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How to take glutamine: Glutamine (Endari) – Side Effects, Interactions, Uses, Dosage, Warnings


When is The Best Time to Take Glutamine?

What Is Glutamine?

Glutamine, or L-Glutamine is one of the many amino acids that is a building block of protein. Glutamine is commonly found in large amounts within the bloodstream and helps with the production of nitrogen. Since glutamine is considered an essential amino acid, this means that it must be consumed through our diet as our body cannot produce glutamine for itself.

Why Do You Need Glutamine?

When we exercise, our body requires energy to be used and expended in order to keep on exercising at the intensity we are performing at. When we expend energy into our workout, we also end up using glutamine within our body simply to help with muscle building and recovery during the aftermath of a workout. However, since most people only obtain glutamine through one’s diet, it is common that many weightlifters do not consume an adequate amount of glutamine that their body requires to maximize performance.

Many studies have shown that by taking glutamine post-workout with either your post-workout protein shake or simply by itself, helps prevent the body from using muscle as energy and continues to use carbohydrates, even when you are in a low carbohydrate-depleted state. By taking glutamine intra or post-workout, you will prevent the body from breaking down muscle tissue to be used as energy and will allow you to maintain more lean muscle mass.

When Should You Take Glutamine?

By taking glutamine post-workout, you also help increase the production of natural HGH or human growth hormone within the body. This is a great advantage because higher levels of HGH results in an increase in muscle tissue, a decrease in body fat, and an increase in metabolic activity within our body.

When this happens, insulin levels will be suppressed, which means less sugar will be used up. This is a huge advantage for anyone who is diabetic, as maintaining high sugar levels within the bloodstream is important for daily functions. If you are diabetic and have low blood sugar, many issues can come about. Glutamine is a great supplement for any person suffering from insulin sensitivity or has complications maintaining blood sugar levels on a regular basis.


How Much Glutamine Should I Take?

I highly recommend anyone who is considering supplementing with Glutamine to either take it intra/during or post-workout on a regular basis. When it comes down to how much one should take, you’d be surprised to know that you will not require much at all.

Anywhere between 2-6 grams of glutamine post-workout is seen as an ideal amount to help replenish the amount that has been expended during a workout. It is also perfectly acceptable to consume higher amounts of glutamine post-workout considering the fact that if you consume a high amount of glutamine, resulting in an excess amount, the body will either use it up or simply excrete it. This means that you do not have to worry about consuming too much glutamine after a workout.

If you wanted to consume glutamine pre- and post-workout, this would be an ideal recommendation I would make to anyone looking to add this supplement to his/her diet. However, this is not needed, and simply consuming glutamine in around 2-6 grams post-workout will be more than enough for anyone looking to maintain lean muscle mass, prevent muscle waste post-workout, and help maintain proper blood glucose levels within the body.

So, post-workout you should be looking to consume 2-6 g within 20 minutes. If you buy Glutamine in powder form then it is very easy to mix with your post-workout whey protein shake.


Take Home Message

After reading this article hopefully, you have a better idea of what glutamine is and how it can benefit your workout routine. You should also know when is the best time to take it. Post-workout is the most beneficial time to take Glutamine to enhance recovery and the growth of lean muscle mass. If you aren’t supplementing with Glutamine already then I would recommend giving it a try and see if it has any benefits for your body and training goals.

A Beginner’s Guide to Glutamine

What is Glutamine and Where is it Found?

If you’re just starting with sports nutrition, you’ve probably come across all sorts of new names. Spoiler alert: they’ll be part of your fitness vocabulary in no time. We’ve put together this beginner’s guide to glutamine to take you through everything you need to know so, let’s get started.

Glutamine is a non-essential amino acid meaning our body can produce it naturally. However, you can also find it in foods such as beef, chicken, fish, eggs, milk, dairy products, cabbage, beets, beans and spinach. Since glutamine reserves can get quite low in certain circumstances, it can also be considered as a conditionally essential amino acid.

Since glutamine is the most common amino acid in muscles accounting for 60% of skeletal muscle, it’s no surprise it’s become more and more popular because of its role in protein synthesis and muscle maintenance. It’s also important for maintaining a healthy immune system and is also believed to increase natural hormone levels, key for muscle mass.

It’s also worth knowing that it exists in two forms: L-glutamine and D-glutamine. When it comes to food and supplements, you’ll most likely be dealing with L-glutamine. In this piece, we’ll be using glutamine and L-glutamine interchangeably.

What are the Benefits of Glutamine?

One of the key aims of our guide to glutamine is getting the most out of the supplement. In this section, we’ll cover L-glutamine dosage and benefits as well as other tips starting from the below:

  • Muscle mass maintenance
  • Sustains natural glutamine levels to support immune system cells
  • Evens out potential deficiencies in the diets of vegans and vegetarians

Glutamine is a staple for anyone who wants to maintain muscle mass during intense and/or frequent training. After intense exercise, glutamine levels in the body can reduce quite a bit. When the body needs more glutamine than it can produce, which results in glutamine depletion.

During this state, muscle glutamine might be metabolised in order to supply the rest of the body, particularly cells in the immune system, with the glutamine they need to function properly.

If you’re training for muscle and size but your glutamine intake is low, your body might go into a catabolic state – where your muscle tissue breaks down to release energy.

While glutamine levels will eventually increase naturally, it can take some time depending on exercise activity and diet. That’s why supplements can be an effective way of replenishing glutamine levels quickly. As we age, our ability to synthesise glutamine decreases and integration is particularly good for older athletes who train frequently.

Ultimately, L-glutamine benefits people who work out regularly and those who want to boost their general glutamine intake, too.

When to take Glutamine?

To really cash in those glutamine benefits, you’ll want to integrate it after you work out. That’s when your glutamine levels will be at their lowest but, most people will also supplement in the morning, post-workout and before bed. Plus, glutamine is a popular intra-workout supplement you can find in formulas with other amino acids.

Glutamine Dosage?

If you’re training intensively, 10-15g of glutamine per day should be enough. For moderate training, the standard L-glutamine dosage is 5g to be taken post-workout ideally. Bear in mind that some dietary sources also contain glutamine so you’ll contribute to your intake through your regular diet, too.

Glutamine Supplements from bulk™

Now that you’re at the end of our guide to glutamine, you’re one step closer to becoming a pro. Looking for inspiration? Take a look at the top glutamine supplements on-site.:

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glutamine | Michigan Medicine

What is the most important information I should know about glutamine?

Follow all directions on your medicine label and package. Tell each of your healthcare providers about all your medical conditions, allergies, and all medicines you use.

What is glutamine?

Glutamine is an amino acid that affects the processes of growth and function of cells in the stomach and intestines.

Glutamine is a medical food product that is used to supplement dietary sources of glutamine. This medicine is used to treat a glutamine deficiency, or a loss of glutamine caused by injury or illness.

Glutamine is also used in combination with human growth hormone to treat short bowel syndrome.

Glutamine may also be used for purposes not listed in this medication guide.

What should I discuss with my health care provider before taking glutamine?

To make sure glutamine is safe for you, tell your doctor if you have:

  • liver disease; or
  • kidney disease.

FDA pregnancy category C. It is not known whether glutamine will harm an unborn baby. Do not use this medicine without a doctor’s advice if you are pregnant.

It is not known whether glutamine passes into breast milk or if it could harm a nursing baby. Do not use this medicine without a doctor’s advice if you are breast-feeding a baby.

How should I take glutamine?

Use exactly as directed on the label, or as prescribed by your doctor. Do not use in larger or smaller amounts or for longer than recommended.

When treating short bowel syndrome, you may need to take glutamine 6 times per day for up to 16 weeks.

The number of times per day you take glutamine depends on the reason you are using it. Always follow your doctor’s instructions.

Take glutamine oral powder with a meal or snack unless directed otherwise.

Take glutamine tablets on an empty stomach, at least 1 hour before or 2 hours after a meal.

Dissolve your dose of glutamine oral powder in at least 8 ounces of hot or cold liquid. You may also mix the powder with a soft food such as pudding, applesauce, or yogurt. Stir the mixture and eat or drink all of it right away.

Do not pour dry glutamine powder directly into a tube feeding formula. Always mix the powder with water and infuse it directly into the feeding tube using a syringe.

While using glutamine, you may need frequent blood or urine tests.

Glutamine may be only part of a complete program of treatment that may also include a special diet, tube feedings, and IV fluids. It is very important to follow the diet and medication plan created for you by your doctor or nutrition counselor.

Store at room temperature away from moisture and heat. Keep each dose of the oral powder in its packet until you are ready to use the medicine.

What happens if I miss a dose?

Take the missed dose as soon as you remember. Skip the missed dose if it is almost time for your next scheduled dose. Do not take extra medicine to make up the missed dose.

What happens if I overdose?

An overdose of glutamine is not expected to produce life-threatening symptoms.

What should I avoid while taking glutamine?

Follow your doctor’s instructions about any restrictions on food, beverages, or activity.

What are the possible side effects of glutamine?

Get emergency medical help if you have any of these signs of an allergic reaction: hives; difficult breathing; swelling of your face, lips, tongue, or throat.

Call your doctor at once if you have:

  • chest pain;
  • hearing problems; or
  • signs of infection such as fever, chills, sore throat, flu symptoms, mouth sores, unusual weakness.

Common side effects may include:

  • nausea, vomiting, stomach pain, gas;
  • swelling in your hands or feet;
  • muscle or joint pain, back pain;
  • headache, dizziness, tired feeling;
  • mild skin rash or itching; or
  • dry mouth, runny nose, increased sweating.

This is not a complete list of side effects and others may occur. Call your doctor for medical advice about side effects. You may report side effects to FDA at 1-800-FDA-1088.

What other drugs will affect glutamine?

Other drugs may interact with glutamine, including prescription and over-the-counter medicines, vitamins, and herbal products. Tell each of your health care providers about all medicines you use now and any medicine you start or stop using.

Where can I get more information?

Your pharmacist can provide more information about glutamine.

Remember, keep this and all other medicines out of the reach of children, never share your medicines with others, and use this medication only for the indication prescribed.

Every effort has been made to ensure that the information provided by Cerner Multum, Inc. (‘Multum’) is accurate, up-to-date, and complete, but no guarantee is made to that effect. Drug information contained herein may be time sensitive. Multum information has been compiled for use by healthcare practitioners and consumers in the United States and therefore Multum does not warrant that uses outside of the United States are appropriate, unless specifically indicated otherwise. Multum’s drug information does not endorse drugs, diagnose patients or recommend therapy. Multum’s drug information is an informational resource designed to assist licensed healthcare practitioners in caring for their patients and/or to serve consumers viewing this service as a supplement to, and not a substitute for, the expertise, skill, knowledge and judgment of healthcare practitioners. The absence of a warning for a given drug or drug combination in no way should be construed to indicate that the drug or drug combination is safe, effective or appropriate for any given patient. Multum does not assume any responsibility for any aspect of healthcare administered with the aid of information Multum provides. The information contained herein is not intended to cover all possible uses, directions, precautions, warnings, drug interactions, allergic reactions, or adverse effects. If you have questions about the drugs you are taking, check with your doctor, nurse or pharmacist.

Copyright 1996-2021 Cerner Multum, Inc. Version: 2.01. Revision date: 10/9/2014.

Benefits of Glutamine: When To Supplement

If your body was a country club for supplements, you’d see glutamine everywhere: chilling by the pool, hobnobbing with directors, and playing entirely too much tennis.

As the most abundant amino acid in the body, glutamine can be found in muscle tissue, plasma, and in nearly every animal product you ingest. On average, it constitutes a little more than five percent of the amino acids found in animal-derived protein sources such as meats, dairy products, and eggs. That may not sound like much, but make no doubt: Glutamine is critically important to a wide range of bodily processes.

