of that, one symptom of diabetes is excessive urination throughout the day, so cutting back on sugar can curb unwelcome urges to pee in a number of ways.
Do Man Kegels
Kegels aren’t just for the ladies, and clenching and releasing pelvic floor muscles regularly could help men who pee too much. These muscles help to support the bladder, and can prevent something you dislike even more than waking up — unexpectedly dribbling. Kegels might also help you take healthier dumps. The best part is that nobody has to know you’re clenching. Just ask your wife for some tips.
Get Your Head Right
Being nervous or anxious can trigger nighttime urination, Brahmbhatt says. Likewise, sleep disorders like sleep apnea can cause many men to mistake urination for why they’re awake so much. So it’s important to rule out potential sleep disturbances and anxiety before blaming your bladder.
“If you’re awake at night and can’t sleep and you’re trying to sleep and you’re bored out of your mind, then going to the bathroom might just be something that keeps your mind occupied,” he explains.
Either Way, Go To The Doctor If You’re Concerned
It’s probably not your prostate but, if urination remains a regular sleep disruption, it’s best to have a medical professional rule it out. When the prostate enlarges, the bladder retains urine and does not fully empty before bed, causing the urge to pee. In some cases, these late-night bathroom trips could be a result of a bladder tumor, scarring from an undiagnosed STD, or another serious health issue. So while you limit your liquid and sugar intake and work on that pelvic floor, schedule a visit to see your doctor. At the very least, a clean bill of health should help you sleep at night.
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5 Ways You Could Pee Better > News > Yale Medicine
One more trip to the bathroom before rushing out the door may seem like smart planning, but it can backfire. The danger is that you can end up “training” the bladder to respond to small volumes, which can lead to overactive bladder symptoms—the sensation of needing to urinate more frequently than is normal, explains Dr. Rickey.
“Going too often at night can also be a problem for men who then can’t fall back to sleep,” says Stanton Honig, MD, director of Male Urology, adding that this condition, called nocturia, can affect quality of life. “If this is bothersome to patients, there are treatment [medications] for it,” says Dr. Honig.
Other problems can also cause increased urinary frequency, such as an infection along the urinary tract. Therefore, if you find that you need to visit the bathroom far more often than you used to, talk to your primary care physician or urologist. You may need a urinalysis (urine test) to rule out a UTI, as well as to check for blood in the urine (hematuria), which can happen to a small number of people with an overactive bladder who have a bladder tumor, Dr. Brito says. “Blood in the urine is never normal and usually requires further testing to determine its cause,” Dr. Brito says.
Diet can also be a factor for people who notice an uptick on their need to pee. “The bladder is increasingly sensitive as we age,” says Dr. Brito, “and urinary frequency can be due to certain ‘irritative’ foods and beverages such as caffeine, alcohol, carbonated beverages, chocolate, spicy foods, and acidic foods.”
Some people may also visit the bathroom frequently in an attempt to avoid leakage. Although urinary incontinence (an unintended loss of urine) is common and affects a large number of women, it is not something you should just live with,” says Dr. Rickey. “Directed pelvic floor muscle exercises [physical therapy] can resolve these symptoms.” Other treatments such as medications and minimally invasive procedures are available, too, to help with urinary frequency, urgency, and incontinence.
Why do I have to pee all the time?
How often do you feel like you need to go?
No one wants to spend half their day rushing to the bathroom. But frequent urination is a common symptom of certain diseases as well as lifestyle choices, so many people experience it.
Frequent urination can be easy to stop, depending on the cause.
First of all, how do you know if your bathroom use is “frequent?” Basically, if you notice that you need to go more than usual, it’s frequent urination. Most people have to go between 4-8 times each day. Needing to pee more than eight times per day often indicates a problem.
These are some of the things that can cause frequent urination:
- Drinking too much fluid. Especially carbonated beverages, caffeine, alcohol, even decaf coffee and tea.
- Weak pelvic muscles. This can occur after a woman gives birth vaginally, after a man has prostate surgery, or with constipation, bowel or bladder issues or even heavy lifting.
- Medication. There are certain medications that can increase urine production.
- Overactive bladder. When you frequently feel sudden, intense urges to go throughout the day.
- UTI. Urinary tract infections (UTIs) are one of the most common causes of frequent urination.
- Kidney stones. You may feel the urge to urinate frequently as kidney stones pass.
- Diabetes. Excessive thirst and frequent urination are two primary symptoms of diabetes.
- Interstitial cystitis. This condition causes pelvic and bladder pain and the feeling of having to urinate constantly.
- Bladder cancer. While the first sign of bladder cancer is usually blood in your urine, frequent urination is also a symptom.
While frequent urination is a symptom, not necessarily a condition itself (except for cases of overactive bladder), there are ways to reduce your risk:
- Avoid diuretics. These are food and drinks that can cause you to produce more urine, such as caffeinated and carbonated beverages, spicy food, artificial sweeteners and some acidic fruit and juice.
- Eat more fiber. This will help you avoid getting constipated (which can led to frequent urination due to pressure on bladder muscles).
- Strengthen your pelvic muscles. Try Kegels as well as thigh and glute-strengthening exercises.
Your doctor is your healthy driven partner. Find the right primary care physician for you and your family.
Learn more about urology services at Edward-Elmhurst Health.
FDA approves first treatment for frequent urination at night due to overproduction of urine
- For Immediate Release:
The U. S. Food and Drug Administration today approved Noctiva (desmopressin acetate) nasal spray for adults who awaken at least two times per night to urinate due to a condition known as nocturnal polyuria (overproduction of urine during the night). Noctiva is the first FDA-approved treatment for this condition.
“Today’s approval provides adults who overproduce urine at night with the first FDA-approved therapeutic option to help reduce the number of times a night they wake up to urinate,” said Hylton V. Joffe, M.D., M.M.Sc., director of the Division of Bone, Reproductive, and Urologic Products in the FDA’s Center for Drug Evaluation and Research. “It is important to know that Noctiva is not approved for all causes of night-time urination, so patients should discuss their symptoms with their health care provider who can determine the underlying cause of the night-time urination and whether Noctiva is right for them.”
Nocturia (wakening at night to urinate) is a symptom that can be caused by a wide variety of conditions, such as congestive heart failure, poorly controlled diabetes mellitus, medications, or diseases of the bladder or prostate. Before considering Noctiva, health care providers should evaluate each patient for possible causes for the nocturia, and optimize the treatment of underlying conditions that may be contributing to the night-time urination. Because Noctiva is approved only for adults with nocturia caused by nocturnal polyuria, health care providers should confirm overproduction of urine at night with a 24-hour urine collection, if one has not been obtained previously. Health care providers should also be mindful of underlying conditions that can cause nocturia, but that make treatment with Noctiva unsafe, such as excessive drinking of fluids or symptomatic congestive heart failure.
Noctiva is taken daily, approximately 30 minutes before going to bed. It works by increasing the absorption of water through the kidneys, which leads to less urine production.
Noctiva’s efficacy was established in two 12-week, randomized, placebo-controlled trials in 1,045 patients 50 years of age and older with nocturia due to nocturnal polyuria. Although these trials showed a small reduction in the average number of night-time urinations with Noctiva compared to placebo, more patients treated with Noctiva were able to at least halve their number of night-time urinations, and patients treated with Noctiva had more nights with one or fewer night-time urinations.
Noctiva is being approved with a boxed warning and a Medication Guide because it can cause low sodium levels in the blood (hyponatremia). Severe hyponatremia can be life-threatening if it is not promptly diagnosed and treated, leading to seizures, coma, respiratory arrest or death. Health care providers should make sure the patient’s sodium level is normal before starting Noctiva, and should check sodium levels within one week and approximately one month after starting treatment and periodically thereafter. The lower Noctiva dose is recommended as the starting dose for those who may be at risk for hyponatremia, such as the elderly. Noctiva should not be used in patients at increased risk of severe hyponatremia, such as those with excessive fluid intake, those who have illnesses that can cause fluid or electrolyte imbalances, certain patients with kidney damage, and in those using certain medicines, known as loop diuretics or glucocorticoids.
Noctiva should also not be used in patients with symptomatic congestive heart failure or uncontrolled hypertension because fluid retention can worsen these underlying conditions. Use of Noctiva should be discontinued temporarily in patients with certain nasal conditions such as colds or allergies until those conditions have resolved.
Noctiva is also not recommended for the treatment of nocturia in pregnant women. Nocturia is usually related to normal changes in pregnancy that do not require treatment with Noctiva. Noctiva should not be used in children.
The most common side effects of Noctiva in clinical trials included nasal discomfort, cold symptoms (nasopharyngitis), nasal congestion, sneezing, high or increased blood pressure, back pain, nose bleeds, bronchitis and dizziness.
Although there are other FDA-approved medications that also contain desmopressin, none of those medications are approved to treat nocturia.
Noctiva is manufactured by Renaissance Lakewood, LLC for Milford, Pennsylvania-based Serenity Pharmaceuticals, LLC.
The FDA, an agency within the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, protects the public health by assuring the safety, effectiveness, and security of human and veterinary drugs, vaccines and other biological products for human use, and medical devices. The Agency also is responsible for the safety and security of our nation’s food supply, cosmetics, dietary supplements, products that give off electronic radiation, and for regulating tobacco products.
How I Learned To Stop Peeing 20 Times a Day
Anyway, after a few sessions, I got the line to spike higher and higher, until my asshole was a steel wall. The therapist had me do kegels lying down, and standing up, and on a yoga ball. I had to put an elastic band around my knees and open my legs while doing a kegel at the same time, which is a real bitch.
“How long do I have to keep these exercises up?” I asked her.
I didn’t like the idea of that, even if I was down to pissing just four or five times a day. So I lapsed. I stopped going to the therapy. I stopped doing exercises, and until last week or so, I was back to being an embarrassment to grown men urinating all across this land. Then, the other night, I must have gotten up four or five times before I realized that I was sick and tired of myself. So I dug up the therapist’s old techniques, and have tried to abide by them since. Maybe you’re a camel and pissing isn’t a problem for you. But if you’re a weak fella like me and you need help, here are some basic steps to improve your outlook.
1. Monitor your fluid intake. We are a country that encourages a lot of fluid intake: eight glasses of water a day, etc. But there are people like me who go way overboard with it. I’m drinking water all the time, and that’s not necessarily a good thing. If you drink too much, you piss too much. This is obvious, but I rarely take note of just how much water I’m drinking during the day, and it often ends up being far more than is necessary.
2. Keep a piss journal. Simply marking down every time you piss can be enough to get you to do it less often. Once I saw the true number of times I was going (my journal looked like a prison cell wall marked up by an inmate keeping track of the days), something in my brain flicked on and helped keep my shit in check. A journal also gives you incentive. It feels good to see the number of times you peed go down day by day.
3. Do pelvic floor muscle exercises. You don’t need a vagina to do kegels. You can strengthen your pelvic floor simply by contracting your muscles down there, as if you’re stopping the flow of urine. If you can’t quite get the hang of it, here is another trick… (WARNING: this will sound terribly graphic)… try “sucking” in through your butthole, like you’re trying to pick up a stick with it. I’m a white guy, so clenching my ass comes naturally to me. You gotta squeeze hard and hold those muscles in place for as long as you can, and then try to hold it longer the next time around. The easiest position to do this is lying down, with your knees up. But as you go, you can do them while standing. You can even do them at the bus stop. No one will know how strong your butthole is.
The real challenge is doing all this consistently, which is a problem when you are lazy and unmotivated and hey, peeing twenty times a day doesn’t seem all THAT bad. But it is. I’m tired of spending all my free time standing in front of a stupid toilet, squirting out used beer. I’m gonna fix this, and I’m gonna stop being a slave to my own bladder.
Right after I go piss.
Top Travel Tips for People with Overactive Bladder (OAB)
Everyone deserves to take some time off of work and enjoy life. Some people are content with staying home and simply enjoying the time to relax, while others want to pack their bags and explore. If you’re one of the latter, but are suffering from overactive bladder (OAB), it might seem like traveling is impossible. We’re here to tell you that it’s not.
Traveling with OAB is possible and doesn’t have to ruin your trip. While it will be a bit more difficult than managing your regular day-to-day routine, you can do it. With a few preparations and some strategic planning, you’ll be able to enjoy your vacation time without embarrassing mishaps. In this article, we’ll explore some great travel tips for people with overactive bladder.
What is Overactive Bladder?
Overactive bladder is a condition where you feel the need to frequently urinate regardless of if you have a full bladder or not.2 Some people with OAB experience incontinence, making their days more unpredictable. However, OAB is a common urinary condition that affects close to 33 million Americans and it’s nothing to be ashamed about.1 There are numerous treatments to help you manage your symptoms and reduce the negative impacts that OAB may cause in your life. The first step involves understanding your symptoms.
Symptoms in Adults
A lot of people experience occasional incontinence, which is different from overactive bladder. Overactive bladder present itself with symptoms such as an urgent and uncontrollable need to urinate, frequent involuntary loss of urine, frequent urination, and waking up multiple times throughout the night to urinate.1 OAB can greatly affect a person’s lifestyle, so it’s important to talk to your doctor if you notice any of these symptoms. There are treatments available to help you mange.
Symptoms in Children
Kids are known for having accidents, but sometimes these accidents are caused by overactive bladder. If your child is having frequent accidents or goes to the restroom excessively, OAB may be to blame.1 Other symptoms include an urgent or frequent need to urinate or not feeling as if they’ve emptied their bladder completely.1 To learn more about overactive bladder in children, check out this helpful article.
As children get older, symptoms of OAB will start to dissipate—if they don’t, contact your doctor to find the underlying cause and create a treatment plan.
Treatments for OAB
There are a number of things that contribute to overactive bladder symptoms, but there are also many treatment options. Through a combination of pelvic floor therapy, nerve stimulation, and medication, you can learn to manage your overactive bladder symptoms.1 Talk to your doctor or urologist today to learn more about how you can treat OAB.
Traveling with Overactive Bladder
Traveling with an overactive bladder is possible; you just need to be prepared. Allow yourself to enjoy your travels by following these great tips.
Planning Your Route
If you’re taking a road trip, create an itinerary. Map out your route and take notice of any rest areas along the way. Know where the exits are and if you’re trying to estimate a time of arrival, don’t forget to include pit stops. Plan to stop roughly every 2-4 hours to reduce strain on your bladder and avoid any incontinence issues.
If you’re going to be flying, try to get an aisle seat. This will allow you to use the restroom en route without having to ask people to move. As an added safety, take a look at the layout of the terminal in both the departure and arrival cities.
Limit Your Liquid
Prior to leaving for your trip, limit your liquid intake. This is will help you avoid too many bathroom trips, thus shortening your delays. If you do happen to get stuck in traffic or have flight delays, a reduction in liquids won’t put excessive pressure on your bladder. Since changes in cabin pressure can affect your bladder, try to limit your intake about two hours prior to taking off.3
Train Your Bladder
Another important way to prepare for travelling is to train your bladder. There are a number of different exercises you can do to help manage incontinence and alleviate OAB.
- Timed Voiding
One of the most effective ways of training your bladder is through timed voiding. Timed voiding is the process of emptying your bladder on a strict schedule, whether you feel the need to urinate or not.2 As you progress through training, you will gradually increase the time between voiding, which helps you fine tune bladder control.2
If you’re unable to increase the time in between voiding, that’s okay. Since you’ll know when you need to go, timed voiding will still help you with travel planning and preparations.
Contrary to what you might think, both men and women can do kegels. They’re a great way to strengthen your pelvic floor muscles and your bladder muscles. If you’ve never done a kegel before, just imagine the muscle movement you need to stop urinating mid stream. That’s the same contraction performed during kegels. Learn more about how to do them here.
3. The “Freeze and Squeeze”
If you suddenly feel the need to urinate, most people with OAB start to panic and run to the nearest restroom. To give yourself more time, stop what you’re doing and do a few kegels.3 This will help give you enough time to get to a bathroom without running through crowds.