Something this important has to be an “essential” acid, right? Not exactly. Glutamine is considered “conditionally essential.” This means your body can produce enough to meet its needs under normal circumstances, but not always. In other words, you need to consume dietary sources of glutamine under certain circumstances when your body is under extreme duress.

As a supplement, glutamine has plenty of die-hard fans. It also has detractors who say that unless you are a recovering burn patient, this amino is best left on the shelf. I’m here to sort through the research and help you decide if glutamine is right for you.

What Is Glutamine?

Glutamine is created in the human body when the non-essential amino acid glutamate (or glutamic acid) is broken down and binds with nitrogen-containing ammonia molecules. Think of glutamine as a kind of nitrogen sponge. It mops up ammonia and shuttles nitrogen between tissues, where it can be used for cell growth and tissue repair, among many other functions. It’s been reported that some 30-35 percent of all nitrogen derived from protein breakdown is transported in the form of glutamine. Glutamine can also be broken down to re-synthesize glutamate, which makes glutamine a critical source of ammonia and nitrogen.

Approximately 70 percent of your body’s internal glutamine is produced in skeletal muscle, from where it travels to the small intestine, kidneys, and white blood cells. These are the dominant sites of glutamine usage.

Internal levels of this amino acid depend on various factors. Pregnancy and lactation significantly deplete the body’s glutamine stores, as do exhaustive exercise, illness, disease, starvation or fasting, rapid growth and development, and other conditions of extreme physiological stress. These are some of the conditions where increasing your glutamine intake or considering supplementation is appropriate.

What Does It Do?

Glutamine—like other alpha-amino acids—is involved in regulating protein synthesis and breakdown. However, there’s far more to it than that. Glutamine significantly affects BCAA metabolism, gut barrier maintenance, normal immune function, glucose formation, water transport, neurotransmission, and more.

Your kidneys are a primary consumer of glutamine use that’s where the ammonia cleaved from glutamine works to maintain your body’s acid-base balance. Anywhere you find ammonia, you’ll find glutamine. As metabolic acidosis increases—as in response to intense training or a high-protein diet—renal uptake of glutamine soars. In fact, one study found that just four days of a high-protein, high-fat diet, was enough to cause a 25 percent drop in glutamine levels in the plasma and muscle tissue.

If all of these competing uses begin to outpace your body’s ability to produce glutamine, then you may start to show signs of deficiency, including muscle wasting, depleted energy, and increased susceptibility to infections.

What Are the Performance and Physique Applications?

Despite glutamine’s various functions, little evidence suggests it will directly result in increased muscle mass, reduced body fat, or gains in muscle strength or power in normal, healthy people. However, given how stressful intense training is on the human body, athletes may see certain benefits from supplementing with significant levels of glutamine, or from stacking it with other supplements.

One study found that when athletes suffered from mild dehydration, supplemental glutamine increased exercise performance and enhanced fluid and electrolyte uptake when combined with a glucose and electrolyte beverage. Supplementation has also been shown to raise levels of growth hormone in response to cycling to exhaustion.

Extracellular concentrations of glutamine have also been shown to activate the signaling pathway mTOR, which is known to be responsible for increasing muscle size. However, here again, the benefits of glutamine supplementation required that other conditions be met: in this case, mTOR signaling appeared to require the presence of BCAAs (leucine, most importantly), as well as some threshold level of cellular hydration.

In another case, collegiate track and field athletes who consumed four grams of glutamine per day for eight weeks, along with a loading and maintenance dose of creatine, saw greater gains in lean body mass than those who used creatine alone. This may sound significant, but it’s hard to draw conclusions over a mere eight weeks at such a low dosage. Whether higher doses or a longer study would have resulted in significant differences is anyone’s guess.

What Are the Differences Between Types of Glutamine?

Other than your stack, the most important thing to consider when selecting a glutamine product is the delivery system. If you’re purchasing a powder, capsule or tablet, then free form L-glutamine works best. However, because glutamine is unstable, avoid ready-to-drink beverages or protein bars claiming to contain supplemental L-glutamine.

If you favor RTDs and bars, look for the peptide-bound forms of glutamine, such as L-alanyl-L-glutamine, glycyl-L-glutamine hydrate, or an ingredient listed as “glutamine peptide.” Just remember that the glutamine concentration of one of these peptide forms is typically approximately 65-70 percent. In other words, there’s only about 6.5-7g of glutamine per 10g of glutamine peptide. Dose accordingly.

Regardless of the form, up to 90 percent of ingested glutamine is eliminated during first pass. A mere fraction of the glutamine you consume will make it beyond your liver. The majority of the glutamine you consume being eliminated by the digestive enterocytes and immune cells within your gut.

It’s best to avoid products that contain n-acetyl-l-glutamine (not to be confused with N-acetyl glucosamine) or alpha-ketoisocaproyl-glutamine (also known as aKIC-glutamine). Both the acylated and aKIC forms may be stable, but the existing evidence suggests that they’re both poor delivery forms for glutamine.

What Should I Use It With?

Consider stacking glutamine with sodium and other electrolytes first and foremost. Glutamine transport occurs via a sodium-dependent mechanism, and it has been shown to significantly increase cell volume, electrolyte absorption, and hydration. This might be helpful for both endurance and physique athletes, the latter because cell water volume is one of the many aspects of muscle hypertrophy. Significant decreases in cell water volume can also inhibit mTor signaling, which is crucial to building muscle.

Other candidates to stack with glutamine include:

  • BCAAs: There are two main reasons why combining BCAAs and glutamine may promote greater gains in muscle mass and performance. First, ammonia concentrations, and therefore glutamine, directly affects BCAA metabolism. And second, mTOR signaling from extracellular glutamine first requires the uptake of BCAAs, primarily leucine. BCAAs plus glutamine might promote performance and muscle gains.
  • Citrulline: Glutamine functions as a precursor for arginine and NO synthesis by transporting citrulline between tissues. Using glutamine with citrulline might boost citrulline’s ability to stimulate the production of nitric oxide, which might lead to better oxygen delivery and nutrient transport to skeletal muscle. More nutrients to the muscle might translate to better recovery and growth. That may sound somewhat indirect, but then again, a messenger substance like glutamine has its hand in a lot of processes.
  • Alpha-Ketoglutarate: Like glutamine, aKG serves as a precursor to glutamate and has been shown to dose-dependently spare glutamine degradation and increase mTOR signaling pathways, as well as glutathione. This means that glutamine, taken with aKG, might boost the potential for muscle growth and the production of glutathione, a powerful antioxidant.
  • Glucose or N-Acetylglucosamine: Glucose deprivation reduces glutamine uptake and negatively affects cell growth and survival. If you’re on a low-carb diet, it appears that the glycoprotein N-acetylglucosamine (NAG), which is available in supplement form, might be able to restore glutamine uptake and metabolism, potentially boosting recovery and cell function.

How Should I Take It?

It appears that the daily intake of supplemental glutamine needs to be high—at least 20-30g per day, consumed frequently—in order to raise plasma glutamine concentrations.

To provide some perspective, consider that critically ill patients usually receive a constant intravenous infusion of between 20-30 g of glutamine per day. However, the bioavailability of infused glutamine they receive is 100 percent. It’s no more than 30 percent from orally consumed glutamine. Thus, I recommend up to 30g of glutamine per day in divided doses throughout the day, preferably with meals or snacks containing carbohydrates to support glucose utilization.

On training days, I recommend you consume glutamine prior to or during exercise to support hydration, electrolyte transport, and BCAA metabolism. You could take 10g before, during, and after your workout, or you could reduce those dosages to 5g if you also dose in the hours leading up to or following exercise. On non-training days, consume at least 5g of glutamine at frequent intervals, at least every 2-3 hours, to sustain an increase in plasma glutamine concentrations.

There appears to be no need to cycle glutamine. In fact, there’s more evidence to support the need for chronic ingestion of glutamine during periods of extreme physiological stress.

Are There any Side Effects?

There’s a considerable amount of data supporting the lack of adverse reactions to glutamine doses as high as 30g per day. A recent 13-week toxicity study concluded that the “no-observed adverse effect level” (NOAEL) for L-glutamine occurred at the highest daily dose provided to male and female rats.

In a human, this dose equates to roughly 0.308 g of glutamine per pound of body mass per day. For a 170-pound adult, that’s a little more than 52g of glutamine per day. Again, this dose was shown to result in an extremely high level of safety with no documented adverse effects.

What’s the Bottom Line?

Yes, glutamine is a key player in a whole host of functions that dramatically impact your ability to achieve your overall health and fitness goals. However, if you’re depending solely upon glutamine or aren’t using enough, you may be disappointed.

Maximizing glutamine’s effects on your body requires you to use your head first. If you’re not training hard, your body probably can supply you all you need. But if you’re the type who punishes your body regularly, taking it in the right way could help you keep performing at an elite level.

Overview, Uses, Side Effects, Precautions, Interactions, Dosing and Reviews

Albers, M. J., Steyerberg, E. W., Hazebroek, F. W., Mourik, M., Borsboom, G. J., Rietveld, T., Huijmans, J. G., and Tibboel, D. Glutamine supplementation of parenteral nutrition does not improve intestinal permeability, nitrogen balance, or outcome in newborns and infants undergoing digestive-tract surgery: results from a double-blind, randomized, controlled trial. Ann.Surg. 2005;241(4):599-606. View abstract.

Albers, S., Wernerman, J., Stehle, P., Vinnars, E., and Furst, P. Availability of amino acids supplied by constant intravenous infusion of synthetic dipeptides in healthy man. Clin.Sci (Lond) 1989;76(6):643-648. View abstract.

Albers, S., Wernerman, J., Stehle, P., Vinnars, E., and Furst, P. Availability of amino acids supplied intravenously in healthy man as synthetic dipeptides: kinetic evaluation of L-alanyl-L-glutamine and glycyl-L-tyrosine. Clin.Sci.(Lond) 1988;75(5):463-468. View abstract.

Antonio, J., Sanders, M. S., Kalman, D., Woodgate, D., and Street, C. The effects of high-dose glutamine ingestion on weightlifting performance. J.Strength.Cond.Res. 2002;16(1):157-160. View abstract.

Aosasa, S., Mochizuki, H., Yamamoto, T., Ono, S., and Ichikura, T. A clinical study of the effectiveness of oral glutamine supplementation during total parenteral nutrition: influence on mesenteric mononuclear cells. JPEN J.Parenter.Enteral Nutr. 1999;23(5 Suppl):S41-S44. View abstract.

Aquino, V. M., Harvey, A. R., Garvin, J. H., Godder, K. T., Nieder, M. L., Adams, R. H., Jackson, G. B., and Sandler, E. S. A double-blind randomized placebo-controlled study of oral glutamine in the prevention of mucositis in children undergoing hematopoietic stem cell transplantation: a pediatric blood and marrow transplant consortium study. Bone Marrow Transplant. 2005;36(7):611-616. View abstract.

Bakalar, B., Duska, F., Pachl, J., Fric, M., Otahal, M., Pazout, J., and Andel, M. Parenterally administered dipeptide alanyl-glutamine prevents worsening of insulin sensitivity in multiple-trauma patients. Crit Care Med 2006;34(2):381-386. View abstract.

Barbosa, E., Moreira, E. A., Goes, J. E., and Faintuch, J. Pilot study with a glutamine-supplemented enteral formula in critically ill infants. Rev.Hosp.Clin.Fac.Med.Sao Paulo 1999;54(1):21-24. View abstract.

Blijlevens, N. M., Donnelly, J. P., Naber, A. H., Schattenberg, A. V., and DePauw, B. E. A randomised, double-blinded, placebo-controlled, pilot study of parenteral glutamine for allogeneic stem cell transplant patients. Support.Care Cancer 2005;13(10):790-796. View abstract.

Bober-Olesinska, K. and Kornacka, M. K. [Effects of glutamine supplemented parenteral nutrition on the incidence of necrotizing enterocolitis, nosocomial sepsis and length of hospital stay in very low birth weight infants]. Med Wieku.Rozwoj. 2005;9(3 Pt 1):325-333. View abstract.