Dress for the Occasion
Finding something that’s comfortable to wear during your journey is pretty straightforward. Bring a spare outfit, just in case. We also recommend wearing back-up incontinence protection to avoid any embarrassments. There are hundreds of different products on the market, but it’s best to test them out before the day of the big trip. Find something that’s comfortable for you and stick with it. It’s always better to be prepared for the worst.
To keep overactive bladder under control, you need to make lifestyle changes and practice good habits. As we all know, this can be hard. It’s even more difficult during vacations. To make sure you’re prepared, make these changes before you leave. Condition yourself to develop habits that help alleviate OAB symptoms such as reducing in irritants like coffee or carbonated drinks, getting enough exercise, and getting your diet in check. Certain foods will help you manage OAB, while others will make it worse.
To make sure you’re covered for your trip, over pack your suitcase. Yes, we know that’s contradictory to the mentality of minimalistic travel, but when dealing with OAB, you want to have everything you might need at the tip of your fingertips. Bring extras and put together an emergency kit for worst-case scenarios.4 Include plenty of incontinence protection (absorbent liners, briefs, or pads), extra underwear, and any creams, catheters, or medications that you’ll need. To make sure you’re prepared, throw in some hand sanitizer and tissue paper.
In addition to plenty of extra clothes and incontinence help, don’t forget to pack your overactive bladder medications. Talk to your doctor about stocking up on extras if you’re going to be gone for extended periods of time and see if you’re a good candidate for bladder relaxants. If you’re going to be trying any new medication, do so well before your trip so you know how it affects you.4
If you’re worried about incontinence issues, talk to your doctor about whether or not catheterization is right for you. Intermittent catheters can be used sparingly throughout the day while indwelling catheters will be left in for longer periods of time. To learn more about catheterization options, talk to your doctor or urologist before leaving for your trip.
Brush up on Languages
If you’re taking an international trip, spend some time familiarizing yourself with some commonly used phrases, especially those relating to the bathroom. At the very least, master the word toilet in the language of your final destination. This will help you ask where the bathroom is in confidence, regardless of where you are.
If you’re planning a trip with overactive bladder, don’t worry. As long as you make the preparations mentioned in this article and practice bladder training, you will be able to enjoy your time off. If you have any questions or concerns about traveling with overactive bladder, talk to your doctor or urologist today. To learn more about overactive bladder and other urology problems, or need supplies or educational resources, visit our educational support page or our product selection guide. Byram Healthcare is a full-service urological care supplier and offers a wide selection of high quality urological supplies that are discreetly delivered to your home. We also offer a team of knowledgeable urological customer service specialists to help answer questions and offer you personalized, confidential services.
I Wake Up at Night to Urinate—Is That Normal? – Orlando Health
We’ve all been there before. You are comfortably in bed and then you get that pressure sensation in your bladder. You get up and use the bathroom, but very little comes out. Before you know it, you’ve woken up three more times just to urinate.
Sound familiar? You are not alone. According to a National Sleep Foundation survey, about 65 percent of people age of 55 and older reported getting up several times at night to use the bathroom.
To be perfectly candid, I wake up once a night to urinate. At the PUR Clinic, patients often ask me if their nightly urinary habits are “normal”. Well, that depends on several things. Drinking too much fluid before bedtime or untreated diabetes are two possible causes of nocturia, the medical term for waking up at night to urinate. If you’re concerned about your nightly urinary patterns, here is some information that can help you differentiate between what is normal and when you should seek medical attention.
Where does the urine come from?
Urine is made in your kidneys. From there it drops down the ureters (long tubes connecting the kidney to the bladder) and gets stored in the bladder. The bladder, which is like a balloon and is very elastic, stretches to store urine. When it is time to pass your urine, your bladder (which is made of muscle) starts to contract and helps to evacuate your bladder. From there, the urine in females exits through the urethra and in men will bypass the prostate before exiting through the urethra. The whole process is very well regulated from beginning to end.
What is normal?
A 2010 study in the Journal of Urology examined the prevalence and incidence of nocturia. It found that up to one-third of men between the age of 20 to 40 had at least one instance of urination nightly. For women, the number was slightly higher—up to 43 percent. Fewer than one in five men and women in that age group reported two or more instances of nighttime urination.
For people over the age of 70, it’s a different story. Over two-thirds of men and women over 70 urinate at least once per night, and up to 60 percent go twice or more each night.
In a nutshell, the study shows that it is very common for most people to wake up once a night, and it becomes more common as you get older.
Why do we urinate at night?
Nighttime urination does not adversely affect most people. However, if this disturbs your sleep patterns and productivity the next day, you should seek medical attention. Other medical conditions could cause this habit, and you should see a doctor to determine if there is another underlying reason for your nocturia, such as:
Enlarged prostate: Men with an enlarged prostate may have difficulty completely emptying their bladder, which leads to urinary retention. At night, any small increase in urine in the bladder may lead to a heightened sensation to use the bathroom. Your primary care physician or urologist can assess you for these symptoms.
Overactive bladder: This may be secondary to nerve problems, medications, or lifestyle behaviors that make the muscles in your bladder work overdrive. Your primary care physician or urologist can help assess for these symptoms.
Excess fluid intake: If you are drinking fluids right before bed, especially caffeinated or alcoholic beverages, you may wake up to urinate because your kidneys will filter this fluid out while you sleep. Limit your intake during the three hours before bedtime and your symptoms may decline.
: This is a serious sleep disorder where breathing starts and stops. 50 percent of people with this condition may experience increased nighttime urination. This may be due to waking up from difficulty with breathing or an alternation in your hormones from the abnormal sleep patterns that increase your urine production. Sleep apnea is a serious condition that can be treated easily if it is diagnosed early. If you have symptoms, please see your doctor as soon as possible.
: Patients with congestive heart failure may notice increased fluid in their legs during the day due to the hearts poor ability to pump blood and gravity. At night, without the influence of gravity, the fluid is able to reenter the blood stream, causing an increase in urine production. Your doctor may change your medications to help drain that fluid out during the day to avoid the nocturia.
Uncontrolled Diabetes: Increased levels of sugar in the blood can cause an increase in urine production. Many new diagnoses of diabetes are actually found when patients come in with excess daytime or nighttime urinary frequency. Better sugar control may help this situation.
Medications: Some diuretics, or blood pressure medications, can decrease your pressure by removing excess fluid from your body. When you take these medications at night, they may cause increased urine output and nocturia. Ask your doctor to review your medications to determine whether you can take these medications during the day to avoid nighttime nocturia.
Neurologic problems:Damage to nerves that supply the bladder can lead to problems with bladder function, including frequent and sudden urges to urinate.
Stress: Stress has been linked to many medical problems including heart disease, obesity, depression and gastrointestinal problems. Stress may keep you awake and increase your levels of nocturia.
Many people wake up at night to urinate, but you can adjust your behaviors, medications, or overall health to improve your nightly symptoms. However, nighttime urination could be your body’s way of signaling another underlying issue, so don’t hesitate to talk to your doctor if you have concerns.
For more information and health tips, follow Dr. Brambhatt on Twitter and Facebook.
How to stop being shy and overcome the language barrier
What is common between student Anya, who presents a report to the class, schoolchild Vanya, who wants to ask a geography teacher, and Nadezhda Viktorovna, who came for an interview with the company as an accountant? At first glance, nothing, but from the second you already begin to guess.
You probably have more than once experienced a tickling feeling that goes all over your body and shocks you when you need to talk to a stranger, tell something to a large audience, have an interview, ask a teacher in class and speak a foreign language.
Congratulations, you have clear signs of shyness and language barriers.
The main thing that you must understand is that you are not alone with this feeling. Don’t think that something is wrong with you. Millions of people in the world are afraid to say something, because they think that they will definitely do it wrong. And you will not believe it, but while you admire the confidence of your deskmate, he thinks how great you communicate in English.
Oppression is as natural a process as sleep.Only unlike the second, this feeling does not allow us to enjoy life and achieve the desired goals. Although sleep can sometimes hinder this too, this is a completely different topic.
“It has always been difficult for me to establish contact with new people, although since childhood my parents sent me to all kinds of sections.”
Shyness is an internal language barrier that interferes with the natural process of communication. Communication not only in the native language, but also in a foreign one.This becomes especially an obvious problem when you find yourself in a non-standard situation for yourself – in a language school abroad, for example. Everything is new there: country, habits, lifestyle, language, and most importantly – people.
You came from Russia to study English together with peers from other countries. Not only is English not your native language, and you can barely cope with starting to speak it, but classmates also seem strange and behave differently than your classmates.
What to do?
On such a stressful soil, many withdraw into themselves and go into silence. After all, this is the first thing you want to do to protect yourself. But there is no need to rush to conclusions and return home. Read my story first.
I’ll tell you how I learned to communicate with strangers and overcome the language barrier.
Before getting to the point, you need to tell everything from the very beginning. This will not be a story about how I spent my summer holidays abroad and changed my life forever, but I hope it will help you decide on this.
As a child, I was silent, although I loved noisy companies. 60% of the time after school I was at home, playing games and reading. The remaining 40% are with school friends.
It was always difficult for me to establish contact with new people, although from childhood my parents sent me to all kinds of sections: dancing, choir, piano classes, solfeggio, gymnastics, singing. Even though I performed at concerts in front of large halls, it was not easy for me to communicate face to face. In the class I was one of the quietest, and outside of it I did not make new acquaintances, because I was always embarrassed to come up first and speak.
“I set myself a rule – once a week to do something that I am afraid or embarrassed about.”
Everything began to change when I entered the 11th grade. Gradually the realization began to come that I would soon go to university. And there will be a lot of people unfamiliar to me and it will be necessary to somehow establish contact with them. For a moment it became scary, but I decided to pull myself together. As I remember now, I sat down on the sofa at home and clearly decided that I needed to hatch out of my shell.
I began to leave the house more, meet with friends who at that time no longer hoped to see me in their company, found a yoga school in my city and took up my health. I set myself a rule – once a week to do something that I am afraid or ashamed of. My assignments were completely different, ranging from “call the salon and sign up for a manicure” to “go to a test lesson in a conversation club in English.”
It was the result-orientation that helped me get where I am now.With assignments such as “ pass the English exam” , “speak to a stranger in English” and “ pass an interview in English” , I was able to overcome my fear of communication and get rid of the language barrier.
The worst communication in my native language for me at that moment was communication in English, so I decided to work on it properly!
This is how one decision, made 10 years ago, has affected my life now.
How to help yourself become more confident and overcome the language barrier?
Each of us is able to change our long-standing habits.And shyness is just a habit. We get used to the fact that we are afraid to raise our hand in class, we are not sure of the correctness of our question to the teacher, we are condemned by others for every sneeze.
There is bad news – we ourselves program ourselves for uncertain thoughts, but there is also good news – we can program ourselves differently.
A few tips that helped me learn how to communicate with people:
Communicate more often
– Try to write to your friends in instant messengers at least once a day (if it is very difficult for you to start personal communication right away).But do not sit too long in this phase.
– At least once a day, ask strangers questions: ask the time, the way, etc. First approach those with whom it is easier for you to start a dialogue – children or the elderly, for example, and then turn to those with whom it is more difficult for you to communicate – to people in expensive suits or police officers.
– Compliment. It’s nice for you and the other person 🙂
– Sign up for a group city tour and ask the guide at least one question.
All people are periodically shy and feel insecure.The difference is that someone is working on himself, and someone – “accepts himself as he is. ” Do not do like this. After all, you can achieve more than you have now.
If you want to overcome the language barrier:
You are not yet 18 years old
– Practice a foreign language at home: read, listen to podcasts , watch TV shows.
– Ask your teacher or tutor for more oral assignments (retelling, photo description, dialogues).
– Find the words of your favorite song on the Internet, print them out and read them several times
– Try to make a story out of the song, turn it into dialogue.
– Ask your parents to send you to language camp abroad – talking with native speakers and children from other countries will help you become independent and self-confident.
You are 18 years old
– Find an online friend with whom you can practice your foreign language. This can be easily done through any international online communication platform like Lang-8 or Paltalk .
– Sign up for an international meeting in your city. As a rule, they are often visited by foreigners who live here or are passing through. Several useful sites: Internations , Couchsurfing.
– Go to Stand Up in English. Many foreigners often gather at such shows, with whom you can easily start a conversation in a relaxed atmosphere.
– Spend your vacation abroad learning the language. Communication with foreigners will help you get to know yourself better and finally get rid of the language barrier.
Do not label yourself as a “loser” and do not think that everyone around you appreciates your pronunciation, level of foreign language proficiency and is disappointed in you as a person, when instead of “ She has” you say “ She have” .
I hope these tips will help you to become more confident and get rid of the language barrier. Because they helped me a lot.
Now I work in an international company, I communicate in English every day and conduct business correspondence, and after work I conduct yoga classes (although so far only in Russian).
Urinary disorders in children
Urinary problems in children have a profound impact on their lives and their families. Recently, we have seen an increase in the number of children with urinary problems. It should be borne in mind that urination disorders are often accompanied by bowel movements.
Urination disorders in children:
• Increase in frequency of urination during the day (8 or more times)
• Infrequent urination (3 or less times)
• Urinary incontinence is an uncontrolled outflow of urine,
• Daily incontinence
• Nocturnal enuresis – any form of urination before bedtime at age 5,
• a sudden urge to urinate if you are not going to the toilet during this time is obviously a disaster,
• Nocturia – waking up at night to urinate,
• Delayed urination or distress – Difficulty getting your baby to urinate.
What do doctors call normal urination?
In fact, in order to understand what a urinary disorder is, you need to know what normal urination is. Children usually urinate 6-7 times a day and at least 3 times
What are the signs of urinary problems?
• If your child has daytime urinary incontinence,
• if your child has a sudden and overwhelming urge to urinate,
• If your child has urinary retention, sometimes mums will tell you that he didn’t urinate in the morning or that there was a so-called “accident” in the toilet.
• if your child develops and begins to relapse urinary tract infections, constipation, or behavior involving urinary retention and of course nocturnal enuresis.
Should all urinary disorders be treated?
There is a group of low-risk diseases and a group of high-risk diseases that can develop with kidney failure. Low risk of urinary tract development includes the following symptoms: daytime urinary syndrome, urinary incontinence, laughing incontinence, stress urinary incontinence, bladder deficiency, and primary nocturnal enuresis. These syndromes do not require intensive research or any special monitoring.
How to deal with low-risk disease symptoms?
We suggest that you consult your general practitioner or pediatric urologist and:
Sometimes you need to calm down
Different behaviors are sometimes studied
For example, the syndrome of frequent daytime urination: a child urinates up to 20 times a day.This disorder can be caused by psychological stress and is most common in boys between the ages of 4-8. Urine analysis is normal. There is nothing to be done, it disappears spontaneously after 2 days, and sometimes even after two and a half months.
After urination, drops are common in children. This urination is more common in adolescent girls for a number of reasons: irregular urination (insufficient urination of the feet), frequent urinary tract infections, itchy perineum, sometimes due to fungus or chemical irritation. This is what happens when you enjoy swimming in foam, and the chemicals there can irritate and develop non-bacterial inflammation.
Urinary incontinence also occurs. It is more common in girls before adolescence. This can continue into adulthood without any other urinary problems. We encourage these children to frequently go to the toilet and urinate before an upcoming social event. Laughter incontinence is similar to stress urinary incontinence.
Advice and advice in case of such violations.
First of all, children should learn to urinate regularly, at least 5-6 times a day, slowly.
The guiding principle is to have quick access to the toilet at school and to help reduce embarrassment. If a child does not hold urine, cannot urinate in time, bad breath appears, which is a very traumatic situation even in school bullying.
As a result, children no longer want to go to school, lose friends, and feel worse.