Boelens, P. G., Houdijk, A. P., Fonk, J. C., Nijveldt, R. J., Ferwerda, C. C., von Blomberg-van der Flier BM, Thijs, L. G., Haarman, H. J., Puyana, J. C., and van Leeuwen, P. A. Glutamine-enriched enteral nutrition increases HLA-DR expression on monocytes of trauma patients. J.Nutr. 2002;132(9):2580-2586. View abstract.

Boelens, P. G., Houdijk, A. P., Fonk, J. C., Puyana, J. C., Haarman, H. J., von Blomberg-van der Flier ME, and van Leeuwen, P. A. Glutamine-enriched enteral nutrition increases in vitro interferon-gamma production but does not influence the in vivo specific antibody response to KLH after severe trauma. A prospective, double blind, randomized clinical study. Clin.Nutr. 2004;23(3):391-400. View abstract.

Borel, M. J., Williams, P. E., Jabbour, K., Levenhagen, D., Kaizer, E., and Flakoll, P. J. Parenteral glutamine infusion alters insulin-mediated glucose metabolism. JPEN J Parenter.Enteral Nutr. 1998;22(5):280-285. View abstract.

Buchman, A. L. Glutamine for short-bowel syndrome. Curr.Gastroenterol.Rep. 2002;4(4):321. View abstract.

Byrne, T. A., Wilmore, D. W., Iyer, K., Dibaise, J., Clancy, K., Robinson, M. K., Chang, P., Gertner, J. M., and Lautz, D. Growth hormone, glutamine, and an optimal diet reduces parenteral nutrition in patients with short bowel syndrome: a prospective, randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind clinical trial. Ann.Surg. 2005;242(5):655-661. View abstract.

Candow, D. G., Chilibeck, P. D., Burke, D. G., Davison, K. S., and Smith-Palmer, T. Effect of glutamine supplementation combined with resistance training in young adults. Eur.J.Appl.Physiol 2001;86(2):142-149. View abstract.

Canovas, G., Leon-Sanz, M., Gomez, P., Valero, M. A., Gomis, P., and La Huerta, J. J. Oral glutamine supplements in autologous hematopoietic transplant: impact on gastrointestinal toxicity and plasma protein levels. Haematologica 2000;85(11):1229-1230. View abstract.

Carcillo, J. A., Dean, J. M., Holubkov, R., Berger, J., Meert, K. L., Anand, K. J., Zimmerman, J., Newth, C. J., Harrison, R., Burr, J., Willson, D. F., and Nicholson, C. The randomized comparative pediatric critical illness stress-induced immune suppression (CRISIS) prevention trial. Pediatr.Crit Care Med. 2012;13(2):165-173. View abstract.

Carroll, P. V., Jackson, N. C., Russell-Jones, D. L., Treacher, D. F., Sonksen, P. H., and Umpleby, A. M. Combined growth hormone/insulin-like growth factor I in addition to glutamine-supplemented TPN results in net protein anabolism in critical illness. Am.J.Physiol Endocrinol.Metab 2004;286(1):E151-E157. View abstract.

Castell, L. M., Poortmans, J. R., and Newsholme, E. A. Does glutamine have a role in reducing infections in athletes? Eur.J.Appl.Physiol Occup.Physiol 1996;73(5):488-490. View abstract.

Chen, G., Xie, W., and Jiang, H. [Clinical observation of the protective effect of oral feeding of glutamine granules on intestinal mucous membrane]. Zhonghua Shao Shang Za Zhi. 2001;17(4):210-211. View abstract.

Claeyssens, S., Bouteloup-Demange, C., Gachon, P., Hecketsweiler, B., Lerebours, E., Lavoinne, A., and Dechelotte, P. Effect of enteral glutamine on leucine, phenylalanine and glutamine metabolism in hypercortisolemic subjects. Am.J.Physiol Endocrinol.Metab 2000;278(5):E817-E824. View abstract.

Coeffier, M., Claeyssens, S., Hecketsweiler, B., Lavoinne, A., Ducrotte, P., and Dechelotte, P. Enteral glutamine stimulates protein synthesis and decreases ubiquitin mRNA level in human gut mucosa. Am.J.Physiol Gastrointest.Liver Physiol 2003;285(2):G266-G273. View abstract.

Coeffier, M., Hecketsweiler, B., Hecketsweiler, P., and Dechelotte, P. Effect of glutamine on water and sodium absorption in human jejunum at baseline and during PGE1-induced secretion. J Appl.Physiol 2005;98(6):2163-2168. View abstract.

Conejero, R., Bonet, A., Grau, T., Esteban, A., Mesejo, A., Montejo, J. C., Lopez, J., and Acosta, J. A. Effect of a glutamine-enriched enteral diet on intestinal permeability and infectious morbidity at 28 days in critically ill patients with systemic inflammatory response syndrome: a randomized, single-blind, prospective, multicenter study. Nutrition 2002;18(9):716-721. View abstract.

Darmaun, D., Hayes, V., Schaeffer, D., Welch, S., and Mauras, N. Effects of glutamine and recombinant human growth hormone on protein metabolism in prepubertal children with cystic fibrosis. J.Clin.Endocrinol.Metab 2004;89(3):1146-1152. View abstract.

de Beaux, A. C., O’Riordain, M. G., Ross, J. A., Jodozi, L., Carter, D. C., and Fearon, K. C. Glutamine-supplemented total parenteral nutrition reduces blood mononuclear cell interleukin-8 release in severe acute pancreatitis. Nutrition 1998;14(3):261-265. View abstract.

Dechelotte, P., Darmaun, D., Rongier, M., Hecketsweiler, B., Rigal, O., and Desjeux, J. F. Absorption and metabolic effects of enterally administered glutamine in humans. Am.J.Physiol 1991;260(5 Pt 1):G677-G682. View abstract.

Dechelotte, P., Hasselmann, M., Cynober, L., Allaouchiche, B., Coeffier, M., Hecketsweiler, B., Merle, V., Mazerolles, M., Samba, D., Guillou, Y. M., Petit, J., Mansoor, O., Colas, G., Cohendy, R., Barnoud, D., Czernichow, P., and Bleichner, G. L-alanyl-L-glutamine dipeptide-supplemented total parenteral nutrition reduces infectious complications and glucose intolerance in critically ill patients: the French controlled, randomized, double-blind, multicenter study. Crit Care Med 2006;34(3):598-604. View abstract.

des, Robert C., Le Bacquer, O., Piloquet, H., Roze, J. C., and Darmaun, D. Acute effects of intravenous glutamine supplementation on protein metabolism in very low birth weight infants: a stable isotope study. Pediatr.Res. 2002;51(1):87-93. View abstract.

Duggan, C., Stark, A. R., Auestad, N., Collier, S., Fulhan, J., Gura, K., Utter, S., Teixeira-Pinto, A., Donovan, K., and Lund, D. Glutamine supplementation in infants with gastrointestinal disease: a randomized, placebo-controlled pilot trial. Nutrition 2004;20(9):752-756. View abstract.

Escolar, D. M., Buyse, G., Henricson, E., Leshner, R., Florence, J., Mayhew, J., Tesi-Rocha, C., Gorni, K., Pasquali, L., Patel, K. M., McCarter, R., Huang, J., Mayhew, T., Bertorini, T., Carlo, J., Connolly, A. M., Clemens, P. R., Goemans, N., Iannaccone, S. T., Igarashi, M., Nevo, Y., Pestronk, A., Subramony, S. H., Vedanarayanan, V. V., and Wessel, H. CINRG randomized controlled trial of creatine and glutamine in Duchenne muscular dystrophy. Ann Neurol 2005;58(1):151-155. View abstract.

Exner, R., Tamandl, D., Goetzinger, P., Mittlboeck, M., Fuegger, R., Sautner, T., Spittler, A., and Roth, E. Perioperative GLY-GLN infusion diminishes the surgery-induced period of immunosuppression: accelerated restoration of the lipopolysaccharide-stimulated tumor necrosis factor-alpha response. Ann.Surg. 2003;237(1):110-115. View abstract.

Fuentes-Orozco, C., Anaya-Prado, R., Gonzalez-Ojeda, A., Arenas-Marquez, H., Cabrera-Pivaral, C., Cervantes-Guevara, G., and Barrera-Zepeda, L. M. L-alanyl-L-glutamine-supplemented parenteral nutrition improves infectious morbidity in secondary peritonitis. Clin.Nutr. 2004;23(1):13-21. View abstract.

Garrel, D., Patenaude, J., Nedelec, B., Samson, L., Dorais, J., Champoux, J., D’Elia, M., and Bernier, J. Decreased mortality and infectious morbidity in adult burn patients given enteral glutamine supplements: a prospective, controlled, randomized clinical trial. Crit Care Med. 2003;31(10):2444-2449. View abstract.

Giris, M., Erbil, Y., Dogru-Abbasoglu, S., Yanik, B. T., Alis, H., Olgac, V., and Toker, G. A. The effect of heme oxygenase-1 induction by glutamine on TNBS-induced colitis. The effect of glutamine on TNBS colitis. Int J Colorectal Dis. 2007;22(6):591-599. View abstract.

Goeters, C., Wenn, A., Mertes, N., Wempe, C., Van Aken, H., Stehle, P., and Bone, H. G. Parenteral L-alanyl-L-glutamine improves 6-month outcome in critically ill patients. Crit Care Med. 2002;30(9):2032-2037. View abstract.

Griffiths, R. D. Outcome of critically ill patients after supplementation with glutamine. Nutrition 1997;13(7-8):752-754. View abstract.

Griffiths, R. D., Allen, K. D., Andrews, F. J., and Jones, C. Infection, multiple organ failure, and survival in the intensive care unit: influence of glutamine-supplemented parenteral nutrition on acquired infection. Nutrition 2002;18(7-8):546-552. View abstract.

Griffiths, R. D., Jones, C., and Palmer, T. E. Six-month outcome of critically ill patients given glutamine-supplemented parenteral nutrition. Nutrition 1997;13(4):295-302. View abstract.

Haisch, M., Fukagawa, N. K., and Matthews, D. E. Oxidation of glutamine by the splanchnic bed in humans. Am.J.Physiol Endocrinol.Metab 2000;278(4):E593-E602. View abstract.

Hall, J. C., Dobb, G., Hall, J., de Sousa, R., Brennan, L., and McCauley, R. A prospective randomized trial of enteral glutamine in critical illness. Intensive Care Med. 2003;29(10):1710-1716. View abstract.

Hallay, J., Kovacs, G., Kiss, Sz S., Farkas, M., Lakos, G., Sipka, S., Bodolay, E., and Sapy, P. Changes in the nutritional state and immune-serological parameters of esophagectomized patients fed jejunaly with glutamine-poor and glutamine-rich nutriments. Hepatogastroenterology 2002;49(48):1555-1559. View abstract.

Hammarqvist, F., Wernerman, J., von der, Decken A., and Vinnars, E. Alanyl-glutamine counteracts the depletion of free glutamine and the postoperative decline in protein synthesis in skeletal muscle. Ann.Surg. 1990;212(5):637-644. View abstract.

Hankard, R. G., Darmaun, D., Sager, B. K., D’Amore, D., Parsons, W. R., and Haymond, M. Response of glutamine metabolism to exogenous glutamine in humans. Am.J.Physiol 1995;269(4 Pt 1):E663-E670. View abstract.

Hankard, R. G., Haymond, M. W., and Darmaun, D. Effect of glutamine on leucine metabolism in humans. Am.J.Physiol 1996;271(4 Pt 1):E748-E754. View abstract.

Huang, E. Y., Leung, S. W., Wang, C. J., Chen, H. C., Sun, L. M., Fang, F. M., Yeh, S. A., Hsu, H. C., and Hsiung, C. Y. Oral glutamine to alleviate radiation-induced oral mucositis: a pilot randomized trial. Int.J.Radiat.Oncol.Biol.Phys. 2-1-2000;46(3):535-539. View abstract.