Treatment of urinary tract infections is very important as it is sometimes the main cause of urinary problems. Girls need to be taught to urinate, and in case of laughter, special behaviors need to be learned.
It is advisable to adjust the diet of a child with urinary problems. Nowadays it is very fashionable for teenagers to drink coffee. We ask you to exclude foods that irritate the bladder, primarily caffeine, as well as orange juice, tomatoes, and spicy foods. We recommend taking cranberry juice and yogurt as a preventative measure for urinary tract infections.
90,000 What happens if we know when and how we die?
- Rachel Nuever
- BBC Future
Photo Credit, Thinkstock
Even when the word “death” appears on the computer screen for only 42.8 milliseconds, it makes us change our behavior. And not always for the better. What if they tell us the exact date of our death?
You will of course die. And everyone you know will die one day too.Some psychologists believe that a disturbing thought about this fact constantly looms in the background in our brains and determines all our actions, influencing our decisions to go to church, eat more vegetables or go to the gym and motivate us to have children, write books and start companies.
Even for those who are in good health, death is something that is always with you at the subconscious level.
“We go through most of our lives without thinking about our mortality,” says Chris Voidtner, a pediatrician at Children’s Hospital in Philadelphia and an ethicist at the University of Pennsylvania.“We deal with the existence of this fact, trying to focus on what we see in front of us.”
However, what would happen if the ambiguity surrounding our inevitable demise were ended once and for all? the exact date and cause of our death?
Yes, this is impossible, but if we consider such a scenario, at least hypothetically, it will shed light on life motivations – both our own and the society in which we live.
And, perhaps, it will help us to understand how best to spend the limited time that was given to us for life on Earth.
First, let’s look at how death affects our behavior. In the 1980s, psychologists were very interested in how we manage to cope with the anxiety and fear that come with the knowledge that we are “nothing more than a breathing, relieving, self-aware piece of meat that can die at any moment”, as was once formulated by Sheldon Solomon, professor of psychology at Skidmore College of New York.
Photo author, Getty Images
A number of researchers believe that we adhere to certain views and beliefs only in order to ward off the fear of death
Solomon and his colleagues even coined a special term – “theory of managing the fear of death.”This theory says that people deliberately create certain belief systems in their cultures (for example, that our world has a meaning and our life has a certain value) that help to contain the influence of existential horror that would otherwise simply paralyze humanity.
In more than 1,000 scientifically peer-reviewed experiments, researchers have found that the more often we are reminded of the inevitability of death, the more we stick to foundational cultural beliefs and beliefs in an effort to reinforce our sense of self-worth.
We defend our views more violently and react to anything that threatens them with hostility.
Even the slightest hint of mortality (for example, when the word “death” appears on the computer screen for only 42.8 milliseconds, or when you have a conversation with someone in the vicinity of a funeral home) is enough to influence our behavior , change it.
And what are these changes?
When we are reminded of death, we tend to relate better to those who are similar to us – in appearance, and in political and religious views, and place of residence.
We begin to treat the same people who are not among those close to us more dismissively, even aggressively.
We are more serious about our loved one if he shares our views on the world. And we are more likely to vote for a decisive and charismatic leader who promises to strike fear into outsiders.
Photo author, Getty Images
Thoughts about death can lead to a rise in patriotic feelings and increased antipathy towards outsiders
At the same time, thoughts about death can make us behave more nihilistic, abuse alcohol, smoke a lot, overeat, buy unnecessary things and not care about the protection of the environment.
But what if everyone knows the exact date and cause of their death? It is likely that society will become even more racist, xenophobic, aggressive, belligerent, environmentally harmful – in short, self-harming.
However, not everything is predetermined. Researchers such as Solomon ultimately hope that by knowing the enormous negative consequences that fear of death can lead to, we will learn to resist it.
In fact, scientists have already documented several examples of how people resist conventional behavior.
For example, Buddhist monks in South Korea react very differently to reminders of death.
Photo author, Getty Images
The reaction of practicing Buddhists to reminders of death is completely atypical
Researchers have found that when people are asked to think not about abstract death, but specifically about how they will die and how they die will affect their loved ones, the reaction is very different.
In such cases, people behave more altruistically – for example, they decide to become blood donors, even if the society does not have a serious need for it.
They more thoughtfully and openly discuss the events that happened in their life, their negative or positive impact.
Based on all this, we can assume that knowing the date of our own death can lead to the fact that we will focus on the main thing in our life, on what connects us with loved ones, and will not lock ourselves into ourselves.
“The awareness that life is finite can help us understand its value, develop the feeling that“ we are all in the same boat, ”says Eva Jonas, professor of psychology at the University of Salzburg.“As a result, society can become more tolerant and empathetic.”
So, a society, knowing exactly when each of its members will die, can either follow a curved path of self-destruction, or decide to die beautifully.
How do we treat this knowledge as an individual? – a big event that we cannot avoid.
“The more neurotic you are, the more restless you are, the more preoccupied with the impending death and unable to focus on meaningful behavior, the necessary changes in your life,” – says Laura Blackie, assistant professor of psychology at the University of Nottingham.
“But, on the other hand, if they tell you that you will peacefully die in your sleep when you are 90, it is quite possible that this will not affect your behavior in any way. Well, fine, you say.”
Whether life ends at 13 or 113, studies in terminally ill people shed light on the typical response to death.
Patients in a palliative care center, Voidtner says, often go through two phases. At first, they question every detail of their diagnosis, asking the doctor if it is true that death is inevitable or can still be fought.
Then they ponder how best to use the time they have left. And here the majority falls into one of two categories: either they decide to devote all their energy and strength to the fight against the disease, or they choose to reflect on their life and spend as much time as possible with their loved ones and doing activities that make a person happier.
Photo author, Getty Images
Someone may decide that it is not worth worrying about impending death – it is better to spend the rest of the days in activities that bring joy
Similar processes are likely to occur in the head of each of us, if we know for sure the day of our death.
“Even if you know that you have another 60 years, sooner or later you will have a couple of years, a couple of days, a couple of hours,” emphasizes Voidtner. calm, I think people will behave exactly the same [as hospice patients]. “
Someone who knows they will drown is likely to train hard in swimming. Those who know they will die in a car accident will avoid driving at all costs.
But at the same time there will be others who will choose a different behavior – try to cheat their death and end their lives in their own way.
Jonas and her colleagues found, for example, that when they asked people to imagine that they were facing a painful death as a result of a long illness, those who were offered the option of ending their own lives felt much better and calmer.
Photo author, Getty Images
For some people, the knowledge of imminent death can push them to conquer new creative heights
Those who take the “death sentence” may also react in different ways.
Someone will experience a surge of energy and will try to spend the remaining years (or days) with maximum benefit, conquering new heights in science and creativity, which, quite possibly, they would not have been able to achieve otherwise.
“I would really like to count on knowing the date of my own death to awaken the best in us and allow us to do much more for ourselves, for our family and for society,” says Solomon.
Indeed, there are inspiring examples of how those who have experienced major traumatic experiences and know that they have little time left to manage their lives.
Although it is not easy to collect baseline data on such people, many insist that the most serious, profound changes have taken place in their lives.
“They say they have become stronger, more spiritual, value life more and see more opportunities in it,” Blackie says.
Photo author, Getty Images
Survivors of tragic events sometimes acquire new resilience
However, not everyone knows about the day of death awakens the best feelings and creativity.
Many will simply cut ties with society altogether – and not necessarily because they are lazy. They will simply be swallowed up by a sense of the meaninglessness of everything.
As Caitlyn Doughty, founder of the Order of Good Death, the Death Acceptance Society, once said, “Would you write this article if you knew you were going to die in June?” (probably not).
Feelings of meaninglessness can lead many to abandon the “healthy lifestyle”.
If death still cannot be pushed aside, why bother yourself. “I’m not going to eat organic food anymore, I’ll drink standard Coke instead of dietary one. Maybe I’ll try drugs. And in general I will overeat cakes all day,” says Doughty. death and thoughts about it, and it is for this to maintain law and order. “
Photo author, Getty Images
Knowing the exact date of his death can release from the genie bottle all human vices, for the time being held back
However, it is most likely that most people will alternate weeks of nihilism and vices with weeks of work for the good of society. “One week you sit at home, nibbling crackers pack after pack and not looking up from the TV screen. And the next week you distribute free soup to the homeless as a volunteer,” comments Solomon.
However, regardless of the degree of our consciousness and enlightenment, the closer we are to the day of our death, the more we look like a “wreck trembling with horror.”
“Change is always stressful,” sums up Voidtner. “And here we are talking about the most serious change that happens in a person’s life – the transition from a state of life to a state of non-life.”
Will new cults emerge?
Practically speaking, in whatever country we are, our daily life would change at its very core if we all knew when and how we would die.
Much more people would visit a psychiatrist, new trends in psychiatry, new social customs and rituals would arise – the date of future death, perhaps, would be marked by someone, as we celebrate birthdays now (only the countdown would be the countdown).
Photo by Getty Images
Would knowing the day of death have an impact on your faith?
A serious blow would be dealt to existing religions. New cults would arise.
“Are we going to start worshiping the new system that tells us the day of our death? Bring her gifts? Giving her virgins?” – muses Doughty.
Human relationships will also be seriously affected. For many, it will become necessary to find a partner whose date of death is close to his own. Marriage mobile applications will be supplemented for this with a special filter.
“One of the things people usually fear death is not their own demise, but the loss of those they love,” Doughty says. “Why would I marry or marry someone who dies at 40 years old when will I die at 89? ”
If it will be possible to find out the date of death already at the embryonic stage, then some parents will prefer to have an abortion if it turns out that their child will die at a young age – just to avoid the tragic loss of their beloved son or daughter.
And someone, having learned that their life will be short, will decide not to have children at all. Or, on the contrary, to have as many children as possible, and the sooner the better.
Photo author, Getty Images
Many will look for a bride or groom whose date of death will be close to their own.
New laws and regulations will have to be adopted. According to Rose Eveleth, creator and producer of the Flash Forward podcast (which features an episode exploring a similar hypothetical possibility), it may be necessary to pass a date of death privacy law to prevent employers from discriminating against workers on this basis.
On the other hand, politicians will probably have to disclose the date of their death before participating in the elections (and refusal to do so will lead to a scandal). “Agree, it makes sense, otherwise it could happen that the president-elect dies three days after the inauguration,” notes Evelet.
Someone may even decide to tattoo the date of their death on their arm or wear a patch similar to the one worn by the military with a blood group, so that in an emergency, doctors know whether to make resuscitation efforts, says Rose Eveleth.
The funeral industry will suffer: it will have to switch to serving the interests of the still living instead of milking inconsolable relatives.
When the big day comes, the date of the predicted death, someone can throw a big party or hold an elaborate event – as some of those who have obtained permission to euthanasia do now.
And someone who is destined to die in tragic circumstances may prefer that none of their loved ones were present.
Evelet believes that there will be such creative personalities who use the day of their death for artistic or propaganda purposes, putting on a whole performance with the participation of those who are destined to die on that day.
In general, knowing when and how we will die will fundamentally change our life.
“Human civilization developed around the idea of death, – emphasizes Doughty. – I think that the exact knowledge of the date of departure will completely destroy the existing way of life.”
To read the original of this article in English, please visit BBC Future .
All the secrets of phrasal verbs in English
Learning English, many have difficulties in mastering phrasal verbs. The fact is that they can quickly and unexpectedly change their values and there are a lot of them. They are especially common phrasal verbs in colloquial English. Let’s take a look at this interesting topic.
Kinds of phrasal verbs
Phrasal verbs are an almost countless group of verbs that, when combined with different prepositions or short adverbs, can take on a variety of new meanings.Strictly speaking, there are three kinds of phrasal verbs:
Directly phrasal verbs, formed using adverbs:
- give up – give up, cancel
- find out – find out, find out
- take off – take off, quickly leave
- go on – continue
- look after – take care, look after
- come across – stumble upon, accidentally find
Phrasal-prepositional verbs containing both an adverb and a preposition:
- put up with – endure, put up with something
- come up with – come up with
- look up to – respect, follow the example of
History of Phrasal Verbs
The origins of phrasal verbs can be traced back to the earliest Old English written sources. Adverbs and prepositions were used in them in a very literal sense and indicated mainly the direction, place or orientation of an object in space. For example:
The man walked out . – The man came out. ( direction )
The man stood by . – The man was standing nearby. ( place )
The man held his hand up . The man raised his hand up. ( orientation )
In addition, both adverbs and prepositions indicated the relationship between the verb and the object in the sentence:
The woman stood by the house.- The woman was standing near the house. ( place )
The thief climbed out the window. – The thief climbed out of the window. ( direction )
He hung the coat over the fire. – He hung his cloak over the fire. ( orientation in space )
The number of combinations of verbs with adverbs and prepositions has been accumulating for centuries. Their meanings sometimes changed beyond recognition. To illustrate the development of meanings, consider below the nuances that the adverb “out” has acquired over several centuries.
OUT: Adventures of the Same Speech
In the 9th century, it had only a literal meaning – “going out”, for example, walk out and ride out. Around the 14th century, the meaning of “pluck a sound” was added, such as cry out and call out. In the 15th century, the meaning “to cease to exist” appeared – die out (to die out) and burn out (to burn out, to burn out).
By the 16th century, the meaning of “distribute equally” appeared, such as pass out and parcel out.And by the 19th century, the meaning of “free from content” was added, such as clean out and rinse out. In addition, in modern colloquial English, the verb pass out means “pass out, lose consciousness.”
As you may have noticed, most of the verbs in the given example are translated by the Russian verb with a prefix – in this case, these are the prefixes “you-” and “raz-“, which, like “out”, have the main meaning of outward movement.
As in Russian, the prefix serves as a powerful tool for the formation of various verbs from one root ( to walk, you to walk, to to walk, to to walk, to to walk , etc.).so in English the same role is played by prepositions and adverbs.
The meanings of some phrasal verbs are intuitive, since they are easily deduced from its constituent elements: come back – to return, go away – to leave, stand up – to get up, and so on. Others are idiomatic in nature, and their meanings just need to be memorized separately, for example: take after – take an example, be like someone.
In combination with various elements, the main verb can acquire a variety of meanings, at first glance, little related to each other in meaning.For example:
look – watch
look for – search
look after – take care
look up to – respect
Phrasal Verb Synonyms
Phrasal verbs can be found in English text of any style and genre, but nevertheless, the main sphere of their use is colloquial speech. In the formal business and scientific style, it is more common to use verbs of French, Latin or Greek origin.This is not a strict rule, but a steady trend and it has a long history.
Phrasal verbs arose naturally in the English language, however, an event occurred that made the language develop in two parallel ways. This event was the Norman conquest of England in 1066.
After William the Conqueror invaded the country and seized power, French began to prevail in the upper strata of society, and English was supplanted and became the language of the common people.This situation persisted for a century and a half, until in 1204 England was freed from French rule.
During this time, French became the language of educated people, and it was from it that writers borrowed new words to make up for the impoverished vocabulary of English. In addition, many scholars were fluent in Latin and Ancient Greek, so they turned to these languages, drawing from them terms for new areas of knowledge.
The English language began to abound in foreign words, which, along with the original ones, expressed the nuances of the same concept.For example, the meaning of the word foretell can be expressed by the Latin word predict or the Greek word prophesy. As a result, while the original phrasal verbs naturally developed in folk speech, borrowed words expanded scientific and literary vocabulary.