Huffman, F. G. and Walgren, M. E. L-glutamine supplementation improves nelfinavir-associated diarrhea in HIV-infected individuals. HIV.Clin.Trials 2003;4(5):324-329. View abstract.

Iwashita, S., Mikus, C., Baier, S., and Flakoll, P. J. Glutamine supplementation increases postprandial energy expenditure and fat oxidation in humans. JPEN J Parenter.Enteral Nutr. 2006;30(2):76-80. View abstract.

Iwashita, S., Williams, P., Jabbour, K., Ueda, T., Kobayashi, H., Baier, S., and Flakoll, P. J. Impact of glutamine supplementation on glucose homeostasis during and after exercise. J Appl.Physiol 2005;99(5):1858-1865. View abstract.

Jacobi, C. A., Ordemann, J., Zuckermann, H., Docke, W., Volk, H. D., and Muller, J. M. [Effect of alanyl-glutamine in postoperative total parenteral nutrition on postoperative immunosuppression and morbidity. Preliminary results of a prospective randomized study]. Langenbecks Arch.Chir Suppl Kongressbd. 1998;115:605-611. View abstract.

Jacobi, C. A., Ordemann, J., Zuckermann, H., Docke, W., Volk, H. D., and Muller, J. M. [The influence of alanyl-glutamine on immunologic functions and morbidity in postoperative total parenteral nutrition. Preliminary results of a prospective randomized trial]. Zentralbl.Chir 1999;124(3):199-205. View abstract.

Jacobson, S. D., Loprinzi, C. L., Sloan, J. A., Wilke, J. L., Novotny, P. J., Okuno, S. H., Jatoi, A., and Moynihan, T. J. Glutamine does not prevent paclitaxel-associated myalgias and arthralgias. J.Support.Oncol. 2003;1(4):274-278. View abstract.

Juretic, A., Spagnoli, G. C., Horig, H., Babst, R., von, Bremen K., Harder, F., and Heberer, M. Glutamine requirements in the generation of lymphokine-activated killer cells. Clin.Nutr. 1994;13(1):42-49. View abstract.

Kalhan, S. C., Parimi, P. S., Gruca, L. L., and Hanson, R. W. Glutamine supplement with parenteral nutrition decreases whole body proteolysis in low birth weight infants. J Pediatr. 2005;146(5):642-647. View abstract.

Klek, S., Kulig, J., Szczepanik, A. M., Jedrys, J., and Kolodziejczyk, P. The clinical value of parenteral immunonutrition in surgical patients. Acta Chir Belg. 2005;105(2):175-179. View abstract.

Kozelsky, T. F., Meyers, G. E., Sloan, J. A., Shanahan, T. G., Dick, S. J., Moore, R. L., Engeler, G. P., Frank, A. R., McKone, T. K., Urias, R. E., Pilepich, M. V., Novotny, P. J., and Martenson, J. A. Phase III double-blind study of glutamine versus placebo for the prevention of acute diarrhea in patients receiving pelvic radiation therapy. J.Clin.Oncol. 5-1-2003;21(9):1669-1674. View abstract.

Krieger, J. W., Crowe, M., and Blank, S. E. Chronic glutamine supplementation increases nasal but not salivary IgA during 9 days of interval training. J.Appl.Physiol 2004;97(2):585-591. View abstract.

Krzywkowski, K., Petersen, E. W., Ostrowski, K., Kristensen, J. H., Boza, J., and Pedersen, B. K. Effect of glutamine supplementation on exercise-induced changes in lymphocyte function. Am.J.Physiol Cell Physiol 2001;281(4):C1259-C1265. View abstract.

Lacey, J. M., Crouch, J. B., Benfell, K., Ringer, S. A., Wilmore, C. K., Maguire, D., and Wilmore, D. W. The effects of glutamine-supplemented parenteral nutrition in premature infants. JPEN J.Parenter.Enteral Nutr. 1996;20(1):74-80. View abstract.

Lehmkuhl, M., Malone, M., Justice, B., Trone, G., Pistilli, E., Vinci, D., Haff, E. E., Kilgore, J. L., and Haff, G. G. The effects of 8 weeks of creatine monohydrate and glutamine supplementation on body composition and performance measures. J Strength.Cond.Res 2003;17(3):425-438. View abstract.

Lima, A. A., Brito, L. F., Ribeiro, H. B., Martins, M. C., Lustosa, A. P., Rocha, E. M., Lima, N. L., Monte, C. M., and Guerrant, R. L. Intestinal barrier function and weight gain in malnourished children taking glutamine supplemented enteral formula. J Pediatr.Gastroenterol.Nutr. 2005;40(1):28-35. View abstract.

Lin, M. T., Kung, S. P., Yeh, S. L., Liaw, K. Y., Wang, M. Y., Kuo, M. L., Lee, P. H., and Chen, W. J. Glutamine-supplemented total parenteral nutrition attenuates plasma interleukin-6 in surgical patients with lower disease severity. World J Gastroenterol. 10-21-2005;11(39):6197-6201. View abstract.

Lin, M. T., Kung, S. P., Yeh, S. L., Lin, C., Lin, T. H., Chen, K. H., Liaw, K. Y., Lee, P. H., Chang, K. J., and Chen, W. J. The effect of glutamine-supplemented total parenteral nutrition on nitrogen economy depends on severity of diseases in surgical patients. Clin.Nutr. 2002;21(3):213-218. View abstract.

M’bemba, J., Cynober, L., de, Bandt P., Taverna, M., Chevalier, A., Bardin, C., Slama, G., and Selam, J. L. Effects of dipeptide administration on hypoglycaemic counterregulation in type 1 diabetes. Diabetes Metab 2003;29(4 Pt 1):412-417. View abstract.

MacBurney, M., Young, L. S., Ziegler, T. R., and Wilmore, D. W. A cost-evaluation of glutamine-supplemented parenteral nutrition in adult bone marrow transplant patients. J.Am.Diet.Assoc. 1994;94(11):1263-1266. View abstract.

May, P. E., Barber, A., D’Olimpio, J. T., Hourihane, A., and Abumrad, N. N. Reversal of cancer-related wasting using oral supplementation with a combination of beta-hydroxy-beta-methylbutyrate, arginine, and glutamine. Am.J.Surg. 2002;183(4):471-479. View abstract.

Mok, E., Eleouet-Da, Violante C., Daubrosse, C., Gottrand, F., Rigal, O., Fontan, J. E., Cuisset, J. M., Guilhot, J., and Hankard, R. Oral glutamine and amino acid supplementation inhibit whole-body protein degradation in children with Duchenne muscular dystrophy. Am.J Clin.Nutr. 2006;83(4):823-828. View abstract.

Morais, A. A., Santos, J. E., and Faintuch, J. [Comparative study of arginine and glutamine supplements in malnourished surgical patients]. Rev.Hosp.Clin.Fac.Med.Sao Paulo 1995;50(5):276-279. View abstract.

Morlion, B. J., Siedhoff, H. P., Joosten, U., Koller, M., Konig, W., Furst, P., and Puchstein, C. [Immunomodulation after parenteral glutamine administration in colorectal surgery]. Langenbecks Arch.Chir Suppl Kongressbd. 1996;113:342-344. View abstract.

Neri, A., Mariani, F., Piccolomini, A., Testa, M., Vuolo, G., and Di Cosmo, L. Glutamine-supplemented total parenteral nutrition in major abdominal surgery. Nutrition 2001;17(11-12):968-969. View abstract.

Neu, J., Roig, J. C., Meetze, W. H., Veerman, M., Carter, C., Millsaps, M., Bowling, D., Dallas, M. J., Sleasman, J., Knight, T., and Auestad, N. Enteral glutamine supplementation for very low birth weight infants decreases morbidity. J.Pediatr. 1997;131(5):691-699. View abstract.

O’Riordain, M. G., De Beaux, A., and Fearon, K. C. Effect of glutamine on immune function in the surgical patient. Nutrition 1996;12(11-12 Suppl):S82-S84. View abstract.

O’Riordain, M. G., Fearon, K. C., Ross, J. A., Rogers, P., Falconer, J. S., Bartolo, D. C., Garden, O. J., and Carter, D. C. Glutamine-supplemented total parenteral nutrition enhances T-lymphocyte response in surgical patients undergoing colorectal resection. Ann.Surg. 1994;220(2):212-221. View abstract.

Ockenga, J., Borchert, K., Rifai, K., Manns, M. P., and Bischoff, S. C. Effect of glutamine-enriched total parenteral nutrition in patients with acute pancreatitis. Clin.Nutr. 2002;21(5):409-416. View abstract.

Peng, X., Yan, H., You, Z., Wang, P., and Wang, S. Clinical and protein metabolic efficacy of glutamine granules-supplemented enteral nutrition in severely burned patients. Burns 2005;31(3):342-346. View abstract.

Peng, X., Yan, H., You, Z., Wang, P., and Wang, S. Effects of enteral supplementation with glutamine granules on intestinal mucosal barrier function in severe burned patients. Burns 2004;30(2):135-139. View abstract.

Peng, X., You, Z. Y., Huang, X. K., Zhang, S. Q., He, G. Z., Xie, W. G., and Quan, Z. F. [Effects of glutamine granules on protein metabolism in trauma patients]. Zhonghua Wai Ke.Za Zhi. 4-7-2004;42(7):406-409. View abstract.

Pertkiewicz, M., Slotwinski, R., Majewska, K., and Szczygiel, B. [Clinical evaluation of amino acid solution]. Pol.Merkur Lekarski. 1999;7(41):211-214. View abstract.

Petersson, B., von der, Decken A., Vinnars, E., and Wernerman, J. Long-term effects of postoperative total parenteral nutrition supplemented with glycylglutamine on subjective fatigue and muscle protein synthesis. Br.J Surg. 1994;81(10):1520-1523. View abstract.

Piccirillo, N., De Matteis, S., Laurenti, L., Chiusolo, P., Sora, F., Pittiruti, M., Rutella, S., Cicconi, S., Fiorini, A., D’Onofrio, G., Leone, G., and Sica, S. Glutamine-enriched parenteral nutrition after autologous peripheral blood stem cell transplantation: effects on immune reconstitution and mucositis. Haematologica 2003;88(2):192-200. View abstract.

Poindexter, B. B., Ehrenkranz, R. A., Stoll, B. J., Wright, L. L., Poole, W. K., Oh, W., Bauer, C. R., Papile, L. A., Tyson, J. E., Carlo, W. A., Laptook, A. R., Narendran, V., Stevenson, D. K., Fanaroff, A. A., Korones, S. B., Shankaran, S., Finer, N. N., and Lemons, J. A. Parenteral glutamine supplementation does not reduce the risk of mortality or late-onset sepsis in extremely low birth weight infants. Pediatrics 2004;113(5):1209-1215. View abstract.

Powell-Tuck, J. Total parenteral nutrition with glutamine dipeptide shortened hospital stays and improved immune status and nitrogen economy after major abdominal surgery. Gut 1999;44(2):155. View abstract.

Prada, P. O., Hirabara, S. M., de Souza, C. T., Schenka, A. A., Zecchin, H. G., Vassallo, J., Velloso, L. A., Carneiro, E., Carvalheira, J. B., Curi, R., and Saad, M. J. L-glutamine supplementation induces insulin resistance in adipose tissue and improves insulin signalling in liver and muscle of rats with diet-induced obesity. Diabetologia 2007;50(9):1949-1959. View abstract.

Pytlik, R., Benes, P., Patorkova, M., Chocenska, E., Gregora, E., Prochazka, B., and Kozak, T. Standardized parenteral alanyl-glutamine dipeptide supplementation is not beneficial in autologous transplant patients: a randomized, double-blind, placebo controlled study. Bone Marrow Transplant. 2002;30(12):953-961. View abstract.