The English language continues to evolve today in these two parallel paths. Therefore, hundreds of English phrasal verbs have French, Latin or Greek synonyms that have similar meanings, but more “scientific” sound.Here are just a few of these synonyms:
|blow up||explode||detonate (xia)||find out||ascertain||inquire, inquire|
|give up||surrender||surrender||go against||oppose|| object,
|hand in||submit||apply (documents)||leave out||omit||overlook (overlook)|
|look forward to||anticipate|| expect,
|look up to||admire, respect||admire, respect|
|make up||fabricate||dream up||point out||indicate||show|
|pull out||extract|| pull out,
|put off||postpone||put off (for later)|
|put out||extinguish||extinguish (fire)||put together||assemble, compose||collect|
|speed up||accelerate||accelerate||stand up for||defend||defend|
Separability of phrasal verbs
Most phrasal verbs are inseparable, that is, a preposition or adverb immediately follows the main part. You can say:
“She looks after her sister” (“She looks after her sister”), but not – “She looks her sister after “.
However, there are many verbs that can be separated. The phrases “He took off his coat” and “He took his coat off ” are equally true.
To figure out which verbs can be separated and which can not, it is necessary to remember two classifications.First, as we said at the beginning of the article, phrasal verbs form three subcategories: prepositional verbs, phrasal verbs, and prepositional-phrasal verbs. Secondly, any verb can be transitive (have a direct object) or intransitive (have no object).
Prepositional verbs are of the form
verb + preposition
A preposition is always followed by an object (noun or pronoun), therefore all prepositional verbs have a direct object. He is looking for his glasses. – He’s looking for his glasses.
Prepositional verbs cannot be separated, that is, we cannot put an object between its parts. You can’t say “He is looking his glasses for “.
Phrasal verbs are of the form
verb + adverb
Short adverbs are not always easy to distinguish from prepositions. For example, in the sentence “You can count on them”, on is a preposition, and in the sentence “You can go on ” it is an adverb.The grammatical difference is that an adverb does not always need an addition. Thus, phrasal verbs can be both transitive and intransitive. For example:
give up – surrender (intransitive verb)
They failed many times, but never gave up. – They made mistakes many times but never gave up.
put off – put off (transitive verb)
We had to put off the meeting. – We had to postpone the meeting.
Intransitive phrasal verbs, by definition, are inseparable, since they have no object at all. Many transitive verbs are separable.
If the verb is separable, then the addition can be either after it or between its parts:
“They turned down his offer” is equivalent to “They turned his offer down “.
With regard to split verbs, there is one more rule: if the object is expressed in an expanded turnover, it is placed after the verb.If the object is expressed by a pronoun, it is placed between its two parts. Compare:
- “She took off her expensive white coat” and “She took it off ” (“She took it off”).
Phrasal prepositional verbs are of the form
verb + adverb + preposition
Since these verbs end with a preposition, they are always followed by a direct object. Like prepositional verbs, they are inseparable.
As you can see, there are a lot of phrasal verbs in English, and this topic is not easy. It is more efficient to keep a separate list of such verbs with synonyms: this will make it easier for you to remember them.
Read about phrasal verbs in our articles:
Phrasal verbs: WORK and its brigade
TURN and its command: 9 phrasal verbs to remember
Verb to live: 10 variations on a given theme
LOOK and company
Essays – what is, how to write, essay composition, examples
What is an essay
The word “essay” came into Russian from French and historically goes back to the Latin word exagium (weighing).French ezzai can be literally translated into words experience, trial, attempt, sketch, essay.
An essay is a prose essay of a small volume and free composition expressing individual impressions and considerations on a specific occasion or issue and obviously does not pretend to be a definitive or exhaustive interpretation of the subject.
In the “Explanatory Dictionary of Foreign Words” by L.P. Rat essay is defined as “an essay that treats some problems not in a systematic scientific form, but in a free form.”
“The Great Encyclopedic Dictionary” gives the following definition: “Essays are a genre of philosophical, literary-critical, historical-biographical, journalistic prose, combining the author’s emphasized individual position with a relaxed, often paradoxical presentation focused on colloquial speech.”
“A Brief Literary Encyclopedia” specifies: “An essay is a prose essay of a small volume and free composition, treating a particular topic and representing an attempt to convey individual impressions and considerations, one way or another connected with it.”
Some essay features:
- The presence of a specific topic or question. A work devoted to the analysis of a wide range of problems, by definition, cannot be performed in the essay genre.
- The essay expresses individual impressions and considerations on a specific occasion or issue and does not certainly claim to be a definitive or exhaustive interpretation of the subject.
- As a rule, an essay presupposes a new, subjectively colored word about something, such a work can have a philosophical, historical and biographical, journalistic, literary-critical, popular science or purely fictional character.
- in the content of the essay, first of all, the personality of the author is assessed – his worldview, thoughts and feelings.
This genre has become popular in recent years. M. Montaigne is considered the creator of the essay genre (“Experiments”, 1580). Today, the essay is offered as an assignment quite often. It is one of the main components of the package of documents (for admission to an educational institution or employment). The essay competition helps you choose the best from the variety of the best!
It is also important to write an essay for a young specialist.
How the candidate managed to present himself, how he described his achievements and failures, allows the employer to determine whether this person is good enough for the business, whether his work experience is sufficient to justify expectations in the future and benefit the company (organization, enterprise) . ..
The purpose of the essay is to develop skills such as independent creative thinking and writing your own thoughts.
Writing an essay is extremely useful, because it allows the author to learn how to clearly and competently formulate thoughts, structure information, use basic concepts, highlight cause-and-effect relationships, illustrate experience with relevant examples, and argue their conclusions.
The most relevant topic for a young professional’s essay is “Me and my career”. The subject of the essay is given so that the commission (employer) can easily assess the characteristics of your thinking, creativity, enthusiasm and potential. The best way to achieve this result is to write directly and honestly, while remaining honest with yourself. If you’re not being honest, chances are your writing will be considered unnatural.
Structure and outline of the essay
The structure of the essay is determined by the requirements for it:
- The thoughts of the author of the essay on the problem are presented in the form of short theses (T).
- the thought must be supported by evidence – therefore the thesis is followed by arguments (A).
Arguments are facts, phenomena of social life, events, life situations and life experience, scientific evidence, references to the opinion of scientists, etc. It is better to give two arguments in favor of each thesis: one argument seems unconvincing, three arguments can “overload” the presentation , made in a genre focused on brevity and imagery.
Thus, the essay acquires a circular structure (the number of theses and arguments depends on the topic, the chosen plan, the logic of the development of thought):
- thesis, arguments
- thesis, arguments
- thesis, arguments
When writing an essay, it is also important to consider the following points:
- The introduction and conclusion should focus on the problem (in the introduction it is posed, in the conclusion – the author’s opinion is summarized).
- It is necessary to highlight paragraphs, red lines, establish a logical connection between paragraphs: this is how the integrity of the work is achieved.
- Style of presentation: essays are characterized by emotionality, expressiveness, artistry. Experts believe that short, simple sentences with various intonation and skillful use of the “most modern” punctuation mark – a dash – provide the desired effect.However, the style reflects the personality traits, it is also useful to remember this.
Before you start writing your essay, pay attention to the following questions. Answers to them will allow you to more clearly define what is worth writing in an essay:
- When discussing your personality traits or abilities in your essay, ask yourself:
- Do I differ in one way or another from those whom I know?
- How was this quality manifested?
- About the activities that you were (are doing):
- What made me take up this activity?
- Why did I keep doing this?
- For every event in your life that you mentioned:
- Why do I remember this particular event?
- Has it changed me as a person?
- How did I react to this?
- whether it was a revelation to me; something I didn’t know about before?
- For each person you mentioned:
- Why did I name this particular person?
- Do I strive to become like him?
- What qualities do I admire about him?
- Was there something said to them that I will remember all my life?
- Have I reconsidered my views?
- About each of your preferences and what you dislike:
- Why do I like it or not?
- Has this circumstance significantly affected my life?
- For every failure of yours:
- What have I learned as a result?
- What useful have I learned from this situation?
In terms of content, essays are:
- literary critical,
- artistic and journalistic,
- spiritual and religious, etc.
In literary form, essays are presented in the form:
- lyric miniatures,
- diary pages,
- letters, etc.
There are also essays:
- analytical, etc.
In this case, the compositional features of the work performed in the essay genre are the basis.
Finally, a classification of essays into two large groups is proposed:
- personal, subjective essay, where the main element is the disclosure of one or another side of the author’s personality,
- an objective essay, where the personal principle is subordinated to the subject of description or some idea.
Essays by young professionals on a specific topic belong to the second group.
It is possible to single out some common features (features) of the genre, which are usually listed in encyclopedias and dictionaries:
- Small volume.
Of course, there are no hard boundaries. The volume of the essay is from three to seven pages of computer text. For example, at Harvard Business School, essays are often written in just two pages. In Russian universities, essays are allowed up to ten pages, however, typewritten text.
- A specific topic and its highly subjective interpretation.
The topic of an essay is always specific. An essay cannot contain many topics or ideas (thoughts). It reflects only one option, one thought.And develops it. This is the answer to one question.
- Free composition is an important feature of the essay.
The researchers note that the essay is by its very nature arranged in such a way that it does not tolerate any formal framework. It is often built contrary to the laws of logic, obeys arbitrary associations, and is guided by the principle “All the way around”.
- Ease of storytelling.
It is important for the author of the essay to establish a confidential style of communication with the reader; to be understood, he avoids deliberately complicated, obscure, overly strict constructions. The researchers note that a good essay can only be written by someone who is fluent in the topic, sees it from different angles and is ready to present the reader with a non-exhaustive, but multifaceted view of the phenomenon that became the starting point of his reflections.
- A tendency to paradox.
The essay is designed to surprise the reader (listener) – this, according to many researchers, is its essential quality. The starting point for reflections embodied in an essay is often an aphoristic, vivid statement or a paradoxical definition that literally collides at first glance indisputable, but mutually exclusive statements, characteristics, theses.
- Internal semantic unity
Perhaps this is one of the paradoxes of the genre. Free in composition, focused on subjectivity, the essay, at the same time, has an internal semantic unity, i.e. the consistency of key theses and statements, the inner harmony of arguments and associations, the consistency of those judgments in which the author’s personal position is expressed.
- Orientation to spoken language
At the same time, it is necessary to avoid the use of slang in the essay, formulaic phrases, shortening of words, too frivolous tone.The language used when writing an essay should be taken seriously.
So, when writing an essay, it is important to define (understand) its topic, determine the desired volume and goals of each paragraph.
Start with a main idea or catchphrase. The task is to immediately grab the attention of the reader (listener). Comparative allegory is often used here, when an unexpected fact or event is associated with the main topic of the essay.
Essay Writing Rules
- Of the formal rules for writing an essay, only one can be named – the presence of a heading.
- The internal structure of the essay can be arbitrary. Since this is a small form of written work, it is not required to repeat the conclusions at the end, they can be included in the main text or in the heading.
- Argumentation may precede the formulation of the problem. The wording of the problem may match the final conclusion.
- Unlike the abstract, which is addressed to any reader, so it starts with “I want to talk about …” and ends with “I came to the following conclusions… “, essay is replica , addressed to a prepared reader (listener). That is, a person who already has a general idea of what will be discussed. This allows the author of the essay to focus on the disclosure of something new and not clutter up the presentation with official details .
Errors when writing an essay
Unlike tests, essays do not assume a multiple-choice format (when you are offered several answers to choose from). Essay writing is not limited in time, you can rewrite it many times, ask friends to read your essay.Take advantage of all the opportunities and try to avoid common mistakes.
- Bad check.
Don’t think you can just check your spelling. Re-read your essays and make sure that there are no ambiguous expressions, bad phrases, etc. Examples that should not be “noted”:
“I am proud that I was able to resist the use of drugs, alcohol, tobacco.”
“Working for your firm (organization) located in a wonderful place with a lot of Gothic architecture will be an exciting challenge for me.”
- Tedious prefaces. Not enough parts.
Too often, an interesting essay fails in enumerating statements without illustrating them with examples. Essays share the usual clichés: the importance of hard work and perseverance, learning from mistakes, etc.
Essays are limited to a certain number of words, so you need to use this volume wisely. Sometimes this means giving up some ideas or details, especially if they have already been mentioned somewhere or are not directly related to the case.Such things only distract the attention of the reader (listener) and obscure the main topic of the essay.
- Long phrases.
The longer the sentence, the better, according to some candidates. However, this is far from the truth. Long phrases do not yet prove the author is right, and short sentences are often more effective. It is best when in the essay long phrases alternate with short ones. Try reading the essay aloud. If you feel that you are holding your breath, break the paragraph into smaller paragraphs.
When you have finished writing your essay, do this exercise. Give each paragraph a letter: either S (short), M (medium), or L (long). S – less than 10 words, M – less than 20 words, L – 20 or more words.
The correct essay has the following or similar letter order – M S M L M S.
An incorrect essay characterizes such a sequence of letters – S S S M L L L.
- Don’t overload your essay.
When writing essays, discard words from encyclopedias. The incorrect use of such words distracts the reader’s attention and diminishes the meaning of the essay.
By avoiding such common mistakes, you can interest the expert committee (employer) with your experience.
When writing an essay, it is very important to check the first version of it. When writing a draft, your main task is to develop argumentation, polish the main thoughts and arrange them in a strict sequence, accompanied by illustrative materials or supporting data, etc.After writing the first draft, let it rest for a day or two, and then return to the work of checking and improving, with a fresh mind.
When checking your essay, first of all, pay attention to the following important points:
- First of all, it is important to remember that essays are a subjective genre , therefore their assessment can be subjective. You shouldn’t target the whole mass of employers.
- Data provided:
Regardless of which question you answer, you need to achieve certain goals.You are expected to keep the following in mind when you write your essay:
Did I answer the question asked?
How clearly and accurately have I stated my thoughts?
Does what I wrote sound natural, are there any mistakes?
Also make sure that you:
- Demonstrated a desire to build their career in a certain direction.
- Have been “targeted” for a career in a specific field.
- Included in the story from one to three qualities, strengths, characteristics that set you apart from the crowd of other candidates.
- Provided at least one compelling case for an employer to invite you to their business.
- Communication / Writing Skills.
Essays are also designed to test your phrasing and writing skills. The specialist selection consultant says: “Your essay should not characterize you as a future writer or philologist, you are a future leader, manager. For business success, the ability to present your ideas well is important, and those who are easy communicates with other people. “
A poorly written (submitted) essay will not get you accepted into the business.
- The image of a real person.
The expert commission (employer) wants to see in the essay the image of the person who wrote it. It is not only test results, work experience that are important, but also the character of the candidate. “We’re looking for something elusive in documents that numbers can’t show, so we hope to find it in an essay. Don’t miss the opportunity to tell us about yourself in your essays.This will help us make sure that we are considering a real person, and not just the sum of various indicators. “
The following is important here – to be honest, sincere, unique, that is, to be yourself!
Experts believe that often graduates, job seekers really want to seem like someone: a leader, a mature person, that they forget to be just a human!
The only way to make the commission (employer) see the image of a particular person behind all documents is to add an element of personal, inimitable, unique in the essay.Your essays will immediately become more interesting and eye-catching. They will help you stand out from hundreds of other applicants.
“Essays should be as personalized as possible. It is boring to read essays that are replete with general phrases is a waste of time. Still, you will not understand anything about the identity of this candidate.”
Everything that you write in an essay must be supported by examples, make references to your experience. Details will make your essays interesting, unique, and specific.
- Distinctive features / Uniqueness / Something interesting, funny.
According to experts, “graduates (applicants) should not be afraid that they will go beyond the acceptable, it is better to be themselves. Very often, graduates are concerned about whether they can make the right impression, so they remove from the essay everything that makes them outstanding. Essays so safe from the point of view of graduates are quite tedious to read. ”
You don’t have to be joking in your essays to make them interesting.However, try to use every means at your disposal to make your essays memorable.
The panel of experts does not tolerate participants who like to show themselves off. It will be better if you reflect the true state of affairs in an essay. At the same time, do not focus on your shortcomings, although they are present in your character. You have to be honest, but positive. Give only positive feedback about yourself and your qualities! The so-called “weaknesses” should be presented as follows: “earlier this was my drawback, but now it has turned into a positive quality.”
- Literary work.
Representatives of expert committees love essays that are a pleasure to read. “Make sure your essay is easy to read. Take some more time to check if your thoughts are consistent, whether they lead to the logical conclusion of the topic.”
“Humor is a great tool, but use it wisely. A sarcastic or cocky tone is often annoying. True humor is an art, it is a sign of good taste.”
In your essays, you tell a success story, indicate the reasons why you want to build your career in the direction you have chosen.You can go even further by writing an essay in the form of a literary work: a story, a novel. This is a risky approach, however, as most people are not very good writers, and it can also play down the seriousness of your storytelling. Finally, employers will not invite you into their business just because you are a great storyteller.
If you, dear readers, have already familiarized yourself with the content of the section “How to write an essay” and now you have a good idea of the structure and rules for writing an essay, are familiar with the methodology and imagine how to check an essay, what errors may occur when writing an essay, then now, for writing a good essay on your chosen topic – you are missing the smallest thing: get acquainted with the examples of essays.Examples by themselves will not replace your essay. And they should not be copied and displayed as your own – this is an occupation for losers, for those who cannot and are unable. Examples are given here for others and for another – in order to improve the understanding of the rules outlined earlier, comparing them with the practical material given here.
An example of writing an essay on the topic “Me and my career
Such an essay is a free-form statement (usually short, no more than one page) of thoughts about the goals and meaning of a career for a graduate.
Free form allows you to fully demonstrate creativity, non-standard and flexible thinking, written communication skills and effective self-presentation.
In an essay on the topic of a career, the applicant reveals his view of a career, describes the reasons and features of his choice of a profession, characterizes the image of the future and reveals his own strategies for achieving career success.
An example of writing an essay on the topic “Me and my career”
In the life of every person there comes a moment of making important decisions that determine his further path.The question of choosing a profession is undoubtedly such. Despite the fact that many graduates find themselves in areas not related to professional orientation, I want to work in my specialty – “Roads and Airfields”.
I chose this direction for a reason – my parents also once made such a step. And although mom has not worked in her specialty for a long time, dad remains faithful to his work to this day. So we can safely say that we have a family of hereditary road builders.That is why it is so important for me to approach my business with great responsibility, not to lose my face.
Today, like hundreds of years ago, a significant part of freight and passenger traffic in the country is carried out by highways, and that is why the main problem in the development of the infrastructure of the Russian Federation is the availability of high-quality and functional highways. There are known cases of complete or partial destruction of the road bed almost immediately after construction, due to the unprofessionalism of the road workers.And to solve this problem, specialists are needed who are able to competently manage the process of construction, repair and maintenance of highways.
In modern conditions, companies engaged in the construction industry and claiming leading positions in the market need to use not only the accumulated experience, but also introduce the achievements of modern science into the work process. The use of discoveries in the field of satellite systems and in the field of nanotechnology will allow Russian companies to enter the world level.But the success of companies depends not only on the introduction of know-how, but also the atmosphere within the team is an integral part of it. Well-coordinated work and understanding of the importance of processes are one of the main points of success in any business.
In conclusion, I would like to note that during the educational process I not only mastered the basic principles of road design, the technology of their construction, but also understood the physical meaning of each process of creating a road project. In my opinion, it is not just knowledge, but the understanding of the process that distinguishes an ordinary engineer from a professional who is able to see not only the problem in perspective, but also the ways to solve it.
Sample essay on the topic “Man and Society”: Problems of loneliness and solitude in the city
Getting started, first you need to answer the question: what does the term “city” itself mean in the sociologist’s understanding? First of all, of course, it is the society itself, without which the city is unthinkable; a society that changes from day to day and at the same time changes this complex world, created by people themselves during the entire time of its existence.
Concerning the problem of the city as an object for sociological analysis, it is worth mentioning the name of Robert Park, an American sociologist known for his research in the study of the urban environment.In his opinion, “it was in the urban environment – in the world that man created for himself – that humanity first rose to the level of intellectual life and acquired those features that most distinguish it from animals and primitive people”. In this sense, the urban community is something unique, which is essentially different from nature, since many features that a person has been able to cultivate in himself during his life in a new environment for himself are not characteristic of it.
But let’s look at the city from a different angle.On the one hand, it was with the help of the city that society was able to expand its capabilities, transform its life and make it much more comfortable. But what is the other side of the coin? And here we come to the main topic of work: living in huge megalopolises, where it would seem impossible to feel lonely, people are increasingly moving away from each other. The 16th century philosopher Rene Descartes was the author of the words: “Solitude must be sought in big cities,” – needless to say, how relevant this phrase is for the 21st century?
Moving to big cities in the hope of building a new, happy future, people are often left with nothing, feel like strangers in a new atmosphere and are lost among a huge number of citizens like them.Over the past 50 years, the number of elderly people in Russia leading a lonely lifestyle has increased, and this trend continues to develop in a negative direction for society. The state is trying to fight this social problem by supporting the creation of new homes for the elderly and by sponsoring in every possible way various events aimed at helping pensioners and disabled people, but, unfortunately, this is not enough: people who are accustomed to living alone are unable to overpower themselves and open up.
Such distrust of others is characteristic not only of the elderly category of people, but of the whole society as a whole. To prove this, you should at least go down to the Moscow metro: you can rarely see a person here whose face will not be darkened by the severity of daily worries and problems. Being in the carriage, you feel “a feeling of insecurity, your inappropriateness and at the same time a feeling of alienation, a desire to distance yourself from the other, who is watching whether you are not going to get up and go, or is dangerously hanging over you.” It is not surprising why, in such an oppressive atmosphere, everyone tries to close, hide from external negativity, withdrawing into himself.
Speaking about the problem of human loneliness in the city, I would like to recall the work of H.W. Zorbo “Gold Coast and the Slums”. In it, the author showed two completely different at first glance worlds of Chicago: “the world of high society” and “the world of furnished rooms.” You might think that there can be nothing in common between them, but what unites them is actually much more important than their financial position or status in society. We are talking, of course, about the distance between people from each other. Perhaps, in the high society of the Gold Coast, this feeling of loneliness was felt not so strongly by the representatives of the world themselves, as the feeling of oppression and hopelessness experienced by the inhabitants of the “slums”.But if you look deeper, both the inhabitants of the Gold Coast and the inhabitants of apartment buildings did not know a single person closely, only occasionally communicating with some, either for the sake of “showing off”, as it happened in the “world of the Gold Coast”, or by mere coincidence, because among the residents of apartment buildings, there was a “general barrier of distrust.” It is difficult to say whether the situation has changed today, because in our time people are still trying to establish relationships with at least those whom they see almost every day. But even if a person has several such acquaintances, can we say that he is not alone?
According to Georg Simmel, “the independence of the individual, which is the result of the mutual isolation and indifference that make up the conditions of the spiritual life of our wide circles, is nowhere felt so strongly as in the crowded hustle and bustle of big cities, because physical proximity and crowding only emphasize spiritual remoteness. “Indeed, precisely being in a crush, a person is especially acutely aware of his own insignificance. Everyone knows this feeling: in the metro at rush hour, on a busy street, people do not notice each other, trying to either abstract from what is happening, or throw out the accumulated negative on anyone who is nearby. The question arises, why is this happening? Why do people do everything possible to build around themselves insurmountable barriers that close them from the outside world, instead of, on the contrary, go towards each other?
Perhaps this is one of the many tasks of a sociologist’s work – to understand the reason for such a negative and indifferent attitude of people towards each other, especially among the inhabitants of megalopolises, and, therefore, to give an answer to the question of how to eradicate this all-consuming feeling of loneliness, striking every second living in the city.Now it is difficult to imagine what the society of our time would look like if it were not so aggressive and indifferent, but the main thing that can be said for sure, it would be better in many respects, no matter how bold it sounds. That is why the exploration of the city does not stop, every day bringing us closer and closer to the goal.
Sample Social Studies Essay on the Sociology of Working Relationships
- Team or Working Group
- Communication structure and roles within the group
- Stages of team development
- Group roles
- Socio-psychological climate
- Test: Factors influencing the formation of positive group motivation
- Test: The level of favorable psychological climate
- Working group efficiency
- Motivation for achieving success and avoiding failure
- Conflicts in the group
Team or working group
Our department – financial management – consists of 5 people, which is optimal from a sociological point of view.
The department, in its essence, most likely refers to the work team, since in the presence of all its characteristics. Our team members:
- strive to achieve a common goal,
- perform specific tasks as part of their job responsibilities,
- constantly interact and coordinate their efforts.
- there is a high frequency of team member interaction;
- is a fairly long “life”.
The department does not yet correspond to the level of the team, i.e.Because relations in the department are not so important for each of us, and it is difficult to call them active. Although, of course, the department is an integral system, where there is a distribution of functions, a structure of leadership and management. Also, working in the department, each of us develops and grows professionally.
Each of the employees makes a separate contribution to the overall result according to their functions, maintains a separate section of financial accounting for the holding, and this work does not have any interdependence. Therefore, in our case, the creation of a highly developed team is not very important. But since our location is such that we are in the same room, each of us contributes to the emotional sphere of the work team, which is very important. We all have a professional interest in our work, which thereby encourages us to hold on to our place and not create confrontation. As far as I know, there is no problem of contradiction between individual and group interests of employees.
If you watch our joint conversations, in which all employees take part, then this is usually “pulling the blanket over yourself.”No one in the department, including the CFO, is the leader, and no one has much influence over the collective opinion. But no one pretends to be a leader. Employees are frank and open-minded, expressing their opinions freely and being considerate of the opinions of others. I would even say that during non-working moments, people try to take revenge on the director for the fact that in the work sphere they have to completely obey his decisions. But at the same time, it does not carry any negative consequences or repressions. Therefore, having poured out your negativity in a non-working environment, the work in the department then continues smoothly and positively.
When it comes to work meetings and conferences, there is an absolute dictatorship of the CFO. The employees, of course, express their proposals openly and honestly, because no one interferes with this, but after all the discussions, the director enforces his decision, made even before the meeting. Although, if the proposed proposal has strong argumentation, then it will be accepted.
If the CFO needs help in making a decision on a particular issue, he will not hold a meeting, but go directly to the official doing this work and resolve the issue “face-to-face.”
Communication structure and roles within the group
The structure of our financial management refers to the frontal structure of communication channels. We are all in the same room, we can enter into direct contacts, we see each other.At the same time, there is a leader who coordinates our work. That. in parallel directly with the work itself, there is also an emotional and psychological background, which sometimes promotes any activity, and sometimes interferes with it.
If we consider the structure of the entire holding, then this is, of course, the hierarchical structure of communication channels, which is accepted in most companies engaged in commercial activities. An employee – a simple specialist – cannot directly contact the general director, but only his immediate supervisor.Interpersonal communication between all employees of the holding is limited and occurs only when necessary, or in the presence of personal friendship.
As far as communication roles are concerned, as financial management, each of our employees performs the role of a watchman. Everyone collects information on the area of the holding entrusted to him, filters and aggregates it. And already in the processed form, it goes to the CFO and, if necessary, other line managers.
My responsibilities include communication with financial workers of the enterprises owned by our holding. Moreover, I am tied at once to several people of each of the “daughters”, and I receive information both for my department and for others, for example, for accounting. That. I am acting as a liaison officer.
In part, I also play the role of “opinion leader”, because firstly, I have been working in the department for a long time, and, secondly, I occupy the position of deputy director, and all new employees who come in initially receive information from me. I convey to them the working information, the strengths and weaknesses of the given area, and with it my personal perception of the situation.
The role of the cosmopolitan is assigned to the CFO. It has a large number of external relations, both within the holding, at different levels of the hierarchy, and outside it – counterparties, banks, government agencies.
Stages of team development
Our department was formed in a short period of time. True, initially only 3 people worked there. One person, now the CFO, was asked to assemble a team and begin to exercise financial control in a professional manner.Prior to that, only the movement of money was monitored in the holding. I was one of the first to start working in a team.
Initially, this was the stage of formation. Because before that we all did not know each other, then, of course, at first we looked closely at each other and the relationship was absolutely formal. There was nothing negative, but also nothing positive. There was no criticism of the management, gossip, personal grievances, but there were also no friendly affections and human warmth between employees. From the point of view of work, people performed the tasks assigned to them without initiative, but clearly and on time.There was virtually no creative and inspiring teamwork. I would say that then people listened more and were interested in each other, while deeply hiding their own ideas and opinions. The leader at the first stage was, in fact, the leader of the team, from whom the employees were waiting for orders, setting goals and developing methods to achieve the assigned tasks.
After that, the confrontation stage began. People have already studied each other enough, and began to express their thoughts more openly and freely.Moreover, everyone had experience of working in other organizations behind them, so everyone offered their own method of work and considered it optimal. Friction and competition for possession of a higher status began in the team. There were attempts to assassinate the power of the leader. Unfortunately, he perceived this behavior of the group members as rejection of himself, the employees were not given sufficient independence, but simply retained the position of a leader-leader, as a result of which one person was fired.On the emotional side, groups and clans were not formed due to the small size of the department.
Despite all the difficulties of the second stage, in the end everything returned to normal. There was a sense of community and unity among the employees of the department. The opposing forces came to a state of equilibrium, cooperation began. Only now there were real actions in the work within the framework established by the leader, the culture of the team was formed.
After the department entered the stage of maturity. The results of the department’s work began to be evaluated by the higher-ranking management and other divisions of the holding.
And it became clear that each of us bears part of the responsibility for this. There was excitement in work and fruitful activity. The first achievements and results appeared.
With the improvement of the quality of work, the opportunities for the introduction of innovations began to expand, the team gained authority at the holding level. There was a sense of pride in a department that was a pleasure to be a member of, and employees began to enjoy the mere fact of belonging to it.
Now the leader makes sure that every member of the group participates in the general activities, no one would be left on the sidelines.It also evaluates positively or negatively the performance of each employee.
The department functions well to this day, and we have not yet survived the stage of disbandment.
According to the testing carried out, our department has the following group elements: finalizer, resource explorer, group organizer, work organizer (s), shaper (leader).
|2.||Shaper||Leader, joins the efforts of group members into a coherent whole||Dynamic, decisive, energetic||Dominant extrovert||in a competent, skillful group|
|5.||Work organizer||Converting ideas into specific tasks and organizing their implementation||Organizer, strong-willed, determined||Strong-willed personality type||in group suggestions and ideas|
|6.||Group organizer||Promotes group agreement, resolves differences, knows the needs, concerns of group members||Sensitivity, diplomacy, kindness, communication||Empatic and communicative personality type||in constant contact with all members of the|
|7.||Resource Explorer||Connecting link with the external environment||Sociable, enthusiastic, energetic, attractive||“Assertive extrovert”||in freedom of action|
|8.||Finisher||Encourages the group to do everything on time to the end||Professional pedantry, obligatory responsibility||Pedantic personality type||in group responsibility, obligation|
The head of our department carries out the role of a shaper, which is of the second degree of importance and the first in fact in the work of the team. This role belongs to the leader, which corresponds to the status of this person.
When planning work, he distributes it among employees, thereby uniting us into a team that performs one job and works for a single result. He really has properties such as dynamism and assertiveness. And we, his employees, are competent people for him to implement his ideas.
I am a deputy and perform the role of a work organizer. This is the second role on my list, and that also corresponds to my status.
My main role in this work team is to transfer the “what?” into the “how?”Those. I structure the tasks of the manager, find methods for their implementation and control the process of their implementation. I have a strong-willed and decisive character, and I have good organizational skills.
Other staff members act as group organizer, resource explorer, and workflow finisher.
We have a sociable and enthusiastic employee with a freedom-loving and inquisitive character. Its psychological characteristics are also reflected in the process of work – the constant collection of information and communication with other departments.There is also a very diplomatic and sensitive employee, which is expressed in resolving differences in the team and often doing someone else’s work. And the finisher is a very pedantic, responsible and obligatory employee who, in the questions and problems that arise, tries to get to the very essence, is very scrupulous, and brings matters to absolute precision.