Pytlik, R., Gregora, E., Benes, P., and Kozak, T. [Effect of parenteral glutamine on restoration of lymphocyte subpopulations after high-dose chemotherapy and autologous hematopoietic cell transplantation: data from a double-blind randomized study]. Epidemiol.Mikrobiol.Imunol. 2002;51(4):152-155. View abstract.

Quan, Z. F., Yang, C., Li, N., and Li, J. S. Effect of glutamine on change in early postoperative intestinal permeability and its relation to systemic inflammatory response. World J.Gastroenterol. 7-1-2004;10(13):1992-1994. View abstract.

Rogeri, P. S. and Costa Rosa, L. F. Plasma glutamine concentration in spinal cord injured patients. Life Sci 9-23-2005;77(19):2351-2360. View abstract.

Sax, H. C. Clinical and metabolic efficacy of glutamine-supplemented parenteral nutrition after bone marrow transplantation. A randomized, double-blind, controlled study. JPEN J.Parenter.Enteral Nutr. 1992;16(6):589-590. View abstract.

Scheid, C., Hermann, K., Kremer, G., Holsing, A., Heck, G., Fuchs, M., Waldschmidt, D., Herrmann, H. J., Sohngen, D., Diehl, V., and Schwenk, A. Randomized, double-blind, controlled study of glycyl-glutamine-dipeptide in the parenteral nutrition of patients with acute leukemia undergoing intensive chemotherapy. Nutrition 2004;20(3):249-254. View abstract.

Scheltinga, M. R., Young, L. S., Benfell, K., Bye, R. L., Ziegler, T. R., Santos, A. A., Antin, J. H., Schloerb, P. R., and Wilmore, D. W. Glutamine-enriched intravenous feedings attenuate extracellular fluid expansion after a standard stress. Ann.Surg. 1991;214(4):385-393. View abstract.

Schloerb, P. R. and Amare, M. Total parenteral nutrition with glutamine in bone marrow transplantation and other clinical applications (a randomized, double-blind study). JPEN J.Parenter.Enteral Nutr. 1993;17(5):407-413. View abstract.

Schulman, A. S., Willcutts, K. F., Claridge, J. A., Evans, H. L., Radigan, A. E., O’Donnell, K. B., Camden, J. R., Chong, T. W., McElearney, S. T., Smith, R. L., Gazoni, L. M., Farinholt, H. M., Heuser, C. C., Lowson, S. M., Schirmer, B. D., Young, J. S., and Sawyer, R. G. Does the addition of glutamine to enteral feeds affect patient mortality? Crit Care Med 2005;33(11):2501-2506. View abstract.

Schulman, A. S., Willcutts, K. F., Claridge, J. A., O’Donnell, K. B., Radigan, A. E., Evans, H. L., McElearney, S. T., Hedrick, T. L., Lowson, S. M., Schirmer, B. D., Young, J. S., and Sawyer, R. G. Does enteral glutamine supplementation decrease infectious morbidity? Surg.Infect.(Larchmt.) 2006;7(1):29-35. View abstract.

Sheridan, R. L., Prelack, K., Yu, Y. M., Lydon, M., Petras, L., Young, V. R., and Tompkins, R. G. Short-term enteral glutamine does not enhance protein accretion in burned children: a stable isotope study. Surgery 2004;135(6):671-678. View abstract.

Spittler, A., Sautner, T., Gornikiewicz, A., Manhart, N., Oehler, R., Bergmann, M., Fugger, R., and Roth, E. Postoperative glycyl-glutamine infusion reduces immunosuppression: partial prevention of the surgery induced decrease in HLA-DR expression on monocytes. Clin.Nutr. 2001;20(1):37-42. View abstract.

Stehle, P., Zander, J., Mertes, N., Albers, S., Puchstein, C., Lawin, P., and Furst, P. Effect of parenteral glutamine peptide supplements on muscle glutamine loss and nitrogen balance after major surgery. Lancet 2-4-1989;1(8632):231-233. View abstract.

Stubblefield, M. D., Vahdat, L. T., Balmaceda, C. M., Troxel, A. B., Hesdorffer, C. S., and Gooch, C. L. Glutamine as a neuroprotective agent in high-dose paclitaxel-induced peripheral neuropathy: a clinical and electrophysiologic study. Clin.Oncol.(R.Coll.Radiol.) 2005;17(4):271-276. View abstract.

Suojaranta-Ylinen, R., Ruokonen, E., Pulkki, K., Mertsola, J., and Takala, J. Preoperative glutamine loading does not prevent endotoxemia in cardiac surgery. Acta Anaesthesiol.Scand. 1997;41(3):385-391. View abstract.

Sykorova, A., Horacek, J., Zak, P., Kmonicek, M., Bukac, J., and Maly, J. A randomized, double blind comparative study of prophylactic parenteral nutritional support with or without glutamine in autologous stem cell transplantation for hematological malignancies — three years’ follow-up. Neoplasma 2005;52(6):476-482. View abstract.

Thompson, S. W., McClure, B. G., and Tubman, T. R. A randomized, controlled trial of parenteral glutamine in ill, very low birth-weight neonates. J.Pediatr.Gastroenterol.Nutr. 2003;37(5):550-553. View abstract.

Tjader, I., Rooyackers, O., Forsberg, A. M., Vesali, R. F., Garlick, P. J., and Wernerman, J. Effects on skeletal muscle of intravenous glutamine supplementation to ICU patients. Intensive Care Med. 2004;30(2):266-275. View abstract.

van den Berg, A., van Elburg, R. M., Twisk, J. W., and Fetter, W. P. Glutamine-enriched enteral nutrition in very low birth weight infants. Design of a double-blind randomised controlled trial [ISRCTN73254583]. BMC.Pediatr. 9-1-2004;4:17. View abstract.

van den Berg, A., van Elburg, R. M., Westerbeek, E. A., Twisk, J. W., and Fetter, W. P. Glutamine-enriched enteral nutrition in very-low-birth-weight infants and effects on feeding tolerance and infectious morbidity: a randomized controlled trial. Am.J Clin.Nutr. 2005;81(6):1397-1404. View abstract.

van Hall, G., Saris, W. H., van de Schoor, P. A., and Wagenmakers, A. J. The effect of free glutamine and peptide ingestion on the rate of muscle glycogen resynthesis in man. Int.J.Sports Med. 2000;21(1):25-30. View abstract.

van Loon, F. P., Banik, A. K., Nath, S. K., Patra, F. C., Wahed, M. A., Darmaun, D., Desjeux, J. F., and Mahalanabis, D. The effect of L-glutamine on salt and water absorption: a jejunal perfusion study in cholera in humans. Eur.J.Gastroenterol.Hepatol. 1996;8(5):443-448. View abstract.

Vaughn, P., Thomas, P., Clark, R., and Neu, J. Enteral glutamine supplementation and morbidity in low birth weight infants. J.Pediatr. 2003;142(6):662-668. View abstract.

Velasco, N., Hernandez, G., Wainstein, C., Castillo, L., Maiz, A., Lopez, F., Guzman, S., Bugedo, G., Acosta, A. M., and Bruhn, A. Influence of polymeric enteral nutrition supplemented with different doses of glutamine on gut permeability in critically ill patients. Nutrition 2001;17(11-12):907-911. View abstract.

Vicario, M., Amat, C., Rivero, M., Moreto, M., and Pelegri, C. Dietary glutamine affects mucosal functions in rats with mild DSS-induced colitis. J Nutr. 2007;137(8):1931-1937. View abstract.

Walsh, N. P., Blannin, A. K., Bishop, N. C., Robson, P. J., and Gleeson, M. Effect of oral glutamine supplementation on human neutrophil lipopolysaccharide-stimulated degranulation following prolonged exercise. Int.J.Sport Nutr.Exerc.Metab 2000;10(1):39-50. View abstract.

Williams, J. Z., Abumrad, N., and Barbul, A. Effect of a specialized amino acid mixture on human collagen deposition. Ann.Surg. 2002;236(3):369-374. View abstract.

Williams, R., Olivi, S., Li, C. S., Storm, M., Cremer, L., Mackert, P., and Wang, W. Oral glutamine supplementation decreases resting energy expenditure in children and adolescents with sickle cell anemia. J.Pediatr.Hematol.Oncol. 2004;26(10):619-625. View abstract.

Wischmeyer, P. E., Lynch, J., Liedel, J., Wolfson, R., Riehm, J., Gottlieb, L., and Kahana, M. Glutamine administration reduces Gram-negative bacteremia in severely burned patients: a prospective, randomized, double-blind trial versus isonitrogenous control. Crit Care Med. 2001;29(11):2075-2080. View abstract.

Wischmeyer, P., Pemberton, J. H., and Phillips, S. F. Chronic pouchitis after ileal pouch-anal anastomosis: responses to butyrate and glutamine suppositories in a pilot study. Mayo Clin.Proc. 1993;68(10):978-981. View abstract.

Yalcin, S. S., Yurdakok, K., Tezcan, I., and Oner, L. Effect of glutamine supplementation on diarrhea, interleukin-8 and secretory immunoglobulin A in children with acute diarrhea. J.Pediatr.Gastroenterol.Nutr. 2004;38(5):494-501. View abstract.

Yao, G. X., Xue, X. B., Jiang, Z. M., Yang, N. F., and Wilmore, D. W. Effects of perioperative parenteral glutamine-dipeptide supplementation on plasma endotoxin level, plasma endotoxin inactivation capacity and clinical outcome. Clin.Nutr. 2005;24(4):510-515. View abstract.

Yoshida, S., Kaibara, A., Ishibashi, N., and Shirouzu, K. Glutamine supplementation in cancer patients. Nutrition 2001;17(9):766-768. View abstract.

Young, L. S., Bye, R., Scheltinga, M., Ziegler, T. R., Jacobs, D. O., and Wilmore, D. W. Patients receiving glutamine-supplemented intravenous feedings report an improvement in mood. JPEN J.Parenter.Enteral Nutr. 1993;17(5):422-427. View abstract.

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Health Benefits, Safety Information, Dosage, and More


Amino Acids: “Glutamine and intestinal barrier function.”

Amino Acids: “Glutamine and the immune system.”

Biology: “Minireview on Glutamine Synthetase Deficiency, an Ultra-Rare Inborn Error of Amino Acid Biosynthesis.”

Canadian Journal of Applied Physiology: “Glutamine: A Potentially Useful Supplement for Athletes.”

Canadian Society of Intestinal Research: “What is Glutamine?”

Critical Care: “Parenteral glutamine supplementation in critical illness: a systematic review.”

Journal of Exercise Science and Fitness: “Glutamine Supplementation in Recovery From Eccentric Exercise Attenuates Strength Loss and Muscle Soreness.”

Journal of Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition: “Side effects of long-term glutamine supplementation.”

Mayo Clinic: “Glutamine (Oral Route.)”

Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center: “Glutamine.”

Nutrients: “Glutamine as an Anti-Fatigue Amino Acid in Sports Nutrition.”

Nutrients: “Glutamine: Metabolism and Immune Function, Supplementation and Clinical Translation.”

Nutrition Reviews: “Is glutamine a conditionally essential amino acid?

Regulatory Toxicology and Pharmacology: “Risk assessment for the amino acids taurine, L-glutamine and L-arginine.”

The Journal of Nutrition: “Dosing and Efficacy of Glutamine Supplementation in Human Exercise and Sport Training.”

University of Michigan: “Glutamine.”

Glutamine – Men’s Journal

Where it comes from: Glutamine is the most abundant amino acid in the body—despite the fact that it’s not essential. Most glutamine is stored in muscles followed by the lungs, where much of the glutamine is made. It’s involved in many metabolic processes, and is the principal carrier of nitrogen in the body and is an important energy source for many cells.