In my opinion, the established roles in the department complement each other well. And the fact that the first persons of the department also occupy the first role positions is also a positive moment.This distribution of roles has developed by itself and is consistent with the organizational structure.
The only thing that sometimes happens is the exchange of roles, and who was the organizer of the work becomes the finisher, and who was the finisher becomes the explorer of resources. Employees correspond to their roles by about 70-80%. Those. there are no absolute types, and people have only a predisposition to any role that suits them in terms of their mindset and character.
But our team also has one problem.4 out of 5 employees at previous jobs held very significant, if not positions, then statuses. Thus, four employees are not averse to becoming the head of this unit. And if it is difficult enough to take this place, tk. the CFO copes well with his duties and he is satisfied with the top management, then at least have a significant position in the work process. Those. every time a decision is made that differs from his personal opinion or an important task is given to another employee, tense moments or role conflict arise.
The only thing that saves the situation is the correspondence of the professionalism of the employees to their positions. Those. going over the conflict within himself, the person understands that the higher-ranking official has a wider experience and his version is likely to be the best. In addition, the CFO is also the leader of our work team, he has a fairly high level of initiative and activity, experience and skills in organizing activities, an interest in achieving good results and awareness of the affairs of the department.
Our CFO style is a fighting leader. Strong-willed, self-confident person. The first to go to meet danger or uncertainty, without hesitation enters the fight. I am ready to defend what I believe in, and I am not inclined to make concessions. Its advantage is activity, initiative, energy. His shortcomings are the inability to listen and hear others, stubbornness. And also the inability to encourage and criticize – how it happened, so it happened, then so be it.
Components of his leadership is a business and information leader.
During the absence of the CFO, I become the head of the department. My leadership style is an organizer leader. The work process completely absorbs me, I am very sensitive to the problems that arise, but at the same time I do not get lost, but act optimistically and confidently. I prefer the “carrot and stick” method with subordinates. people need to understand when they are doing something wrong, but rewarding good results is also necessary. At the same time, I respectfully communicate with everyone, without hurting anyone else’s dignity.
The components of my leadership are the same – a business and information leader. The emotional side of our team is neglected.
Test: Factors influencing the formation of positive group motivation
|Dominant factors||Score||Dominant factors|
|1. High level of group cohesion||7 6 5 4 3 2 1||1.Low level of group cohesion|
|2. High activity of group members||7 6 5 4 3 2 1||2. Low activity of group members|
|3. Normal interpersonal relationships in the group||7 6 5 4 3 2 1||3. Poor interpersonal relationships in the group|
|4. Absence of conflict relations in the group||7 6 5 4 3 2 1||4. Presence of conflicts in the group|
|5.High level of group compatibility||7 6 5 4 3 2 1||5. Low level of group compatibility|
|6. Acceptance of organizational goals as personally significant||7 6 5 4 3 2 1||6. Forced adoption of organizational goals|
|7. Recognition of the authority of the leader||7 6 5 4 3 2 1||7. Group members do not accept the authority of the leader|
|8. Respect for the competence of the leader.||7 6 5 4 3 2 1||8. Team members do not pay enough attention to the competence of the leader|
|9. Recognition of managerial leadership||7 6 5 4 3 2 1||9. Group members do not take into account the leadership qualities of the leader|
|10. Having a trusting relationship between the group members and the leader||7 6 5 4 3 2 1||10. Lack of trust between the group members and the leader|
|11.Participation in collective decision making by members of the||7 6 5 4 3 2 1||11. Lack of participation of group members in decision-making|
|12. There are conditions for the expression of the creative potential of employees||7 6 5 4 3 2 1||12. Lack of opportunities to express creativity to group members|
|13. Commitment to taking responsibility of team members for the work performed||7 6 5 4 3 2 1||13.Lack of desire among group members to take responsibility for the work performed|
|14. Good psychological climate in the group||7 6 5 4 3 2 1||
14. Poor psychological climate in the group
|15. A high level of control over their behavior by each member of the group||7 6 5 4 3 2 1||15. Low level of control over their behavior by each member of the group|
|16. The presence of an active life position among members of the group||7 6 5 4 3 2 1||16.The presence of a passive life position among members of the group|
|17. The desire for creativity among members of the group||7 6 5 4 3 2 1||17. Lack of desire for creativity among members of the group|
|18. High degree of coordination among group members||7 6 5 4 3 2 1||18. Little coordination among group members|
|19. Presence of common group values ||7 6 5 4 3 2 1||19.Lack of common group values |
|20. Group drive for collective action||7 6 5 4 3 2 1||20. Eagerness of group members to work individually|
|21. No stress among group members in the process of joint activities||7 6 5 4 3 2 1||21. The presence of stress among members of the group in the process of joint activities|
|22. Positive attitude of the leader towards the members of the group||7 6 5 4 3 2 1||22.Negative attitude of the leader towards the members of the group|
|23. Positive attitude of group members towards their leader||7 6 5 4 3 2 1||23. Negative attitude of group members towards their leader|
|24. The presence of moral issues in relations between members of the group||7 6 5 4 3 2 1||24. Lack of moral issues in relations between group members|
|25. Ability to show independence in solving assigned tasks by members of the group||7 6 5 4 3 2 1||25.Lack of independence in solving assigned tasks among members of the|
- 48 points the group is negatively motivated
- 74 points the group has almost no positive motivation
- 125 points the group is not sufficiently motivated for positive results in activity
- 151 points the group is sufficiently focused on success in performing the assigned tasks
- 175 points the group is positively motivated
Test: Level of favorable psychological climate
|1.A cheerful, cheerful mood tone prevails||+ 3 + 2 + 1 0-1-2-3||Depressed mood prevails|
|2. Goodwill in relationships, mutual sympathy||+ 3 + 2 + 1 0-1-2-3||Conflict in relationships, aggressiveness, antipathies|
|3. Team members enjoy being together||+ 3 + 2 + 1 0-1-2-3||Team members express a negative attitude towards joint activities|
|4.The successes or failures of comrades evoke empathy||+ 3 + 2 + 1 0-1-2-3||Success is envy, failure is gloating|
|5. Team members respect each other’s opinions||+ 3 + 2 + 1 0-1-2-3||Everyone is intolerant of the opinions of their comrades|
|6. One for all and all for one||+ 3 + 2 + 1 0-1-2-3||Every man for himself|
|7. A feeling of pride for each member of the team||+ 3 + 2 + 1 0-1-2-3||Are indifferent to each other, to successes and failures|
8.Everyone is active, full of energy
|+ 3 + 2 + 1 0-1-2-3||The team cannot be raised to a joint business|
|9. Collaborative affairs captivate everyone||+ 3 + 2 + 1 0-1-2-3||The collective splits into privileged and outcast|
|10. The team treats each other fairly||+ 3 + 2 + 1 0-1-2-3|
Result = 0, i.e.That is, there is no obvious comfort or discomfort.
After analyzing the situation, it can be noted that people are humanly well-disposed towards each other, but professional issues bring rivalry and discomfort to the relationship.
Internal parameters of the joint venture-climate of our financial service:
- More authoritarian than democratic
- personal, due to the small amount
- high degree of personal independence
- the relationship is friendly, there is mutual understanding and support (if you need help, it will come from different sides)
- low tolerance for other people’s opinions (personal opinion is defended to the end)
- from ordinary employees more expected to behave like “keep your head down”, “do not take on more than necessary”
- there is a reward system for the quality of work and results, individual contribution is appreciated
Analyzing the above, we can conclude that our team is more working than friendly.Which is quite normal, because we were assembled to perform certain functions and bring certain results.
External parameters of the joint venture climate of our financial department:
- the holding has good working conditions, beautiful and comfortable office environment; personal attachment and cohesion of the “old” team is high, the “new” team is low (as it seems to me, due to the absence of corporate holidays due to the global crisis)
- in the department, household problems are “brought” to work, and even if a person does not say anything, it is always obvious that there are serious problems; small problems are still “left” at home (the distraction is the ability to switch to other things)
- The personal mood of employees is changeable, but critical moments rarely arise (due to the high personal independence of the nature of the work)
Working Group Efficiency
It is the increase in the efficiency of the group’s work that is the ultimate goal of studying sociology.So, the main points influencing our working group:
team remuneration (material): the longer and more efficiently an employee works in the holding, the higher his salary and the growth of his professional status. There are no regular awards, but the holding has examples of rapid career growth, which inspires others to work fruitfully.
capable and qualified employees: as noted above, in previous jobs, most of our employees had a high status or position, which means they are high professionals.All of them are active and inquisitive, energetic, but intelligent. It is in their hands to argue and they are looking for new opportunities for themselves.
a clear understanding of the functions performed: the team employs highly qualified employees who are able to act independently, without waiting for orders from above. There is even a partial penetration into someone else’s work area.
Having a clear and motivating goal: the department was created relatively recently, then we have one goal – to take an authoritative place in the holding, to expand our influence.The entire work team knows this and goes to great lengths to achieve this goal. Everyone clearly understands what results should be strived for, accepts and shares the goals of the team.
improving working methods: the rivalry that is a characteristic feature of our team stimulates employees to seek new knowledge, ideas, promising working methods. The manager supports and supports sound ideas and their implementation into the workflow, provided that they are in line with the main line that he is pursuing.
relationships within the team: there is a good psychological climate in the department, but as tests show, comfort is still far away.
This listing lacks a supportive environment and group norms and standards. In the first case, the reason is that the department is only gaining its authority, and the holding’s management is looking at us and does not clearly demonstrate faith in the abilities of the team members and, unfortunately, does not provide adequate assistance, although the department already has good results.In the second case, the lack of standards is determined by the independent nature of the work of each of us.
Motivation to achieve success and avoid failure
After testing with 5 of our employees, I got the following results:
- Diagnostics of motivation for achieving success: 4 – moderately high level of motivation, 1 – too high level of motivation.
- Diagnostics of failure avoidance motivation: 1 – low motivation to avoid failures, 3 – average level of motivation to avoid failures, 1 – too high level of motivation to avoid failures, defense.
Moreover, the higher the motivation for achieving success, the lower the motivation for avoiding failure, and vice versa.
Thus, our department is dominated by risky people who are attracted by uncertainty, unpredictability, who, if successful, expect a “standing ovation”, and explain failure by great difficulties and impracticability. They are disgusted with success “for free”, they need excitement in their work. Routine work is contraindicated for such people, and difficult work brings pleasure.
I myself am also a risky person, but I can’t say that I’m more motivated by failure, as stated in theory.
Risk appetite is a character trait, an inner content. Failures, if they come one after another, will unsettle anyone. And even I will stop this process. But when a new insoluble problem appears, “the eyes light up again.” This can be compared with passion, curiosity, but not with stubbornness and stubbornness.
The motivation for avoiding failures in our team is at an average level. In this case, this indicates the presence of a sense of proportion, i.e. risks are possible, but only when they are justified, and success will bring good results, and the losses will not be so significant.Such people, although they love “puzzles”, understand that the main work is routine work, repeated day after day and not subject to big changes.
Personally, I got the lowest motivation for avoiding failure and protecting, although I consider myself to be reasonable people. Perhaps I was just lucky for difficult tasks, and going through life, most of the difficult tasks were overcome by me. Thus, it turned out that I have no fear of risk, no fear that if something does not work out, then taking on an unbearable burden, I will put the company in a difficult position.Perhaps the level of my knowledge is higher, that I understand that if I do not tackle a difficult issue and do not solve it, then no one else can do it, or the quality of the solution will leave much to be desired.
In terms of the functions of our department – financial accounting, we need employees with a medium to high degree of failure avoidance, because finances require precision and accuracy. And one employee with a high degree of motivation for success is enough, who, as a “locomotive”, will move progress forward and introduce new ideas and methods of work.
Correlation of two types of motivation – offensive (2), highly motivated and responsible (1), harmonious (2). Those. yet the motivation for achieving success prevails.
I would distinguish between the style of human behavior at work and the style of communication. In my opinion, these are two completely different sides of a person. When studying this issue, we are talking about the employee’s style of work.
So, two of our employees have a highly developed motivation for achieving success – the upcoming ones. Such people are inclined to take risks, show assertiveness in promoting their ideas and arguments.Moreover, it so happened that these two people have the greatest mental abilities (but not positions) and high intelligence in our department, and it is they who are usually entrusted with the most responsible matters.
Since their motivation for success is higher than failure, then when giving them instructions, you need to pay attention that this is a very difficult task, therefore it was they who were asked to complete it. I think this will be the strongest impetus and incentive for them.
One employee is very responsible and highly motivated.Such a person has very high self-control. I would not give him really difficult tasks, because on the one hand, he is a maximalist, on the other hand, he has an inner brake that holds him back. And if he feels that things are not progressing well, then rather his thoughts will be redirected to how beautifully it is to get out of this situation. But a solution to a complex problem can be found even when it seems that everything is hopeless. For solving problems of average complexity – you will not find a better employee.But when giving him a task, in addition to being encouraged in case of success, he must also be given guarantees in case of failure, i.e. how to set a framework for it.
Two employees are of the harmonious type. These are people with good self-regulation and an average level of anxiety. Because Since there were no cautious employees in our department, it is better to entrust them with routine work. The stimulation of their work should be restrained, firstly, so that they do not feel the overdifficulty of the task, and, secondly, the uselessness of their work.
Styles of behavior in the conflict of employees in our department – rivalry (2), compromise (2), avoidance (1).
Unfortunately, our two top executives, the CFO and his deputy (that is, me), prefer to resolve the conflict through rivalry.
The strategy of rivalry involves forcing others to accept their point of view, ignoring the interests of the other side and the cost of mutual relations. These people have power, which they actually use during the conflict.This style is only effective in situations of threat or force majeure. The constant suppression of the initiative of subordinates only worsens relations with subordinates and strains the situation.
A person who adheres to the strategy of avoidance, avoiding the conflict, can only aggravate the situation by his inaction and further electrify the relationship. The acceptance of his opinion by the other side does not interest him, but he himself is not going to accept someone else’s opinion. This will only alienate people from each other and take away the possibility of further productive work.
Compromise involves accepting the other side’s point of view, but only to a certain extent. This reduces the ill will in the relationship, but also leaves the issue unresolved, so in the future, the conflict may flare up again.
Of course, the best way to resolve a conflict is to cooperate and find a solution that is acceptable to all. This strategy completely exhausts the conflict on this issue and leaves people in friendly relations.
But, in my opinion, the psychological state of any person experiences different states, and sometimes, indeed, it would be optimal to ignore the problem, i.e.That is, it is necessary to let the person cool down and think about everything. There are situations when, on the contrary, you should defend your decision, especially if you are more competent in this matter. The inner world of a person is hidden from outsiders, and it is not always clear why exactly he defends this particular opinion. And then, if we solve all the problems that arise through cooperation, then there will not be enough time directly for the current work. Although, of course, it is always necessary to look for the best way out of the current situation.
An example of writing an essay on the topic “Global problems of our time and ways to overcome them”
The first decade of the new millennium is under our belt.Half a century ago, the world started talking about a new threat to humanity. And, oddly enough, it came from the person himself. Now, nothing has actually changed, people still face the most acute global problems that threaten the very existence of civilization and even life itself on our planet. The term “global” itself derives from the Latin word “globe”, that is, the Earth. Failure to foresee and prevent the negative consequences of the scientific and technological revolution threatens to plunge mankind into a thermonuclear, ecological or social catastrophe.
In many parts of our planet, the state of the environment can be called an ecological disaster. And the number of these points is increasing. We are practically on the verge of an imminent global catastrophe. And if humanity does not give priority to environmental issues in all its activities, to make efforts to preserve and restore the natural environment, our story may end very soon.