What it’ll do for you: “Glutamine has become increasingly popular among athletes, as it is believed that it helps prevent infections following athletic events and speeds post-exercise recovery,” explains registered dietitian and American Dietetic Association spokesperson Jim White. Doctors use glutamine when men are in a catabolic state of injury or after surgeries. In the commercial world, glutamine is also marketed as a supplement used for muscle growth in bodybuilding and demanding sports. Here, a more detailed look at what it can do:

  • Ease trauma and burns
    A double-blind study published in 2003 looked at 45 adults with severe burns—some were given glutamine supplements and others were given a control mixture. The researchers reported that glutamine supplementation in adult burn patients reduced blood infections by a factor of three, prevented a certain pathogen and reduced mortality rates.
  • Speed wound healing in postoperative patients
    In a 2001, a study looked at patients who underwent elective surgery. Those who were given glutamine supplements intravenously showed improvement in nitrogen balance throughout their body, a corrected decreased glutamine concentration in the skeletal muscle amino acid pool and enhanced protein synthesis. Other randomized blind trials reported a decreased length in hospital stay in postoperative patients receiving glutamine supplementation.
  • Halt the breakdown of muscles and stimulate new growth
    Amino acids form the proteins that help build much of the body’s tissue—including muscle. During intense exercise blood and muscle levels of glutamine tend to fall. Additionally, studies have proven that, after a hard workout, muscles are torn down. To reverse this effect, nutrients must be fed to the muscles and protein synthesis must be stimulated to build new muscle. “If we supplement our body with glutamine before an intense training we allow our body to keep a high supply of glutamine in the muscles and stop them from breaking down,” White explains. “This means the body can use the glutamine in the muscles to synthesize protein and build muscle mass.”
  • Helps relieve treatment-related side effects of cancer
    Doctors often prescribe glutamine supplements to cancer patients to help treat diarrhea, inflammation of the mouth lining, sore throats and tingling fingers and toes. Positive results have been found with patients receiving radiation therapy, bone marrow transplants and certain chemotherapies.

Suggested intake: “The body can make enough glutamine for its regular needs,” says White. Because the body synthesizes it, glutamine deficiency is not very common. Glutamine is also found in plant and animal proteins such as beef, pork and poultry, milk, yogurt, ricotta and cottage cheese, tofu, beans, eggs, raw spinach, raw parsley and cabbage.

For those looking to take glutamine for muscle mass, note that adults should avoid ingesting more than 40 grams per day.

Supplements are available in powder or capsule form. The powder form is often preferred by customers because the dosage is bigger in one small scoop compared to a few capsules. When mixed with liquids, glutamine powder is virtually tasteless.

There are two types of glutamine supplements—glutamine peptides and L-glutamine. L-glutamine is “free form” and not bonded to other amino acids. Most supplement takers prefer glutamine peptides, which are bonded to other amino acids and are more stable and better assimilated by the body. However, most studies showing the benefits of glutamine supplements use L-glutamine and not peptides.

Associated risks/scrutiny: Glutamine supplements are considered possibly safe for most men when taken orally, but the potential side effects of glutamine are unknown.

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90,000 What is glutamine and how to take it?

Glutamine is a conditionally essential amino acid, which is produced in the human body. She is involved in a large number of different physiological processes. After strength training, it must be taken in order to replenish the supply lost during exercise. In addition, glutamine provides the body with the necessary energy during training, provides protein synthesis and protects muscle tissue from destruction. Muscle is composed of 60% glutamine, which is why it is an essential element in bodybuilding.

Glutamine video

Glutamine belongs to natural amino acids that the body receives from food. Taking glutamine in the form of sports supplements is completely safe and does not cause side effects. Some may experience intestinal irritation when using a dose higher than 15 grams, and taking a smaller amount does not make sense, since the human body absorbs a certain amount of this amino acid (about 4-8 grams, the rest of the body is rejected from the rest).

Glutamine in food

Glutamine is found in food products in meat, eggs, cottage cheese and milk. Plant-based sources of glutamine include beets, kale, legumes, spinach, and parsley.

Glutamine with additives

It can be combined with various sports supplements, resulting in mutual reinforcement from action. Best of all, glutamine is combined with screatin and proteins, but besides them, anabolic complexes and other supplements can also be included here.Glutamine is not recommended to be mixed with protein and should be taken half an hour apart. Glutamine can be taken at the same time with other supplements. Most protein foods contain high levels of glutamine. But this is not always enough, especially the training takes a lot of energy.

Glutamine is able to neutralize ammonia levels. For muscle cells, ammonia is considered a toxic substance, glutamine neutralizes it from body tissues due to the fact that it has two nitrogen atoms, while other amino acids have only one atom.Through this, glutamine delivers nitrogen to the muscles. With the help of glutamine, the ability to produce growth hormone increases, as well as the metabolism of fat cells and the growth of muscle tissue. In the process of metabolism, it can be transformed into glucose, which contributes to the accumulation of glycogen in the muscles. During physical exertion, the need for glutamine increases, since it does not allow proteins to be broken down. For a long time, it has been used in emergency medicine to treat patients under stress.To prevent muscle catabolism, patients are given a dose of glutamine. After physical injuries and surgeries, glutamine is given to speed up wound healing and reduce muscle protein and amino acid loss. This is why the body needs to maintain sufficient glutamine levels.

Along with glucose, glutamine is considered an energy source and induces growth hormone levels.

Glutamine intake

Glutamine is recommended to be taken in doses of 4-8 grams per day.It is best to divide it into two doses: immediately after exercise and on an empty stomach before bedtime. Post-workout Glutamine fills the pool, prevents catabolism and increases muscle growth. It is recommended to use it before going to bed, as it helps to multiply the process of production of growth hormone. On a rest day, glutamine is recommended to be taken with lunch and before bed on an empty stomach.

Peculiarities of taking glutamine for sports achievements

Glutamine is one of the amino acids that make up protein. In the human body, its amount reaches 60%. This is an indispensable component not only for athletes, bodybuilders, but also for people with a normal life rhythm.

Very often, the natural amount of glutamine in the body becomes insufficient. It is in such cases that special drugs come to the rescue, which make up for its shortage. With their help, you can accelerate the growth of muscle mass, support the immune system, normalize the functioning of internal organs, and overcome stress.

Who Needs Glutamine?

Attention! Glutamine is an essential and essential amino acid for everyone’s health. It is he who is the building material for muscle mass, skeleton and lungs.

Very often it is prescribed to patients who are in critical condition for various reasons. This can be associated with severe burns, postoperative recovery, and serious injury. At such moments, the body uses up all its glutamine reserves, trying to overcome stress and repair damaged areas.

The list of those who need glutamine is supplemented by people who face serious physical activity on a daily basis. That is why athletes often use glutamine in the form of special preparations.

The benefits of glutamine in vigorous training

The main rule of all athletes who take glutamine is to give their body the opportunity to fully recover. To do this, you need to take temporary pauses to strengthen the muscular skeleton between serious athletic achievements.Heavy loads can play a bad role, causing:

90 055 90 056 stress;

  • irritability;
  • drop in immunity.
  • It is during this period that the level of glutamine in the blood plasma is very low, even if the drug is taken in sufficient quantities. At a low level, it can stay long enough until the body gets stronger again and gains strength.

    What is the correct way to take glutamine?

    Studies show that within 45 minutes after taking the drug, the concentration of growth hormone in the blood plasma increases. It reaches 400-420%. After a few hours, this effect completely disappears. In this regard, you need to take glutamine directly on schedule, before serious workouts.

    Attention! How do I take glutamine? Athletes use the drug in small doses (3-5 g) 5-6 times a day between meals. The main rule is not to take glutamine for a few hours before bed. When calculating doses, many factors are always taken into account: body weight, training intensity, health status, dietary habits.

    It is worth remembering that in addition to the benefits, the drug can also cause side effects. It is very rare, but there is a possibility of rejection by the body. This is fraught with poor health, nausea, vomiting. Most often, symptoms disappear after a single dose of glutamine is reduced.

    What is glutamine for, where is it contained and how to take it in powder and capsules

    Where is glutamine found and should it be taken additionally?

    The amino acid is found in many animal foods, as well as legumes, vegetables, and greens.

    Glutamine content table in food:

    Product, 100 g Glutamine content, mg
    Beef 3073
    Fatty pork 1754
    Hen 3682
    Cod 2101
    Sea bass 2800
    Zander 2369
    Hard cheese 4617
    Milk 611
    Kefir 497
    Soy 6050
    Green pea 5583
    Wheat bread 2763
    Spinach 289
    Chicken eggs 1773

    In addition to the fact that glutamine comes from food, it can also be synthesized in the body from other amino acids.Why then take it additionally?

    The fact is that a person needs a very large amount of glutamine, especially with intense training, which is not always possible to get from food. By forcing the body to produce this amino acid, we take away part of its resources, which is especially noticeable during stressful loads. Instead of throwing all its energy into repairing damaged tissues, the body is forced to spend energy on synthesizing glutamine.

    Based on this, it becomes clear that glutamine supplements are needed, first of all, for athletes and people doing hard physical work.But for those who are far from sports, glutamine can also be useful.

    You can take glutamic amino acid in the following cases:

    • For gaining muscle mass;
    • Slimming;
    • To strengthen the immune system.

    Let’s take a closer look at each item.

    Glutamine for weight gain

    Glutamine supplements are widely used in bodybuilding to gain muscle mass.And this is not surprising, because this amino acid is the main building material of our muscles. In addition, it suppresses catabolic processes in the body, increases endurance, reduces the risk of overtraining syndrome, and shortens recovery time.

    For a rapid increase in muscle mass, it is recommended to combine the intake of glutamine with creatine. Drinking these two supplements together after training will provide an anti-catabolic effect and promote muscle growth.

    Glutamine for weight loss

    It is advisable to use glutamine cocktails not only for weight gain, but also for weight loss. It is worth noting that the supplement is not a fat burner, but helps create the conditions for effective weight loss. L-glutamine speeds up metabolism, normalizes blood sugar levels, increases body endurance, invigorates during workouts, which makes them more effective.

    Glutamine to strengthen the immune system

    According to research, regular intake of glutamine strengthens the immune system and helps the body recover faster from stress, heavy physical activity, or prolonged illness.This is due to the fact that the amino acid is the source of “nutrition” for immune cells in our body.

    If you are prone to colds and often get sick during the cold season, it is recommended to start taking l-glutamine in early fall. You can drink the supplement at any time of the day for as long as you see fit. There are no restrictions on the duration of glutamine intake.

    Instruction for the use of glutamine

    According to the recommendations of trainers, the average dosage is 1-1.5 g of pure glutamine per 10 kg of body weight.That is, with a weight of 80 kg, you need to drink about 8-12 g of amino acids per day. At the same time, the daily rate is not limited, since the supplement is safe for the body.

    Some athletes increase the recommended dosage to 20-30 g per day and note a positive effect in the process of gaining weight. Experimental studies show that in such an amount, glutamine does neither harm nor benefit, since it is simply not absorbed by the body.

    In order for the amino acid to be fully absorbed and there are no side effects in the form of intestinal upset, it is recommended to take no more than 10 g of glutamine at a time.If the daily dosage exceeds 10 g, then it should be divided into 2 doses.

    When is the best time to take glutamine

    Experienced bodybuilders advise drinking glutamine 1-2 times daily after training and / or at night before bed. Consumption after training can help reduce catabolism, promote mass growth and compensate for muscle wasting. A portion of the amino acid, drunk before bedtime, activates the production of growth hormone. On rest days, the supplement can be taken at lunchtime and at night.

    There is also the practice of taking glutamine prior to training, which provides an energy boost and increases training performance.

    Regardless of the time of day, glutamine shakes should be drunk 30 minutes before meals.