In the ecstasy of the struggle with nature and dissidents, we did not realize two moments on which our existence directly depends.
First, humanity exists and develops at the expense of nature. It is foolish to cut the branch on which you are sitting.
And secondly, it is not confrontation at all, but mutual assistance – the basis of all that exists on Earth.
While a person was changing the world around him in order to simply survive, one could find an excuse for him. When he tries to drown the ship, on which I am all sailing together on the ocean of my history, he has no forgiveness. And no one will help him. It is only through common efforts that it is possible to achieve well-being.
Perhaps it’s still worth figuring out what kind of trouble overtook the seven billion human population.
The list of global problems was formed in the early 70s, when the very term “globalistics” began to be used, the first models of global development appeared.
There are many different definitions of this concept, but they all unite, in my opinion, one thing – these are the problems on the solution of which the social progress / regression of mankind and the preservation of the entire civilization depend.Global problems cover all aspects of human life and affect all countries of the world. To solve these problems, the united efforts of all mankind are needed. That is why they received such a name – from lat. globus words – Earth, globe.
Global problems arise as a result of the objective development of society, create threats to all mankind and require the combined efforts of the world community for their solution.
Features of global problems are that they are of a planetary nature and threaten the destruction of all mankind.Humanity faced these problems in the second half of the 20th century. This is due, in my opinion, to the huge scale of human activity (especially industrial), which radically changed the nature, the way of life of people, society.
Global problems are the result of a qualitatively new level of interaction between man, nature and society. They are generated by the growth of human needs, the huge scale of his economic activity, the crisis of modern socio-economic development models and other planetary processes.
The emergence and exacerbation of global problems was also facilitated by: rapid demographic growth on the planet, the creation of weapons of mass destruction, the use of which threatens the existence of an entire civilization, the deterioration of the socio-economic conditions of the existence of an individual, contributing to neuropsychological stress, the spread of diseases, drug addiction, alcoholism, AIDS , degradation of culture and morality.
In real life, global problems manifest themselves in specific forms – acute contradictions, in the form of conflicts, wars, disasters, etc.p.
Economic activity in many countries today is developed so powerfully that a shortage of natural resources has been sharply marked not only within individual countries, but throughout the world.
On the scale of the entire world economy, soil, hydropower, fresh water, fish stocks are already being used to the limit. According to UNESCO estimates, in order for humanity to fit into the natural cycles of the biosphere, it must reduce its consumption by 10 times.
Awareness of global problems, the urgency of revising many familiar stereotypes came to us late, much later than the publication in the West of the first global models, calls to stop the growth of the economy.Meanwhile, all global problems are closely related to each other.
There is no stable list of global problems. According to the classification proposed by the World Economic Forum, global problems affecting the economy are divided into 4 groups:
- Economic problems:
- Oil prices / energy consumption
- Asset prices / huge debt
- US current account deficit
- Money crisis
- China’s rise
- Environmental Issues:
- Climate change
- Water supply / quality
- Natural disasters
- Air, water and soil pollution
- The problem of lack of energy resources
- Social Issues:
- Radical Islam
- The threat of religious wars
- Demographic: population aging, population shortage in developed countries, male predominance
- Forced migration
- Infectious diseases
- The public’s ambiguous attitude towards technological advances (biotechnology, nanotechnology, other fields of science)
- Geopolitical problems:
- Organized Crime
- Hot spots (Israel / Palestine, India / Pakistan, Iraq, Chechnya, Korean Peninsula, China / Taiwan, Iran, Saudi Arabia)
- Resource conflicts
- Creation of weapons of mass destruction
These are the questions that arose before scientists at the beginning of the second half of the 20th century and are becoming more and more important today.
In general, on the whole, the global problems of mankind can be schematically represented in the form of a tangle, where various threads stretch from each problem to all other problems.
The rapid growth of the world’s population is called the population explosion. It was accompanied by the seizure of vast territories from nature for residential buildings and public institutions, roads and railways, airports and marinas, crops and pastures. Hundreds of square kilometers have been cleared of tropical forests.Under the hooves of numerous herds, the steppes and prairies turned into deserts.
Simultaneously with the demographic explosion, a scientific and technological revolution took place. Man mastered nuclear energy, rocket technology and went into space. He invented the computer, electronic engineering and the synthetic materials industry.
The population explosion and the scientific and technological revolution have led to a colossal increase in the consumption of natural resources.
At such a rate of consumption, it became obvious that many natural resources would be depleted in the near future.At the same time, waste from giant industries began to pollute the environment more and more, destroying the health of the population. In all industrialized countries, cancer, chronic pulmonary and cardiovascular diseases are widespread.
The impact on nature has reached such proportions that problems of a global nature have arisen, which at the beginning of the 20th century no one could even suspect. If we leave aside the economic and social aspects, and talk only about nature, then we can name the following global environmental problems: global warming, depletion of the ozone layer, destruction of the Earth’s forest cover, desertification of vast territories, pollution of the World Ocean, a decrease in the species diversity of flora and fauna …
As human civilization develops, new global problems can and are already emerging. Thus, the problem of the development and use of the resources of the World Ocean, as well as the problem of the exploration and use of outer space, began to be referred to the category of global ones.
Changes that took place in the 70s and 80s and especially in the 90s. allow us to talk about a change in priorities in global problems. If in the 60-70s. The main problem was considered to be the prevention of a world nuclear war, but now in the first place some experts put the ecological problem, others – the demographic problem, and still others – the problem of poverty and backwardness.
The issue of prioritizing global problems is of not only scientific but also practical importance. Some methods towards solving the above problems have already been adopted and are being actively introduced into society, some are in development.
According to various estimates, the annual costs of mankind for solving global problems should be at least 1 trillion. dollars, or 2.5% of world GDP.
All directions for the solution, in my opinion, are united by one main goal – to instill in people new moral and ethical values.What is their essence? It is worth considering against the background of each specific global problem.
Take environmental issues, for example.
One of the main principles of the solution is the formation of a more thrifty attitude towards the use of natural resources in people, the development of such an attitude towards nature, which would be based on harmony with it, and not on its subordination. As well as fostering a sense of belonging to future generations and a willingness to give up part of their own benefits in their favor.
Also, to solve environmental problems, in my opinion, scientific research is needed. Such as, for example, elucidation of the effect on the health of the population of prolonged exposure to low doses of radiation and the development of methods for decontamination of soils, the development of rational methods for the absorption of smoke and gas aerosols, the development of the most rational methods of artificial recovery of the ozone layer (by the way, work in this direction has already begun), etc. .d.
Also one of the most acute global problems of our time is overcoming the backwardness in the development of most of humanity.Backwardness is the result of the interconnectedness of all global problems. The overwhelming majority of the population of developing countries does not have normal living conditions. Overall, one third of the developing world’s population lives in absolute poverty.
In order to put an end to the backwardness of most of humanity, it is necessary to carry out tremendous transformations throughout the world, eliminating all forms of inequality of the peoples of the world.
As another example – the problem of terrorism, which is very urgent today.
The first years of the XXI century were marked by large-scale terrorist attacks in many countries of the world. Terrorist attacks in the USA, Russia, Spain and England caused a special resonance. International terrorism has challenged humanity.
The word “terror” translated from Latin means “intimidate, intimidate.” This is a special form of violence characterized by extreme cruelty.
The basis of terror is an act of terrorism, which has as its immediate task of taking hostages, kidnapping or killing politicians, and obtaining money; special materials, vehicles, weapons, etc.
Throughout human history, terror has been used as a means of political struggle in the interests, first of all, of the state and individual organizations.
In the second half of the 20th century, the nature of terrorist activities expanded and became more complicated throughout the world, and the sophistication and inhumanity of terrorist acts increased.
A terrible feature of modern international terrorism is that no one in any corner of the world, regardless of gender, age, occupation, can feel completely safe, even within the walls of his own home.
The general causes of terror in the modern world lie in the inability of many societies to regulate complex socio-political processes, the rapid change in systems of ideals and values, and the involvement of broad masses of the population, devoid of political experience, in active political life.
The danger of terrorism lies not only in the grief and suffering that it inflicts on its victims, the relatives and friends of the victims. Terrorists seek to spread fear and panic throughout society. They push states to restrict the rights and freedoms of citizens, contribute to the spread of religious and ethnic hatred.
The fight against international terrorism is a most difficult task. The current international terrorism is called network terrorism. It is a network of large and small organizations, ideologically related to each other. They are united by modern communications and cash flows.
Funds for terrorism come from the illegal trade in drugs, diamonds and weapons. All these cash flows, legal and illegal, are so closely intertwined that it is impossible to cut them off in one fell swoop. All this testifies to the fact that the fight against international terrorism cannot but acquire a global character.It cannot be overcome without the combined efforts of all countries in the world. Forceful methods of dealing with it are also necessary, but the forceful option can give positive results only in the short term. First of all, it is necessary to think about solving complex socio-economic and sociocultural problems of the whole world, a significant part of which perceives the existing world order as clearly unjust.
Global problems, in my opinion, cannot be eradicated completely. Of course, there is a huge number of different international organizations that are pursuing an active policy to change public opinion in the humane-democratic direction of harmony with the outside world.The UN plays a special role in solving global economic problems.
An incredible number of actions are being taken: advertisements, promotions, videos, laws, meetings, brochures, etc. etc.
But all this is useless. More precisely, it is useless for those who “do not care”. After all, it can be said that it is impossible to change the consciousness of a person who did not care what was happening around him all his life, to reach out to egoists, whose life policy “if only I felt good, and the rest would take care of themselves,” one might say.
Since humanity is imperfect, there will always be people who will be very sensitive to what we have, to nature, think about the future generation, take care of others, try to change something for the better, for the good and for harmony. But people who are “deaf” to everything, egoists with the policy “Why me, and not someone else ?! Let whoever needs it, and he cares about others! ”
Problems will not go away until violence disappears from TV screens, from video games (which is almost impossible, since this is a huge industry for making money), from the media.Why am I talking about the media? It is from the news releases that you can learn “how to do it not necessary” and try it out of idle curiosity.
Until the “policy” of upbringing in some families changes, until illiteracy and rudeness, roughness, disappear. And these are centuries, centuries and centuries …
It is necessary to further strengthen the interconnection of the modern world, to change the interaction with the environment, to abandon the cult of consumption, to develop new values.Humanity needs to learn how to rationally manage its own forces and capabilities.
And since all global problems are interconnected and it is impossible to solve any one problem separately, by the efforts of a particular country or several countries, we need joint efforts, the will and actions of all mankind, the efforts of each family, each individual person. The solution to global problems, it seems to me, ultimately comes down to human qualities and ways to improve them. For it is only through the development of human qualities and human abilities that it is possible to achieve a change in the entire material-oriented civilization and use its enormous potential for good purposes.Human cultural development lagged behind the energy and technical capabilities of society. The way out is seen in the development of culture and the formation of new human qualities. These new qualities include globality of thinking, love of justice, aversion to violence. Neither the use of environmentally friendly technologies, nor the establishment of a fair economic order, nor a reasonable formulation of the tasks of mankind are possible without appropriate human qualities. In connection with the need to form new human qualities, the problems of education come to the fore.It is in the education system that the resource that is realized in the subsequent life of a person is laid. Consequently, the quality of education determines how people will position themselves in the world, what values they will be guided by. Formation of either a perspective view of the course of world development or an orientation towards the momentary depends on education. It is difficult to give an unambiguous answer to the question of which of the existing threats poses the greatest danger to mankind now. Despite the end of the Cold War and the easing of tensions in relations between the main nuclear powers, the danger of a war with the use of nuclear weapons or other means of mass destruction remains, of which the whole of humanity will inevitably become a victim.
Unauthorized use of nuclear weapons cannot be ruled out as a result of accidents, technical errors, false alarms or misperceptions of the situation, mental disorders in people serving nuclear installations. Strikes against nuclear power plants, even with conventional means of destruction, can lead by a chain reaction to a planetary nuclear catastrophe. A serious threat is posed by the threat of all sorts of man-made disasters, the number of which is growing all the time.
Environmental pollution, depletion of natural resources, disruption of ecological ties in ecosystems, demographic explosions / crises, an arms race, a huge scale of industrial activity – all this and much more have become global problems.And if humanity continues to follow the current path of development, then its death in two or three generations is inevitable.
Is the impending danger mobilizing? Unfortunately, so far mankind’s response to the challenge of global problems in general and environmental problems in particular is clearly not sufficient. Perhaps this is due to the fact that a huge part of humanity – about three quarters of the world – is not up to global problems, because people are primarily aimed at solving more specific issues related to immediate survival and meeting growing needs according to the “European” model.
Prospects for solving global problems will largely be determined by the level of development of the person himself, his culture, the ability to foresee the consequences of his activities, as well as the type of socio-economic structure of society.
What can be the conclusion? Each person should realize that humanity is on the verge of death, and whether we survive or not is the merit of each of us. The earth is our common home. After all, it never occurs to anyone to blow up, demolish, litter their living room or kitchen.It is time for a person to stop being selfish, so that our children and grandchildren can breathe clean air, enjoy those treasures of nature that still remain and which we must preserve.
90,000 Interview with comic artist Rutu Modan
The first comic strip by Israeli comics artist Rutu Modan – “Property” was released in Russian. We talked with Rutu about her work, about her love for Russian literature, about the Siberian taiga, about humor as a way of looking at the world – and about comics, of course.
The books by Israeli artist and comics artist Rutu Modan have been translated into many languages and awarded with international prizes. In 2021, the publishing house “Bumkniga” published her second novel “Property” in Russian – about how an elderly Jewess Regina Segal, after the death of her son, together with her granddaughter Mika from Tel Aviv, hoping to return the property, which before the Second World War the war belonged to her parents.The Estate was first published in 2013 and won the Will Eisner Prize, was nominated for the Ignaz Prize and the Angoulême International Comics Festival, and was featured in the Top 10 Book of the Year by The Guardian, Publishers Weekly, Salon and The Washington Post.
In November 2021, Rutu came to Russia for the first time at the XV Krasnoyarsk Book Culture Fair to present “Property” to Russian readers.
– If you were asked to tell about yourself to a Russian reader who does not know you, only three things, what would you name?
– I am Israeli.I am a woman who has a family and children. I am an artist. Perhaps these three are not necessarily in that order. In different situations, different hypostases come to the fore – but without any of them I would not be myself, but someone else.
– Is your teaching job the fourth?
– Not really. Rather, it’s hard for me to separate the “artist” and the “teacher” in myself. I have been teaching for many years and started very early, literally a year or two after I graduated from the Rutu Modan Academy myself, and then began teaching at the Bezalel Academy of Art and Design in Jerusalem…. I started making money by drawing even earlier – already in my third year my comics were published in an Israeli newspaper. But I wanted stability.
– More stable income?
– Not only, although this is also important. Illustration and comics are very solitary work, and I wanted to know that on certain days of the week I always dress smartly, go out and talk about art with colleagues and students. And now, years later, I can no longer separate teaching and work in the studio.I first need to answer all the students’ questions to myself: what does it mean to be original, to have your own style, what is style in illustration, and what is color.
What I do in the studio affects the way I teach. Conversely, what happens in the classroom affects what and how I write and draw.
I share with students my experience, knowledge, discoveries – but they also share with me.When I started teaching, I was almost the same age as my students. Now I am the same age as their parents. And I learn a lot from them.
– The older you get, the more students can teach?
– You can always learn something from another person. And my students live in an already changed world, they talk about artists, technologies, events unknown to me. Therefore, we exchange knowledge and experience with students. Teaching is a very interesting job.
About books, taiga and the most enviable groom in Russian classics
– This is your first time in Russia – what are your first impressions? Moreover, you started in Siberia, a remote region about which there are many legends and stereotypes.
– I was excited about the upcoming trip to Russia, because of all, conventionally, national literatures, Russian is my favorite. And I’m not just saying this for interviews.I read a lot – and not only the greatest, obvious authors, Tolstoy, Turgenev, Dostoevsky, Chekhov, whom I would have married tomorrow if he had called. He was extremely talented, a very good person, and also a doctor.
– Oh yes, I read his biographies, diaries and letters, he was an amazing person and a very handsome man, in my opinion, it is impossible not to fall in love with him.
– You see how good it is that he has already died, otherwise we would not be able to make friends.I read Gorky, Platonov, Babel, Bulgakov, and some modern writers.
– But how did you manage to fall in love with our literature so much – you don’t read Russian, do you?
– Russian literature is very popular in Israel.
We have many immigrants from your country, many of those who began to equip our country, come from Russia. Therefore, Russian literature is known and loved in our country.
– You have a lot of Russian literature ambassadors!
– Yes.And a lot has been translated into Hebrew – including Korney Chukovsky and Marshak, that is, children’s books too. Russian literature strongly influenced Israeli literature. After all, literary gifted immigrants from Russia not only translated, they began to write in Hebrew themselves. And in a sense they reinvented Hebrew as the language of art, prose and poetry. And then, Jewish and Russian history is deeply interconnected, this is also reflected in art. I recently read a book by Vasily Grossman, which is largely about politics, but it is also literature.I was also greatly impressed by Platonov.
– Platonov did something amazing with the Russian language, invented his own very recognizable way of writing. Many authors tried to imitate him, but none were talented enough. Does it feel in translation?
– He has an excellent translator into Hebrew, but she herself said that this is a difficult task and reading Platonov in translation is not at all the same as in the original, because his Russian is exceptional.I love to talk about literature, we have not discussed Gorky yet, and he is also very strong, but you asked about my impressions of Russia. So, for me to go to Russia meant to go to the place where the action of the books I have read unfolds. A place that you know very well, but at the same time do not know at all. It was very interesting. And I didn’t google anything before the trip, I didn’t even look for a photo of Krasnoyarsk. I wanted to come without knowing anything in advance.
– How did your expectations coincide with reality?
– I had no expectations, but I was curious – but what is it all about.And what can I say – the food here is very tasty. The establishments are wonderful, but even the soup at the airport reminded me of the one my grandmother cooked. And I also fell in love with nature. Magnificent landscapes, there is something biblical about these gigantic spaces. The city is large, the buildings are tall, but in comparison with the surrounding nature, everything seems tiny. And this is not at all like Israel or Europe, where there are always and everywhere many people and traces of their presence. In Siberia, you constantly feel that both the city and you are very small.There are not so many places where you can feel this so keenly – maybe somewhere in Central America, I don’t know, in Alaska – that we are points in a vast Universe.
About the similarity of comic cultures in Russia and Israel
– Did you know any Russian comics artists before coming to Russia?
– No, I did not know. Here I met Olga Lavrentieva, Alexander Utkin, looked through their books and talked. Interestingly, the Russian comic strip, as it seemed to me, is at about the same stage as the Israeli one.Comics occupy a very small place in art.
– It’s strange, because Russia and Israel are completely different countries.
– It seems to me that the fact is that our countries do not have an established comic book tradition. In France and Belgium, in America, in Japan, comics have a long history, but for us it is a relatively new art form.
The Israeli comic began right away with what is commonly called an “alternative”, but this is ridiculous, because we never had a mainstream.There is a guy in Israel now who draws mainstream comics. And he says: “The feeling that I am rushing alone on a completely empty track.”
Therefore, it is strange to call our comics “alternative”, “independent”, “underground”. We do not have something to which we are alternative and from which we do not depend. The market is still very small.
– Do you think it is bad not to have an established tradition?
– There are also pluses.For example, there was a discussion at the fair about women in comics – but in Israel, comics were never exclusively male territory. Women came to comics at the same time as men. We do not have and did not have an industry and barriers, it all started with people who just wanted to make comics – and until now it only keeps on. This is the first thing. And secondly, when you have no tradition, you seem to owe nothing to anyone.
The established tradition is like parents; even if you are at odds with them, there is still an inextricable bond between you.
For example, if you shoot a movie in Russia, you cannot ignore Russian and Soviet cinema – even if you are trying to oppose it. It is difficult to abstract from tradition, it somehow becomes your starting point. But if there is no tradition, you yourself choose what will affect you. Rather, you see something and fall in love, be it European, American, Japanese comics, mainstream or independent. You are influenced by everything that you see and love, wherever it comes to you.And no one will reproach you for this – after all, what else was left for you.
– How did you love comics yourself and what influenced you?
– As a child, I came across some comics – about the sailor Popeye and so on. But there were so few of them that I did not even understand that this was some kind of separate art form.
I myself have been drawing comics since childhood, for me this is the most natural way to come up with and tell a story.But it really all started in the third year of study at the Academy. We had a comics course taught by a teacher who came to Israel from Belgium. In 1990 he came to the auditorium and brought us books from his personal library, I don’t know how many there were, but everything was there – Guardians, Mouse, Row magazine, Mobius, American, French and Japanese classics, different stories, different styles. He brought them in and said “read.” An hour later, I fell in love with this art form and realized what I wanted to do all my life.And the first thing I did was to imitate – in my portfolio of those years you can see whom I loved then. I painted in one style, then left it and tried another, then a third, and found my own only years later. Therefore, it is difficult for me to say what specifically influenced me. The only thing I have always been indifferent to mainstream comics – I respect them, but they never really interested me, so they hardly influenced me.
On the Holocaust and humor in comics
– “Property” is a book about how large historical processes are refracted in personal history, the history of one family.You left the holocaust in the background; it never comes to the center of the story. Why did you decide to write the book this way?
– I would not say that this is a matter of choice. I do not choose so much as wait for a good idea to come to me, from which a story may turn out that will be interesting to the reader, but above all to myself. One that I can work on for two, four or six years. First, research the topic, then write, then draw – I work on a book for a long time, so it is important that the topic captures me.And I decided to make a book about how a grandmother and a granddaughter go to Poland to look for property, not because I sat and thought: “shouldn’t I write something about the Holocaust?” I was desperately looking for an idea. And when this came to my mind, I thought it could make a good story.
– How did you know the story would be good?
– Look, there is a family relationship, and this is often funny and always juicy. There is property – and money is also an interesting topic. There is a journey, and therefore an adventure.So I started writing this book because the idea seemed promising to me. But since I was writing a big book, a novel, not a story, the themes clung to each other like Velcro: family, history, the relationship between Jews and Poles, the Holocaust, memory, and how we are influenced by memories of the past.
In general, looking back at my books, both large and small, I see that in all of them, one way or another, I raise the topic of a person’s connection with the place and time in which he was born.
History affects our daily life – even if we don’t think about it.
Miku in “Property” is not very interested in history, Poland and even the Holocaust. She grew up in Israel, so she learned more than enough about the Holocaust at school, I assure you. She goes to Poland simply because she wants to help her grandmother find property. And yet, when she sees on the street actors in Nazi uniform, acting out a historical scene – in Poland they really do this, I myself saw it on Polish television – when Mika meets an armed “Nazi”, she instantly understands what she is supposed to do …Raises his hands and climbs into the truck: ah, the Nazis are back, well, we know how to behave in such a situation.
Ditto in Wounds Through Exit Wounds, the first novel by Rutu Modan, which was first released in 2007 in Canada and won a Will Eisner Award in 2008 and was honored at the Angoulême Comics Festival. Has not been published in Russia.
, my first book. It’s about a terrorist attack in an Israeli restaurant. The heroes of the book are people who were not at the scene of the incident, but it still affected them, not directly, but otherwise.I will not tell you how – suddenly it will be translated into Russian, and I have spoilers here. And very soon, I hope, my next book will be published – about archeology, about illegal excavations. In it, I try to show how the distant past affects us today – or what we know and think about it.
The events of three thousand years ago affect, for example, the current political situation. It sounds crazy, but it is, and it is everywhere.
Maybe in Israel we feel it more sharply, because our everyday life is saturated with ancient history, we feel and see it as clearly as you – the huge taiga that surrounds Siberian cities.
– There are also authors in Russia who study complex topics through personal stories – war, repression, famine, the blockade of Leningrad – and this often causes an ambiguous reaction from readers. A lot of pain, anger, controversy. What was the case with “Property”? For example, has anyone rebuked you for having a lot of humor in the book?
– The humor is pretty black there. But I was never reproached or even asked questions on this topic. Humor is just one way of looking at serious topics, and indeed at life in general.If you can see funny things, it’s not easy for you to stop noticing them. And all my life experience says that even in the most sad situation there is something funny – and vice versa. Let’s say you are standing on the shore with your loved one, a magnificent sunset, you kiss, everything is like in a movie – but this is life, not a movie, so there is always something else. The mosquito buzzes or the sand is annoying, cold, hot, or suddenly the stupid thought comes that you forgot to buy something. Our life is like this – and we cannot stop being human.
– Moreover, we do not have much time to be human.
– And this, by the way, is the main problem. We have very little time, ridiculously short. It seems to me that it would take three hundred years. Ten thousand years is probably too much, but three hundred would be just right. Eighty is nothing at all. You just learn something properly, and that’s it.
A Russian comic strip about the blockade of Leningrad and repressions is published.Read it now
A Russian comic strip about the blockade of Leningrad and repressions is published. Read it now.
About readers, love and criticism
– Do you represent your readers when you are writing a book?
– In my opinion, this is impossible. How do I know who is going to read my book. It is also scary and dangerous – after all, if you imagine the reader when you are making a book, then there is a risk that you will try to please him.And this is bad, especially for an artist who has some kind of fame and audience.
– Can it get in the way of being an artist?
– This prevents you from trying new things, taking risks. But at the same time, making a book only for yourself is also impossible. This is too laborious a task, and there is always a temptation to say: “But who needs this! I’d rather go to the beach. ” I found a way out – I am writing a book for a good friend who loves my work and is very critical of it.But he loves enough so that I can accept his criticism. So I completely calmly tell him everything – even the most stupid ideas. He writes novels, but was also a comics artist. Therefore, when I work on a book, I always think that he will read it. Other people, maybe, too, I will be happy if all people in the world read my book and love it – but first of all it is important for me that he likes the book. We agreed that we will be the first readers of each other. I can call him at any time, at two in the morning, and say: “Ok, I have a problem here.”You don’t even have to say “Hello!”, Our dialogue is not interrupted. “I have a problem, there is one scene …” – and he immediately turns on: “So, what is there.” It is fortunate that I have this continuous dialogue. When my friend says “good” about something, then it’s really good. And when he says “bad,” then maybe – it is possible – this is really bad.
– Talking about responsibility to the reader – is it difficult to make a new book after the previous ones have been recognized by the professional community? Do you have several awards, including the main comic book award, the Will Eisner Award – does that add some extra burden of responsibility?
– No.Rewards are fun, but not that important. It’s great when they come to you and say “Hey, and you are the best!” But this does not mean that I am really the best – I have no such illusion. The awards are nice to receive, but it’s strange to take them too seriously. You see, I myself have sat on many committees and juries, I know how these committees work. It’s good if the award makes you happy and inspires you to work further, but taking it seriously is unnecessary. Maybe, of course, the point is that I have not received any monetary awards, always only honor and glory.Where are all the cash awards? It seems in some other areas, because they are not in the comics.
How to Stop Worrying and Love Comics
– In your 2013 interviews, you said that comics are unpopular in Israel. In Russia, the same thing – here many people still treat comics with prejudice. Even the Minister of Culture once spoke in the spirit that these are books for young children and fools who are not able to master serious literature. This annoys those of us who know for sure that comics are serious literature too.Over the past ten years, thanks to the efforts of publishers, festival organizers, artists, columnists and enthusiastic readers, the situation is slowly but surely changing. Good media began to write about comics, comics are gradually coming out of the shadows. Is the attitude towards comics changing in Israel?
– Yes, the situation has changed a lot over the past twenty years. Fewer and fewer people say comics are silly books for children. And they finally stopped asking me the question “Why don’t we have Israeli comics?”, Which I have heard for many years in every interview.Publishers take on Israeli and some translated comics. But we still do not have our own Dima Yakovlev Dmitry Yakovlev is the head and editor-in-chief of the Russian comics publishing house Bumkniga, one of the organizers of the Boomfest comics festival.
… I’m really looking forward to when we finally have our own Dima – if it happens at all. So far, there are not very many comic book readers in Russia either – but you have hope, there are prospects. The book business isn’t all that profitable, and Israel has a very small market and our publishers don’t want to take high risks.Comics are complex and expensive books. We do not have a single publishing house that specializes in such high-quality comics as your “Bumkniga” publishes. Something comes out, but things are moving slowly. Many of our artists begin to publish not at home, but abroad, and my first book was also published not in Israel. But maybe this will change over time – I hope.
– And if you were asked to recommend one, three or five books to a person who has never read comics to show what kind of art it is, what would you recommend?
– I would recommend reading Mouse.It is a large, wonderful and very important book for comic book art. You can read The Guardians: they give an idea of what a mainstream comic is without being a mainstream comic – it’s deeper and very good. Daniel Close is one of my favorite comics artists. So, I named only men, we must remember women – Tove Jansson, of course. American Linda Barry, very funny, human, wonderful, you will definitely like her. And many, many others. In general, I would first ask this person what books he likes and what films, and only then would I advise something, focusing on his taste.I think this is the easiest way for him to start.
Comics artist Craig Thompson – about religion, parents and why comics are not squalor
Comics artist Craig Thompson on religion, parents and why comics are not squalor
90,000 Why did the cat stop going to the litter box – the cat stopped going to the litter box: what to do
Violation of the rules of daily hygiene is a clear signal of physical or psychological discomfort for your pet.
If the cat has stopped going to the litter box, this is often not her “harmfulness”, but a symptom of the disease and an important signal for you.
The cat is one of the cleanest pets. The cat is instinctively attentive to the excretion of needs, because in the wild, other predators can track animals by their secretions.
The domestic cat pays no less attention to hygiene. Any person who takes a cat into the house, of course, wants the cat to be accustomed to the litter box, to know where to go to the toilet, and to be clean.Kittens that have undergone natural socialization with the help of a mother cat, as well as with the help of a person, in the future will not experience difficulties in using the tray.
But what if the cat suddenly stopped going to the litter box? What to do if your pet starts to spoil furniture, beds, sofas, carpets, personal items?
The first thing you need to pay attention to is the psychological and physiological state of the animal. Some cat owners usually attribute human behavior to cats, claiming that their pets are “revenge” or “mischievous”, “show their character.”But in fact, the problem is often the cat does not go to the litter box, because she has health problems.
The first thing that the owner of a cat who has stopped walking out of need in the designated and previously used place is to seek the advice of a veterinarian. More often, the cat refuses to go to the litter box due to diseases of the genitourinary system. It can be kidney failure, and urolithiasis, stones or sand in the bladder. The animal experiences pain during urination and looks for a softer place.In this case, it is necessary to collect the urine as soon as possible in a special medical jar, which can be purchased at any pharmacy, and send it to the veterinarian for analysis. Be sure to take your cat to the veterinarian for a checkup.
You should pay attention to the arrangement of the cat litter box. He must be in a safe place from the point of view of the animal, not to cause inconvenience to the cat
The second most common cause of obscene behavior in a pet may be the onset of puberty.If the cat does not go to the litter box, then he probably needs to satisfy the need for reproduction. Or, if this option cannot be implemented, you will have to take the cat for neutering or neutering.
The third most likely reason for changing the location of the toilet may be a negative psychological state – fear, depression, a sense of insecurity within the environment. In this case, you need to find out what could cause the cat to be very stressed or intimidated, and, if possible, fix the problem.
But you should always pay attention to the arrangement of the cat litter box. It must be kept in a safe place from the point of view of the animal, not inconvenient for the cat (unpleasant filler or lack thereof), and must also be promptly cleaned and washed.