    Which glutamine is better to choose and where to buy

    Modern sports nutrition stores, where you can buy amino acid, mainly offer three forms of production: powder, tablets and capsules.Which one is better to choose? There is no fundamental difference in these forms, but professional athletes prefer glutamine in powder. In this form, it is more convenient to dose it, mix it with other additives and add it to cocktails. It is also worth noting that Glutamic Amino Acid Powder costs less than other formulations. You can buy high-quality glutamine with various flavors on our website – the official online store of sports and healthy nutrition Prime Kraft. To select a product and place an order, go to the appropriate section of the catalog using this link.

    Recommendations from experts PRIME KRAFT

    Glutamine is an effective sports supplement for men and women to help build muscle, lose weight and boost immunity. But don’t think that the amino acid will work for you. Without competent training, a properly selected diet and adherence to the daily regimen, you will not achieve the desired results. Glutamine is effective if you have the above points in your life, otherwise taking the amino acid will only help you strengthen your immune system.

    If your goal is to build quality muscle mass, we also recommend adding CREATINE MONOHYDRATE and PRIME KRAFT protein shakes to your sports diet. And for more effective weight loss and increased physical activity, we recommend using the L-CARNITINE L-TARTRATE fat burner.

    With the BLOG promo code in the official online store primekraft.ru 10% discount on the entire assortment! Delivery throughout Russia.

    We wish you success on your way to a beautiful body!

    what it is and how to take glutamine correctly

    Glutamine (or glutamine) is an amino acid that is part of the protein. The most abundant amino acid in the body – it accounts for approximately 25% of all amino acids and 60% of the composition of muscle tissue. In the article we will answer the questions: What is glutamine? How to take glutamine correctly? Why do athletes need glutamine? Which Glutamine Is Better? How to take glutamine correctly?

    Glutamine or Glutamine? In the pronunciation of Glutamine, both variants are used equally.

    The amino acid is not included in the list of irreplaceable ones, the formation of glutamine in the body occurs naturally. Replenishment of glutamine stores with food is necessary only in case of urgent need, when the body loses its ability to produce it in sufficient quantities.

    The peculiarity of glutamine is that 70% of it is used in the intestines, without even entering the bloodstream. But this has its own plus – glutamine can help both disorders and the treatment of intestinal diseases.

    Glutamine has gained popularity in strength sports as an excellent tool for building muscle mass , but there is no scientific evidence for these effects yet . All studies supporting these effects have been conducted in rats. In humans, there was no difference with placebo, either at a dosage of 1 g per kg of body weight, which is at 0.3 g per kg.

    But in endurance sports where energy costs are high, glutamine is effective as fuel for the immune system and muscles.

    The use of glutamine for weight loss also turned out to be ineffective . No, it works, but a 100 kg person will need to take as much as 75 g of glutamine to burn 150 kcal. Agree, a meager benefit, when it will be much more useful and economical not to eat an extra piece of bread.

    Glutamine gave 0 effect to suppress catabolism on different diets. The loss of muscle mass along with fat is the same as with glutamine and with placebo. For this purpose, it is much more effective to take complexes of BCAA and whey protein.

    What foods contain glutamine

    The main sources are animal products

    • Meat, fish, chicken, eggs
    • Cottage cheese, milk, kefir, cheese

    Why do athletes need glutamine

    Glutamine in the blood occurs with high volumes of endurance training, so supplementing with glutamine can improve performance during long training sessions. Strength athletes and sprinters do not need additional glutamine, becausebecause its level in the blood practically does not change during short intense workouts.

    Glutamine is used by the immune system to keep it working, so low levels of glutamine in the body can pose health risks.

    Particularly useful for endurance athletes with large training volumes. However, a sufficient intake of carbohydrates during long workouts, BCAA intake during and after training , an additional protein intake allow the body to not reduce the level of glutamine in the blood.The effect of glutamine supplementation on immunity remains controversial, but when protein, BCAA, and carbohydrates are deficient, glutamine may have immunity benefits.

    Which Glutamine is Better?

    We recommend paying attention to well-known, well-established brands:

    We buy Optimum more often. We order from the USA from the iHerb online store . With our promo code MIK0651 you can get a 5% discount on your entire order. Regardless, you are ordering for the first time or have already ordered.

    Like any sports food, it is more profitable to buy glutamine in powder, but more convenient in tablets. The choice is yours.

    How to take glutamine correctly?

    It is optimal to take to 10 g of glutamine per day , large dosages simply will not be absorbed, and the excess will be excreted from the body. It is better to split intake by 2 times :

    • after training, but before eating and taking protein
    • before bedtime

    It is important not to mix glutamine with protein shakes and other foods, they will interfere with rapid absorption, and it is also in protein has already.Glutamine is highly compatible and absorbed quickly with BCAA and Creatine .

    How to take glutamine powder?

    Sports nutrition always has a measuring spoon. Look on the packaging for how much one measuring spoon holds and calculate how many spoons you need.

    It is more effective to take powder glutamine by stirring 5 g in water or juice. Do not mix in protein shakes, milk, etc.

    How to take glutamine capsules and tablets?

    Similar to powder, we look at the content of substances in one tablet and calculate 5 g.Take 2 times a day with water 30 minutes before meals or protein.

    Please note that manufacturers of sports food often overestimate the recommended dosages so that the package ends faster and you go for a new one. Approach sports nutrition intake wisely and do not throw money down the drain.

    Side effects of glutamine

    Glutamine is completely natural and does not cause side effects. The only thing is that intestinal disorders can occur if taken constantly in high dosages of more than 10 g.But in such quantities it is pointless to use it.

    What conclusions?

    Glutamine is inexpensive and athletes take it on a “don’t be superfluous” principle. However, we recommend that you use sports nutrition wisely and scientifically, so think carefully about whether you are flushing money down the toilet.

    Glutamine is effective for:

    • endurance athletes, especially marathon runners, triathletes, skiers and cyclists
    • Immune support at high volumes of training

    Glutam is not effective for:

    • muscle building
    • fat

    Exercise, move, travel and be healthy! 🙂
    P.S. Found a mistake, typo? Anything to discuss or add? – write in the comments. We are always happy to communicate 🙂

    How to take glutamine powder? Instructions for use

    Very often, athletes have a question about how to properly take glutamine in order for the effect to be optimal. Typically, bodybuilders are interested in maintaining or gaining muscle mass, and in winter, also maintaining the immune system. And since the goals have been set, the features of the supplement have been studied, then the answer to the question of how to take glutamine correctly is well known.We will give it below.

    Very often, athletes have a question about how to properly take glutamine in order for the effect to be optimal. Typically, bodybuilders are interested in maintaining or gaining muscle mass, and in winter, also maintaining the immune system. And since the goals have been set, the features of the supplement have been studied, then the answer to the question of how to take glutamine correctly is well known. We will give it below.

    Glutamine combines excellently with various additives and, moreover, is able to enhance their effect.

    This amino acid goes well with almost any sports nutrition: protein, amino acids, creatine. The ideal combination is creatine and glutamine, followed by protein supplementation.

    Testosterone boosters (anabolic complexes), pre-workout complexes, and other supplements can also be included in the above bundle. But you should not mix protein and glutamine (take a break of at least 30 minutes), since the latter will be less absorbed.Glutamine and creatine can be taken at the same time, mixed.

    The minimum interval between protein and glutamine intake should be 30 minutes.

    If you follow the dosage correctly, then there will be no side effects from taking glutamine. However, even if the dose is exceeded, negative symptoms are extremely rare and only in those athletes who suffer from gastrointestinal problems.

    On training days, the intake of glutamine determines the mode of sports (you will need to take the drug immediately after training in order to speed up the recovery process), as well as the time at which the athlete goes to bed (protein taken before going to bed stimulates the production of growth hormone, growth hormone) …On non-training days, your amino acid intake will also depend on your bedtime. You will also need to take glutamine before dinner.

    When taking glutamine, it is very important to measure the correct dose. The recommended daily allowance is 4-8 grams, that is, you need to take 2-4 grams of protein at a time. It is believed that this amino acid is most effective when taken on an empty stomach (30 minutes before a meal). This time (30-40 minutes) should be enough for glutamine to be fully absorbed.

    Summing up, here is a short instruction for taking glutamine:

    For this amino acid, the recommended daily intake is in the range of 4-8 g, that is, you need to take 2-4 g of protein at a time. Glutamine is recommended to be taken on an empty stomach: 30 minutes before a cocktail or meal. The specified time interval will be quite enough for the absorption of most of the amino acid.
    It would be best to divide this rate into two doses: before bed and after training. By taking glutamine during or after your workout, you can count on boosting muscle growth, suppressing catabolism, and saturating a depleted pool. Taking glutamine before bed will help boost growth hormone production. On non-workout days, glutamine should be taken before bed and at lunchtime.By the way, there is an opinion that it is at the peak concentration of glutamine that the maximum release of growth hormone falls.

    Glutamine should be combined with sodium and other electrolytes. The nuance is that sodium-dependent components take part in the transport of this amino acid. It has been proven that this combination significantly increases hydration, electrolyte absorption, and increases cell volume.

    All this will be useful for those athletes who work on endurance, and for representatives of strength disciplines, because cellular hydration is considered to be an important element of muscle hypertrophy.When the volume of intracellular fluid decreases significantly, the mTOR signaling mechanism is inhibited. This negatively affects muscle growth.

    Here is a list of the main contenders for the combination with this amino acid:

    Glutamine & BCAA

    The first reason for the successful combination of glutamine and BCAAs is the opportunity for tangible progress in improving physical performance as well as muscle growth.It is worth noting here, firstly, that the concentration, in general, of nitrogenous compounds and, in particular, glutamine, directly affects the exchange of BCAA-amino acids. Secondly, the mTOR signaling mechanism will be activated by extracellular glutamine only if BCAAs are present (this primarily concerns leucine). Glutamine and BCAAs are the perfect tandem for muscle growth and performance.

    Glutamine & Citrulline

    Glutamine is most actively involved in the transfer of citrulline between different tissues.The latter, thus, acts as a precursor in the synthesis of nitric oxide and arginine. By combining citrulline and glutamine, we significantly, dramatically increase the former’s ability to stimulate nitric oxide production. As a result, this leads to optimization of oxygenation, trophism of skeletal muscles. The more nutrients enter the muscle tissue, the faster they grow and recover. And if initially it seems that there is no direct connection here, then, in fact, it is precisely such an intermediary as glutamine that determines the course, course, activity of a large number of different biochemical processes.

    Glutamine and aKG (alpha-ketoglutarate)

    Alpha-ketoglutarate, like glutamine, is considered to be the precursor to glutamate. This substance slows down (dose-dependent) the breakdown of glutamine. At the same time, an increase in the activity of glutathione and mTOR occurs. All of the above means that taking glutamine and aKG can lead to an increase in muscle growth potential, as well as increase the production of the most powerful antioxidant – glutathione.

    Glutamine and N-acetylglucosamine or glucose

    If there is a depletion of glucose reserves in the body, then this negatively affects the absorption of glutamine, and also reduces the viability and growth of cells. For those on a low-carbohydrate diet, the inclusion of NAG (N-acetylglucosamine glycoprotein) nutritional supplements in their diet will help normalize metabolism and glutamine absorption, as well as have a stimulating, positive effect on vital functions and cell regeneration.

    How to take glutamine powder?

    There are 2 known ways of taking L-glutamine. The first is to dissolve the powder in water. The second is even more straightforward, a portion of the powder is simply poured into the mouth and washed down with water.

    What is allowed to combine L-glutamine? If the goal is drying – with carnitine, D-Aspartic Acid, BCAA, fat burners.

    If the task is mass – with maltodextrin, D-Aspartic Acid, HDM.

    Benefits of Glutamine and Recommendations for Use – [SayYes]

    Glutamine is one of the most important amino acids in the human body, as it is used to support many functions, including the generation of protein building blocks, the normalization of the immune system and the digestive tract. However, this substance is of greatest importance for the normalization of the intestines.

    This amino acid is generated naturally in the human body, but it can also be obtained from food.But in some cases, glutamine from natural foods may not be enough to meet the body’s needs. In such cases, experts recommend the use of specialized nutritional supplements.

    In this article, we will look at what glutamine is, its positive effects on the human body, as well as the rules for taking it and possible side effects.

    The amino acid glutamine, like a number of other amino acids in the human body, is a multifunctional molecule.The main task of this substance is to generate building blocks for protein, which in turn are used to transport nutrients to internal organs, muscle fibers and skin, as well as to fight viral diseases and harmful bacteria.

    Like a number of other amino acids, glutamine occurs in two forms, D-glutamine and L-glutamine. These forms have some similarities, but differ from each other in molecular arrangement.

    Natural products and specialty food supplements contain L-glutamine.According to scientists, it is this form of the amino acid that is used by the human body to generate proteins, while D-glutamine is almost useless.

    The useful form of this amino acid can be produced naturally in the body. Moreover, it should be noted that L-glutamine is the most abundant amino acid found in human blood.

    In some cases, the human body is unable to generate sufficient amounts of glutamine, which implies the need to obtain this amino acid from external sources, especially during illness and recovery from injury.This is why many scientists refer to L-glutamine as a conditionally essential amino acid.

    In addition to all of the above, this amino acid is essential for the normal functioning of the intestines and the immune system.

    Natural sources of glutamine

    As mentioned earlier, glutamine can be obtained not only from food supplements, but also from natural products. So, the standard daily diet of an average person contains from 3 to 6 grams of this amino acid, depending on the products used.However, it should be noted that the highest amount of this substance is found in foods with a high protein content.

    Although the highest concentration of glutamine is found in animal products, this amino acid can also be found in plant foods with high levels of protein.

    Recently, scientists conducted a study in which they determined the percentage of glutamine in a number of foods. The results were as follows:

    90,055 90,056 eggs – 4.4 percent;

    90,056 beef – 4.8 percent;

  • skimmed milk – 8.1 percent;
  • 90,056 tofu – 9.1 percent;

    90,056 white rice – 11.3 percent

    90,056 corn – 16.2 percent.

    Despite the fact that plant sources have the highest percentage of glutamine, the amount of protein in their composition is considered insignificant. Based on this, the researchers concluded that the best way to get this amino acid is to include beef in the diet.

    Due to the fact that glutamine is an essential part of protein, almost any food with a high content of it will contain this amino acid.In this regard, experts recommend that when drawing up a diet, pay attention to foods with a high protein content, which will provide the body with the necessary amount of glutamine.

    The value of glutamine for the immune system

    One of the most important functions of glutamine is to support the immune system. This amino acid is the most important fuel source for cells that provide strong immunity, namely for leukocytes and some intestinal cells.It should be noted, however, that the level of glutamine in the blood may decrease due to injuries, surgeries and burns.

    If there is an acute need for this amino acid, the human body is able to independently use the reserves of protein stored in the body for its release, which is manifested in a decrease in muscle mass.

    Lack of glutamine can also impair the functioning of the immune system. Therefore, high protein supplements or high protein diets are prescribed for people recovering from injuries and burns.

    Researchers have also found that high-glutamine supplements can improve well-being, reduce infections in the body and shorten hospital stays after surgery. It has also been found that this amino acid reduces the risk of death and the need for drugs in critically ill people.

    Experiments in animals have shown that glutamine can also improve the functioning of the immune system and accelerate the recovery of individuals infected with viruses or harmful bacteria.

    However, despite all of the above, scientists have not found evidence that glutamine supplementation can in any way improve the condition of perfectly healthy people.

    Effect of glutamine on intestinal health

    The positive effect of glutamine on strengthening the immune system is associated with its effect on the intestines, which is one of the most important components of the immune system.

    A huge number of cells and bacteria are located in the human intestine, which are responsible for the functioning of the immune system and for well-being in general.According to scientists, it is glutamine that is the main source of energy for these cells.

    Glutamine helps maintain the barrier between the intestines and other internal organs, thereby protecting them from the penetration of harmful substances, toxins and pathogenic bacteria into the bloodstream. This substance is also necessary for the normalization of growth and strengthening of intestinal cells.

    By improving bowel function, glutamine can have a positive effect on improving the functioning of the immune system.

    Effect of glutamine on muscle growth

    Due to the fact that this amino acid is used by the human body to generate protein, scientists have begun to study its effect on increasing muscle mass and the body of athletes.

    Thus, in one experiment involving two groups, the first was given glutamine supplements, and the second was given a placebo. Upon completion of the study, both groups showed an increase in strength and muscle volume.However, there were no significant differences between participants in both groups.

    With additional research in this area, scientists have found that this amino acid does not have any effect on the level of performance and on the increase in muscle mass.

    Despite this, however, some studies have shown that supplementation with glutamine can speed up recovery after intense exercise with high weights. Also during this experiment, it was found that this amino acid, when used in combination with carbohydrates, can reduce the level of fatigue during prolonged activities such as running for 2 hours.

    Scientists have not found any additional benefits for athletes in other studies. Thus, the researchers concluded that the addition of glutamine to the diet of athletes did not affect the increase in muscle mass.

    However, it is worth noting that many athletes consume a large amount of protein food per day, because of which their body receives the required amount of glutamine daily, which eliminates the need to use supplements with a high content of this amino acid.

    Recommendations for taking glutamine and side effects

    Due to the fact that the human body is able to independently generate glutamine, and can also receive it from natural food, the probability of an overdose of this amino acid is extremely low, and its use in the recommended amount is absolutely safe.

    According to the results of the conducted research, the standard diet of the average person contains from 3 to 6 grams of glutamine.However, during the studies, completely different amounts of this amino acid were used, which ranged from 5 to 45 grams per day. It is important to note that even at the highest dosages of this substance, no side effects were observed in the participants in the experiments.

    According to scientists, the use of glutamine is completely safe, provided it is consumed for a short period of time. However, some scientists have expressed concern about the use of this substance for a long period of time, despite the fact that long-term studies have also shown no side effects.Despite this, scientists need to do more research to identify possible side effects of regular intake of this amino acid.

    It is unlikely that taking glutamine supplements on a high protein diet will have any beneficial effect on the body. However, when following a vegetarian diet, this supplement is essential.

    It is recommended to start taking glutamine supplements with small amounts – from 5 grams per day.


    Glutamine is an amino acid that is naturally generated in the human body.This element exists in several forms – L-Glutamine and D-Glutamine.

    The active and most beneficial form of this substance is L-Glutamine, which is produced by the human body and can be found in some high protein foods. According to statistics, the standard diet of the average person contains from 3 to 6 grams of this amino acid.

    Among the beneficial properties of glutamine, researchers distinguish:

    • improvement of intestinal health;
    • strengthening the immune system;
    • Accelerating the process of recovery from injuries;
    • reduction in the duration of illness.

    This amino acid is often used as a sports supplement, but many studies show that it is not able to have a positive effect on the process of increasing muscle mass.

    This supplement is completely safe for short-term use, but more research is needed to determine its long-term effects.

    Research references

    How to take glutamine powder and capsules, role in sports and bodybuilding

    Athletes speak flatteringly about the effect of glutamine on improving performance and training performance.Despite the ongoing debate over the effectiveness of glutamine, it continues to be in demand both as a standalone supplement and as an integral part of sports nutrition complexes. He is credited with properties that affect weight loss, gain in lean muscle mass, improve athletic performance, and support the immune system.

    Let’s try to figure out whether this is really so. We will answer the following questions: how to take glutamine and what is the reason for its additional intake, what are the benefits for the body, is its use in sports and bodybuilding justified to increase muscle performance.

    What is glutamine

    Glutamine is an amino acid found in protein. It is the most abundant amino acid in the body. Muscles are 60% glutamine, and its concentration in the blood is high. The substance is widespread in nature, it is included in many products of animal and plant origin. It is this fact that explains the classification of the amino acid as conditionally essential .

    Glutamine and glutamine are two equivalent pronunciations of the English word glutamine.

    What is the use of glutamine

    For the average person, synthesis from food is enough to constantly maintain healthy levels of amino acids in the body. But with prolonged endurance training, more of it is required. Low levels of glutamine in the body pose a risk to the immune system and therefore health. This is the basis for additional admission.

    Due to the fact that the amino acid has a direct effect on the structure of muscle fibers, and proteins are divided into dozens of types of substances during breakdown, a number of the following functions are assigned to glutamine:

    • normal functioning of the thyroid gland;
    • regulation of gastrointestinal functions;
    • delivery of fatty acids to organs and systems;
    • participation in metabolic processes.

    The intake of glutamine in bodybuilding is due to the need to maintain normal vital activity in conditions of prolonged training and high energy costs. The body of an adult normally converts a limited amount of protein into muscle fibers. Athletes need more to progress.

    Glutamine is also used in sports for a number of other reasons:

    • Similar to glucose, it is a source of energy;
    • inhibits the production of cortisol, slows down catabolism;
    • strengthens the immune system;
    • prevents overtraining, helps a quick recovery after training.

    As a result of studies and observations, it was possible to establish that the joint intake of an amino acid with sports nutrition enhances the effects. For athletes, the intake of an additive during drying is indispensable. The substance enters the muscles, prevents and compensates for the catabolic effects that inevitably occur during weight loss.

    One of the features of glutamine is that when it enters the body, most of it is used in the intestines. Its use increases under stress.Therefore, sometimes an additional intake of glutamine is prescribed for problems with the gastrointestinal tract.

    What foods contain

    Despite the prevalence of sports nutrition, many try to get the most nutrients from their daily menu. In addition, specialty supplements are quite expensive and should be taken regularly for good results. To achieve a high concentration of glutamic acid in the body, it is necessary to increase the amount of the following products in the diet:

    • sea fish;
    • legumes; 90,057 90,056 cheeses and milk;
    • cottage cheese;
    • beef;
    • chicken meat; 90,057 90,056 eggs; 90,057 90,056 spinach and green crops;
    • beets, cabbage.

    Glutamine in sports nutrition

    Glutamine supplements of famous brands are considered one of the best:

    • Optimum Nutrition
    • Ultimate Nutrition
    • Dymatize Nutrition
    • Muscletech
    • Now

    In them, the amino acid acts as a separate supplement. The release form is different. It is convenient for some to take in powder, others in the form of capsules or tablets.

    Admission rules

    Optimal amount

    Large dosages will be difficult for the body to assimilate.And the surplus will not give any effect, it will simply be removed with the products of exchange. The optimal amount for an athlete is 10 g of glutamine per day.

    When to take glutamine

    Reception should be divided into 2 times: directly after training and before bedtime . After training, the supplement restores strength, suppresses catabolism and triggers muscle growth. And at night, growth hormone is actively produced. The additive in this case also acts as a stimulant. On rest days, take before lunch, half an hour before meals and before bedtime.

    It is important not to mix the supplement with protein-based foods and beverages as the absorption of the nutrients will be lower. But with creatine and in combination with BCAAs, glutamine is more effective.

    How to take powder glutamine

    Powder sports nutrition must be completed with a measuring spoon. On the back of the package it is indicated how to calculate the number of spoons according to individual parameters. Do not heap the powder in order not to exceed the recommended dose. The additive is stirred in water or fruit juice.Do not mix amino acid with dairy and sour milk products, protein.

    How to take glutamine capsules and tablets

    Calculate the number of capsules so that you get no more than 5 g of glutamine per dose. Drink the right amount with plain water. Should be taken before meals or protein shakes.

    Potential negative effects

    As a natural and essential substance for the body, glutamine usually does not cause negative effects.But you should take into account scientific research in terms of dosages. It makes no sense to consume more than 10 g per day. Even higher dosages can irritate the intestines.


    From the above, we can conclude that glutamine is recommended in sports nutrition to maintain the body during long endurance training, which is especially important for marathon runners, cyclists, skiers and triathletes. It also has a beneficial effect on the immune system and the gastrointestinal tract.

    Glutamine supplementation for fat loss and muscle growth remains controversial .